Form 424B2 GOLDMAN SACHS GROUP INC

December 22, 2020 5:04 PM

Filed Pursuant to Rule 424(b)(2)

Registration Statement No. 333-239610

 

 

GS Finance Corp.

$569,000

Callable Contingent Coupon Index-Linked Notes due 2023

guaranteed by

The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc.

The notes do not pay a fixed coupon and may pay no coupon on a payment date. The amount that you will be paid on your notes is based on the performances of the S&P 500® Value Index, Russell 2000® Value Index and NASDAQ-100 Technology Sector Index.  The notes will mature on December 19, 2023, unless we redeem them.

We may redeem your notes at 100% of their face amount plus any coupon then due on any payment date commencing with the payment date relating to the coupon observation date in March 2021 and ending with the payment date relating to the coupon observation date in September 2023.

If we do not redeem your notes, if the closing level of each index is greater than or equal to 80% of its initial level (the initial levels are 1,252.28 with respect to the S&P 500® Value Index, 1,955.555 with respect to Russell 2000® Value Index and 7,526.357 with respect to the NASDAQ-100 Technology Sector Index) on a coupon observation date (the 14th day of each March, June, September and December, commencing in March 2021 and ending in December 2023), you will receive on the applicable payment date (the third business day after the relevant coupon observation date) a coupon of $10.5 (1.05% quarterly, or the potential for up to 4.2% per annum) for each $1,000 face amount of your notes. If the closing level of any index on a coupon observation date is less than 80% of its initial level, you will not receive a coupon on the applicable payment date.

If we do not redeem your notes, the amount that you will be paid on your notes at maturity, in addition to the final coupon, if any, is based on the performance of the lesser performing index (the index with the lowest index return). The index return for each index is the percentage increase or decrease in the final level of such index on the determination date (the final coupon observation date, December 14, 2023) from its initial level.

At maturity, for each $1,000 face amount of your notes you will receive an amount in cash equal to:

if the index return of each index is greater than or equal to -20% (the final level of each index is greater than or equal to 80% of its initial level), $1,000 plus the final coupon of $10.5;

if the index return of each index is greater than or equal to -30% (the final level of each index is greater than or equal to 70% of its initial level) but the index return of any index is less than -20% (the final level of any index is less than 80% of its initial level), $1,000 (you will not receive a coupon); or

if the index return of any index is less than -30% (the final level of any index is less than 70% of its initial level), the sum of (i) $1,000 plus (ii) the product of (a) the sum of the lesser performing index return plus 30% times (b) $1,000. You will receive less than the face amount of your notes and you will not receive a final coupon.

You should read the disclosure herein to better understand the terms and risks of your investment, including the credit risk of GS Finance Corp. and The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. See page PS-14.

The estimated value of your notes at the time the terms of your notes are set on the trade date is equal to approximately $967 per $1,000 face amount. For a discussion of the estimated value and the price at which Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC would initially buy or sell your notes, if it makes a market in the notes, see the following page.

 

Original issue date:

December 23, 2020

Original issue price:

100% of the face amount

Underwriting discount:

0.425% of the face amount

Net proceeds to the issuer:

99.575% of the face amount

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any other regulatory body has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the accuracy or adequacy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense. The notes are not bank deposits and are not insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation or any other governmental agency, nor are they obligations of, or guaranteed by, a bank.

 

Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC

 

Pricing Supplement No. 1,034 dated December 18, 2020.

 

 


 

 

The issue price, underwriting discount and net proceeds listed above relate to the notes we sell initially.  We may decide to sell additional notes after the date of this pricing supplement, at issue prices and with underwriting discounts and net proceeds that differ from the amounts set forth above. The return (whether positive or negative) on your investment in notes will depend in part on the issue price you pay for such notes.

GS Finance Corp. may use this prospectus in the initial sale of the notes. In addition, Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC, or any other affiliate of GS Finance Corp. may use this prospectus in a market-making transaction in a note after its initial sale.  Unless GS Finance Corp. or its agent informs the purchaser otherwise in the confirmation of sale, this prospectus is being used in a market-making transaction.

 

Estimated Value of Your Notes

The estimated value of your notes at the time the terms of your notes are set on the trade date (as determined by reference to pricing models used by Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC (GS&Co.) and taking into account our credit spreads) is equal to approximately $967 per $1,000 face amount, which is less than the original issue price.  The value of your notes at any time will reflect many factors and cannot be predicted; however, the price (not including GS&Co.s customary bid and ask spreads) at which GS&Co. would initially buy or sell notes (if it makes a market, which it is not obligated to do) and the value that GS&Co. will initially use for account statements and otherwise is equal to approximately the estimated value of your notes at the time of pricing, plus an additional amount (initially equal to $33 per $1,000 face amount).

Prior to March 18, 2021, the price (not including GS&Co.’s customary bid and ask spreads) at which GS&Co. would buy or sell your notes (if it makes a market, which it is not obligated to do) will equal approximately the sum of (a) the then-current estimated value of your notes (as determined by reference to GS&Co.’s pricing models) plus (b) any remaining additional amount (the additional amount will decline to zero on a straight-line basis from the time of pricing through March 17, 2021). On and after March 18, 2021, the price (not including GS&Co.’s customary bid and ask spreads) at which GS&Co. would buy or sell your notes (if it makes a market) will equal approximately the then-current estimated value of your notes determined by reference to such pricing models.

 

About Your Prospectus

The notes are part of the Medium-Term Notes, Series F program of GS Finance Corp. and are fully and unconditionally guaranteed by The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. This prospectus includes this pricing supplement and the accompanying documents listed below. This pricing supplement constitutes a supplement to the documents listed below, does not set forth all of the terms of your notes and therefore should be read in conjunction with such documents:

General terms supplement no. 8,671 dated July 1, 2020

NASDAQ-100 Technology Sector Index supplement no. 2 dated November 24, 2020

Underlier supplement no. 14 dated November 23, 2020

Prospectus supplement dated July 1, 2020

Prospectus dated July 1, 2020

The information in this pricing supplement supersedes any conflicting information in the documents listed above. In addition, some of the terms or features described in the listed documents may not apply to your notes.

We refer to the notes we are offering by this pricing supplement as the “offered notes” or the “notes”. Each of the offered notes has the terms described below. Please note that in this pricing supplement, references to “GS Finance Corp.”, “we”, “our” and “us” mean only GS Finance Corp. and do not include its subsidiaries or affiliates, references to “The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc.”, our parent company, mean only The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. and do not include its subsidiaries or affiliates and references to “Goldman Sachs” mean The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. together with its consolidated subsidiaries and affiliates, including us. The notes will be issued under the senior debt indenture, dated as of October 10, 2008, as supplemented by the First Supplemental Indenture, dated as of February 20, 2015, each among us, as issuer, The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc., as guarantor, and The Bank of New York Mellon, as trustee. This indenture, as so supplemented and as further supplemented thereafter, is referred to as the “GSFC 2008 indenture” in the accompanying prospectus supplement. The notes will be issued in book-entry form and represented by a master global note.

 

 

PS-2


 

 

TERMS AND CONDITIONS

(Terms From Pricing Supplement No. 1,034 Incorporated Into Master Note No. 2)

 

These terms and conditions relate to pricing supplement no. 1,034 dated December 18, 2020 of GS Finance Corp. and The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. with respect to the issuance by GS Finance Corp. of its Callable Contingent Coupon Index-Linked Notes due 2023 and the guarantee thereof by The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc.

The provisions below are hereby incorporated into master note no. 2, dated July 1, 2020. References herein to “this note” shall be deemed to refer to “this security” in such master note no. 2, dated July 1, 2020. Certain defined terms may not be capitalized in these terms and conditions even if they are capitalized in master note no. 2, dated July 1, 2020. Defined terms that are not defined in these terms and conditions shall have the meanings indicated in such master note no. 2, dated July 1, 2020, unless the context otherwise requires.

CUSIP / ISIN: 40057EVD6 / US40057EVD65

Company (Issuer):  GS Finance Corp.

Guarantor:  The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc.

Underliers (each individually, an underlier): the S&P 500® Value Index (current Bloomberg symbol: “SVX Index”), or any successor underlier, the Russell 2000® Value Index (current Bloomberg symbol: RUJ Index”), or any successor underlier, and the NASDAQ-100 Technology Sector Index (current Bloomberg symbol: NDXT Index), or any successor underlier, as each may be modified, replaced or adjusted from time to time as provided herein

Face amount:  $569,000 in the aggregate on the original issue date; the aggregate face amount may be increased if the company, at its sole option, decides to sell an additional amount on a date subsequent to the trade date

Authorized denominations:  $1,000 or any integral multiple of $1,000 in excess thereof

Principal amount:  Subject to redemption by the company as provided under “— Company’s redemption right ” below, on the stated maturity date, in addition to the final coupon, if any, the company will pay, for each $1,000 of the outstanding face amount, an amount in cash equal to the cash settlement amount.

Cash settlement amount:

if the final underlier level of each underlier is greater than or equal to its buffer level, $1,000; or

if the final underlier level of any underlier is less than its buffer level, the sum of (i) $1,000 plus (ii) the product of (a) the lesser performing underlier return plus the buffer amount times (b) $1,000

Company’s redemption right:  the company may redeem this note, at its option, in whole but not in part, on each coupon payment date commencing with the coupon payment date relating to the coupon observation date in March 2021 and ending with the coupon payment date relating to the coupon observation date in September 2023, for an amount in cash for each $1,000 of the outstanding face amount on the redemption date equal to 100% of such $1,000 face amount plus any coupon then due.

If the company chooses to exercise the company’s redemption right, it will notify the holder of this note and the trustee by giving at least three business days’ prior notice. The day the company gives the notice, which will be a business day, will be the redemption notice date and the immediately following coupon payment date, which the company will state in the redemption notice, will be the redemption date.

The company will not give a redemption notice that results in a redemption date later than the coupon payment date relating to the September 2023 coupon observation date.  A redemption notice, once given, shall be irrevocable.

Initial underlier level: 1,252.28 with respect to the S&P 500® Value Index, 1,955.555 with respect to Russell 2000® Value Index and 7,526.357 with respect to the NASDAQ-100 Technology Sector Index

PS-3


 

Final underlier level: with respect to an underlier, the closing level of such underlier on the determination date, subject to adjustment as provided in “— Consequences of a market disruption event or non-trading day” and “— Discontinuance or modification of an underlier” below

Underlier return:  with respect to an underlier, the quotient of (i) its final underlier level minus its initial underlier level divided by (ii) its initial underlier level, expressed as a percentage

Lesser performing underlier return:  the underlier return of the lesser performing underlier

Lesser performing underlier:  the underlier with the lowest underlier return

Buffer level: for each underlier, 70% of its initial underlier level

Buffer amount: 30%

Coupon:  subject to the company’s redemption right, on each coupon payment date, for each $1,000 of the outstanding face amount, the company will pay an amount in cash equal to:

if the closing level of each underlier on the related coupon observation date is greater than or equal to its coupon trigger level, $10.5 (1.05% quarterly, or the potential for up to 4.2% per annum); or

if the closing level of any underlier on the related coupon observation date is less than its coupon trigger level, $0

The coupon paid on any coupon payment date will be paid to the person in whose name this note is registered as of the close of business on the regular record date for such coupon payment date. If the coupon is due at maturity but on a day that is not a coupon payment date, the coupon will be paid to the person entitled to receive the principal of this note.

Coupon trigger level: for each underlier, 80% of its initial underlier level

Trade date: December 18, 2020

Original issue date: December 23, 2020

Determination date: the last coupon observation date, December 14, 2023, subject to adjustment as described under “— Coupon observation dates” below.

Stated maturity date: December 19, 2023, unless that day is not a business day, in which case the stated maturity date will be postponed to the next following business day. The stated maturity date will also be postponed if the determination date is postponed as described under “— Determination date” above. In such a case, the stated maturity date will be postponed by the same number of business day(s) from but excluding the originally scheduled determination date to and including the actual determination date.

Coupon observation dates:  the 14th day of each March, June, September and December, commencing in March 2021 and ending in December 2023, unless the calculation agent determines that, with respect to any underlier, a market disruption event occurs or is continuing on that day or that day is not otherwise a trading day.

In the event the originally scheduled coupon observation date is a non-trading day with respect to any underlier, the coupon observation date will be the first day thereafter that is a trading day for all underliers (the “first qualified coupon trading day”) provided that no market disruption event occurs or is continuing with respect to an underlier on that day.  If a market disruption event with respect to an underlier occurs or is continuing on the originally scheduled coupon observation date or the first qualified coupon trading day, the coupon observation date will be the first following trading day on which the calculation agent determines that each underlier has had at least one trading day (from and including the originally scheduled coupon observation date or the first qualified coupon trading day, as applicable) on which no market disruption event has occurred or is continuing and the closing level of each underlier for that coupon observation date will be determined on or prior to the postponed coupon observation date as set forth under “— Consequences of a market disruption event or a non-trading day” below.  (In such case, the coupon observation date may differ from the date on which the level of an underlier is determined for the purpose of the calculations to be performed on the coupon observation date.)  In no event, however, will the coupon observation date be postponed to a date later than the originally scheduled coupon payment date (based on the originally scheduled coupon observation date) or, if the originally scheduled coupon payment date is not a business day, later than the first business day after the originally scheduled coupon payment date, either due to the occurrence of serial non-trading days or due to the occurrence of one or more market disruption events.  On such last possible coupon observation date applicable to the relevant coupon payment date, if a market disruption event occurs or is continuing with respect to an underlier that has not yet had such a trading day on which no market disruption event has occurred or is

PS-4


 

continuing or if such last possible day is not a trading day with respect to such underlier, that day will nevertheless be the coupon observation date.

Coupon payment dates: the third business day after each coupon observation date (except that the final coupon payment date will be the stated maturity date), subject to adjustment as described under “— Coupon observation dates” above

Closing level: on any trading day, (i) with respect to the Russell 2000® Value Index, the closing level of such underlier or any successor underlier reported by Bloomberg Financial Services, or any successor reporting service the company may select, on such trading day for that underlier (as of the trade date, whereas the underlier sponsor publishes the official closing level of the Russell 2000® Value Index to six decimal places, Bloomberg Financial Services reports the closing level to fewer decimal places) and (ii) with respect to the S&P 500® Value Index and NASDAQ-100 Technology Sector Index, the official closing level of such underlier or any successor underlier published by the underlier sponsor on such trading day for such underlier

Trading day:  with respect to an underlier, a day on which the respective principal securities markets for all of its underlier stocks are open for trading, the underlier sponsor is open for business and such underlier is calculated and published by the underlier sponsor. A day is a scheduled trading day with respect to an underlier if, as of the trade date, the respective principal securities markets for all of its underlier stocks are scheduled to be open for trading, the underlier sponsor is scheduled to be open for business and such underlier is expected to be calculated and published by the underlier sponsor on such day.

Successor underlier: with respect to an underlier, any substitute underlier approved by the calculation agent as a successor as provided under “— Discontinuance or modification of an underlier” below

Underlier sponsor: with respect to an underlier, at any time, the person or entity, including any successor sponsor, that determines and publishes such underlier as then in effect. The notes are not sponsored, endorsed, sold or promoted by any underlier sponsor or any affiliate thereof and no underlier sponsor or affiliate thereof makes any representation regarding the advisability of investing in the notes.

Underlier stocks: with respect to an underlier, at any time, the stocks that comprise such underlier as then in effect, after giving effect to any additions, deletions or substitutions

Market disruption event: With respect to any given trading day, any of the following will be a market disruption event with respect to an underlier:

a suspension, absence or material limitation of trading in underlier stocks constituting 20% or more, by weight, of such underlier on their respective primary markets, in each case for more than two consecutive hours of trading or during the one-half hour before the close of trading in that market, as determined by the calculation agent in its sole discretion,

a suspension, absence or material limitation of trading in option or futures contracts relating to such underlier or to underlier stocks constituting 20% or more, by weight, of such underlier in the respective primary markets for those contracts, in each case for more than two consecutive hours of trading or during the one-half hour before the close of trading in that market, as determined by the calculation agent in its sole discretion, or

underlier stocks constituting 20% or more, by weight, of such underlier, or option or futures contracts, if available, relating to such underlier or to underlier stocks constituting 20% or more, by weight, of such underlier do not trade on what were the respective primary markets for those underlier stocks or contracts, as determined by the calculation agent in its sole discretion,

and, in the case of any of these events, the calculation agent determines in its sole discretion that such event could materially interfere with the ability of the company or any of its affiliates or a similarly situated person to unwind all or a material portion of a hedge that could be effected with respect to this note.

The following events will not be market disruption events:

a limitation on the hours or numbers of days of trading, but only if the limitation results from an announced change in the regular business hours of the relevant market, and

a decision to permanently discontinue trading in option or futures contracts relating to such underlier or to any underlier stock.

For this purpose, an “absence of trading” in the primary securities market on which an underlier stock is traded, or on which option or futures contracts relating to such underlier or an underlier stock are traded, will not include any time when that market is itself closed for trading under ordinary circumstances. In contrast, a suspension or limitation of trading in an underlier stock or in option or futures contracts, if

PS-5


 

available, relating to such underlier or an underlier stock in the primary market for that stock or those contracts, by reason of:

a price change exceeding limits set by that market,

an imbalance of orders relating to that underlier stock or those contracts, or

a disparity in bid and ask quotes relating to that underlier stock or those contracts,

will constitute a suspension or material limitation of trading in that stock or those contracts in that market.

A market disruption event with respect to one underlier will not, by itself, constitute a market disruption event for any other unaffected underlier.

