Form 497 GOLDMAN SACHS TRUST

December 14, 2020 5:28 PM

PART B

STATEMENT OF ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

DATED DECEMBER 27, 2019, AS SUPPLEMENTED DECEMBER 14, 2020

 

FUND

   CLASS A SHARES    INSTITUTIONAL SHARES    CLASS R6 SHARES    CLASS P SHARES

GOLDMAN SACHS TAX-ADVANTAGED GLOBAL EQUITY PORTFOLIO

   TAGGX    TIGGX    TRGGX    GSKPX

GOLDMAN SACHS ENHANCED DIVIDEND GLOBAL EQUITY PORTFOLIO

   GADGX    GIDGX    GRGDX    GAFPX

(Global Tax-Aware Equity Portfolios of Goldman Sachs Trust)

Goldman Sachs Trust

71 South Wacker Drive

Chicago, Illinois 60606

This Statement of Additional Information (the “SAI”) is not a prospectus. This SAI should be read in conjunction with the prospectuses for the Goldman Sachs Tax-Advantaged Global Equity Portfolio and Goldman Sachs Enhanced Dividend Global Equity Portfolio dated December 27, 2019, as they may be further amended and/or supplemented from time to time (the “Prospectuses”). The Prospectuses may be obtained without charge from Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC by calling the telephone numbers, or writing to one of the addresses, listed below or from institutions acting on behalf of their customers.

The audited financial statements and related report of PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, for each Portfolio contained in the Portfolios’ 2019 Annual Report are incorporated herein by reference in the section “FINANCIAL STATEMENTS.” No other portions of the Portfolios’ Annual Report are incorporated by reference herein. The Portfolios’ Annual Report may be obtained upon request and without charge by calling Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC toll-free at 800-526-7384 (for Class A Shareholders) or 800-621-2550 (for Institutional, Class R6 and Class P Shareholders).

GSAM® is a registered service mark of Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

     Page  

INTRODUCTION

     B-3  

INVESTMENT OBJECTIVES AND POLICIES

     B-3  

DESCRIPTION OF INVESTMENT SECURITIES AND PRACTICES

     B-19  

INVESTMENT RESTRICTIONS

     B-77  

TRUSTEES AND OFFICERS

     B-78  

MANAGEMENT SERVICES

     B-89  

POTENTIAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST

     B-95  

PORTFOLIO TRANSACTIONS AND BROKERAGE

     B-107  

NET ASSET VALUE

     B-109  

SHARES OF THE TRUST

     B-111  

TAXATION

     B-114  

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

     B-119  

PROXY VOTING

     B-119  

PAYMENTS TO OTHERS (INCLUDING INTERMEDIARIES)

     B-120  

OTHER INFORMATION

     B-126  

DISTRIBUTION AND SERVICE PLAN

     B-128  

OTHER INFORMATION REGARDING MAXIMUM SALES CHARGE, PURCHASES, REDEMPTIONS, EXCHANGES AND DIVIDENDS

     B-130  

CONTROL PERSONS AND PRINCIPAL HOLDERS OF SECURITIES

     B-132  

APPENDIX A DESCRIPTION OF SECURITIES RATINGS

     1-A  

APPENDIX B GSAM PROXY VOTING GUIDELINES SUMMARY

     1-B  

APPENDIX C STATEMENT OF INTENTION

     1-C  


GOLDMAN SACHS ASSET MANAGEMENT, L.P.

Investment Adviser

200 West Street

New York, New York 10282

GOLDMAN SACHS & CO. LLC

Distributor

200 West Street

New York, New York 10282

GOLDMAN SACHS & CO. LLC

Transfer Agent

71 South Wacker Drive

Chicago, Illinois 60606

Toll-free (in U.S.)

800-526-7384 (for Class A Shareholders)

800-621-2550 (for Institutional, Class R6 and Class P Shareholders)

 

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INTRODUCTION

Goldman Sachs Trust (the “Trust”) is an open-end management investment company. The Trust is organized as a Delaware statutory trust and was established by a Declaration of Trust dated January 28, 1997. The Trust is a successor to a Massachusetts business trust that was combined with the Trust on April 30, 1997. The following series of the Trust are described in this SAI: Goldman Sachs Tax-Advantaged Global Equity Portfolio (“TAG”) and Goldman Sachs Enhanced Dividend Global Equity Portfolio (“EDGE”) (each also a “Portfolio,” and collectively referred to herein as the “Portfolios”).

The Trustees of the Trust have authority under the Declaration of Trust to create and classify shares into separate series and to classify and reclassify any series or portfolio of shares into one or more classes without further action by shareholders. Pursuant thereto, the Trustees have created the Portfolios and other series. Additional series and classes may be added in the future from time to time. Each Portfolio currently offers four classes of shares: Class A Shares, Institutional Shares, Class R6 Shares and Class P Shares. See “SHARES OF THE TRUST.”

Each Portfolio is a separately managed, diversified open-end management investment company under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “Act”), with its own investment objective and policies. Each Portfolio has been constructed as a “fund of funds,” which means that it pursues its investment objective primarily by allocating its investments among other investment portfolios of the Trust. Each Portfolio also retains the right to directly invest up to 20% of its net assets plus any borrowings for investment purposes (measured at the time of purchase) (“Net Assets”) in other securities and other instruments, including derivative instruments (such as swaps and futures contracts) and unaffiliated exchange-traded funds (“ETFs”).

Goldman Sachs Asset Management, L.P. (“GSAM” or the “Investment Adviser”), an affiliate of Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC (“Goldman Sachs”), serves as the Investment Adviser to the Portfolios. In addition, Goldman Sachs serves as each Portfolio’s distributor (the “Distributor”) and transfer agent (the “Transfer Agent”). The Portfolios’ custodian is JPMorgan Chase Bank, N.A. (“JPMorgan Chase”).