Consequences of a market disruption event or a non-trading day: With respect to any underlier, if a market disruption event occurs or is continuing on a day that would otherwise be a coupon observation date (and the determination date in the case of the last coupon observation date), or such day is not a trading day, then such coupon observation date will be postponed as described under “— Coupon observation dates” above. If any coupon observation date (and the determination date in the case of the last coupon observation date) is postponed to the last possible date due to the occurrence of serial non-trading days, the level of each underlier will be the calculation agent’s assessment of such level, in its sole discretion, on such last possible postponed coupon observation date (and the determination date in the case of the last coupon observation date). If any coupon observation date (and the determination date in the case of the last coupon observation date) is postponed due to a market disruption event with respect to any underlier, the closing level of each underlier with respect to such coupon observation date (and the final underlier level with respect to the determination date) will be calculated based on (i) for any underlier that is not affected by a market disruption event on the applicable originally scheduled coupon observation date or the first qualified coupon trading day thereafter (if applicable), the closing level of the underlier on that date, (ii) for any underlier that is affected by a market disruption event on the applicable originally scheduled coupon observation date or the first qualified coupon trading day thereafter (if applicable), the closing level of the underlier on the first following trading day on which no market disruption event exists for such underlier and (iii) the calculation agent’s assessment, in its sole discretion, of the level of any underlier on the last possible postponed coupon observation date with respect to such underlier as to which a market disruption event continues through the last possible postponed coupon observation date. As a result, this could result in the closing level on any coupon observation date (or final underlier level on the determination date) of each underlier being determined on different calendar dates. For the avoidance of doubt, once the closing level for an underlier is determined for a coupon observation date (or the determination date in the case of the last coupon observation date), the occurrence of a later market disruption event or non-trading day will not alter such calculation.

Discontinuance or modification of an underlier: If an underlier sponsor discontinues publication of an underlier and such underlier sponsor or anyone else publishes a substitute underlier that the calculation agent determines is comparable to such underlier and approves as a successor underlier, or if the calculation agent designates a substitute underlier, then the calculation agent will determine the coupon payable, if any, on the relevant coupon payment date or the cash settlement amount on the stated maturity date, as applicable, by reference to such successor underlier.

If the calculation agent determines on a coupon observation date or the determination date, as applicable, that the publication of an underlier is discontinued and there is no successor underlier, the calculation agent will determine the coupon or the cash settlement amount, as applicable, on the related coupon payment date or the stated maturity date, as applicable, by a computation methodology that the calculation agent determines will as closely as reasonably possible replicate such underlier.

If the calculation agent determines that (i) an underlier, the underlier stocks comprising such underlier or the method of calculating such underlier is changed at any time in any respect — including any addition, deletion or substitution and any reweighting or rebalancing of such underlier or the underlier stocks and whether the change is made by the underlier sponsor under its existing policies or following a modification of those policies, is due to the publication of a successor underlier, is due to events affecting one or more of the underlier stocks or their issuers or is due to any other reason — and is not otherwise reflected in the level of the underlier by the underlier sponsor pursuant to the then-current underlier methodology of the underlier or (ii) there has been a split or reverse split of the underlier, then the calculation agent will be permitted (but not required) to make such adjustments in such underlier or the method of its calculation as it believes are appropriate to ensure that the levels of such underlier used to determine the coupon or cash settlement amount, as applicable, on the related coupon payment date or the stated maturity date, as applicable, is equitable.  

PS-6


 

All determinations and adjustments to be made by the calculation agent with respect to an underlier may be made by the calculation agent in its sole discretion. The calculation agent is not obligated to make any such adjustments.

Regular record dates: the scheduled business day immediately preceding the day on which payment is to be made (as such payment date may be adjusted)

Calculation agent: Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC (“GS&Co.”)

Tax characterization: The holder, on behalf of itself and any other person having a beneficial interest in this note, hereby agrees with the company (in the absence of a change in law, an administrative determination or a judicial ruling to the contrary) to characterize this note for all U.S. federal income tax purposes as an income-bearing pre-paid derivative contract in respect of the underliers.

Overdue principal rate and overdue coupon rate: the effective Federal Funds rate


PS-7


 

LIMITED EVENTS OF DEFAULT

 

The only events of default for the notes are (i) payment defaults that continue for a 30 day-grace period and (ii) certain insolvency events. No other breach or default under our senior debt indenture or the notes will result in an event of default for the notes or permit the trustee or holders to accelerate the maturity of the notes - that is, they will not be entitled to declare the face or principal amount of any notes to be immediately due and payable. See “Risks Relating to Regulatory Resolution Strategies and Long-Term Debt Requirements” and “Description of Debt Securities We May Offer — Default, Remedies and Waiver of Default — Securities Issued Under the 2008 GSFC Indenture” in the accompanying prospectus for further details.

 

 

 

PS-8


 

 

Hypothetical ExampleS

 

The following examples are provided for purposes of illustration only. They should not be taken as an indication or prediction of future investment results and are intended merely to illustrate (i) the impact that various hypothetical closing levels of the underliers on a coupon observation date could have on the coupon payable, if any, on the related coupon payment date and (ii) the impact that various hypothetical closing levels of the lesser performing underlier on the determination date could have on the cash settlement amount at maturity assuming all other variables remain constant.

The examples below are based on a range of underlier levels that are entirely hypothetical; no one can predict what the closing level of any underlier will be on any day throughout the life of your notes, what the closing level of any underlier will be on any coupon observation date and what the final underlier level of the lesser performing underlier will be on the determination date. The underliers have been highly volatile in the past — meaning that the underlier levels have changed substantially in relatively short periods — and their performance cannot be predicted for any future period.

The information in the following examples reflects hypothetical rates of return on the offered notes assuming that they are purchased on the original issue date at the face amount and held to the stated maturity date or date of early redemption.  If you sell your notes in a secondary market prior to the stated maturity date or date of early redemption, as the case may be, your return will depend upon the market value of your notes at the time of sale, which may be affected by a number of factors that are not reflected in the examples below such as interest rates, the volatility of the underliers, the creditworthiness of GS Finance Corp., as issuer, and the creditworthiness of The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc., as guarantor.  In addition, the estimated value of your notes at the time the terms of your notes are set on the trade date (as determined by reference to pricing models used by GS&Co.) is less than the original issue price of your notes.  For more information on the estimated value of your notes, see “Additional Risk Factors Specific to Your Notes — The Estimated Value of Your Notes At the Time the Terms of Your Notes Are Set On the Trade Date (as Determined By Reference to Pricing Models Used By GS&Co.) Is Less Than the Original Issue Price Of Your Notes” on page PS-14 of this pricing supplement.  The information in the examples also reflects the key terms and assumptions in the box below.



Key Terms and Assumptions

Face amount

$1,000

Coupon

$10.5 (1.05% quarterly, or the potential for up to 4.2% per annum)

Buffer level

with respect to each underlier, 70% of its initial underlier level

Buffer amount

30%

Coupon trigger level

with respect to each underlier, 80% of its initial underlier level

Neither a market disruption event nor a non-trading day occurs on any originally scheduled coupon observation date or the originally scheduled determination date

No change in or affecting any of the underlier stocks or the method by which the applicable underlier sponsor calculates any underlier

Notes purchased on original issue date at the face amount and held to the stated maturity date or date of early redemption

For these reasons, the actual performance of the underliers over the life of your notes, the actual underlier levels on any coupon observation date, as well as the coupon payable, if any, on each coupon payment date, may bear little relation to the hypothetical examples shown below or to the historical underlier levels shown elsewhere in this pricing supplement. For information about the underlier levels during recent periods, see “The Underliers — Historical Closing Levels of the Underliers” on page PS-42. Before investing in the notes, you should consult publicly available information to determine the underlier levels between the date of this pricing supplement and the date of your purchase of the notes.

Also, the hypothetical examples shown below do not take into account the effects of applicable taxes.  Because of the U.S. tax treatment applicable to your notes, tax liabilities could affect the after-tax rate of return on your notes to a comparatively greater extent than the after-tax return on the underlier stocks.

Hypothetical Coupon Payments

 

PS-9

 


 

 

The examples below show hypothetical performances of each underlier as well as the hypothetical coupons, if any, that we would pay on each coupon payment date with respect to each $1,000 face amount of the notes if the hypothetical closing level of each underlier on the applicable coupon observation date was the percentage of its initial underlier level shown.

 

Scenario 1

Hypothetical Coupon Observation Date

Hypothetical Closing Level of the S&P 500® Value Index

(as Percentage of Initial Underlier Level)

Hypothetical Closing Level of the Russell 2000® Value Index

(as Percentage of Initial Underlier Level)

Hypothetical Closing Level of the NASDAQ-100 Technology Sector Index (as Percentage of Initial Underlier Level)

Hypothetical Coupon

First

90%

75%

40%

$0

Second

85%

110%

95%

$10.5

Third

60%

80%

55%

$0

Fourth

70%

75%

50%

$0

Fifth

60%

40%

35%

$0

Sixth

95%

90%

95%

$10.5

Seventh

65%

45%

60%

$0

Eighth

60%

60%

75%

$0

Ninth

80%

35%

55%

$0

Tenth

45%

45%

70%

$0

Eleventh

90%

70%

60%

$0

Twelfth

60%

75%

50%

$0

 

 

 

Total Hypothetical Coupons

$21

 

In Scenario 1, the hypothetical closing level of each underlier increases and decreases by varying amounts on each hypothetical coupon observation date.  Because the hypothetical closing level of each underlier on the second and sixth hypothetical coupon observation dates is greater than or equal to its coupon trigger level, the total of the hypothetical coupons in Scenario 1 is $21.  Because the hypothetical closing level of at least one underlier on all other hypothetical coupon observation dates is less than its coupon trigger level, no further coupons will be paid, including at maturity.

 

Scenario 2

Hypothetical Coupon Observation Date

Hypothetical Closing Level of the S&P 500® Value Index (as Percentage of Initial Underlier Level)

Hypothetical Closing Level of the Russell 2000® Value Index

(as Percentage of Initial Underlier Level)

Hypothetical Closing Level of the NASDAQ-100 Technology Sector Index (as Percentage of Initial Underlier Level)

Hypothetical Coupon

First

55%

50%

60%

$0

Second

45%

55%

65%

$0

Third

60%

40%

55%

$0

Fourth

60%

35%

70%

$0

Fifth

40%

25%

40%

$0

Sixth

35%

35%

55%

$0

Seventh

45%

50%

60%

$0

Eighth

70%

40%

80%

$0

Ninth

45%

110%

45%

$0

Tenth

60%

35%

65%

$0

Eleventh

80%

65%

50%

$0

Twelfth

65%

70%

55%

$0

 

 

 

Total Hypothetical Coupons

$0

 

 

PS-10

 


 

 

In Scenario 2, the hypothetical closing level of each underlier increases and decreases by varying amounts on each hypothetical coupon observation date.  Because in each case the hypothetical closing level of at least one underlier on the related coupon observation date is less than its coupon trigger level, you will not receive a coupon payment on the applicable hypothetical coupon payment date. Since this occurs on every hypothetical coupon observation date, the overall return you earn on your notes will be less than zero. Therefore, the total of the hypothetical coupons in Scenario 2 is $0.

Scenario 3

Hypothetical Coupon Observation Date

Hypothetical Closing Level of the S&P 500® Value Index (as Percentage of Initial Underlier Level)

Hypothetical Closing Level of the Russell 2000® Value Index

(as Percentage of Initial Underlier Level)

Hypothetical Closing Level of the NASDAQ-100 Technology Sector Index (as Percentage of Initial Underlier Level)

Hypothetical Coupon

First

100%

110%

115%

$10.5

 

 

 

Total Hypothetical Coupons

$10.5

In Scenario 3, the hypothetical closing level of each underlier is greater than its coupon trigger level on the first hypothetical coupon observation date. Further, we also exercise our early redemption right with respect to a redemption on the first coupon payment date (which is also the first hypothetical date with respect to which we could exercise such right). Therefore, on the first coupon payment date (the redemption date), in addition to the hypothetical coupon of $10.5, you will receive an amount in cash equal to $1,000 for each $1,000 face amount of your notes.

Hypothetical Payment at Maturity

If the notes are not redeemed, the cash settlement amount we would deliver for each $1,000 face amount of your notes on the stated maturity date will depend on the performance of the lesser performing underlier on the determination date, as shown in the table below. The table below assumes that the notes have not been redeemed, does not include the final coupon, if any, and reflects hypothetical cash settlement amounts that you could receive on the stated maturity date. If the final underlier level of the lesser performing underlier (as a percentage of the initial underlier level) is less than its coupon trigger level, you will not be paid a final coupon at maturity.

The levels in the left column of the table below represent hypothetical final underlier levels of the lesser performing underlier and are expressed as percentages of the initial underlier level of the lesser performing underlier. The amounts in the right column represent the hypothetical cash settlement amounts, based on the corresponding hypothetical final underlier level of the lesser performing underlier, and are expressed as percentages of the face amount of a note (rounded to the nearest one-thousandth of a percent). Thus, a hypothetical cash settlement amount of 100.000% means that the value of the cash payment that we would deliver for each $1,000 of the outstanding face amount of the offered notes on the stated maturity date would equal 100.000% of the face amount of a note, based on the corresponding hypothetical final underlier level of the lesser performing underlier and the assumptions noted above.


PS-11

 


 

 

 

The Notes Have Not Been Redeemed

 

 

Hypothetical Final Underlier Level of the Lesser Performing Underlier

Hypothetical Cash Settlement Amount

(as Percentage of Initial Underlier Level)

(as Percentage of Face Amount)

175.000%

100.000%*

150.000%

100.000%*

125.000%

100.000%*

100.000%

100.000%*

85.000%

100.000%*

80.000%

100.000%*

75.000%

100.000%

70.000%

100.000%

69.999%

99.999%

35.000%

65.000%

25.000%

55.000%

10.000%

40.000%

0.000%

30.000%

*Does not include the final coupon

 

 

If, for example, the notes have not been redeemed and the final underlier level of the lesser performing underlier were determined to be 25.000% of its initial underlier level, the cash settlement amount that we would deliver on your notes at maturity would be 55.000% of the face amount of your notes, as shown in the table above. As a result, if you purchased your notes on the original issue date at the face amount and held them to the stated maturity date, you would lose 45.000% of your investment (if you purchased your notes at a premium to face amount you would lose a correspondingly higher percentage of your investment). In addition, if the final underlier level of the lesser performing underlier were determined to be 175.000% of its initial underlier level, the cash settlement amount that we would deliver on your notes at maturity would be limited to 100.000% of each $1,000 face amount of your notes, as shown in the table above. As a result, if you held your notes to the stated maturity date, you would not benefit from any increase in the final underlier level over the initial underlier level.

The cash settlement amounts shown above are entirely hypothetical; they are based on market prices for the underlier stocks that may not be achieved on the determination date and on assumptions that may prove to be erroneous. The actual market value of your notes on the stated maturity date or at any other time, including any time you may wish to sell your notes, may bear little relation to the hypothetical cash settlement amounts shown above, and these amounts should not be viewed as an indication of the financial return on an investment in the offered notes. The hypothetical cash settlement amounts on notes held to the stated maturity date in the examples above assume you purchased your notes at their face amount and have not been adjusted to reflect the actual issue price you pay for your notes. The return on your investment (whether positive or negative) in your notes will be affected by the amount you pay for your notes. If you purchase your notes for a price other than the face amount, the return on your investment will differ from, and may be significantly lower than, the hypothetical returns suggested by the above examples. Please read “Additional Risk Factors Specific to Your Notes — The Market Value of Your Notes May Be Influenced by Many Unpredictable Factors” on page PS-15.

Payments on the notes are economically equivalent to the amounts that would be paid on a combination of other instruments. For example, payments on the notes are economically equivalent to a combination of an interest-bearing bond bought by the holder and one or more options entered into between the holder and us (with one or more implicit option premiums paid over time). The discussion in this paragraph does not modify or affect the terms of the notes or the U.S. federal income tax treatment of the notes, as described elsewhere in this pricing supplement.


 

PS-12

 


 

 

 

We cannot predict the actual closing levels of the underliers on any day, the final underlier levels of the underliers or what the market value of your notes will be on any particular trading day, nor can we predict the relationship between the closing levels of the underliers and the market value of your notes at any time prior to the stated maturity date. The actual coupon payment, if any, that a holder of the notes will receive on each coupon payment date, the actual amount that you will receive at maturity and the rate of return on the offered notes will depend on whether or not the notes are redeemed and the actual closing levels of the underliers and the actual final underlier levels determined by the calculation agent as described above. Moreover, the assumptions on which the hypothetical examples are based may turn out to be inaccurate. Consequently, the coupon to be paid in respect of your notes, if any, and the cash amount to be paid in respect of your notes on the stated maturity date may be very different from the information reflected in the examples above.

 

 


PS-13

 


 

Additional Risk Factors Specific to Your Notes

An investment in your notes is subject to the risks described below, as well as the risks and considerations described in the accompanying prospectus, in the accompanying prospectus supplement, under “Additional Risk Factors Specific to the Notes” in the accompanying underlier supplement no. 14 and under “Additional Risk Factors Specific to the Notes” in the accompanying general terms supplement no. 8,671. You should carefully review these risks and considerations as well as the terms of the notes described herein and in the accompanying prospectus, the accompanying prospectus supplement, the accompanying underlier supplement no. 14 and the accompanying general terms supplement no. 8,671. Your notes are a riskier investment than ordinary debt securities. Also, your notes are not equivalent to investing directly in the underlier stocks, i.e., with respect to an underlier to which your notes are linked, the stocks comprising such underlier. You should carefully consider whether the offered notes are appropriate given your particular circumstances.

The Estimated Value of Your Notes At the Time the Terms of Your Notes Are Set On the Trade Date (as Determined By Reference to Pricing Models Used By GS&Co.) Is Less Than the Original Issue Price Of Your Notes

The original issue price for your notes exceeds the estimated value of your notes as of the time the terms of your notes are set on the trade date, as determined by reference to GS&Co.’s pricing models and taking into account our credit spreads. Such estimated value on the trade date is set forth above under “Estimated Value of Your Notes”; after the trade date, the estimated value as determined by reference to these models will be affected by changes in market conditions, the creditworthiness of GS Finance Corp., as issuer, the creditworthiness of The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc., as guarantor, and other relevant factors. The price at which GS&Co. would initially buy or sell your notes (if GS&Co. makes a market, which it is not obligated to do), and the value that GS&Co. will initially use for account statements and otherwise, also exceeds the estimated value of your notes as determined by reference to these models. As agreed by GS&Co. and the distribution participants, this excess (i.e., the additional amount described under “Estimated Value of Your Notes”) will decline to zero on a straight line basis over the period from the date hereof through the applicable date set forth above under “Estimated Value of Your Notes”. Thereafter, if GS&Co. buys or sells your notes it will do so at prices that reflect the estimated value determined by reference to such pricing models at that time. The price at which GS&Co. will buy or sell your notes at any time also will reflect its then current bid and ask spread for similar sized trades of structured notes.