The following information relates to and supplements the description of each Portfolio’s investment objective and policies contained in the Prospectuses. See the Prospectuses for a more complete description of each Portfolio’s investment objective and policies. Investing in the Portfolios entails certain risks, and there is no assurance that a Portfolio will achieve its objective. Capitalized terms used but not defined herein have the same meaning as in the Prospectuses.

INVESTMENT OBJECTIVES AND POLICIES

Each Portfolio has a distinct investment objective and policies. There can be no assurance that a Portfolio’s objective will be achieved. The investment objective and policies of each Portfolio, and the associated risks of each Portfolio are discussed in the Portfolio’s Prospectuses, which should be read carefully before an investment is made. All investment objectives and investment policies not specifically designated as fundamental may be changed without shareholder approval. However, shareholders will be provided with sixty days’ notice in the manner prescribed by the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) before any change in a Portfolio’s policy to invest at least 80% of its Net Assets in the particular type of investment suggested by its name. Additional information about the Portfolios, their policies, and the investment instruments they may hold, is provided below.

Each of the Portfolios seeks to achieve its objective by investing in a combination of underlying funds that currently exist or that may become available for investment in the future for which GSAM or an affiliate now or in the future acts as investment adviser (the “Underlying Funds”). These Underlying Funds currently include: Goldman Sachs Large Cap Value Insights Fund, Goldman Sachs Large Cap Growth Insights Fund, Goldman Sachs Small Cap Growth Insights Fund, Goldman Sachs Small Cap Value Insights Fund, Goldman Sachs Small Cap Equity Insights Fund, Goldman Sachs International Tax-Managed Equity Fund, Goldman Sachs U.S. Tax-Managed Equity Fund, Goldman Sachs U.S. Equity Insights Fund, Goldman Sachs Emerging Markets Equity Insights Fund, Goldman Sachs International Small Cap Insights Fund, Goldman Sachs International Equity Insights Fund, Goldman Sachs U.S. Equity Dividend and Premium Fund, Goldman Sachs International Equity Dividend and Premium Fund, Goldman Sachs MLP Energy Infrastructure Fund, Goldman Sachs Global Real Estate Securities Fund, Goldman Sachs Global Infrastructure Fund and Goldman Sachs MLP & Energy Fund (the “Underlying Equity Funds”); and Goldman Sachs Core Fixed Income Fund, Goldman Sachs High Yield Fund, Goldman Sachs High Yield Floating Rate Fund, Goldman Sachs Local Emerging Markets Debt Fund (the “Underlying Fixed Income Funds”) and Goldman Sachs Tactical Tilt Overlay Fund (the “Underlying Tactical Fund”). The Investment Adviser also implements a tactical view by investing a portion of each Portfolio’s assets in the Underlying Tactical Fund. The value of the Underlying Funds’ investments and the net asset value of the shares of both the Underlying Funds and the Portfolios will fluctuate with market, economic and, to the extent applicable, foreign exchange conditions, so that an investment in a Portfolio may be worth more or less when redeemed than when purchased.

 

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The Portfolios may also invest directly in other securities and other instruments, including derivative instruments (such as swaps and futures contracts) and unaffiliated ETFs. In addition, to better express the Investment Adviser’s negative views, the Portfolios may use derivatives, including futures and swaps, to implement short positions. The Portfolios may also take short positions in equity securities (including ETFs) directly. One way a Portfolio may take a short position is by selling a security short. See “Short Sales” below. A Portfolio’s short positions may range between 0% and 20% of the value of the Portfolio’s Net Assets.

The Investment Adviser is subject to registration and regulation as a “commodity pool operator” under the Commodity Exchange Act with respect to its service as investment adviser to the Portfolios.

Asset Allocation Process:

The asset allocation process for the Portfolios begins with setting strategic target weights to each of the Underlying Funds selected by the Investment Adviser. The strategic weights are set with the goal of achieving an attractive ratio of expected return to expected risk. The analysis behind these weights is based upon assumptions regarding long-term expected returns, expected volatilities and expected correlations, as well as the views of the Investment Strategy Group of Goldman Sachs.

The Investment Adviser may seek to temporarily change the allocations in a Portfolio in an attempt to improve short-term return. The Investment Adviser may implement such temporary tactical views by selling and buying among the various Underlying Funds or by purchasing securities or other instruments, including ETFs. When the Investment Adviser implements a tactical view in a Portfolio the strategic allocations will change. Although these tactical views generally are developed by the Investment Strategy Group, the Investment Adviser will have complete discretion as to whether any such view will be implemented within the Portfolio and will evaluate each view and determine whether it should be implemented by the Portfolio.

From time to time, the Investment Adviser will monitor, and may make changes to, the selection or weight of Underlying Funds, individual or groups of securities, currencies or markets in the Portfolios. Such changes (which may be the result of changes in the asset allocation techniques, the manner of applying the asset allocation techniques or the judgment of the Investment Adviser) may include: (i) evolutionary changes to the structure of the asset allocation techniques (e.g., changing the calculation of the algorithm, increasing or decreasing investment in certain Underlying Funds); (ii) changes in trading procedures (e.g., trading frequency or the manner in which a Portfolio uses futures); or (iii) changes to the weight of Underlying Funds, individual or groups of securities, currencies or markets based on the Investment Adviser’s judgment. Any such changes will preserve a Portfolio’s basic investment philosophy of selecting investments using a disciplined investment process. Similarly, with respect to those Underlying Funds that are managed pursuant to a quantitative methodology, those Underlying Funds’ investment advisers will monitor and may make changes to the selection or weight of individual or groups of securities, currencies, or markets in those Underlying Funds, including changes resulting from changes in the quantitative methodology, the manner of applying the quantitative methodology, changes in trading procedure, or the judgment of the Investment Adviser.

Descriptions of Underlying Funds

The following descriptions provide additional information regarding the Underlying Funds and the types of investments that the Underlying Funds may make, and supplement the information in the Portfolios’ Prospectus.

Small Cap Growth Insights Fund

Objective. The Small Cap Growth Insights Fund seeks long-term growth of capital.