In estimating the value of your notes as of the time the terms of your notes are set on the trade date, as disclosed above under “Estimated Value of Your Notes”, GS&Co.’s pricing models consider certain variables, including principally our credit spreads, interest rates (forecasted, current and historical rates), volatility, price-sensitivity analysis and the time to maturity of the notes. These pricing models are proprietary and rely in part on certain assumptions about future events, which may prove to be incorrect. As a result, the actual value you would receive if you sold your notes in the secondary market, if any, to others may differ, perhaps materially, from the estimated value of your notes determined by reference to our models due to, among other things, any differences in pricing models or assumptions used by others. See “ — The Market Value of Your Notes May Be Influenced by Many Unpredictable Factors” below.

The difference between the estimated value of your notes as of the time the terms of your notes are set on the trade date and the original issue price is a result of certain factors, including principally the underwriting discount and commissions, the expenses incurred in creating, documenting and marketing the notes, and an estimate of the difference between the amounts we pay to GS&Co. and the amounts GS&Co. pays to us in connection with your notes. We pay to GS&Co. amounts based on what we would pay to holders of a non-structured note with a similar maturity.  In return for such payment, GS&Co. pays to us the amounts we owe under your notes.

In addition to the factors discussed above, the value and quoted price of your notes at any time will reflect many factors and cannot be predicted.  If GS&Co. makes a market in the notes, the price quoted by GS&Co. would reflect any changes in market conditions and other relevant factors, including any deterioration in our creditworthiness or perceived creditworthiness or the creditworthiness or perceived creditworthiness of The

PS-14

 


 

Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. These changes may adversely affect the value of your notes, including the price you may receive for your notes in any market making transaction. To the extent that GS&Co. makes a market in the notes, the quoted price will reflect the estimated value determined by reference to GS&Co.’s pricing models at that time, plus or minus its then current bid and ask spread for similar sized trades of structured notes (and subject to the declining excess amount described above).

Furthermore, if you sell your notes, you will likely be charged a commission for secondary market transactions, or the price will likely reflect a dealer discount.  This commission or discount will further reduce the proceeds you would receive for your notes in a secondary market sale.

There is no assurance that GS&Co. or any other party will be willing to purchase your notes at any price and, in this regard, GS&Co. is not obligated to make a market in the notes.  See “Additional Risk Factors Specific to the Notes — Your Notes May Not Have an Active Trading Market” on page S-10 of the accompanying general terms supplement no. 8,671.

The Notes Are Subject to the Credit Risk of the Issuer and the Guarantor

Although the coupons (if any) and return on the notes will be based on the performance of each underlier, the payment of any amount due on the notes is subject to the credit risk of GS Finance Corp., as issuer of the notes, and the credit risk of The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc., as guarantor of the notes. The notes are our unsecured obligations. Investors are dependent on our ability to pay all amounts due on the notes, and therefore investors are subject to our credit risk and to changes in the market’s view of our creditworthiness. Similarly, investors are dependent on the ability of The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc., as guarantor of the notes, to pay all amounts due on the notes, and therefore are also subject to its credit risk and to changes in the market’s view of its creditworthiness. See “Description of the Notes We May Offer — Information About Our Medium-Term Notes, Series F Program — How the Notes Rank Against Other Debt” on page S-5 of the accompanying prospectus supplement and “Description of Debt Securities We May Offer – Guarantee by The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc.” on page 68 of the accompanying prospectus.

You May Lose a Substantial Portion of Your Investment in the Notes

You can lose a substantial portion of investment in the notes. Subject to our redemption right, the cash settlement amount on your notes on the stated maturity date will be based on the performance of the lesser performing of the underliers as measured from their initial underlier levels to their closing levels on the determination date. If the final underlier level of the lesser performing underlier for your notes is less than its buffer level, you will have a loss for each $1,000 of the face amount of your notes equal to the product of (i) the lesser performing underlier return plus the buffer amount times (ii) $1,000. Thus, you may lose a substantial portion of your investment in the notes, which would include any premium to face amount you paid when you purchased the notes.

Also, the market price of your notes prior to the stated maturity date may be significantly lower than the purchase price you pay for your notes.  Consequently, if you sell your notes before the stated maturity date, you may receive far less than the amount of your investment in the notes.

You May Not Receive a Coupon on Any Coupon Payment Date

If the closing level of any underlier on the related coupon observation date is less than its coupon trigger level, you will not receive a coupon payment on the applicable coupon payment date. If this occurs on every coupon observation date, the overall return you earn on your notes will be zero or less and such return will be less than you would have earned by investing in a note that bears interest at the prevailing market rate.

You will only receive a coupon on a coupon payment date if the closing level of each underlier on the related coupon observation date is greater than or equal to its coupon trigger level.  You should be aware that, with respect to any prior coupon observation dates that did not result in the payment of a coupon, you will not be compensated for any opportunity cost implied by inflation and other factors relating to the time value of money.  Further, there is no guarantee that you will receive any coupon payment with respect to the notes at any time.

We Are Able to Redeem Your Notes at Our Option

On each coupon payment date commencing with the coupon payment date relating to the coupon observation date in March 2021 and ending with the coupon payment date relating to the coupon observation date in

PS-15

 


 

September 2023, we will be permitted to redeem your notes at our option. Even if we do not exercise our option to redeem your notes, our ability to do so may adversely affect the value of your notes. It is our sole option whether to redeem your notes prior to maturity and we may or may not exercise this option for any reason. Because of this redemption option, the term of your notes could be reduced.

The Coupon Does Not Reflect the Actual Performance of the Underliers from the Trade Date to Any Coupon Observation Date or from Coupon Observation Date to Coupon Observation Date

The coupon for each quarterly coupon payment date is different from, and may be less than, a coupon determined based on the percentage difference of the closing levels of the underliers between the trade date and any coupon observation date or between two coupon observation dates. Accordingly, the coupons, if any, on the notes may be less than the return you could earn on another instrument linked to the underliers that pays coupons based on the performance of the underliers from the trade date to any coupon observation date or from coupon observation date to coupon observation date.

The Cash Settlement Amount Will Be Based Solely on the Lesser Performing Underlier

If the notes are not redeemed by us, the cash settlement amount will be based on the lesser performing underlier without regard to the performance of the other underliers. As a result, you could lose all or some of your initial investment if the lesser performing underlier return is negative, even if there is an increase in the level of the other underliers.  This could be the case even if the other underliers increased by an amount greater than the decrease in the lesser performing underlier.

The Market Value of Your Notes May Be Influenced by Many Unpredictable Factors

When we refer to the market value of your notes, we mean the value that you could receive for your notes if you chose to sell them in the open market before the stated maturity date. A number of factors, many of which are beyond our control, will influence the market value of your notes, including:

the levels of the underliers;

the volatility – i.e., the frequency and magnitude of changes – in the closing levels of the underliers;

the dividend rates of the underlier stocks;

economic, financial, regulatory, political, military, public health and other events that affect stock markets generally and the underlier stocks, and which may affect the closing level of the underlier or underliers;

interest rates and yield rates in the market;

the time remaining until your notes mature; and

our creditworthiness and the creditworthiness of The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc., whether actual or perceived, and including actual or anticipated upgrades or downgrades in our credit ratings or the credit ratings of The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. or changes in other credit measures.

These factors may influence the market value of your notes if you sell your notes before maturity, including the price you may receive for your notes in any market making transaction. If you sell your notes prior to maturity, you may receive less than the face amount of your notes. You cannot predict the future performance of the underliers based on their historical performance.

If You Purchase Your Notes at a Premium to Face Amount, the Return on Your Investment Will Be Lower Than the Return on Notes Purchased at Face Amount and the Impact of Certain Key Terms of the Notes Will Be Negatively Affected

The cash settlement amount you will be paid for your notes on the stated maturity date or the amount we will pay you upon any early redemption of your notes will not be adjusted based on the issue price you pay for the notes. If you purchase notes at a price that differs from the face amount of the notes, then the return on your investment in such notes held to the stated maturity date or date of early redemption will differ from, and may be substantially less than, the return on notes purchased at face amount. If you purchase your notes at a premium to face amount and hold them to the stated maturity date or date of early redemption, the return on your investment in the notes will be lower than it would have been had you purchased the notes at face amount or a discount to face amount. In addition, the impact of the buffer level on the return on your investment will depend upon the price you pay for your notes relative to face amount. For example, if you

PS-16

 


 

purchase your notes at a premium to face amount and the final underlier level of the lesser performing underlier is less than its buffer level, you will incur a greater percentage decrease in your investment in the notes than would have been the case for notes purchased at face amount or a discount to face amount.

There Is No Guarantee That the S&P 500® Value Index Methodology Will Be Successful

The S&P 500® Value Index is designed to measure the performance of companies included in the S&P 500® Index that exhibit relatively strong value characteristics (determined by reference to (1) book-value-to-price ratio, (2) earnings-to-price ratio and (3) sales-to-price ratio) and relatively weak growth characteristics (determined by reference to (1) three-year change in earnings-per-share growth (excluding extra items) over price per share, (2) three-year sales-per-share growth rate and (3) momentum (12-month percentage price change)). There is no guarantee that the S&P 500® Value Index will outperform any other index or strategy that tracks U.S. stocks using other criteria. Companies that are considered to exhibit strong value characteristics may have lower growth potential relative to comparable companies, which may cause the level of the S&P 500® Value Index to decrease over the term of the notes. Accordingly, the investment strategy represented by the S&P 500® Value Index may not be successful, and your investment in the notes may result in a loss. An investment in the notes may also underperform an investment linked to the S&P 500® Index as a whole.

There Is No Guarantee That the Methodology of the Russell 2000® Value Index Will Be Successful

The Russell 2000® Value Index is generally considered to be a “small-cap” U.S. equity index and is predominantly comprised of value stocks, meaning stocks issued by companies thought to be undervalued by the market relative to comparable companies. There is no guarantee that the Russell 2000® Value Index will outperform any other index or strategy that tracks U.S. small-capitalization selected using other criteria. Companies that are considered to be value oriented may have lower growth potential than other securities, which may cause the level of the Russell 2000® Value Index to decrease over the term of the notes. Accordingly, the investment strategy represented by the Russell 2000® Value Index may not be successful, and your investment in the notes may result in a loss.  An investment in the notes may also underperform an investment linked only to the Russell 2000® Index.

The NASDAQ-100 Technology Sector Index is Concentrated in the Technology Industry and Does Not Provide Diversified Exposure

The NASDAQ-100 Technology Sector Index is not diversified. The NASDAQ-100 Technology Sector Index’s assets are concentrated in the technology industry, which means the index is more likely to be more adversely affected by any negative performance of the technology industry than an index that has more diversified holdings across a number of sectors. Market or economic factors impacting technology companies and companies that rely heavily on technological advances could have a major effect on the value of the NASDAQ-100 Technology Sector Index’s constituents. The value of stocks of technology companies and companies that rely heavily on technology are particularly vulnerable to rapid changes in technology product cycles, rapid product obsolescence, government regulation and competition, both domestically and internationally, including competition from foreign competitors with lower production costs. Stocks of technology companies and companies that rely heavily on technology, especially those of smaller, less-seasoned companies, tend to be more volatile than the overall market. Technology companies are heavily dependent on patent and intellectual property rights, the loss or impairment of which may adversely affect profitability. Additionally, companies in the technology industry may face dramatic and often unpredictable changes in growth rates and competition for the services of qualified personnel.

 

As Compared to Other Index Sponsors, Nasdaq, Inc. Retains Significant Control and Discretionary Decision-Making Over the NASDAQ-100 Technology Sector Index, Which May Have an Adverse Effect on the Level of the NASDAQ-100 Technology Sector Index and on Your Notes

Pursuant to the NASDAQ-100 Technology Sector Index methodology, Nasdaq, Inc. retains the right, from time to time, to exercise reasonable discretion as it deems appropriate in order to ensure NASDAQ-100 Technology Sector Index integrity, including, but not limited to, changes to quantitative inclusion criteria. Nasdaq, Inc. may also, due to special circumstances, apply discretionary adjustments to ensure and maintain quality of the NASDAQ-100 Technology Sector Index. Although it is unclear how and to what extent this discretion could or would be exercised, it is possible that it could be exercised by Nasdaq, Inc. in a manner

PS-17

 


 

that materially and adversely affects the level of the NASDAQ-100 Technology Sector Index and therefore your notes. Nasdaq, Inc. is not obligated to, and will not, take account of your interests in exercising the discretion described above.

An Investment in the Offered Notes Is Subject to Risks Associated with Foreign Securities

The value of your notes is linked, in part, to an underlier that is comprised, in part, of stocks from one or more foreign securities markets. Investments linked to the value of foreign equity securities involve particular risks. Any foreign securities market may be less liquid, more volatile and affected by global or domestic market developments in a different way than are the U.S. securities market or other foreign securities markets. Both government intervention in a foreign securities market, either directly or indirectly, and cross-shareholdings in foreign companies, may affect trading prices and volumes in that market. Also, there is generally less publicly available information about foreign companies than about those U.S. companies that are subject to the reporting requirements of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. Further, foreign companies are subject to accounting, auditing and financial reporting standards and requirements that differ from those applicable to U.S. reporting companies.

The prices of securities in a foreign country are subject to political, economic, financial and social factors that are unique to such foreign country's geographical region. These factors include: recent changes, or the possibility of future changes, in the applicable foreign government's economic and fiscal policies; the possible implementation of, or changes in, currency exchange laws or other laws or restrictions applicable to foreign companies or investments in foreign equity securities; fluctuations, or the possibility of fluctuations, in currency exchange rates; and the possibility of outbreaks of hostility, political instability, natural disaster or adverse public health developments. For example, the United Kingdom ceased to be a member of the European Union on January 31, 2020 (an event commonly referred to as “Brexit”). The effects of Brexit are uncertain, and, among other things, Brexit has contributed, and may continue to contribute, to volatility in the prices of securities of companies located in Europe (or elsewhere) and currency exchange rates, including the valuation of the euro and British pound in particular. Any one of these factors, or the combination of more than one of these factors, could negatively affect such foreign securities market and the price of securities therein. Further, geographical regions may react to global factors in different ways, which may cause the prices of securities in a foreign securities market to fluctuate in a way that differs from those of securities in the U.S. securities market or other foreign securities markets. Foreign economies may also differ from the U.S. economy in important respects, including growth of gross national product, rate of inflation, capital reinvestment, resources and self-sufficiency, which may have a positive or negative effect on foreign securities prices.

You Have No Shareholder Rights or Rights to Receive Any Underlier Stock

Investing in your notes will not make you a holder of any of the underlier stocks.  Neither you nor any other holder or owner of your notes will have any rights with respect to the underlier stocks, including any voting rights, any right to receive dividends or other distributions, any rights to make a claim against the underlier stocks or any other rights of a holder of the underlier stocks.  Your notes will be paid in cash, as will any coupon payments, and you will have no right to receive delivery of any underlier stocks.

 

We May Sell an Additional Aggregate Face Amount of the Notes at a Different Issue Price

At our sole option, we may decide to sell an additional aggregate face amount of the notes subsequent to the date of this pricing supplement. The issue price of the notes in the subsequent sale may differ substantially (higher or lower) from the issue price you paid as provided on the cover of this pricing supplement.

The Tax Consequences of an Investment in Your Notes Are Uncertain

The tax consequences of an investment in your notes are uncertain, both as to the timing and character of any inclusion in income in respect of your notes.

The Internal Revenue Service announced on December 7, 2007 that it is considering issuing guidance regarding the tax treatment of an instrument such as your notes, and any such guidance could adversely affect the value and the tax treatment of your notes. Among other things, the Internal Revenue Service may decide to require the holders to accrue ordinary income on a current basis and recognize ordinary income on payment at maturity, and could subject non-U.S. investors to withholding tax. Furthermore, in 2007,

PS-18

 


 

legislation was introduced in Congress that, if enacted, would have required holders that acquired instruments such as your notes after the bill was enacted to accrue interest income over the term of such instruments even though there may be no interest payments over the term of such instruments. It is not possible to predict whether a similar or identical bill will be enacted in the future, or whether any such bill would affect the tax treatment of your notes.  We describe these developments in more detail under “Supplemental Discussion of U.S. Federal Income Tax Consequences – United States Holders – Possible Change in Law” below. You should consult your tax advisor about this matter. Except to the extent otherwise provided by law, GS Finance Corp. intends to continue treating the notes for U.S. federal income tax purposes in accordance with the treatment described under “Supplemental Discussion of U.S. Federal Income Tax Consequences” on page PS-45 below unless and until such time as Congress, the Treasury Department or the Internal Revenue Service determine that some other treatment is more appropriate.  Please also consult your tax advisor concerning the U.S. federal income tax and any other applicable tax consequences to you of owning your notes in your particular circumstances.

Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act (FATCA) Withholding May Apply to Payments on Your Notes, Including as a Result of the Failure of the Bank or Broker Through Which You Hold the Notes to Provide Information to Tax Authorities

Please see the discussion under “United States Taxation — Taxation of Debt Securities — Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act (FATCA) Withholding” in the accompanying prospectus for a description of the applicability of FATCA to payments made on your notes.


 

PS-19

 


 

 

The Underliers

 

S&P 500® Value Index

The S&P 500® Value Index (the “index”) is a float-adjusted market capitalization weighted index designed to measure the performance of companies included in the S&P 500® Index that are fully or partially categorized as value stocks, as determined by style scores calculated for each security included in the S&P 500® Index. The S&P 500 Index includes a representative sample of 500 companies in leading industries of the U.S. economy. Generally, value stocks are stocks that exhibit relatively strong value characteristics (determined by reference to (1) book-value-to-price ratio, (2) earnings-to-price ratio and (3) sales-to-price ratio) and relatively weak growth characteristics (determined by reference to (1) three-year change in earnings-per-share growth (excluding extra items) over price per share, (2) three-year sales-per-share growth rate and (3) momentum (12-month percentage price change)). Stocks that are fully characterized as value stocks have 100% of their float-adjusted market capitalization in the S&P 500 Index assigned to the index. Stocks that are partially characterized as value stocks have a portion of their float-adjusted market capitalization in the S&P 500 Index assigned to the index. Stocks that are fully characterized as growth stocks are excluded from the index. The index and the S&P 500® Index are calculated, maintained and published by S&P Dow Jones Indices LLC (“S&P”). The index has a launch date of May 30, 1992, with a base value of 291.12 as of its base date, June 30, 1995.