Primary Investment Focus. The Small Cap Growth Insights Fund invests, under normal circumstances, at least 80% of its Net Assets in a broadly diversified portfolio of equity investments in small-cap U.S. issuers, including foreign issuers that are traded in the United States. For the purposes of this restriction, “small-cap U.S. issuers” have public stock market capitalizations of companies constituting the Russell 2000® Index, which as of February 1, 2019 was between $5.47 million and $6.7 billion. However, the Underlying Fund may invest in securities outside the Russell 2000® Index capitalization range.

The Underlying Fund uses a quantitative style of management, in combination with a qualitative overlay, that emphasizes fundamentally-based stock selection, careful portfolio construction and efficient implementation. The Underlying Fund’s investments are selected using fundamental research and a variety of quantitative techniques based on certain investment themes, including, among others, Fundamental Mispricings, High Quality Business Models, Sentiment Analysis and Market Themes & Trends. Fundamental Mispricings seeks to identify high-quality businesses trading at a fair price, which the Underlying Fund’s investment adviser believes leads to strong performance over the long-run. High Quality Business Models seeks to identify companies that are generating high-quality revenues with sustainable business models and aligned management incentives. Sentiment Analysis seeks to identify stocks experiencing improvements in their overall market sentiment. Market Themes and Trends seeks to identify companies positively positioned to benefit from themes and trends in the market and macroeconomic environment. The Underlying Fund may make investment decisions that deviate from those generated by the Investment Adviser’s proprietary models, at the discretion of the Investment Adviser. In addition, the Underlying Fund’s investment adviser may, in its discretion, make changes to its quantitative techniques, or use other quantitative techniques that are based on the Underlying Fund’s investment adviser’s proprietary research.

 

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The Underlying Fund maintains risk, style, and capitalization characteristics similar to the Russell 2000® Growth Index, which is an index designed to represent an investable universe of small-cap companies with above average price to book ratios and earnings growth expectations. The Underlying Fund seeks to maximize expected return while maintaining these and other characteristics similar to the benchmark.

Other. The Small Cap Growth Insights Fund may also invest in fixed income securities that are considered to be cash equivalents.

The Underlying Fund’s benchmark index is the Russell 2000® Growth Index.

Small Cap Value Insights Fund

Objective. The Small Cap Value Insights Fund seeks long-term growth of capital.

Primary Investment Focus. The Small Cap Value Insights Fund invests, under normal circumstances, at least 80% of its Net Assets in a broadly diversified portfolio of equity investments in small-cap U.S. issuers, including foreign issuers that are traded in the United States. For the purposes of this restriction, “small-cap U.S. issuers” have public stock market capitalizations of companies constituting the Russell 2000® Index, which as of February 1, 2019 was between $5.47 million and $6.7 billion. However, the Underlying Fund may invest in securities outside the Russell 2000® Index capitalization range.

The Underlying Fund uses a quantitative style of management, in combination with a qualitative overlay, that emphasizes fundamentally-based stock selection, careful portfolio construction and efficient implementation. The Underlying Fund’s investments are selected using fundamental research and a variety of quantitative techniques based on certain investment themes, including, among others, Fundamental Mispricings, High Quality Business Models, Sentiment Analysis and Market Themes & Trends. Fundamental Mispricings seeks to identify high-quality businesses trading at a fair price, which the Underlying Fund’s investment adviser believes leads to strong performance over the long-run. High Quality Business Models seeks to identify companies that are generating high-quality revenues with sustainable business models and aligned management incentives. Sentiment Analysis seeks to identify stocks experiencing improvements in their overall market sentiment. Market Themes and Trends seeks to identify companies positively positioned to benefit from themes and trends in the market and macroeconomic environment. The Underlying Fund may make investment decisions that deviate from those generated by the Investment Adviser’s proprietary models, at the discretion of the Investment Adviser. In addition, the Underlying Fund’s investment adviser may, in its discretion, make changes to its quantitative techniques, or use other quantitative techniques that are based on the Underlying Fund’s investment adviser’s proprietary research.

The Underlying Fund maintains risk, style, and capitalization characteristics similar to the Russell 2000® Value Index, which is designed to represent an investable universe of small-cap companies with above average price to book ratios and earnings growth expectations. The Underlying Fund seeks to maximize expected return while maintaining these and other characteristics similar to the benchmark.

Other. The Small Cap Value Insights Fund may also invest in fixed income securities that are considered to be cash equivalents.

The Underlying Fund’s benchmark index is the Russell 2000® Value Index.

U.S. Equity Insights Fund

Objective. The U.S. Equity Insights Fund seeks long-term growth of capital and dividend income.

Primary Investment Focus. The U.S. Equity Insights Fund invests, under normal circumstances, at least 80% of its Net Assets in a diversified portfolio of equity investments in U.S. issuers, including foreign companies that are traded in the United States.

The Underlying Fund uses a quantitative style of management, in combination with a qualitative overlay, that emphasizes fundamentally-based stock selection, careful portfolio construction and efficient implementation. The Underlying Fund’s investments are selected using fundamental research and a variety of quantitative techniques based on certain investment themes, including, among others, Fundamental Mispricings, High Quality Business Models, Sentiment Analysis and Market Themes & Trends. Fundamental Mispricings seeks to identify high-quality businesses trading at a fair price, which the Underlying Fund’s investment adviser believes leads to strong performance over the long-run. High Quality Business Models seeks to identify companies that are generating high-quality revenues with sustainable business models and aligned management incentives. Sentiment Analysis seeks to identify stocks experiencing improvements in their overall market sentiment. Market Themes and Trends seeks to identify companies positively positioned to benefit from themes and trends in the market and macroeconomic environment. The Underlying Fund may make investment decisions that deviate from those generated by the Investment Adviser’s proprietary models, at the discretion of the Investment Adviser. In addition, the Underlying Fund’s investment adviser may, in its discretion, make changes to its quantitative techniques, or use other quantitative techniques that are based on the Underlying Fund’s investment adviser’s proprietary research.