 

As of November 23, 2020, the 387 companies included in the S&P 500® Value Index were divided into eleven Global Industry Classification Sectors. The Global Industry Classification Sectors include (with the approximate percentage currently included in such sectors indicated in parentheses): Communication Services (7.89%), Consumer Discretionary (6%), Consumer Staples (10.52%), Energy (5.15%), Financials (19.39%), Health Care (19.38%), Industrials (11.03%), Information Technology (7.85%), Materials (3.28%), Real Estate (3.09%) and Utilities (6.43%). (Sector designations are determined by the underlying index publisher using criteria it has selected or developed. Index publishers may use very different standards for determining sector designations. In addition, many companies operate in a number of sectors, but are listed in only one sector and the basis on which that sector is selected may also differ. As a result, sector comparisons between indices with different index publishers may reflect differences in methodology as well as actual differences in the sector composition of the indices).

Construction of the S&P 500® Value Index

To be eligible for inclusion in the index, a stock must be a constituent of the S&P 500® Index. For more information about the S&P 500® Index, see “S&P 500® Index” below.

Style Factors

S&P uses the following growth factors and value factors to measure growth and value for each constituent in the eligible universe:

Growth Factors

Value Factors

three-year net change in earnings-per-share (excluding extra items) over current price

book-value-to-price ratio

three-year sales-per-share growth rate

earnings-to-price ratio

momentum (12-month percentage price change)

sales-to-price ratio

 

When earnings from three years prior are not available, the two-year change in earnings per share (excluding extra items) over price per share is used. When earnings from two years prior are not available, the one-year change in earnings per share (excluding extra items) over price per share is used. When earnings from one year prior are not available, the factor is set equal to zero.

When sales from three years prior are not available, the two-year sales per share growth rate is used. When sales from two years prior are not available, the one-year sales per share growth rate is used. When sales from one year prior are not available, the factor is set equal to zero. If the starting value is less than zero, the style factor is multiplied by a factor of negative 1.

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When there is not enough trading history to calculate 12-month momentum, then momentum is calculated from the stock’s listing date.

When the book value to price ratio, earnings to price ratio, or sales to price ratio is not available, the factor is set to zero.

Style Scores

Once a year, raw values for each of the above factors are calculated for each company in the eligible universe. These raw values are first winsorized to the 90th percentile (generally speaking, winsorization is a process to limit the impact of extreme values) and then standardized by dividing the difference between each company’s raw score and the mean of the entire set by the standard deviation of the entire set. A growth score for each company is computed as the average of the standardized values of the three growth factors. Similarly, a value score for each company is computed as the average of the standardized values of the three value factors.

At the end of this step each company has a growth score and a value score, with growth and value being measured along separate dimensions (i.e., scales).

Establishing Style Baskets

Companies within the eligible universe are ranked based on growth and value scores. A company with a high growth score would have a higher growth rank, while a company with a low value score would have a lower value rank. For example, the S&P 500® Index constituent with the highest value score would have a value rank of 1, while the constituent with the lowest value score would have a value rank of 500.

The companies within the eligible universe are then sorted in ascending order of the ratio growth rank/value rank. The companies at the top of the list have a higher growth rank (or high growth score) and a lower value rank (or low value score) and, therefore, exhibit pure growth characteristics. The companies at the top of the list, comprising 33% of the float-adjusted market capitalization of the S&P 500® Index, are assigned to the growth basket (fully categorized as growth stocks).

The companies at the bottom of the list have a higher value rank (or high value score) and a lower growth rank (or low growth score) and, therefore, exhibit pure value characteristics. The companies at the bottom of the list, comprising 33% of the float-adjusted market capitalization of the S&P 500® Index, are assigned to the value basket (fully categorized as value stocks).

The companies in the middle 34% of the list are assigned to the blended basket (partially categorized as growth stocks and partially characterized as value stocks).

Creating the Growth and Value Indices

S&P divides the complete market capitalization of the S&P 500® Index approximately equally into the S&P 500® Growth Index and the S&P 500® Value Index, while limiting the number of stocks that overlap across both. 100% of the float-adjusted market capitalization of a company fully categorized as a growth stock is assigned to the S&P 500® Growth Index, and 100% of the float-adjusted market capitalization of a company fully categorized as a value stock is assigned to the S&P 500® Value Index. The float-adjusted market capitalization of a company in the middle 34% is distributed between the S&P 500® Growth Index and the S&P 500® Value Index based on its distance from the average growth score of companies fully categorized as growth stocks and the average value score of companies fully categorized as value stocks. In particular, the percentage of a company’s float-adjusted market capitalization in the S&P 500® Index that is allocated to the S&P 500® Value Index will be equal to (a) its distance from the average growth score of companies fully categorized as growth stocks divided by (b) the sum of (i) its distance from the average growth score of companies fully categorized as growth stocks plus (ii) its distance from the average value score of companies fully categorized as value stocks. Further, to avoid very small fractions of a stock’s market capitalization being in the index, (x) if the calculated percentage is greater than or equal to 80%, 100% will be allocated to the S&P 500® Value Index, and (y) if the calculated percentage is less than 20%, 0% will be allocated to the S&P 500® Value Index.

After the conclusion of the rebalancing, the total float-adjusted market capitalization of the S&P 500® Index will be approximately equally divided between the S&P 500® Value Index and the S&P 500® Growth

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Index. However, no mathematical procedure is employed to force an equal distribution, since price movements of constituent stocks would result in inequality immediately following any reconstitution.

Calculation of the S&P 500® Value Index

The index is calculated as the index market value divided by the divisor using the divisor methodology used in all S&P’s equity indices, including the S&P 500® Index. See “The S&P 500® Index” below for more information.

Maintenance of the S&P 500® Value Index

The index is rebalanced once a year in December. The rebalancings occur after the close on the third Friday of December. The reference date to calculate style scores is after the close of the last trading date of the previous month. Style scores, float market-capitalization weights and growth and value midpoint averages are reset only once a year at the December rebalancing.

If a constituent of the index is dropped from the S&P 500® Index, it will also be removed from the index.

With respect to spin-offs, index membership follows the S&P 500® Index and a child stock (i.e., a spin-off stock) is assigned the same float market-capitalization weight in the index as the parent stock.

Other changes to the index are made on an as-needed basis, following the guidelines of the S&P 500® Index. See “S&P 500® Index” below for more information.

S&P 500® Index

The S&P 500® Index includes a representative sample of 500 companies in leading industries of the U.S. economy. The 500 companies are not the 500 largest companies listed on the NYSE and not all 500 companies are listed on the NYSE. S&P chooses companies for inclusion in the S&P 500® Index with an aim of achieving a distribution by broad industry groupings that approximates the distribution of these groupings in the common stock population of the U.S. equity market.  Although the S&P 500® Index contains 500 constituent companies, at any one time it may contain greater than 500 constituent trading lines since some companies included in the S&P 500® Index prior to July 31, 2017 may be represented by multiple share class lines in the S&P 500® Index.  The S&P 500® Index is calculated, maintained and published by S&P.

S&P intends for the S&P 500® Index to provide a performance benchmark for the large-cap U.S. equity markets. Constituent changes are made on an as-needed basis and there is no schedule for constituent reviews. Index additions and deletions are announced with at least three business days advance notice. Less than three business days’ notice may be given at the discretion of the S&P Index Committee. Relevant criteria for additions to the S&P 500® Index that are employed by S&P include: the company proposed for addition should have an unadjusted company market capitalization of $8.2 billion or more and a security level float-adjusted market capitalization that is at least $4.1 billion (for spin-offs, eligibility is determined using when-issued prices, if available); using composite pricing and volume, the ratio of annual dollar value traded (defined as average closing price over the period multiplied by historical volume) in the proposed constituent to float-adjusted market capitalization of that company should be at least 1.00 and the stock should trade a minimum of 250,000 shares in each of the six months leading up to the evaluation date; the company must be a U.S. company (characterized as a Form 10-K filer with its U.S. portion of fixed assets and revenues constituting a plurality of the total and with a primary listing of the common stock on the NYSE, NYSE Arca, NYSE American (formerly NYSE MKT), NASDAQ Global Select Market, NASDAQ Select Market, NASDAQ Capital Market, Cboe BZX (formerly Bats BZX), Cboe BYX (formerly Bats BYX), Cboe EDGA (formerly Bats EDGA) or Cboe EDGX (formerly Bats EDGX) (each, an “eligible exchange”)); the proposed constituent has an investable weight factor (“IWF”) of 50% or more; the inclusion of the company will contribute to sector balance in the S&P 500® Index relative to sector balance in the market in the relevant market capitalization range; financial viability (the sum of the most recent four consecutive quarters’ Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) earnings (net income excluding discontinued operations) should be positive as should the most recent quarter); and, for IPOs, the company must be traded on an eligible exchange for at least twelve months (spin-offs or in-

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specie distributions from existing constituents do not need to be traded on an eligible exchange for twelve months prior to their inclusion in the S&P 500® Index). In addition, constituents of the S&P MidCap 400® Index and the S&P SmallCap 600® Index can be added to the S&P 500® Index without meeting the financial viability, IWF and/or liquidity eligibility criteria if the S&P Index Committee decides that such an addition will enhance the representativeness of the S&P 500® Index as a market benchmark.  Further, constituents of the S&P Total Market Index Ex S&P Composite 1500 (which includes all eligible U.S. common equities except for those included in the S&P 500® Index, the S&P MidCap 400® Index and the S&P SmallCap 600® Index) that acquire a constituent of the S&P 500® Index, the S&P MidCap 400® Index or the S&P SmallCap 600® Index that do not fully meet the financial viability or IWF criteria may still be added to the S&P 500® Index at the discretion of the Index Committee if the Index Committee determines that the addition could minimize turnover and enhance the representativeness of the S&P 500® Index as a market benchmark. Certain types of organizational structures and securities are always excluded, including business development companies (BDCs), limited partnerships, master limited partnerships, limited liability companies (LLCs), OTC bulletin board issues, closed-end funds, ETFs, ETNs, royalty trusts, tracking stocks, special purpose acquisition companies (SPACs), preferred stock and convertible preferred stock, unit trusts, equity warrants, convertible bonds, investment trusts, rights and American depositary receipts (ADRs). Stocks are deleted from the S&P 500® Index when they are involved in mergers, acquisitions or significant restructurings such that they no longer meet the inclusion criteria, and when they substantially violate one or more of the addition criteria. Stocks that are delisted or moved to the pink sheets or the bulletin board are removed, and those that experience a trading halt may be retained or removed in S&P’s discretion. S&P evaluates additions and deletions with a view to maintaining S&P 500® Index continuity.

For constituents included in the S&P 500® Index prior to July 31, 2017, all publicly listed multiple share class lines are included separately in the S&P 500® Index, subject to, in the case of any such share class line, that share class line satisfying the liquidity and float criteria discussed above and subject to certain exceptions.  It is possible that one listed share class line of a company may be included in the S&P 500® Index while a second listed share class line of the same company is excluded.  For companies that issue a second publicly traded share class to index share class holders, the newly issued share class line is considered for inclusion if the event is mandatory and the market capitalization of the distributed class is not considered to be de minimis.

As of July 31, 2017, companies with multiple share class lines are no longer eligible for inclusion in the S&P 500® Index. Only common shares are considered when determining whether a company has a multiple share class structure. Constituents of the S&P 500® Index prior to July 31, 2017 with multiple share class lines will be grandfathered in and continue to be included in the S&P 500® Index. If an S&P 500® Index constituent reorganizes into a multiple share class line structure, that company will be reviewed for continued inclusion in the S&P 500® Index at the discretion of the S&P Index Committee.

Calculation of the S&P 500® Index

The S&P 500® Index is calculated using a base-weighted aggregative methodology. This discussion describes the “price return” calculation of the S&P 500® Index. The value of the S&P 500® Index on any day for which an index value is published is determined by a fraction, the numerator of which is the aggregate of the market price of each stock in the S&P 500® Index times the number of shares of such stock included in the S&P 500® Index, and the denominator of which is the divisor, which is described more fully below. The “market value” of any index stock is the product of the market price per share of that stock times the number of the then-outstanding shares of such index stock that are then included in the S&P 500® Index.

The S&P 500® Index is also sometimes called a “base-weighted aggregative index” because of its use of a divisor. The “divisor” is a value calculated by S&P that is intended to maintain conformity in index values over time and is adjusted for all changes in the index stocks’ share capital after the “base date” as described below. The level of the S&P 500® Index reflects the total market value of all index stocks relative to the S&P 500® Index’s base date of 1941-43.

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In addition, the S&P 500® Index is float-adjusted, meaning that the share counts used in calculating the S&P 500® Index reflect only those shares available to investors rather than all of a company’s outstanding shares. S&P seeks to exclude shares held by long-term, strategic shareholders concerned with the control of a company, a group that generally includes the following: officers and directors and related individuals whose holdings are publicly disclosed, private equity, venture capital, special equity firms, asset managers and insurance companies with board of director representation, publicly traded companies that hold shares in another company, holders of restricted shares (except for shares held as part of a lock-up agreement), company-sponsored employee share plans/trusts, defined contribution plans/savings, investment plans, foundations or family trusts associated with the company, government entities at all levels (except government retirement or pension funds), sovereign wealth funds and any individual person listed as a 5% or greater stakeholder in a company as reported in regulatory filings (collectively, “strategic holders”). To this end, S&P excludes all share-holdings (other than depositary banks, pension funds (including government pension and retirement funds), mutual funds, exchange traded fund providers, investment funds, asset managers (including hedge funds with no board of director representation), investment funds of insurance companies and independent foundations not associated with the company) with a position greater than 5% of the outstanding shares of a company from the float-adjusted share count to be used in S&P 500® Index calculations.

The exclusion is accomplished by calculating an IWF for each stock that is part of the numerator of the float-adjusted index fraction described above:

IWF = (available float shares)/(total shares outstanding)

where available float shares is defined as total shares outstanding less shares held by strategic holders. In most cases, an IWF is reported to the nearest one percentage point. For companies with multiple share class lines, a separate IWF is calculated for each share class line.

Maintenance of the S&P 500® Index

In order to keep the S&P 500® Index comparable over time S&P engages in an index maintenance process. The S&P 500® Index maintenance process involves changing the constituents as discussed above, and also involves maintaining quality assurance processes and procedures, adjusting the number of shares used to calculate the S&P 500® Index, monitoring and completing the adjustments for company additions and deletions, adjusting for stock splits and stock dividends and adjusting for other corporate actions. In addition to its daily governance of indices and maintenance of the S&P 500® Index methodology, at least once within any 12 month period, the S&P Index Committee reviews the S&P 500® Index methodology to ensure the S&P 500® Index continues to achieve the stated objective, and that the data and methodology remain effective. The S&P Index Committee may at times consult with investors, market participants, security issuers included in or potentially included in the S&P 500® Index, or investment and financial experts.

Divisor Adjustments

The two types of adjustments primarily used by S&P are divisor adjustments and adjustments to the number of shares (including float adjustments) used to calculate the S&P 500® Index. Set forth below is a table of certain corporate events and their resulting effect on the divisor and the share count. If a corporate event requires an adjustment to the divisor, that event has the effect of altering the market value of the affected index stock and consequently of altering the aggregate market value of the index stocks following the event. In order that the level of the S&P 500® Index not be affected by the altered market value (which could be an increase or decrease) of the affected index stock, S&P generally derives a new divisor by dividing the post-event market value of the index stocks by the pre-event index value, which has the effect of reducing the S&P 500® Index’s post-event value to the pre-event level.

Changes to the Number of Shares of a Constituent

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The index maintenance process also involves tracking the changes in the number of shares included for each of the index companies. Changes as a result of mandatory events, such as mergers or acquisition driven share/IWF changes, stock splits and mandatory distributions are not subject to a minimum threshold for implementation and are implemented when the transaction occurs. At S&P’s discretion, however, de minimis merger and acquisition changes may be accumulated and implemented with the updates made with the quarterly share updates as described below. Material share/IWF changes resulting from certain non-mandatory corporate actions follow the accelerated implementation rule. Non-material share/IWF changes are implemented quarterly.

Accelerated Implementation Rule

1. Public offerings. Public offerings of new company-issued shares and/or existing shares offered by selling shareholders, including block sales and spot secondaries, will be eligible for accelerated implementation treatment if the size of the event meets the materiality threshold criteria:

(a)

at least US $150 million, and

(b)

at least 5% of the pre-event total shares.

In addition to the materiality threshold, public offerings must satisfy the following conditions:

be underwritten.

have a publicly available prospectus, offering document, or prospectus summary filed with the relevant authorities.

have a publicly available confirmation from an official source that the offering has been completed.

For public offerings that involve a concurrent combination of new company shares and existing shares offered by selling shareholders, both events are implemented if either of the public offerings represent at least 5% of total shares and $150 million. Any concurrent share repurchase by the affected company will also be included in the implementation.

2. Dutch Auctions, self-tender offer buybacks, and split-off exchange offers. These nonmandatory corporate action types will be eligible for accelerated implementation treatment regardless of size once their results are publicly announced by S&P.

Exception to the Accelerated Implementation Rule

For non-mandatory corporate actions subject to the accelerated implementation rule with a size of at least US $1 billion, S&P will apply the share change, and any resulting IWF change, using the latest share and ownership information publicly available at the time of the announcement, even if the offering size is below the 5% threshold. This exception ensures that very large events are recognized in a timely manner using the latest available information.

All non-mandatory events not covered by the accelerated implementation rule (including but not limited to private placements, acquisition of private companies, and conversion of non-index share lines) will be implemented quarterly coinciding with the third Friday of the third month in each calendar quarter. In addition, events that were not implemented under the accelerated implementation rule but were found to have been eligible, (e.g. due to lack of publicly available information at the time of the event) are implemented as part of a quarterly rebalancing.

Announcement Policy

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For accelerated implementation, S&P will provide two (2) business days’ notice for all non-US domiciled stocks, and one (1) business days’ notice for all US domiciled stocks.