 

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The Underlying Fund maintains risk, style, and capitalization characteristics similar to the S&P 500® Index, which is an index of large-cap stocks designed to reflect a broad representation of the U.S. economy. As of February 1, 2019, the market capitalization range for the S&P 500® Index was between $2.58 billion and $840.41 billion. The Underlying Fund seeks to maximize expected return while maintaining these and other characteristics similar to the benchmark. However, the Underlying Fund may invest in securities outside the S&P 500® Index capitalization range.

Other. The U.S. Equity Insights Fund may also invest in fixed income securities that are limited to securities that are limited to securities that are considered to be cash equivalents.

The Underlying Fund’s benchmark index is the S&P 500® Index.

International Equity Insights Fund

Objective. The International Equity Insights Fund seeks long-term growth of capital.

Primary Investment Focus. The International Equity Insights Fund invests, under normal circumstances, at least 80% of its Net Assets in a diversified portfolio of equity investments in emerging country issuers. Currently, emerging countries include, among others, Central and South American, African, Asian and Eastern European countries. Under normal circumstances, the Underlying Fund will not invest more than 35% of its Net Assets in securities of issuers in any one emerging country.

The portfolio management team uses two distinct strategies—a bottom-up stock selection strategy and a top-down country/currency selection strategy—to manage the Underlying Fund.

The Underlying Fund uses a quantitative style of management, in combination with a qualitative overlay, that emphasizes fundamentally-based stock and country/currency selection, careful portfolio construction and efficient implementation. The Underlying Fund’s investments are selected using fundamental research and a variety of quantitative techniques based on certain investment themes, including, among others, Fundamental Mispricings, High Quality Business Models, Sentiment Analysis and Market Themes & Trends. Fundamental Mispricings seeks to identify high-quality businesses trading at a fair price, which the Underlying Fund’s investment adviser believes leads to strong performance over the long-run. High Quality Business Models seeks to identify companies that are generating high-quality revenues with sustainable business models and aligned management incentives. Sentiment Analysis seeks to identify stocks experiencing improvements in their overall market sentiment. Market Themes and Trends seeks to identify companies positively positioned to benefit from themes and trends in the market and macroeconomic environment. The Underlying Fund may make investment decisions that deviate from those generated by the Investment Adviser’s proprietary models, at the discretion of the Investment Adviser. In addition, the Underlying Fund’s investment adviser may, in its discretion, make changes to its quantitative techniques, or use other quantitative techniques that are based on the Underlying Fund’s investment adviser’s proprietary research.

The Underlying Fund seeks to maximize its expected return, while maintaining risk, style and capitalization characteristics similar to the Morgan Stanley Capital International (“MSCI”) Emerging Markets Standard Index (Net, USD, Unhedged), adjusted for the Underlying Fund’s Investment Adviser’s country views. Additionally, the portfolio management team’s views of the relative attractiveness of emerging countries and currencies are considered in allocating the Underlying Fund’s assets among emerging countries. The MSCI Emerging Markets Standard Index (Net, USD, Unhedged) is designed to measure equity market performance of the large and mid market capitalization segments of emerging markets.

Other. The International Equity Insights Fund may also invest in fixed income securities that are considered to be cash equivalents.

The Underlying Fund’s benchmark index is the MSCI Emerging Markets Standard Index (Net, USD, Unhedged).

Large Cap Value Insights Fund

Objective. The Large Cap Value Insights Fund seeks long-term growth of capital and dividend income.

Primary Investment Focus. The Large Cap Value Insights Fund invests, under normal circumstances, at least 80% of its Net Assets in a diversified portfolio of equity investments in large cap U.S. issuers, including foreign issuers that are traded in the United States. These issuers have public stock market capitalizations similar to those of companies constituting the Russell 1000® Index at the time of investment, which as of February 1, 2019 was between $223.17 million and $790.34 billion. However, the Underlying Fund may invest in securities outside the Russell 1000® Index capitalization range.

 

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The Underlying Fund uses a quantitative style of management, in combination with a qualitative overlay, that emphasizes fundamentally-based stock selection, careful portfolio construction and efficient implementation. The Underlying Fund’s investments are selected using fundamental research and a variety of quantitative techniques based on certain investment themes, including, among others, Fundamental Mispricings, High Quality Business Models, Sentiment Analysis and Market Themes & Trends. Fundamental Mispricings seeks to identify high-quality businesses trading at a fair price, which the Underlying Fund’s investment adviser believes leads to strong performance over the long-run. High Quality Business Models seeks to identify companies that are generating high-quality revenues with sustainable business models and aligned management incentives. Sentiment Analysis seeks to identify stocks experiencing improvements in their overall market sentiment. Market Themes and Trends seeks to identify companies positively positioned to benefit from themes and trends in the market and macroeconomic environment. The Underlying Fund may make investment decisions that deviate from those generated by the Investment Adviser’s proprietary models, at the discretion of the Investment Adviser. In addition, the Underlying Fund’s investment adviser may, in its discretion, make changes to its quantitative techniques, or use other quantitative techniques that are based on the Underlying Fund’s investment adviser’s proprietary research.

The Underlying Fund maintains risk, style, and capitalization characteristics similar to the Russell 1000® Value Index, which generally consists of companies with above average capitalizations, low earnings growth expectations and above average dividend yields. The Underlying Fund seeks to maximize expected return while maintaining these and other characteristics similar to the benchmark.

Other. The Large Cap Value Insights Fund may also invest in fixed income securities that are considered to be cash equivalents.

The Underlying Fund’s benchmark index is the Russell 1000® Value Index.

Large Cap Growth Insights Fund

Objective. The Large Cap Growth Insights Fund seeks long-term growth of capital, with dividend income as a secondary consideration.

Primary Investment Focus. The Large Cap Growth Insights Fund invests, under normal circumstances, at least 80% of its Net Assets in a broadly diversified portfolio of equity investments in large-cap U.S. issuers, including foreign issuers that are traded in the United States. These issuers have public stock market capitalizations similar to those of companies constituting the Russell 1000® Index, which as of February 1, 2019 was between $223.17 million and $790.34 billion. However, the Underlying Fund may invest in securities outside the Russell 1000® Index capitalization range.

The Underlying Fund uses a quantitative style of management, in combination with a qualitative overlay, that emphasizes fundamentally-based stock selection, careful portfolio construction and efficient implementation. The Underlying Fund’s investments are selected using fundamental research and a variety of quantitative techniques based on certain investment themes, including, among others, Fundamental Mispricings, High Quality Business Models, Sentiment Analysis and Market Themes & Trends. Fundamental Mispricings seeks to identify high-quality businesses trading at a fair price, which the Underlying Fund’s investment adviser believes leads to strong performance over the long-run. High Quality Business Models seeks to identify companies that are generating high-quality revenues with sustainable business models and aligned management incentives. Sentiment Analysis seeks to identify stocks experiencing improvements in their overall market sentiment. Market Themes and Trends seeks to identify companies positively positioned to benefit from themes and trends in the market and macroeconomic environment. The Underlying Fund may make investment decisions that deviate from those generated by the Investment Adviser’s proprietary models, at the discretion of the Investment Adviser. In addition, the Underlying Fund’s investment adviser may, in its discretion, make changes to its quantitative techniques, or use other quantitative techniques that are based on the Underlying Fund’s investment adviser’s proprietary research.

The Underlying Fund maintains risk, style, and capitalization characteristics similar to the Russell 1000® Growth Index, which generally consists of companies with above average capitalization and earnings growth expectations and below average dividend yields. The Underlying Fund seeks to maximize expected return while maintaining these and other characteristics similar to the benchmark.

Other. The Large Cap Growth Insights Fund may also invest in fixed income securities that are considered to be cash equivalents.

The Underlying Fund’s benchmark index is the Russell 1000® Growth Index.

Small Cap Equity Insights Fund

Objective. The Small Cap Equity Insights Fund seeks long-term growth of capital.

Primary Investment Focus. The Small Cap Equity Insights Fund invests, under normal circumstances, at least 80% of its Net Assets in a broadly diversified portfolio of equity investments in small-cap U.S. issuers, including foreign issuers that are traded in the United States. These issuers will have public stock market capitalizations similar to that of the range of the market capitalizations of companies constituting the Russell 2000® Index at the time of investment, which as of February 1, 2019 was between $5.47 million and $6.7 billion. However, the Underlying Fund may invest in securities outside the Russell 2000® Index capitalization range.

 

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The Underlying Fund uses a quantitative style of management, in combination with a qualitative overlay, that emphasizes fundamentally-based stock selection, careful portfolio construction and efficient implementation. The Underlying Fund’s investments are selected using fundamental research and a variety of quantitative techniques based on certain investment themes, including, among others, Fundamental Mispricings, High Quality Business Models, Sentiment Analysis and Market Themes & Trends. Fundamental Mispricings seeks to identify high-quality businesses trading at a fair price, which the Underlying Fund’s investment adviser believes leads to strong performance over the long-run. High Quality Business Models seeks to identify companies that are generating high-quality revenues with sustainable business models and aligned management incentives. Sentiment Analysis seeks to identify stocks experiencing improvements in their overall market sentiment. Market Themes and Trends seeks to identify companies positively positioned to benefit from themes and trends in the market and macroeconomic environment. The Underlying Fund may make investment decisions that deviate from those generated by the Investment Adviser’s proprietary models, at the discretion of the Investment Adviser. In addition, the Underlying Fund’s investment adviser may, in its discretion, make changes to its quantitative techniques, or use other quantitative techniques that are based on the Underlying Fund’s investment adviser’s proprietary research.

The Underlying Fund maintains risk, style, and capitalization characteristics similar to the Russell 2000® Index, which is an index designed to represent an investable universe of small-cap companies. The Underlying Fund seeks to maximize expected return while maintaining these and other characteristics similar to the benchmark.

Other. The Small Cap Equity Insights Fund may also invest in fixed income securities that are considered to be cash equivalents.

The Underlying Fund’s benchmark index is the Russell 2000® Index.

International Tax-Managed Equity Fund

Objective. The International Tax-Managed Equity Fund seeks to provide long-term after-tax growth of capital through tax-sensitive participation in a broadly diversified portfolio of international equity securities.

Primary Investment Focus. The International Tax-Managed Equity Fund invests, under normal circumstances, at least 80% of its Net Assets in equity investments in non-U.S. issuers.

The Underlying Fund uses a variety of quantitative techniques, in combination with a qualitative overlay, when selecting investments that have the potential to maximize the Underlying Fund’s after-tax return and minimize capital gains and income distributions. These quantitative techniques, which are derived from fundamental research and based on certain investment themes, including, among others, Fundamental Mispricings, High Quality Business Models, Sentiment Analysis and Market Themes & Trends. Fundamental Mispricings seeks to identify high-quality businesses trading at a fair price, which the Underlying Fund’s investment adviser believes leads to strong performance over the long-run. High Quality Business Models seeks to identify companies that are generating high-quality revenues with sustainable business models and aligned management incentives. Sentiment Analysis seeks to identify stocks experiencing improvements in their overall market sentiment. Market Themes and Trends seeks to identify companies positively positioned to benefit from themes and trends in the market and macroeconomic environment. The Underlying Fund may make investment decisions that deviate from those generated by the Investment Adviser’s proprietary models, at the discretion of the Investment Adviser. In addition, the Underlying Fund’s investment adviser may, in its discretion, make changes to its quantitative techniques, or use other quantitative techniques that are based on the Underlying Fund’s investment adviser’s proprietary research.

The Underlying Fund expects to maintain risk, style, capitalization and industry characteristics similar to the MSCI EAFE Index (Net, USD, Unhedged). The Underlying Fund may allocate its assets among countries as determined by the Investment Adviser from time to time, provided the Underlying Fund’s assets are invested in at least three foreign countries.