IWF Updates

Accelerated implementation for events less than $1 billion will include an adjustment to the company’s IWF only to the extent that such an IWF change helps the new float share total mimic the shares available in the offering. To minimize unnecessary turnover, these IWF changes do not need to meet any minimum threshold requirement for implementation. Any IWF change resulting in an IWF of 0.96 or greater is rounded up to 1.00 at the next annual IWF review.

IWF changes will only be made at the quarterly review if the change represents at least 5% of total current shares outstanding and is related to a single corporate action that did not qualify for the accelerated implementation rule.

Quarterly share change events resulting from the conversion of derivative securities, acquisitions of private companies, or acquisitions of non-index companies that do not trade on a major exchange are considered to be available to investors unless there is explicit information stating that the new owner is a strategic holder.

Other than the situations described above, please note that IWF changes are only made at the annual IWF review.

Share Updates

When total shares outstanding increase by at least 5%, but the new share issuance is to a strategic or major shareholder, it implies that there is no change in float- adjusted shares. However, in such instances, S&P will apply the share change and resulting IWF change regardless of whether the float change is greater than or equal to 5%.

For companies with multiple share class lines, the 5% share change threshold is based on each individual multiple share class line rather than total company shares.

Changes to share counts that total less than 5% of total shares are accumulated and made quarterly on the third Friday of March, June, September, and December.

Exceptions:

Any non- fully paid or non-fully settled offering such as forward sales agreements are not eligible for accelerated implementation. Share updates resulting from completion of subscription receipts terms or the settlement of forward sale agreements are updated at a future quarterly share rebalance.

Rebalancing Guidelines – Share/IWF Freeze

A share/IWF freeze period is implemented during each quarterly rebalancing. The freeze period begins after the market close on the Tuesday prior to the second Friday of each rebalancing month (i.e. March, June, September, and December) and ends after the market close on the third Friday of the rebalancing month. Pro-forma files are normally released after the market close on the second Friday, one week prior to the rebalancing effective date. In September, preliminary share and float data is released on the first Friday of the month. However, the share freeze period for September follows the same schedule as the other three quarterly share freeze periods. For illustration purposes, if rebalancing pro-forma files are scheduled to be released on Friday, March 13, the share/IWF freeze period will begin after the close of

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trading on Tuesday, March 10 and will end after the close of trading the following Friday, March 20 (i.e. the third Friday of the rebalancing month).

During the share/IWF freeze period, shares and IWFs are not changed except for mandatory corporate action events (such as merger activity, stock splits, and rights offerings), and the accelerated implementation rule is suspended. All changes that qualify for accelerated implementation scheduled to be effective during the share/IWF freeze period will instead be announced on the third Friday of the rebalancing month, and implemented five business days after the quarterly rebalancing effective date.

Adjustments for Corporate Actions

There is a large range of corporate actions that may affect companies included in the S&P 500® Index. Certain corporate actions require S&P to recalculate the share count or the float adjustment or to make an adjustment to the divisor to prevent the value of the S&P 500® Index from changing as a result of the corporate action. This helps ensure that the movement of the S&P 500® Index does not reflect the corporate actions of individual companies in the S&P 500® Index.

Spin-Offs

As a general policy, a spin-off security is added to the S&P 500® Index on the ex-date at a price of zero (with no divisor adjustment) and will remain in the S&P 500® Index for at least one trading day. The spin-off security will remain in the S&P 500® Index if it meets all eligibility criteria. If the spin-off security is determined ineligible to remain in the S&P 500® Index, it will generally be removed after at least one day of regular way trading (with a divisor adjustment). The weight of the spin-off being deleted is reinvested across all the index components proportionately such that the relative weights of all index components are unchanged. The net change in index market capitalization will cause a divisor change.

Companies that are spun off from a constituent of the S&P 500® Index do not need to meet the eligibility criteria for new constituents, but they should be considered U.S. domiciled for index purposes. At the discretion of the Index Committee, a spin-off company may be retained in the S&P 500® Index if the Index Committee determines it has a total market capitalization representative of the S&P 500® Index. If the spin-off company’s estimated market capitalization is below the minimum of $8.2 billion for addition criteria but there are other constituent companies in the S&P 500® Index that have a significantly lower total market capitalization than the spin-off company, the Index Committee may decide to retain the spin-off company in the S&P 500® Index.

Several additional types of corporate actions, and their related treatment, are listed in the table below.

Corporate Action

Treatment

Company addition/deletion

Addition

Companies are added at the float market capitalization weight. The net change to the index market capitalization causes a divisor adjustment.

Deletion

The weights of all stocks in the index will proportionally change. Relative weights will stay the same. The index divisor will change due to the net change in the index market capitalization

Change in shares outstanding

Increasing (decreasing) the shares outstanding increases (decreases) the market capitalization of the index. The change to the index market capitalization causes a divisor adjustment.

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Split/reverse split

Shares outstanding are adjusted by split ratio. Stock price is adjusted by split ratio. There is no change to the index market capitalization and no divisor adjustment.

Change in IWF

Increasing (decreasing) the IWF increases (decreases) the market capitalization of the index. A net change to the index market capitalization causes a divisor adjustment.

Ordinary dividend

When a company pays an ordinary cash dividend, the index does not make any adjustments to the price or shares of the stock. As a result there are no divisor adjustments to the index.

Special dividend

The stock price is adjusted by the amount of the dividend. The net change to the index market capitalization causes a divisor adjustment

Rights offering

All rights offerings that are in the money on the ex-date are applied under the assumption the rights are fully subscribed. The stock price is adjusted by the value of the rights and the shares outstanding are increased by the rights ratio. The net change in market capitalization causes a divisor adjustment.

Any company that is removed from the S&P 500® Index, the S&P MidCap 400® Index or the S&P SmallCap 600® Index must wait a minimum of one year from its removal date before being reconsidered as a replacement candidate for the S&P 500® Index.

Recalculation Policy

S&P reserves the right to recalculate and republish the S&P 500® Index at its discretion in the event one of the following issues has occurred: (1) incorrect or revised closing price of one or more constituent securities; (2) missed or misapplied corporate action; (3) incorrect application of an index methodology; (4) late announcement of a corporate action; or (5) incorrect calculation or data entry error. The decision to recalculate the S&P 500® Index is made at the discretion of the index manager and/or index committee, as further discussed below.  The potential market impact or disruption resulting from a recalculation is considered when making any such decision.  In the event of an incorrect closing price, a missed or misapplied corporate action, a late announcement of a corporate action, or an incorrect calculation or data entry error that is discovered within two trading days of its occurrence, generally the S&P 500® Index is recalculated.  In the event any such event is discovered beyond the two trading day period, the index committee shall decide whether the S&P 500® Index should be recalculated. In the event of an incorrect application of the methodology that results in the incorrect composition and/or weighting of index constituents, the index committee shall determine whether or not to recalculate the S&P 500® Index following specified guidelines. In the event that the S&P 500® Index is recalculated, it shall be done within a reasonable timeframe following the detection and review of the issue.

Calculations and Pricing Disruptions

Closing levels for the S&P 500® Index are calculated by S&P based on the closing price of the individual constituents of the S&P 500® Index as set by their primary exchange. Closing prices are received by S&P from one of its third party vendors and verified by comparing them with prices from an alternative vendor. The vendors receive the closing price from the primary exchanges. Real-time intraday prices are calculated similarly without a second verification. Official end-of-day calculations are based on each stock’s primary market closing price. Prices used for the calculation of real time index values are based on the “Consolidated Tape”. The Consolidated Tape is an aggregation of trades for each constituent over all regional exchanges and trading venues and includes the primary exchange. If there is a failure or interruption on one or more exchanges, real-time calculations will continue as long as the “Consolidated Tape” is operational.

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If an interruption is not resolved prior to the market close, official closing prices will be determined by following the hierarchy set out in NYSE Rule 123C. A notice is published on the S&P website at spglobal.com indicating any changes to the prices used in S&P 500® Index calculations. In extreme circumstances, S&P may decide to delay index adjustments or not publish the S&P 500® Index. Real-time indices are not restated.

Unexpected Exchange Closures

An unexpected market/exchange closure occurs when a market/exchange fully or partially fails to open or trading is temporarily halted. This can apply to a single exchange or to a market as a whole, when all of the primary exchanges are closed and/or not trading. Unexpected market/exchange closures are usually due to unforeseen circumstances, such as natural disasters, inclement weather, outages, or other events.

To a large degree, S&P is dependent on the exchanges to provide guidance in the event of an unexpected exchange closure. S&P’s decision making is dependent on exchange guidance regarding pricing and mandatory corporate actions.

NYSE Rule 123C provides closing contingency procedures for determining an official closing price for listed securities if the exchange is unable to conduct a closing transaction in one or more securities due to a system or technical issue.

3:00 PM ET is the deadline for an exchange to determine its plan of action regarding an outage scenario. As such, S&P also uses 3:00 PM ET as the cutoff.

If all major exchanges fail to open or unexpectedly halt trading intraday due to unforeseen circumstances, S&P will take the following actions:

Market Disruption Prior to Open of Trading:

(i)

If all exchanges indicate that trading will not open for a given day, S&P will treat the day as an unscheduled market holiday. The decision will be communicated to clients as soon as possible through the normal channels. Indices containing multiple markets will be calculated as normal, provided that at least one market is open that day. Indices which only contain closed markets will not be calculated.

(ii)

If exchanges indicate that trading, although delayed, will open for a given day, S&P will begin index calculation when the exchanges open.

Market Disruption Intraday:

(i)

If exchanges indicate that trading will not resume for a given day, the S&P 500® Index level will be calculated using prices determined by the exchanges based on NYSE Rule 123C. Intraday S&P 500® Index values will continue to use the last traded composite price until the primary exchange publishes official closing prices.

License Agreement between S&P and GS Finance Corp.

The S&P 500® Index is a product of S&P Dow Jones Indices LLC, and has been licensed for use by GS Finance Corp. (“Goldman”). Standard & Poor’s® and S&P® are registered trademarks of Standard & Poor’s Financial Services LLC; Dow Jones® is a registered trademark of Dow Jones Trademark Holdings LLC (“Dow Jones”) and these trademarks have been licensed for use by S&P Dow Jones Indices LLC and sublicensed for certain purposes by Goldman. Goldman’s notes are not sponsored, endorsed, sold or promoted by S&P Dow Jones Indices LLC, Dow Jones, Standard & Poor’s Financial Services LLC or any of their respective affiliates (collectively, “S&P Dow Jones Indices”). S&P Dow Jones Indices makes no representation or warranty, express or implied, to the owners of the notes or any member of the public regarding the advisability of investing in securities generally or in the notes particularly or the ability of the S&P 500® Index to track general market performance. S&P Dow Jones Indices’ only relationship to Goldman with respect to the S&P 500® Index is the licensing of the S&P 500® Index and certain trademarks, service marks and/or trade names of S&P Dow Jones Indices and/or its licensors. The S&P 500® Index is determined, composed and calculated by S&P Dow Jones Indices without regard to Goldman or the notes. S&P Dow Jones Indices have no obligation to take the needs of Goldman or the owners of the notes into consideration in determining, composing or calculating the S&P 500® Index. S&P Dow Jones Indices are not responsible for and have not participated in the determination of the prices, and amount of the notes or the timing of the issuance or sale of the notes or in the determination or

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calculation of the equation by which the notes are to be converted into cash. S&P Dow Jones Indices have no obligation or liability in connection with the administration, marketing or trading of the notes. There is no assurance that investment products based on the S&P 500® Index will accurately track index performance or provide positive investment returns. S&P Dow Jones Indices LLC is not an investment advisor. Inclusion of a security within an index is not a recommendation by S&P Dow Jones Indices to buy, sell, or hold such security, nor is it considered to be investment advice.

S&P DOW JONES INDICES DOES NOT GUARANTEE THE ADEQUACY, ACCURACY, TIMELINESS AND/OR THE COMPLETENESS OF THE S&P 500® INDEX OR ANY DATA RELATED THERETO OR ANY COMMUNICATION, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ORAL OR WRITTEN COMMUNICATION (INCLUDING ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATIONS) WITH RESPECT THERETO. S&P DOW JONES INDICES SHALL NOT BE SUBJECT TO ANY DAMAGES OR LIABILITY FOR ANY ERRORS, OMISSIONS, OR DELAYS THEREIN. S&P DOW JONES INDICES MAKE NO EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, AND EXPRESSLY DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES, OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE OR USE OR AS TO RESULTS TO BE OBTAINED BY GOLDMAN, OWNERS OF THE NOTES, OR ANY OTHER PERSON OR ENTITY FROM THE USE OF THE S&P 500® INDEX OR WITH RESPECT TO ANY DATA RELATED THERETO. WITHOUT LIMITING ANY OF THE FOREGOING, IN NO EVENT WHATSOEVER SHALL S&P DOW JONES INDICES BE LIABLE FOR ANY INDIRECT, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL, PUNITIVE, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF PROFITS, TRADING LOSSES, LOST TIME OR GOODWILL, EVEN IF THEY HAVE BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, TORT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR OTHERWISE. THERE ARE NO THIRD PARTY BENEFICIARIES OF ANY AGREEMENTS OR ARRANGEMENTS BETWEEN S&P DOW JONES INDICES AND GOLDMAN, OTHER THAN THE LICENSORS OF S&P DOW JONES INDICES.


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Russell 2000® Value Index

The Russell 2000® Value Index is sponsored by FTSE Russell (“Russell”) and is a sub-index of the Russell 2000® Index. The Russell 2000® Value Index is generally considered to be a “small-cap” U.S. equity index and is predominantly comprised of value stocks, meaning stocks issued by companies thought to be undervalued by the market relative to comparable companies.  Additional information about the Russell 2000® Value Index is available on the following website: ftse.com/analytics/factsheets/Home/Search#. We are not incorporating by reference the website or any material it includes in this pricing supplement.

As of November 24, 2020, the top ten constituents of the index (and their respective weightings in the index) were: Caesars Entertainment, Inc. (0.51%), Penn National Gaming Inc. (0.49%), Plug Power, Inc. (0.44%), Sunrun, Inc. (0.42%), Mirati Therapeutics, Inc. (0.40%), Darling Ingredients, Inc. (0.34%), Lithia Motors, Inc. (0.34%), Ultragenyx Pharmaceutical (0.32%), Deckers Outdoor Corp. (0.32%) and Churchill Downs, Inc. (0.31%). As of November 24, 2020, the 1,445 companies included in the Russell 2000® Value Index were divided into eleven Industry Classification Benchmark (ICB) industries. The ICB industries include (with the approximate percentage currently included in such industries indicated in parentheses): Basic Materials (3.94%), Consumer Discretionary (15.77%), Consumer Staples (3.18%), Energy (2.84%), Financials (15.67%), Health Care (19.03%), Industrials (15.76%), Real Estate (6.58%), Technology (11.53%), Telecommunications (1.73%) and Utilities (3.97%). (Sector designations are determined by the index sponsor using criteria it has selected or developed.  Index sponsors may use very different standards for determining sector designations.  In addition, many companies operate in a number of sectors, but are listed in only one sector and the basis on which that sector is selected may also differ.  As a result, sector comparisons between indices with different index sponsors may reflect differences in methodology as well as actual differences in the sector composition of the indices.) As of the close of business on September 18, 2020, FTSE Russell transitioned from the Russell Global Sectors to the ICB.

 

The Russell 2000® Index includes approximately 2,000 of the smallest securities that form the Russell 3000® Index. The Russell 3000® Index is comprised of the 3,000 largest U.S. companies, or 98% based on market capitalization, of the investable U.S. equity market. The Russell 2000® Index is designed to track the performance of the small capitalization segment of the U.S. equity market.

Selection of Constituent Stocks of the  Russell 2000® Value Index

The Russell 2000® Value Index is a sub-index of the Russell 2000® Index, which is a sub-index of the Russell 3000® Index. To be eligible for inclusion in the Russell 3000® Index and the Russell 2000®Index, and, consequently, the Russell 2000® Value Index, a company’s stocks must be listed on the rank day in May of a given year (the timetable is announced each spring) and Russell must have access to documentation verifying the company’s eligibility for inclusion. Eligible initial public offerings (“IPOs”) are added to Russell U.S. Indices quarterly, based on total market capitalization rankings within the market-adjusted capitalization breaks established during the most recent reconstitution. To be added to any Russell U.S. index during a quarter outside of reconstitution, IPOs must meet additional eligibility criteria.

A company is included in the U.S. equity markets and is eligible for inclusion in the Russell 3000® Index and the Russell 2000® Index, and consequently, the Russell 2000® Value Index, if that company incorporates in the U.S., has its headquarters in the U.S. and also trades with the highest liquidity in the U.S.  If a company does not satisfy all of the above criteria, it can still be included in the U.S. equity market if any one of the following home country indicators is in the United States: (i) country of incorporation, (ii) country of headquarters and (iii) country in which the company trades with the highest liquidity (as defined by a two-year average daily dollar trading volume from all exchanges within the country), and the primary location of that company’s assets or its revenue, based on an average of two years of assets or revenues data, is also in the United States. In addition, if there is insufficient information to assign a company to the U.S. equity markets based on its assets or revenue, the company may nonetheless be assigned to the U.S. equity markets if the headquarters of the company is located in the United States or if the headquarters of the company is located in certain “benefit-driven incorporation countries”, or “BDIs”, and that company’s most liquid stock exchange is in the United States. The BDI countries are Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Aruba, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bermuda, Bonaire, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Channel Islands, Cook Islands, Curaçao, Faroe Islands, Gibraltar,

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Guernsey, Isle of Man, Jersey, Liberia, Marshall Islands, Panama, Saba, Sint Eustatius, Sint Maarten and Turks and Caicos Islands. A U.S.-listed company is not eligible for inclusion within the U.S. equity market if it has been classified by Russell as a China N share on the rank date of the index reconstitution. A company will be considered a China N share if the following criteria are satisfied: (i) the company is incorporated outside of the People’s Republic of China, (ii) the company is listed on the NYSE, the NASDAQ or the NYSE American (formerly the NYSE MKT), (iii) over 55% of the revenue or assets of the company are derived from the People’s Republic of China, and (iv) the company is controlled by a mainland Chinese entity, company or individual (if the shareholder background cannot be determined with publicly available information, Russell will consider whether the establishment and origin of the company are in mainland China and whether the company is headquartered in mainland China). An existing China N Share which fails one or more of the following criteria will cease to be classified as a China N share: (i) the company is no longer incorporated outside the People’s Republic of China, (ii) the company is no longer listed on the NYSE, the NASDAQ exchange, or the NYSE American, (iii) the percentages of revenue and assets derived from the People’s Republic of China have both fallen below 45 percent, or (iv) the company is acquired/a controlling stake is held by a non-Mainland Chinese state entity, company or individual. Only asset and revenue data from the most recent annual report is considered when evaluating whether a company should be classified a China N share (i.e., there will be no two year averaging). ADRs and ADSs are not eligible for inclusion in the Russell 3000® Index or the Russell 2000® Index, or consequently, the Russell 2000® Value Index.