In managing the Underlying Fund, the Investment Adviser balances investment considerations and tax considerations. The Underlying Fund seeks to achieve returns primarily in the form of price appreciation (which is not subject to current tax), and may use different strategies in seeking tax-efficiency.

These strategies include:

 

   

Offsetting long-term and short-term capital gains with long-term and short-term capital losses and creating loss carry-forward positions

 

   

Managing portfolio turnover that may result in capital gains and losses

 

   

Selling tax lots of securities that have a higher tax basis before selling tax lots of securities that have a lower tax basis

 

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Other. The International Tax-Managed Equity Fund’s investments in fixed income securities are limited to cash equivalents.

The Underlying Fund’s benchmark index is the MSCI EAFE Index.

U.S. Tax-Managed Equity Fund

Objective. The U.S. Tax-Managed Equity Fund seeks to provide long-term after-tax growth of capital through tax-sensitive participation in a broadly diversified portfolio of U.S. equity securities.

Primary Investment Focus. The Underlying Fund invests, under normal circumstances, at least 80% of its Net Assets in equity investments in U.S. issuers. The Underlying Fund will seek to maintain risk, style, capitalization and industry characteristics similar to the Russell 3000® Index.

The Underlying Fund uses a variety of quantitative techniques, in combination with a qualitative overlay, when selecting investments that have the potential to maximize the Underlying Fund’s after-tax return and minimize capital gains and income distributions. These quantitative techniques, which are derived from fundamental research and based on certain investment themes, including, among others, Fundamental Mispricings, High Quality Business Models, Sentiment Analysis and Market Themes & Trends. Fundamental Mispricings seeks to identify high-quality businesses trading at a fair price, which the Underlying Fund’s investment adviser believes leads to strong performance over the long-run. High Quality Business Models seeks to identify companies that are generating high-quality revenues with sustainable business models and aligned management incentives. Sentiment Analysis seeks to identify stocks experiencing improvements in their overall market sentiment. Market Themes and Trends seeks to identify companies positively positioned to benefit from themes and trends in the market and macroeconomic environment. The Underlying Fund may make investment decisions that deviate from those generated by the Investment Adviser’s proprietary models, at the discretion of the Investment Adviser. In addition, the Underlying Fund’s investment adviser may, in its discretion, make changes to its quantitative techniques, or use other quantitative techniques that are based on the Underlying Fund’s investment adviser’s proprietary research.

In managing the Underlying Fund, the Underlying Fund’s investment adviser balances investment considerations and tax considerations. The Underlying Fund seeks to achieve returns primarily in the form of price appreciation (which is not subject to current tax), and may use different strategies in seeking tax-efficiency.

These strategies include:

 

   

Offsetting long-term and short-term capital gains with long-term and short-term capital losses and creating loss carry-forward positions

 

   

Managing portfolio turnover that may result in capital gains and losses

 

   

Selling tax lots of securities that have a higher tax basis before selling tax lots of securities that have a lower tax basis

Other. The U.S. Tax-Managed Equity Fund’s investments in fixed income securities are limited to cash equivalents.

The Underlying Fund’s benchmark index is the Russell 3000® Index.

Emerging Markets Equity Insights Fund

Objective. The Emerging Markets Equity Insights Fund seeks long-term growth of capital.

Primary Investment Focus. The Emerging Markets Equity Insights Fund invests, under normal circumstances, at least 80% of its Net Assets in a diversified portfolio of equity investments in emerging country issuers. Currently, emerging countries include, among others, Central and South American, African, Asian and Eastern European countries. Under normal circumstances, the Underlying Fund will not invest more than 35% of its Net Assets in securities of issuers in any one emerging country.

The Underlying Fund’s portfolio management team uses two distinct strategies—a bottom-up stock selection strategy and a top-down country/currency selection strategy—to manage the Underlying Fund.

The Underlying Fund uses a quantitative style of management, in combination with a qualitative overlay, that emphasizes fundamentally-based stock and country/currency selection, careful portfolio construction and efficient implementation. The Underlying Fund’s investments are selected using fundamental research and a variety of quantitative techniques based on certain investment themes, including, among others, Fundamental Mispricings, High Quality Business Models, Sentiment Analysis and Market Themes & Trends. Fundamental Mispricings seeks to identify high-quality businesses trading at a fair price, which the Underlying Fund’s investment adviser believes leads to strong performance over the long-run. High Quality Business Models seeks to identify companies that are generating high-quality revenues with sustainable business models and aligned management incentives. Sentiment Analysis seeks to

 

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identify stocks experiencing improvements in their overall market sentiment. Market Themes and Trends seeks to identify companies positively positioned to benefit from themes and trends in the market and macroeconomic environment. The Underlying Fund may make investment decisions that deviate from those generated by the Investment Adviser’s proprietary models, at the discretion of the Investment Adviser. In addition, the Underlying Fund’s investment adviser may, in its discretion, make changes to its quantitative techniques, or use other quantitative techniques that are based on the Underlying Fund’s investment adviser’s proprietary research.

The Underlying Fund seeks to maximize its expected return, while maintaining risk, style and capitalization characteristics similar to the Morgan Stanley Capital International (“MSCI”) Emerging Markets Standard Index (Net, USD, Unhedged), adjusted for the Investment Adviser’s country views. Additionally, the portfolio management team’s views of the relative attractiveness of emerging countries and currencies are considered in allocating the Underlying Fund’s assets among emerging countries. The MSCI Emerging Markets Standard Index (Net, USD, Unhedged) is designed to measure equity market performance of the large and mid market capitalization segments of emerging markets.

Other. The Emerging Markets Equity Insights Fund may also invest in fixed income securities that are considered to be cash equivalents.

The Underlying Fund’s benchmark index is the MSCI Emerging Markets Standard Index (Net, USD, Unhedged).

International Small Cap Insights Fund

Objective. The International Small Cap Insights Fund seeks long-term growth of capital.

Primary Investment Focus. The Underlying Fund invests, under normal circumstances, at least 80% of its Net Assets in a broadly diversified portfolio of equity investments in small-cap non-U.S. issuers.

The Underlying Fund uses a quantitative style of management, in combination with a qualitative overlay, that emphasizes fundamentally-based stock selection, careful portfolio construction and efficient implementation. The Underlying Fund’s investments are selected using fundamental research and a variety of quantitative techniques based on certain investment themes, including, among others, Fundamental Mispricings, High Quality Business Models, Sentiment Analysis and Market Themes & Trends. Fundamental Mispricings seeks to identify high-quality businesses trading at a fair price, which the Underlying Fund’s investment adviser believes leads to strong performance over the long-run. High Quality Business Models seeks to identify companies that are generating high-quality revenues with sustainable business models and aligned management incentives. Sentiment Analysis seeks to identify stocks experiencing improvements in their overall market sentiment. Market Themes and Trends seeks to identify companies positively positioned to benefit from themes and trends in the market and macroeconomic environment. The Underlying Fund may make investment decisions that deviate from those generated by the Investment Adviser’s proprietary models, at the discretion of the Investment Adviser. In addition, the Underlying Fund’s investment adviser may, in its discretion, make changes to its quantitative techniques, or use other quantitative techniques that are based on the Underlying Fund’s investment adviser’s proprietary research.

The Underlying Fund seeks to maximize its expected return, while maintaining risk, style, and capitalization characteristics similar to the MSCI EAFE Small Cap Index (Net, USD, Unhedged). The MSCI EAFE Small Cap Index (Net, USD, Unhedged) is designed to measure equity market performance of the small capitalization segments of developed markets, excluding the United States and Canada. The Underlying Fund seeks to maximize its expected return while maintaining these and other characteristics similar to the benchmark.

Other. The International Small Cap Insights Fund may also invest in the securities of issuers in emerging countries, and fixed income securities that are considered to be cash equivalents.

The Underlying Fund’s benchmark index is the MSCI EAFE Small Cap Index (Net, USD, Unhedged).

U.S. Equity Dividend and Premium Fund

Objective. The U.S. Equity Dividend and Premium Fund seeks to maximize income and total return.

Primary Investment Focus. The U.S. Equity Dividend and Premium Fund invests, under normal circumstances, at least 80% of its Net Assets in dividend-paying equity investments in large-cap U.S. issuers with public stock market capitalizations within the range of the market capitalization of the S&P 500® Index at the time of investment.

The Underlying Fund will seek to maintain risk, style, capitalization and industry characteristics similar to the S&P 500® Index. The Underlying Fund invests primarily in a diversified portfolio of common stocks of large-cap U.S. issuers represented in the S&P 500® Index. The Underlying Fund uses a variety of quantitative techniques, in combination with a qualitative overlay, when selecting investments. The Underlying Fund may make investment decisions that deviate those generated by the Underlying Fund’s investment adviser’s proprietary models, at the discretion of the Underlying Fund’s investment adviser. In addition, the Underlying Fund’s investment adviser may, in its discretion, make changes to its quantitative techniques, or use other quantitative techniques that are based on the Underlying Fund’s investment adviser’s proprietary research.

 

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The Underlying Fund seeks to generate additional cash flow and may reduce volatility by the sale of call options on the S&P 500® Index or other national or regional stock market indices (or related ETFs).

The Underlying Fund expects that, under normal circumstances, it will sell call options in an amount that is between 20% and 75% of the value of the Underlying Fund’s portfolio. As the seller of the call options, the Underlying Fund will receive cash (the “premium”) from the purchaser. If the purchaser exercises the option, the Underlying Fund pays the purchaser the difference between the price of the index and the exercise price of the option. The premium, the exercise price and the market price of the index determine the gain or loss realized by the Underlying Fund as the seller of the call option.

During periods in which the U.S. equity markets are generally unchanged or falling, or in a modestly rising market where the income from premiums exceeds the aggregate appreciation of the underlying index over its exercise price, a diversified portfolio receiving premiums from its call option writing strategy may outperform the same portfolio without such an options strategy. However, in rising markets where the aggregate appreciation of the underlying index over its exercise price exceeds the income from premiums, a portfolio with a call writing strategy could significantly underperform the same portfolio without the options.

The Underlying Fund uses a tax-advantaged style and seeks to balance investment and tax considerations, primarily by seeking to avoid or minimize any net short-term capital gains.

Other. The U.S. Equity Dividend and Premium Fund’s investments in fixed income securities are limited to cash equivalents.

The Underlying Fund’s primary benchmark index is the S&P 500® Index and the Underlying Fund’s secondary benchmark is the Bloomberg Barclays U.S. Aggregate Bond Index.

International Equity Dividend and Premium Fund

Objective. The International Equity Dividend and Premium Fund seeks to maximize total return with an emphasis on income.

Primary Investment Focus. The International Equity Dividend and Premium Fund invests, under normal circumstances, at least 80% of its Net Assets in dividend-paying equity investments in non-U.S. issuers with public stock market capitalizations within the range of the market capitalization of the MSCI EAFE Index (Net, USD, Unhedged) at the time of investment. The Underlying Fund may allocate its assets among countries as determined by the Investment Adviser from time to time. The Underlying Fund intends to have investments that are economically tied to at least three countries, not including the United States, and the Underlying Fund may invest in the securities of issuers economically tied to emerging market countries. The Underlying Fund will seek to maintain risk, style, capitalization and industry characteristics similar to the MSCI EAFE Index.

The Underlying Fund uses a variety of quantitative techniques, in combination with a qualitative overlay, when selecting investments. The Underlying Fund may make make investment decisiosn that deviate from those generated by the Underlying Fund’s investment adviser’s proprietary models, at the discretion of the Underlying Fund’s investment adviser. In addition, the Underlying Fund’s investment adviser may, in its discretion, make changes to its quantitative techniques, or use other quantitative techniques that are based on the Underlying Fund’s investment adviser’s proprietary research.