In addition, all securities eligible for inclusion in the Russell 3000® Index or the Russell 2000® Index, and consequently, the Russell 2000® Value Index, must trade on an eligible exchange (CBOE (formerly BATS), NYSE, NYSE American (formerly NYSE MKT), NYSE Arca and NASDAQ).

Exclusions from the Russell 2000® Value Index

Russell specifically excludes the following companies and securities from the Russell 3000® Index and the Russell 2000® Index, and consequently, the Russell 2000® Value Index: (i) preferred and convertible preferred stock, redeemable shares, participating preferred stock, warrants, rights, depositary receipts, installment receipts and trust receipts; (ii) royalty trusts, U.S. limited liability companies, closed-end investment companies, companies that are required to report Acquired Fund Fees and  Expenses (as defined by the SEC), including business development companies, blank check companies, special-purpose acquisition companies and limited partnerships; (iii) companies with a total market capitalization less than $30 million; (iv) companies with only a small portion of their shares available in the marketplace (companies with less than an absolute 5% of shares available); (v) bulletin board, pink sheets or over-the-counter traded securities, including securities for which prices are displayed on the FINRA ADF; (vi) real estate investment trusts and publicly traded partnerships that generate, or have historically generated, unrelated business taxable income and have not taken steps to block their unrelated business taxable income to equity holders; and (vii) companies with 5% or less of the company’s voting rights in the hands of unrestricted shareholders (existing constituents that do not currently have more than 5% of the company’s voting rights in the hands of unrestricted shareholders have until the September 2022 review to meet this requirement).

Initial List of Eligible Securities

The primary criterion Russell uses to determine the initial list of securities eligible for the Russell 3000® Index and the Russell 2000®Index and, consequently, the Russell 2000® Value Index, is total market capitalization, which is calculated by multiplying the total outstanding shares for a company by the market price as of the rank day for those securities being considered at annual reconstitution.  IPOs may be added between constitutions as noted below.  All common stock share classes are combined in determining a company’s total shares outstanding. If multiple share classes have been combined, the number of total shares outstanding will be multiplied by the primary exchange close price and used to determine the company’s total market capitalization. In cases where the common stock share classes act independently of each other (e.g., tracking stocks), each class is considered for inclusion separately. Stocks must have a closing price at or above $1.00 on their primary exchange or an eligible secondary exchange on the last trading day of May of each year to be eligible for inclusion in the Russell 3000® Index and the Russell 2000®Index, and consequently, the Russell 2000® Value Index. In order to reduce unnecessary turnover, if an existing member’s closing price is less than $1.00 on the rank day in May, it

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will be considered eligible if the average of the daily closing prices from their primary exchange during the 30 days prior to the rank day is equal to or greater than $1.00. If an existing member does not trade on the rank day, it must price at $1.00 or above on another eligible U.S. exchange to remain eligible.

Multiple Share Classes

If an eligible company trades under multiple share classes or if a company distributes shares of an additional share class to its existing shareholders through a mandatory corporate action, each share class will be reviewed independently for inclusion. Share classes in addition to the primary vehicle (the pricing vehicle) that have a total market capitalization larger than $30 million, an average daily dollar trading value that exceeds that of the global median, and a float greater than 5% of shares available in the market place are eligible for inclusion.  

The pricing vehicle will generally be designated as the share class with the highest two-year trading volume as of the rank day. In the absence of two years’ worth of data, all available data will be used for this calculation.  If the difference between trading volumes for each share class is less than 20%, the share class with the most available shares outstanding will be used as the pricing vehicle.  At least 100 day trading volume is necessary to consider the class as a pricing vehicle for existing members.  New members will be analyzed on all available data, even if that data is for less than 100 days.

Determining Style

Russell uses a “non-linear probability” method to determine whether a stock included in the Russell 2000® Index is included in the Russell 2000® Value Index, the Russell 2000® Growth Index, or both. The term “probability” is used to indicate the degree of certainty that a stock belongs in one of those indexes.

Russell uses three variables to determine whether a stock exhibits growth characteristics, value characteristics, or both. One variable—book-to-price ratio—is used to represent a stock’s value characteristics, while two variables—I/B/E/S forecast medium-term growth (2 year) and sales per share historical growth (5 year)—are used to represent a stock’s growth characteristics. Stocks included in the Russell 2000® Index are given a ranking for each variable and these rankings are converted to standardized units, where the value variable represents 50% of the score and the two growth variables represent the remaining 50%. They are then combined to produce a composite value score (“CVS”). Stocks included in the Russell 2000® Index are then ranked by their CVS, and a probability algorithm is applied to the CVS distribution to assign growth and value weights or “probabilities” to each stock. In general, a stock with a higher CVS is considered a value stock, a stock with a lower CVS is considered a growth stock and a stock with a CVS in the middle range is considered to have both growth and value characteristics.

Description of non-linear probability algorithm

Stock A, in Figure 1, is a security with 20% of its available shares assigned to the Russell 2000® Value Index and the remaining 80% assigned to the Russell 2000® Growth Index. The growth and value probabilities will always sum to 100%. Hence, the sum of a stock’s market capitalization in the Russell 2000® Value Index and the Russell 2000® Growth Index will always equal its market capitalization in the Russell 2000® Index.

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In Figure 1, the quartile breaks are calculated such that approximately 25% of the available market capitalization lies in each quartile. Stocks at the median are divided 50% in the Russell 2000® Value Index and 50% in the Russell 2000® Growth Index. Stocks below the first quartile are 100% in the Russell 2000® Growth Index. Stocks above the third quartile are 100% in the Russell 2000® Value Index. Stocks falling between the first and third quartile breaks are in both the Russell 2000® Value Index and the Russell 2000® Growth Index to varying degrees depending on how far they are above or below the median and how close they are to the first or third quartile breaks, subject to the 5% rule and the banding rule, as described below.

5% rule

If a stock’s initial weight is more than 95% in either the Russell 2000® Value Index or the Russell 2000® Growth Index, Russell increases its weight to 100% in that index and removes the stock altogether from the other index. As a result of the 5% rule, roughly 70% of the available market capitalization of the Russell 2000® Index is classified as all-growth or all-value. The remaining 30% of stocks have some portion of their market capitalization allocated to the Russell 2000® Value Index and the Russell 2000® Growth Index, depending on their relative distance from the median value score.

Banding rule

In an effort to mitigate unnecessary turnover, Russell implements a banding methodology at the CVS level. If (i) a company’s CVS change from the previous year is less than plus or minus 0.10 and (ii) the company remains in the Russell 2000® Index, then the CVS will not be updated during the next reconstitution process. Keeping the CVS static for these companies does not mean the probability (value/growth) will remain unchanged in all cases due to the relation of a CVS score to the overall index. In the past, this banding methodology has reduced turnover caused by smaller, less meaningful movements while continuing to allow the larger, more meaningful changes to occur.

Market capitalization

The market capitalization of the Russell 2000® Value Index may not equal 50% of the Russell 2000® Index because asymmetry in the capitalization distributions within the second and third quartiles may result in a skewed distribution of CVS. When CVS is normally distributed, each of the Russell 2000® Value Index and the Russell 2000® Growth Index will equal 50% of the Russell 2000® Index.

Missing values, negative values, or low coverage

Stocks with missing or negative values for their book-to-price ratio, missing values for I/B/E/S medium-term growth (2 year) (negative I/B/E/S medium-term growth is valid), or missing sales per share historical growth (5 year) (6 years of quarterly numbers are required), are allocated by using the mean value score of (i) the Russell Global Sectors industry, subsector, or sector group (for the June 2020 rebalance) and (ii) the ICB official sector scheme (for new additions/IPOs starting after the June 2020 rebalance and for the June 2021 rebalance and going forward) into which the company falls in the Russell 2000® Index. Each missing (or in the case of book-to-price ratio, negative) variable is substituted with the mean value score of the industry, subsector or sector group independently. An industry must have five members or the

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substitution reverts to the subsector, and so forth to the sector. In addition, a weighted value score is calculated for securities with low analyst coverage for I/B/E/S medium-term growth. For securities with coverage by a single analyst, 2/3 of the industry, subsector, or sector group value score is weighted with 1/3 the security’s independent value score. For those securities with coverage by 2 analysts, 2/3 of the independent security’s value score is used and only 1/3 of the industry, subsector, or sector group is weighted. For those securities with at least three analysts contributing to the I/B/E/S medium-term growth variable, 100% of the independent security’s value score is used.

Annual Reconstitution

The Russell 2000® Index and the Russell 2000® Value Index are reconstituted annually by Russell to reflect changes in the marketplace. The list of companies is ranked based on total market capitalization on the last trading day in May, with the actual reconstitution occurring on the final Friday of June each year, unless the final Friday in June is the 29th or 30th, in which case reconstitution will occur on the preceding Friday. A full calendar for reconstitution is made available each spring.

A company’s total shares are multiplied by the primary exchange close price of the pricing vehicle and used to determine the company’s total market capitalization for the purpose of ranking of companies and determination of index membership. If no volume exists on the primary exchange on the rank day, the last trade price from an eligible secondary exchange will be used where volume exists (using the lowest trade price above $1.00 if multiple secondary markets exist). The company’s rank will be determined based on the cumulative market capitalization. As of the June 2016 reconstitution, any share class not qualifying for eligibility independently will not be aggregated with the pricing vehicle within the available shares calculation.

For mergers and spin-offs that are effective between the rank day and the Friday prior to annual reconstitution in June, the market capitalizations of the impacted securities are recalculated and membership is reevaluated as of the effective date of the corporate action.  For corporate events that occur during the final week of reconstitution (during which reconstitution is finalized Friday after U.S. market close), market capitalizations and memberships will not be reevaluated. Non-index members that have been considered ineligible as of rank day will not be reevaluated in the event of a subsequent corporate action that occurs between rank day and the reconstitution effective date.

Index Calculation and Capitalization Adjustments

As a capitalization-weighted index, the Russell 2000® Value Index reflects changes in the capitalization, or market value, of the index stocks relative to the capitalization on a base date. This discussion describes the “price return” calculation of the Russell 2000® Value Index. The current Russell 2000® Value Index value is the compounded result of the cumulative daily (or monthly) return percentages, where the starting value of the Russell 2000® Value Index is equal to the base value (1,000) and base date (May 31, 1993). Returns between any two dates can then be derived by dividing the ending period index value (IV1) by the beginning period (IV0) index value, so that the return equals [(IV1 / IV0) –1]*100. To calculate the index value, the market values of the index stocks are added together to arrive at the total market capitalization of the index. The market value of an index stock is equal to the product of (i) the price of such stock times (ii) the number of available shares times (iii) the stock’s value weight or “probability”. The last sale prices will be used for exchange traded and NASDAQ stocks. In the event of a market disruption resulting in any index stock price being unavailable, Russell will generally use the last reported price for such index stock to calculate the index.

The weight of a stock included in the Russell 2000 Value Index is equal to its weight in the Russell 2000® Index multiplied by its value weight or “probability.” Constituent stocks of the Russell 2000® Index are weighted in the Russell 2000® Index by their free-float market capitalization, which is calculated by multiplying the primary closing price by the number of free-float shares. Free-float shares are shares that are available to the public for purchase as determined by Russell. Adjustments to shares are reviewed quarterly (including at reconstitution) and for major corporate actions such as mergers. Total shares and adjustments for available shares are based on information recorded in SEC corporate filings.

The following are excluded from free float: shares directly owned by state, regional, municipal and local governments (excluding shares held by independently managed pension schemes for governments); shares held by sovereign wealth funds where each holding is 10% or greater of the total number of

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shares in issue; shares held by directors, senior executives and managers of the company, and by their family and direct relations, and by companies with which they are affiliated; shares held within employee share plans; shares held by public companies or by non-listed subsidiaries of public companies; shares held by founders, promoters, former directors, founding venture capital and private equity firms, private companies and individuals (including employees) where the holding is 10% or greater of the total number of shares in issue; all shares where the holder is subject to a lock-up clause or has a stated incentive to retain the shares (for the duration of that clause or incentive, after which free float changes resulting from the expiry of a lock-up or incentive will be implemented at the next quarterly review subject to the lock-up or incentive expiry date occurring on or prior to the share and float change information cut-off date; shares held by an investor), investment company or an investment fund that is actively participating in the management of a company or is holding shares for publicly announced strategic reasons, or has successfully placed a current member to the board of directors of a company; and shares that are subject to ongoing contractual agreements (such as swaps) where they would ordinarily be treated as restricted. In addition, while portfolio holdings such as pension funds, insurance funds or investment companies will generally not be considered as restricted from free float, where a single portfolio holding is 30% or greater it will be regarded as strategic and therefore restricted (and will remain restricted until the holding falls below 30%).

Corporate Actions Affecting the Russell 2000® Value Index

Russell adjusts the Russell 2000® Value Index on a daily basis in response to certain corporate actions and events. Therefore, a company’s membership in the Russell 2000® Value Index and its weight in the Russell 2000® Value Index can be impacted by these corporate actions. The adjustment is applied based on sources of public information, including press releases and Securities and Exchange Commission filings. Prior to the completion of a corporate action or event, Russell estimates the effective date. Russell will then adjust the anticipated effective date based on public information until the date is considered final. Depending on the time on a given day that an action is determined to be final, Russell will generally either (1) apply the action before the open on the ex-date or (2) apply the action after providing appropriate notice. If Russell has confirmed the completion of a corporate action, scheduled to become effective subsequent to a rebalance, the event may be implemented in conjunction with the rebalance to limit turnover, provided appropriate notice can be given. Russell applies the following methodology guidelines when adjusting the Russell 2000® Value Index in response to corporate actions and events:

“No Replacement” Rule — Securities that are deleted from the Russell 2000® Value Index between reconstitution dates, for any reason (e.g., mergers, acquisitions or other similar corporate activity) are not replaced. Thus, the number of securities in the Russell 2000® Value Index over the past year will fluctuate according to corporate activity.

Mergers and Acquisitions

Adjustments due to mergers and acquisitions are applied to the Russell 2000® Value Index after the action is determined to be final. In the event that a constituent is being acquired for cash or is delisted subsequent to an index review, such constituent will be removed from the Russell 2000® Value Index in conjunction with the index review, assuming that the action is determined to be final and a minimum of two days’ notice can be provided.

Between constituents:  When mergers and acquisitions take place between companies that are both constituents of a Russell index for cash, the target company is deleted from the Russell 2000® Value index at the last traded price. When mergers and acquisitions take place between companies that are both constituents of a Russell index for stock, the target company is deleted from the Russell 2000® Value Index and the shares of the acquiring stock are increased according to the offer terms. When mergers and acquisitions take place between companies that are both constituents of a Russell index for cash or stock or a combination thereof, the target company is deleted from the Russell 2000® Value Index and the shares of the acquiring company are simultaneously increased per the merger terms.

Between a constituent and a non-constituent:  If the target company is a member of the Russell 2000® Value Index, it is deleted from the Russell 2000® Value Index and the acquiring company will be included initially in the Russell 2000® Value Index provided it is eligible in all other respects at the time of the merger, regardless of previous eligibility screenings. If the acquiring company is deemed eligible it will be

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added to the Russell 2000® Value Index on the effective date and the opening price will be calculated using the offer terms. When the target company is a FTSE Russell Universe member, the shares of the member acquiring company will be updated to reflect the merger. Any share update will be made giving appropriate notice.

Given sufficient market hours after the confirmation of a merger or acquisition, Russell effects the action after the close on the last day of trading of the target company, or at an appropriate time once the transaction has been deemed to be final.

Rights Offerings — Rights offered to shareholders are reflected in the Russell 2000® Value Index only if the subscription price of the rights is at a discount to the market price of the stock. Provided that Russell has been alerted to the rights offer prior to the ex-date, it will adjust the price of the stock for the value of the rights and increased shares according to the terms of the offering before the open on the ex-date.

Spin-offs— If the spin-off entity meets the eligibility requirements for the Russell 2000® Index, the spin-off entity will be added to the Russell 2000® Value Index on the ex-date of the distribution. The spin-off entity will be retained in the Russell 2000® Value Index until the next annual reconstitution, when it will be evaluated for inclusion. If the spin-off entity does not meet the eligibility requirements for the Russell 2000® Value Index, the spin-off entity will be added to the Russell 2000® Value Index on the ex-date of the distribution. It will remain in the Russell 2000® Value Index until listing and settlement and then deleted at market price with notice.

Initial Public Offerings — Eligible IPOs are added to the Russell 2000® Index based on total market capitalization ranking within the market-adjusted capitalization breaks established at the most recent annual reconstitution. Any IPO that is added to the Russell 2000® Index will also be added to the Russell 2000® Value Index or the Russell 2000® Growth Index, as applicable, based on its industry’s average style probability established at the latest reconstitution.

An IPO of additional share classes will be considered for eligibility and must meet the same eligibility criteria for all other multiple share classes.  If at the time of the IPO the additional share class does not meet the eligibility criteria for separate index membership, it will not be added to the Russell 2000® Value Index and will subsequently be reviewed for index membership during the next annual reconstitution.

Once IPO additions have been announced, an IPO may be added to the Russell 2000® Value Index prior to the previously announced schedule, if a corporate action has deemed this to be appropriate and notice can be provided (e.g. an index member automatically receives shares via a stock distribution into a projected IPO add).

Tender Offers — A company acquired as a result of a tender offer is removed when (i) (a) offer acceptances reach 90%; (b) shareholders have validly tendered and the shares have been irrevocably accepted for payment; and (c) all pertinent offer conditions have been reasonably met and the acquirer has not explicitly stated that it does not intend to acquire the remaining shares; (ii)  there is reason to believe that the remaining free float is under 5% based on information available at the time; or (iii) following completion of the offer the acquirer has stated intent to finalize the acquisition via a short-form merger, squeeze-out, top-up option or any other compulsory mechanism.

Where the conditions for index deletion are not met, Russell may implement a free float change based on the reported acceptance results at the expiration of the initial, subsequent or final offer period where (i) the minimum acceptance level as stipulated by the acquiror is met; (ii) shareholders have validly tendered and the shares have been irrevocably accepted for payment; (iii) all pertinent offer conditions have been reasonably met and (iv) the change to the current float factor is greater than 3%.  Russell uses the published results of the offer to determine the new free float of the target company. If no information is published in conjunction with the results from which Russell can determine which shareholders have and have not tendered, the free float change will reflect the total shares now owned by the acquiring company. A minimum T+2 notice period of the change is generally provided. Any subsequent disclosure on the updated shareholder structure will be reviewed during the quarterly review cycle. If the offer includes a stock consideration, the acquiring company’s shares will be increased proportionate to the free float change of the target company.  If the target company’s free float change is greater than 3%, the associated change to the acquiring company’s shares will be implemented regardless of size. Additionally, if the change to the target company is less than 3%, then no change will be implemented to

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the target or the acquiring company at the time of the event, regardless of any change to the acquiring company’s shares. The target company will then be deleted as a second-step, if the conditions for deletion are achieved at the expiration of a subsequent offer period.

In the event that a tender offer results in an additional listed and active “tendered” line prior to the tendered shares being accepted and exchanged for settlement, Russell will generally evaluate the following factors to determine whether to switch to the tendered line: (i) the objective of the offer is to fully acquire and delist the target company (and Russell is not aware of any obstacles designed to prevent this objective; e.g. there are no major shareholders who have publicly disclosed that they will not be tendering); (ii) the offer is deemed to be successful (i.e. the minimum acceptance threshold has been achieved); (iii) more than 50% of the shares subject to the offer have been tendered; (iv) there is an additional tender offer period to provide a window for index users to tender into the tendered shares’ line; and (v) there are outstanding regulatory or other substantive hurdles preventing the transaction completing immediately at the conclusion of the tender offer, with the results not expected to be known for some time. Index implementation will generally occur immediately after the opening of the additional offer period (with the provision of appropriate notice) – with an informative notice published announcing the change, to supplement the information within the applicable tracker files. In the event that the tendered line is halted prior to index implementation, its close price will be updated to reflect the deal terms until implementation. In the event that the prerequisites for deletion are not achieved and the target company is retained within the Russell 2000® Value Index at a reduced weight, the tendered line will be removed at deal terms (if no active market) with the ordinary line being re-added at a reduced weight at its last close price. In exceptional circumstances, any review changes due to be effective for the companies involved in a tender offer may be retracted if Russell becomes aware of a tender offer which is due to complete on or around the effective date of such index review changes. Such exceptional circumstances may include undue price pressure being placed on the companies involved, or if proceeding with the review changes would compromise the replicability of the Russell 2000® Value Index.  

Delisted and Suspended Stocks — A stock will be deleted as a constituent if it is delisted from all eligible exchanges, becomes bankrupt, files for bankruptcy protection, is insolvent or is liquidated, or where evidence of a change in circumstances makes it ineligible for index inclusion. If, however, a stock is suspended, Russell will determine its treatment as follows:

 

if a constituent is declared bankrupt without any indication of compensation to shareholders, the last traded price will be adjusted to zero value and the constituent will be removed from the Russell 2000® Value Index with notice (typically T+2);

 

in all other cases, a constituent will continue to be included in the Russell 2000® Index for a period of up to 20 business days at its last traded price;

 

if a constituent continues to be suspended at the end of the 20 business day period, it will be subject to review and a decision will be taken to either allow the constituent to remain in the Russell 2000® Value Index for a further period of up to 20 business days or to remove it at zero value.  In making this determination, Russell will take into account the stated reasons for the suspension. These reasons may include announcements made by the company regarding a pending acquisition or restructuring, and any stated intentions regarding a date for the resumption of trading;

 

if the suspension period reaches 60 business days, the constituent will be removed from the Russell 2000® Index at zero value at the next index review, subject to the 60th business day of suspension occurring on or before the Friday which falls four weeks prior to the index review implementation date. Where the 60th business day of suspension occurs after such date, the constituent will be reviewed for removal at the subsequent index review;

 

in certain limited circumstances where the index weight of the constituent is significant and Russell determines that a market-related value can be established for the suspended constituent, for example because similar company securities continue to trade, deletion may take place at the market-related value instead. In such circumstances, Russell will set out its rationale for the proposed treatment of the constituent at the end of the 60 business day period;

 

if, following the end of the 60 business day period, a suspended constituent resumes trading in advance of the index review lock-down period (i.e., the two week period prior to the index review effective date) in March, June, September or December, the deletion notice will be rescinded and

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the constituent will be retained in the Russell 2000® Index. However, where the constituent resumes trading during the index review lock-down period, the constituent will continue to be removed from the Russell 2000® Index as previously announced but in these circumstances the deletion will instead be implemented at market value unless there are barriers that render a market value irreplicable. In this event, the company will continue to be removed at zero; and

 

if a constituent has been removed from the Russell 2000® Index and trading is subsequently restored, the constituent will only be reconsidered for inclusion after a period of 12 months from its deletion. For the purposes of index eligibility it will be treated as a new issue.

Bankruptcy and Voluntary Liquidations — Companies that file for a Chapter 7 liquidation bankruptcy or have filed a liquidation plan will be removed from the Russell 2000® Value Index at the time of the bankruptcy filing (except when shareholder approval is required to finalize the liquidation plan, in which case the company will be removed once shareholder approval has been granted). Whereas companies filing for a Chapter 11 reorganization bankruptcy will remain a member of the Russell 2000® Value Index, unless the company is delisted from the primary exchange, in which case normal delisting rules apply. If a company files for bankruptcy, is delisted and it can be confirmed that it will not trade on any market, including OTC, Russell may remove the stock at a nominal price of $0.0001.

Stock Distributions and distributions in specie— A price adjustment for stock distributions is applied on the ex-date of the distribution. Where Russell is able to value a distribution in specie prior to the ex-date, a price adjustment is made to the company paying the dividend at the open on the ex-date.  If no valuation of the distribution exists prior to the ex-date, no price adjustment is applied.  Where the company whose holders are receiving the distribution is an index member, its shares will be increased according to the terms of the distribution.  If such company is not an index member, the distributed shares will be added to the Russell 2000® Value Index until they have been settled and have listed, at which point they will be removed at the last traded price giving appropriate notice.

Special Cash Dividends — If a constituent pays out a special cash dividend, the price of the stock is adjusted to deduct the dividend amount before the open on the ex-date. No adjustment for regular cash dividends is made in the price return calculation of the Russell 2000® Value Index.

Updates to Shares Outstanding and Free Float — Russell reviews the Russell 2000® Value Index quarterly for updates to shares outstanding and to free floats used in calculating the Russell 2000® Value Index. The changes are implemented quarterly in March, June, September and December after the close on the third Friday of such month. The June reconstitution will be implemented on the last Friday of June (unless the last Friday occurs on the 29th or 30th of the month, in which case reconstitution will occur on the Friday prior).

In March, September and December shares outstanding and free floats are updated to reflect (i) cumulative share changes greater than 1%, (ii) for constituents with a free float less than or equal to 15%, cumulative free float changes greater than 1%, and (iii) for constituents with a free float greater than 15%, cumulative free float changes greater than 3%. Updates to shares outstanding and free floats will be implemented each June regardless of size (i.e., the percentage change thresholds above will not be applied). FTSE Russell implements the June updates using data sourced primarily from the companies’ publicly available information filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission.

Outside of the quarterly update cycle, outstanding shares and free float will be updated with at least two days’ notice if prompted by primary or secondary offerings if (i) there is a USD $1 billion investable market capitalization change related to a primary/secondary offering measured by multiplying the change to index shares by the subscription price or (ii) there is a resultant 5% change in index shares related to a primary or secondary offering and a USD $250 million investable market capitalization change measured by multiplying the change to index shares by the subscription price. The pricing date will serve as the trigger for implementation; i.e. once Russell is aware that an offering has priced, the update will be implemented with two days’ notice from market close (contingent on the thresholds described above being triggered). If discovery of the pricing date occurs more than two days after the pricing date, the update will be deferred until the next quarterly review.

If a company distributes shares of an additional share class to its existing shareholders through a mandatory corporate action, the additional share class will be evaluated for separate index membership. The new share class will be deemed eligible if the market capitalization of the distributed shares meets

PS-39


 

the minimum size requirement (the market capitalization of the smallest member of the Russell 3000E Index from the previous rebalance as adjusted for performance to date). If the additional share class is not eligible at the time of distribution, it will not be added to the Russell 2000® Value Index.

License Agreement between Frank Russell Company (doing business as Russell Investment Group) and GS Finance Corp.  

Frank Russell Company doing business as FTSE Russell (“Russell”) and Goldman Sachs International have entered into a non-exclusive license agreement, granting GS Finance Corp., in exchange for a fee, permission to use the Russell 2000® Value Index in connection with the offer and sale of the notes. GS Finance Corp. is not affiliated with Russell; the only relationship between Russell and GS Finance Corp. is the licensing of the use of the Russell 2000® Value Index (a trademark of Russell) and trademarks relating to the Russell 2000® Value Index.

GS Finance Corp. does not accept any responsibility for the calculation, maintenance or publication of the Russell 2000® Value Index or any successor index.

The notes are not sponsored, endorsed, sold or promoted by Russell. Russell makes no representation or warranty, express or implied, to the owners of the notes or any member of the public regarding the advisability of investing in securities generally or in the notes particularly or the ability of the Russell 2000® Index to track general stock market performance or a segment of the same. Russell’s publication of the Russell 2000® Value Index in no way suggests or implies an opinion by Russell as to the advisability of investment in any or all of the securities upon which the Russell 2000® Value Index is based. Russell’s only relationship to GS Finance Corp. is the licensing of certain trademarks and trade names of Russell and of the Russell 2000® Value Index which is determined, composed and calculated by Russell without regard to GS Finance Corp. or the notes. Russell is not responsible for and has not reviewed the notes nor any associated literature or publications and Russell makes no representation or warranty express or implied as to their accuracy or completeness, or otherwise. Russell reserves the right, at any time and without notice, to alter, amend, terminate or in any way change the Russell 2000® Index. Russell has no obligation or liability in connection with the administration, marketing or trading of the notes.

RUSSELL DOES NOT GUARANTEE THE ACCURACY AND/OR THE COMPLETENESS OF THE RUSSELL 2000® VALUE INDEX OR ANY DATA INCLUDED THEREIN AND RUSSELL SHALL HAVE NO LIABILITY FOR ANY ERRORS, OMISSIONS, OR INTERRUPTIONS THEREIN. RUSSELL MAKES NO WARRANTY, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, AS TO RESULTS TO BE OBTAINED BY GS FINANCE CORP., INVESTORS, OWNERS OF THE NOTES, OR ANY OTHER PERSON OR ENTITY FROM THE USE OF THE RUSSELL 2000® VALUE INDEX OR ANY DATA INCLUDED THEREIN. RUSSELL MAKES NO EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, AND EXPRESSLY DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE OR USE WITH RESPECT TO THE RUSSELL 2000® VALUE INDEX OR ANY DATA INCLUDED THEREIN. WITHOUT LIMITING ANY OF THE FOREGOING, IN NO EVENT SHALL RUSSELL HAVE ANY LIABILITY FOR ANY SPECIAL, PUNITIVE, INDIRECT, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING LOST PROFITS), EVEN IF NOTIFIED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.

NASDAQ-100 Technology Sector Index

The NASDAQ-100 Technology Sector Index is an equal weighted index that is designed to measure the performance of the technology companies in the NASDAQ-100 Index®. Each issuer of a stock in the NASDAQ-100 Technology Sector Index is classified as a Technology company according to the Industry Classification Benchmark. The NASDAQ-100 Index® is designed to measure the performance of 100 of the largest Nasdaq listed non-financial stocks. For more details about the NASDAQ-100 Technology Sector Index, the underlier sponsor and license agreement between the underlier sponsor and the issuer, see “The Underliers — NASDAQ-100 Technology Sector Index” on page S-77 of the accompanying underlier supplement no. 14. Also, see the accompanying NASDAQ-100 Technology Sector Index supplement no. 2.

The Product(s) is not sponsored, endorsed, sold or promoted by NASDAQ, Inc. or its affiliates (NASDAQ, with its affiliates, are referred to as the “Corporations”). The Corporations have not passed on the legality or suitability of, or the accuracy or adequacy of descriptions and disclosures relating to, the Product(s).

PS-40


 

The Corporations make no representation or warranty, express or implied to the owners of the Product(s) or any member of the public regarding the advisability of investing in securities generally or in the Product(s) particularly, or the ability of the NASDAQ-100 Technology Sector Index to track general stock market performance. The Corporations' only relationship to GS Finance Corp. (“Licensee”) is in the licensing of the Nasdaq®, the NASDAQ-100 Technology Sector Index, NASDAQ-100 Index®, and certain trade names of the Corporations and the use of the NASDAQ-100 Technology Sector Index which is determined, composed and calculated by NASDAQ without regard to Licensee or the Product(s). NASDAQ has no obligation to take the needs of the Licensee or the owners of the Product(s) into consideration in determining, composing or calculating the NASDAQ-100 Technology Sector Index or the NASDAQ-100 Index®. The Corporations are not responsible for and have not participated in the determination of the timing of, prices at, or quantities of the Product(s) to be issued or in the determination or calculation of the equation by which the Product(s) is to be converted into cash. The Corporations have no liability in connection with the administration, marketing or trading of the Product(s).

The Corporations do not guarantee the accuracy and/or uninterrupted calculation of NASDAQ-100 Index® or any data included therein. The Corporations make no warranty, express or implied, as to results to be obtained by Licensee, owners of the product(s), or any other person or entity from the use of the NASDAQ-100 Technology Sector Index or the Nasdaq-100 Index® or any data included therein. The Corporations make no express or implied warranties, and expressly disclaim all warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose or use with respect to the NASDAQ-100 Technology Sector Index or any data included therein. Without limiting any of the foregoing, in no event shall the Corporations have any liability for any lost profits or special, incidental, punitive, indirect, or consequential damages, even if notified of the possibility of such damages.

 

 

PS-41


 

 

 

Historical Closing Levels of the Underliers

 

The closing levels of the underliers have fluctuated in the past and may, in the future, experience significant fluctuations. In particular, the underliers have recently experienced extreme and unusual volatility. Any historical upward or downward trend in the closing level of any underlier during the period shown below is not an indication that such underlier is more or less likely to increase or decrease at any time during the life of your notes.

You should not take the historical closing levels of an underlier as an indication of the future performance of an underlier, including because of the recent volatility described above.  We cannot give you any assurance that the future performance of any underlier or the underlier stocks will result in you receiving any coupon payments or receiving the outstanding face amount of your notes on the stated maturity date.

Neither we nor any of our affiliates make any representation to you as to the performance of the underliers.  Before investing in the offered notes, you should consult publicly available information to determine the relevant underlier levels between the date of this pricing supplement and the date of your purchase of the offered notes and, given the recent volatility described above, you should pay particular attention to recent levels of the underliers. The actual performance of an underlier over the life of the offered notes, as well as the cash settlement amount at maturity may bear little relation to the historical levels shown below.

The graphs below show the daily historical closing levels of each underlier from January 1, 2015 through December 18, 2020. As a result, the following graphs do not reflect the global financial crisis which began in 2008, which had a materially negative impact on the price of most equity securities and, as a result, the level of most equity indices. We obtained the levels in the graphs below from Bloomberg Financial Services, without independent verification.  Although the official closing levels of the Russell 2000® Value Index are published to six decimal places by the underlier sponsor, Bloomberg Financial Services reports the levels of the Russell 2000® Value Index to fewer decimal places.

 

PS-42


 

 

Historical Performance of the S&P 500® Value Index

 

Historical Performance of the Russell 2000® Value Index

 

PS-43

 


 

Historical Performance of the NASDAQ-100 Technology Sector Index


PS-44

 


 

Supplemental Discussion of U.S. Federal Income Tax Consequences

 

 

The following section supplements the discussion of U.S. federal income taxation in the accompanying prospectus.

The following section is the opinion of Sidley Austin llp, counsel to GS Finance Corp. and The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. In addition, it is the opinion of Sidley Austin llp that the characterization of the notes for U.S. federal income tax purposes that will be required under the terms of the notes, as discussed below, is a reasonable interpretation of current law.

This section does not apply to you if you are a member of a class of holders subject to special rules, such as:

a dealer in securities or currencies;

a trader in securities that elects to use a mark-to-market method of accounting for your securities holdings;

a bank;

a life insurance company;

a regulated investment company;

an accrual method taxpayer subject to special tax accounting rules as a result of its use of financial statements;

a tax exempt organization;

a partnership;

a person that owns a note as a hedge or that is hedged against interest rate risks;

a person that owns a note as part of a straddle or conversion transaction for tax purposes; or

a United States holder (as defined below) whose functional currency for tax purposes is not the U.S. dollar.

Although this section is based on the U.S. Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, its legislative history, existing and proposed regulations under the Internal Revenue Code, published rulings and court decisions, all as currently in effect, no statutory, judicial or administrative authority directly discusses how your notes should be treated for U.S. federal income tax purposes, and as a result, the U.S. federal income tax consequences of your investment in your notes are uncertain. Moreover, these laws are subject to change, possibly on a retroactive basis.

You should consult your tax advisor concerning the U.S. federal income tax and other tax consequences of your investment in the notes, including the application of state, local or other tax laws and the possible effects of changes in federal or other tax laws.

 

United States Holders

This section applies to you only if you are a United States holder that holds your notes as a capital asset for tax purposes. You are a United States holder if you are a beneficial owner of a note and you are:

a citizen or resident of the United States;

a domestic corporation;

an estate whose income is subject to U.S. federal income tax regardless of its source; or

a trust if a United States court can exercise primary supervision over the trust’s administration and one or more United States persons are authorized to control all substantial decisions of the trust.

PS-45

 


 

Tax Treatment. You will be obligated pursuant to the terms of the notes — in the absence of a change in law, an administrative determination or a judicial ruling to the contrary — to characterize your notes for all tax purposes as income-bearing pre-paid derivative contracts in respect of the underliers. Except as otherwise stated below, the discussion below assumes that the notes will be so treated.

Coupon payments that you receive should be included in ordinary income at the time you receive the payment or when the payment accrues, in accordance with your regular method of accounting for U.S. federal income tax purposes.

Upon the sale, exchange, redemption or maturity of your notes, you should recognize capital gain or loss equal to the difference between the amount realized on the sale, exchange, redemption or maturity (excluding any amounts attributable to accrued and unpaid coupon payments, which will be taxable as described above) and your tax basis in your notes. Your tax basis in your notes will generally be equal to the amount that you paid for the notes. If you hold your notes for more than one year, the gain or loss generally will be long-term capital gain or loss. If you hold your notes for one year or less, the gain or loss generally will be short-term capital gain or loss. Short-term capital gains are generally subject to tax at the marginal tax rates applicable to ordinary income.

No statutory, judicial or administrative authority directly discusses how your notes should be treated for U.S. federal income tax purposes. As a result, the U.S. federal income tax consequences of your investment in the notes are uncertain and alternative characterizations are possible. Accordingly, we urge you to consult your tax advisor in determining the tax consequences of an investment in your notes in your particular circumstances, including the application of state, local or other tax laws and the possible effects of changes in federal or other tax laws.

Alternative Treatments. There is no judicial or administrative authority discussing how your notes should be treated for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Therefore, the Internal Revenue Service might assert that a treatment other than that described above is more appropriate. For example, the Internal Revenue Service could treat your notes as a single debt instrument subject to special rules governing contingent payment debt instruments. Under those rules, the amount of interest you are required to take into account for each accrual period would be determined by constructing a projected payment schedule for the notes and applying rules similar to those for accruing original issue discount on a hypothetical noncontingent debt instrument with that projected payment schedule. This method is applied by first determining the comparable yield – i.e., the yield at which we would issue a noncontingent fixed rate debt instrument with terms and conditions similar to your notes – and then determining a payment schedule as of the issue date that would produce the comparable yield. These rules may have the effect of requiring you to include interest in income in respect of your notes prior to your receipt of cash attributable to that income.

If the rules governing contingent payment debt instruments apply, any gain you recognize upon the sale, exchange, redemption or maturity of your notes would be treated as ordinary interest income. Any loss you recognize at that time would be treated as ordinary loss to the extent of interest you included as income in the current or previous taxable years in respect of your notes, and, thereafter, as capital loss.

If the rules governing contingent payment debt instruments apply, special rules would apply to persons who purchase a note at other than the adjusted issue price as determined for tax purposes.

It is possible that the Internal Revenue Service could assert that your notes should generally be characterized as described above, except that (1) the gain you recognize upon the sale, exchange, redemption or maturity of your notes should be treated as ordinary income or (2) you should not include the coupon payments in income as you receive them but instead you should reduce your basis in your notes by the amount of coupon payments that you receive. It is also possible that the Internal Revenue Service could seek to characterize your notes in a manner that results in tax consequences to you different from those described above.

It is also possible that the Internal Revenue Service could seek to characterize your notes as notional principal contracts. It is also possible that the coupon payments would not be treated as either ordinary income or interest for U.S. federal income tax purposes, but instead would be treated in some other manner.

PS-46


 

You should consult your tax advisor as to possible alternative characterizations of your notes for U.S. federal income tax purposes.

Possible Change in Law

In 2007, legislation was introduced in Congress that, if enacted, would have required holders that acquired instruments such as your notes after the bill was enacted to accrue interest income over the term of such instruments even though there may be no interest payments over the term of such instruments. It is not possible to predict whether a similar or identical bill will be enacted in the future, or whether any such bill would affect the tax treatment of your notes.

In addition, on December 7, 2007, the Internal Revenue Service released a notice stating that the Internal Revenue Service and the Treasury Department are actively considering issuing guidance regarding the proper U.S. federal income tax treatment of an instrument such as the offered notes including whether the holders should be required to accrue ordinary income on a current basis and whether gain or loss should be ordinary or capital. It is not possible to determine what guidance they will ultimately issue, if any. It is possible, however, that under such guidance, holders of the notes will ultimately be required to accrue income currently and this could be applied on a retroactive basis. The Internal Revenue Service and the Treasury Department are also considering other relevant issues, including whether foreign holders of such instruments should be subject to withholding tax on any deemed income accruals, and whether the special “constructive ownership rules” of Section 1260 of the Internal Revenue Code might be applied to such instruments. Except to the extent otherwise provided by law, GS Finance Corp. intends to continue treating the notes for U.S. federal income tax purposes in accordance with the treatment described above unless and until such time as Congress, the Treasury Department or the Internal Revenue Service determine that some other treatment is more appropriate.

It is impossible to predict what any such legislation or administrative or regulatory guidance might provide, and whether the effective date of any legislation or guidance will affect notes that were issued before the date that such legislation or guidance is issued. You are urged to consult your tax advisor as to the possibility that any legislative or administrative action may adversely affect the tax treatment of your notes.

United States Alien Holders

This section applies to you only if you are a United States alien holder. You are a United States alien holder if you are the beneficial owner of the notes and are, for U.S. federal income tax purposes:

a nonresident alien individual;

a foreign corporation; or

an estate or trust that in either case is not subject to U.S. federal income tax on a net income basis on income or gain from the notes.

Because the U.S. federal income tax treatment (including the applicability of withholding) of the coupon payments on the notes is uncertain, in the absence of further guidance, we intend to withhold on the coupon payments made to you at a 30% rate or at a lower rate specified by an applicable income tax treaty under an “other income” or similar provision. We will not make payments of any additional amounts. To claim a reduced treaty rate for withholding, you generally must provide a valid Internal Revenue Service Form W-8BEN, Internal Revenue Service Form W-8BEN-E, or an acceptable substitute form upon which you certify, under penalty of perjury, your status as a United States alien holder and your entitlement to the lower treaty rate. Payments will be made to you at a reduced treaty rate of withholding only if such reduced treaty rate would apply to any possible characterization of the payments (including, for example, if the coupon payments were characterized as contract fees). Withholding also may not apply to coupon payments made to you if: (i) the coupon payments are “effectively connected” with your conduct of a trade or business in the United States and are includable in your gross income for U.S. federal income tax purposes, (ii) the coupon payments are attributable to a permanent establishment that you maintain in the United States, if required by an applicable tax treaty, and (iii) you comply with the requisite certification requirements (generally, by providing an Internal Revenue Service Form W-8ECI). If you are eligible for a reduced rate of United States withholding tax, you may obtain a refund of any amounts withheld in excess of that rate by filing a refund claim with the Internal Revenue Service.

PS-47


 

“Effectively connected” payments includable in your United States gross income are generally taxed at rates applicable to United States citizens, resident aliens, and domestic corporations; if you are a corporate United States alien holder, “effectively connected” payments may be subject to an additional “branch profits tax” under certain circumstances.

You will also be subject to generally applicable information reporting and backup withholding requirements with respect to payments on your notes and, notwithstanding that we do not intend to treat the notes as debt for tax purposes, we intend to backup withhold on such payments with respect to your notes unless you comply with the requirements necessary to avoid backup withholding on debt instruments (in which case you will not be subject to such backup withholding) as set forth under “United States Taxation – Taxation of Debt Securities – United States Alien Holders” in the accompanying prospectus.

Furthermore, on December 7, 2007, the Internal Revenue Service released Notice 2008-2 soliciting comments from the public on various issues, including whether instruments such as your notes should be subject to withholding. It is therefore possible that rules will be issued in the future, possibly with retroactive effect, that would cause payments on your notes to be subject to withholding, even if you comply with certification requirements as to your foreign status.

As discussed above, alternative characterizations of the notes for U.S. federal income tax purposes are possible. Should an alternative characterization of the notes, by reason of a change or clarification of the law, by regulation or otherwise, cause payments with respect to the notes to become subject to withholding tax, we will withhold tax at the applicable statutory rate and we will not make payments of any additional amounts. Prospective United States alien holders of the notes should consult their tax advisors in this regard.

In addition, the Treasury Department has issued regulations under which amounts paid or deemed paid on certain financial instruments (“871(m) financial instruments”) that are treated as attributable to U.S.-source dividends could be treated, in whole or in part depending on the circumstances, as a “dividend equivalent” payment that is subject to tax at a rate of 30% (or a lower rate under an applicable treaty), which in the case of any coupon payments and any amounts you receive upon the sale, exchange, redemption or maturity of your notes, could be collected via withholding. If these regulations were to apply to the notes, we may be required to withhold such taxes if any U.S.-source dividends are paid on the stocks included in the underliers during the term of the notes. We could also require you to make certifications (e.g., an applicable Internal Revenue Service Form W-8) prior to any coupon payment or the maturity of the notes in order to avoid or minimize withholding obligations, and we could withhold accordingly (subject to your potential right to claim a refund from the Internal Revenue Service) if such certifications were not received or were not satisfactory. If withholding was required, we would not be required to pay any additional amounts with respect to amounts so withheld. These regulations generally will apply to 871(m) financial instruments (or a combination of financial instruments treated as having been entered into in connection with each other) issued (or significantly modified and treated as retired and reissued) on or after January 1, 2023, but will also apply to certain 871(m) financial instruments (or a combination of financial instruments treated as having been entered into in connection with each other) that have a delta (as defined in the applicable Treasury regulations) of one and are issued (or significantly modified and treated as retired and reissued) on or after January 1, 2017. In addition, these regulations will not apply to financial instruments that reference a “qualified index” (as defined in the regulations). We have determined that, as of the issue date of your notes, your notes will not be subject to withholding under these rules. In certain limited circumstances, however, you should be aware that it is possible for United States alien holders to be liable for tax under these rules with respect to a combination of transactions treated as having been entered into in connection with each other even when no withholding is required. You should consult your tax advisor concerning these regulations, subsequent official guidance and regarding any other possible alternative characterizations of your notes for U.S. federal income tax purposes.

 

PS-48


 

 

Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act (FATCA) Withholding

Pursuant to Treasury regulations, Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act (FATCA) withholding (as described in “United States Taxation—Taxation of Debt Securities—Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act (FATCA) Withholding” in the accompanying prospectus) will generally apply to obligations that are issued on or after July 1, 2014; therefore, the notes will generally be subject to the FATCA withholding rules.

 


PS-49


 

Supplemental plan of distribution; conflicts of interest

See “Supplemental Plan of Distribution” on page S-35 of the accompanying general terms supplement no. 8,671 and “Plan of Distribution — Conflicts of Interest” on page 125 of the accompanying prospectus; GS Finance Corp. estimates that its share of the total offering expenses, excluding underwriting discounts and commissions, will be approximately $15,000.

GS Finance Corp. will sell to GS&Co., and GS&Co. will purchase from GS Finance Corp., the aggregate face amount of the offered notes specified on the front cover of this pricing supplement.  GS&Co. proposes initially to offer the notes to the public at the original issue price set forth on the cover page of this pricing supplement, and to certain securities dealers at such price less a concession not in excess of 0.25% of the face amount. GS&Co. is an affiliate of GS Finance Corp. and The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. and, as such, will have a “conflict of interest” in this offering of notes within the meaning of Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (FINRA) Rule 5121. Consequently, this offering of notes will be conducted in compliance with the provisions of FINRA Rule 5121. GS&Co. will not be permitted to sell notes in this offering to an account over which it exercises discretionary authority without the prior specific written approval of the account holder. We have been advised that GS&Co. will also pay a fee in connection with the distribution of the notes to SIMON Markets LLC, a broker-dealer affiliated with GS Finance Corp.

We will deliver the notes against payment therefor in New York, New York on December 23, 2020. Under Rule 15c6-1 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, trades in the secondary market generally are required to settle in two business days, unless the parties to any such trade expressly agree otherwise. Accordingly, purchasers who wish to trade notes on any date prior to two business days before delivery will be required to specify alternative settlement arrangements to prevent a failed settlement.

We have been advised by GS&Co. that it intends to make a market in the notes. However, neither GS&Co. nor any of our other affiliates that makes a market is obligated to do so and any of them may stop doing so at any time without notice. No assurance can be given as to the liquidity or trading market for the notes.

The notes will not be listed on any securities exchange or interdealer quotation system.

 

 


PS-50


 

 

VALIDITY OF THE NOTES AND GUARANTEE

In the opinion of Sidley Austin llp, as counsel to GS Finance Corp. and The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc., when the notes offered by this pricing supplement have been executed and issued by GS Finance Corp., such notes have been authenticated by the trustee pursuant to the indenture, and such notes have been delivered against payment as contemplated herein, (a) such notes will be valid and binding obligations of GS Finance Corp., enforceable in accordance with their terms, subject to applicable bankruptcy, insolvency and similar laws affecting creditors’ rights generally, concepts of reasonableness and equitable principles of general applicability (including, without limitation, concepts of good faith, fair dealing and the lack of bad faith), provided that such counsel expresses no opinion as to the effect of fraudulent conveyance, fraudulent transfer or similar provision of applicable law on the conclusions expressed above and (b) the guarantee with respect to such notes will be a valid and binding obligation of The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc., enforceable in accordance with its terms, subject to applicable bankruptcy, insolvency and similar laws affecting creditors' rights generally, concepts of reasonableness and equitable principles of general applicability (including, without limitation, concepts of good faith, fair dealing and the lack of bad faith), provided that such counsel expresses no opinion as to the effect of fraudulent conveyance, fraudulent transfer or similar provision of applicable law on the conclusions expressed above. This opinion is given as of the date hereof and is limited to the laws of the State of New York and the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware as in effect on the date hereof. In addition, this opinion is subject to customary assumptions about the trustee’s authorization, execution and delivery of the indenture and the genuineness of signatures and certain factual matters, all as stated in the letter of such counsel dated July 1, 2020, which has been filed as Exhibit 5.6 to the registration statement on Form S-3 filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission by GS Finance Corp. and The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. on July 1, 2020.

 

PS-51


 

 

We have not authorized anyone to provide any information or to make any representations other than those contained or incorporated by reference in this pricing supplement, the accompanying general terms supplement no. 8,671, the accompanying NASDAQ-100 Technology Sector Index supplement no. 2, the accompanying underlier supplement no. 14, the accompanying prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus. We take no responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may give you. This pricing supplement, the accompanying general terms supplement no. 8,671, the accompanying NASDAQ-100 Technology Sector Index supplement no. 2, the accompanying underlier supplement no. 14, the accompanying prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus is an offer to sell only the notes offered hereby, but only under circumstances and in jurisdictions where it is lawful to do so. The information contained in this pricing supplement, the accompanying general terms supplement no. 8,671, the accompanying NASDAQ-100 Technology Sector Index supplement no. 2, the accompanying underlier supplement no. 14, the accompanying prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus is current only as of the respective dates of such documents.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Pricing Supplement

 

Page

Terms and Conditions

PS-3

Limited Events of Default

PS-8

Hypothetical Examples

PS-9

Additional Risk Factors Specific to Your Notes

PS-14

The Underliers

PS-20

Supplemental Discussion of U.S. Federal Income Tax Consequences

PS-45

Supplemental Plan of Distribution; Conflicts of Interest

PS-50

Validity of the Notes and Guarantee

PS-51

General Terms Supplement No. 8,671 dated July 1, 2020

Additional Risk Factors Specific to the Notes

S-4

Supplemental Terms of the Notes

S-13

Use of Proceeds

S-33

Hedging

S-33

Employee Retirement Income Security Act

S-34

Supplemental Plan of Distribution

S-35

     Conflicts of Interest

S-37

NASDAQ-100 Technology Sector Index Supplement No. 2. dated November 24, 2020

NASDAQ-100 Technology Sector Index

S-1

Comparative Performance Data

S-2

Selected Risk Factors

S-3

About This Index Supplement

S-4

Underlier Supplement No. 14 dated November 23, 2020

Additional Risk Factors Specific to the Securities

S-2

The Underliers

S-17

Descriptions of the Indices

 

Dow Jones Industrial Average®

S-20

Dow Jones U.S. Select Dividend Index

S-25

EURO STOXX 50® Index

S-36

FTSE® 100 Index

S-44

Hang Seng China Enterprises Index

S-51

MSCI Indices

S-57

NASDAQ-100 Index®

S-69

NASDAQ-100 Technology Sector Index

S-77

Nikkei 225

S-84

Russell 2000® Index

S-89

S&P/ASX 200 Index

S-98

S&P 500® Daily Risk Control 10% USD Excess Return Index

S-107

S&P 500® Index

S-112

S&P MidCap 400® Index

S-120

Swiss Market Index

S-129

TOPIX

S-134

Descriptions of the Exchange-Traded Funds

 

Financial Select Sector SPDR® Fund

S-140

iShares® MSCI EAFE ETF

S-147

iShares® MSCI Emerging Markets ETF

S-151

iShares® Russell 1000 Value ETF

S-157

SPDR® S&P® Biotech ETF

S-170

SPDR® S&P® Oil & Gas Exploration & Production ETF

S-177

Prospectus Supplement dated July 1, 2020

Use of Proceeds

S-2

Description of Notes We May Offer

S-3

Considerations Relating to Indexed Notes

S-11

United States Taxation

S-14

Employee Retirement Income Security Act

S-15

Supplemental Plan of Distribution

S-16

Validity of the Notes and Guarantees

S-18

 

 

Prospectus dated July 1, 2020

Available Information

2

Prospectus Summary

4

Risks Relating to Regulatory Resolution Strategies and Long-Term Debt Requirements

9

Use of Proceeds

14

Description of Debt Securities We May Offer

15

Description of Warrants We May Offer

71

Description of Units We May Offer

87

GS Finance Corp.

92

Legal Ownership and Book-Entry Issuance

94

Considerations Relating to Indexed Securities

103

Considerations Relating to Securities Denominated or Payable in or Linked to a Non-U.S. Dollar Currency

104

United States Taxation

107

Plan of Distribution

122

     Conflicts of Interest

125

Employee Retirement Income Security Act

126

Validity of the Securities and Guarantees

127

Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

127

Cautionary Statement Pursuant to the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995

128

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

$569,000



GS Finance Corp.





Callable Contingent Coupon Index-Linked Notes due 2023

 

guaranteed by

The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc.







____________


____________


Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC

 

 

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