The Underlying Fund seeks to generate additional cash flow and may reduce volatility by the sale of call options on the MSCI EAFE Index or other national or regional stock market indices (or related ETFs).

The Underlying Fund expects that, under normal circumstances, it will sell call options in an amount that is between 20% and 75% of the value of the Underlying Fund’s portfolio. As the seller of the call options, the Underlying Fund will receive cash (the “premium”) from the purchaser. If the purchaser exercises the option, the Underlying Fund pays the purchaser the difference between the price of the index and the exercise price of the option. The premium, the exercise price and the market price of the index determine the gain or loss realized by the Underlying Fund as the seller of the call option.

During periods in which the international equity markets are generally unchanged or falling, or in a modestly rising market where the income from premiums exceeds the aggregate appreciation of the underlying index over its exercise price, a diversified portfolio receiving premiums from its call option writing strategy may outperform the same portfolio without such an options strategy. However, in rising markets where the aggregate appreciation of the underlying index over its exercise price exceeds the income from premiums, a portfolio with a call writing strategy could significantly underperform the same portfolio without the options.

The Underlying Fund uses a tax-advantaged style and seeks to balance investment and tax considerations, primarily by seeking to avoid or minimize any net short-term capital gains.

 

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Other. The International Equity Dividend and Premium Fund’s investments in fixed income securities are limited to cash equivalents.

The Underlying Fund’s primary benchmark index is the MSCI EAFE Index and the Underlying Fund’s secondary benchmark is the Bloomberg Barclays Global Aggregate Bond Index (Gross, USD, Unhedged).

Core Fixed Income Fund

Objective. The Core Fixed Income Fund seeks a total return consisting of capital appreciation and income that exceeds the total return of the Bloomberg Barclays U.S. Aggregate Bond Index.

Primary Investment Focus. The Core Fixed Income Fund invests, under normal circumstances, at least 80% of its Net Assets in fixed income securities, including securities issued or guaranteed by the U.S. government, its agencies, instrumentalities or sponsored enterprises (“U.S. Government Securities”), corporate debt securities, privately issued adjustable rate and fixed rate mortgage loans or other mortgage-related securities (“Mortgage-Backed Securities”) and asset-backed securities. The Underlying Fund may also invest in custodial receipts, fixed income securities issued by or on behalf of states, territories, and possessions of the United States (including the District of Columbia) (“Municipal Securities”) and convertible securities.

The Underlying Fund may also engage in forward foreign currency transactions for both hedging and non-hedging purposes. The Underlying Fund also intends to invest in derivatives, including (but not limited to) interest rate futures, interest rate swaps and credit default swaps, which are used primarily to hedge the Underlying Fund’s portfolio risks, manage the Underlying Fund’s duration and/or gain exposure to certain fixed income securities or indices.

The Underlying Fund may implement short positions and may do so by using swaps, options or futures, To Be Announced (“TBA”) Mortgage- Backed Securities, or through short sales of any instrument that the Underlying Fund may purchase for investment. For example, the Underlying Fund may enter into a futures contract pursuant to which it agrees to sell an asset (that it does not currently own) at a specified price at a specified point in the future. This gives the Underlying Fund a short position with respect to that asset. The Underlying Fund may utilize short positions to implement macro views on securities valuations, long term views on relative value or short term views on security mispricings, as well as any other views the Investment Adviser deems appropriate. For example, the Underlying Fund may buy a TBA Mortgage-Backed Security that the Investment Adviser expects to outperform or that it believes to be undervalued, and may also sell short a TBA Mortgage-Backed Security that it believes will underperform. The Underlying Fund will benefit from a short position to the extent the asset decreases in value (and will be harmed to the extent the asset increases in value) between the time it enters into the futures contract and the agreed date of sale. Alternatively, the Underlying Fund may sell an instrument (e.g., a bond, or a futures contract) it does not own in anticipation of a decline in the market value of the instrument, and then borrow the instrument to make delivery to the buyer. In these transactions, the Underlying Fund is obligated to replace the instrument borrowed by purchasing it at the market price at the time of replacement.

The Underlying Fund may also seek to obtain exposure to fixed income investments through investments in affiliated or unaffiliated investment companies, including exchange-traded funds (“ETFs”).

The Underlying Fund’s investments in non-U.S. dollar denominated obligations (hedged or unhedged against currency risk) will not exceed 25% of its total assets measured at the time of purchase (“Total Assets”), and 10% of the Underlying Fund’s Total Assets may be invested in sovereign and corporate debt securities and other instruments of issuers in emerging market countries (“emerging countries debt”). Additionally, exposure to non-U.S. currencies (unhedged against currency risk) will not exceed 25% of the Underlying Fund’s Total Assets. In pursuing its investment objective, the Underlying Fund uses the Bloomberg Barclays U.S. Aggregate Bond Index as its performance benchmark, but the Underlying Fund will not attempt to replicate the Index. The Underlying Fund may, therefore, invest in securities that are not included in the Index.

The Underlying Fund may invest in fixed income securities rated at least BBB– or Baa3 at the time of purchase. Securities will either be rated by a nationally recognized statistical rating organization (“NRSRO”) or, if unrated, determined by the Underlying Fund’s investment adviser to be of comparable credit quality.

The Underlying Fund’s target duration range under normal interest rate conditions is expected to approximate that of the Index plus or minus one year, and over the last five years ended June 30, 2019, the duration of the Index has ranged between 5.09 and 6.00 years. “Duration” is a measure of a debt security’s price sensitivity to changes in interest rates. The longer the duration of the Underlying Fund (or an individual debt security), the more sensitive its market price to changes in interest rates. For example, if market interest rates increase by 1%, the market price of a debt security with a positive duration of 3 years will generally decrease by approximately 3%. Conversely, a 1% decline in market interest rates will generally result in an increase of approximately 3% of that security’s market price.

 

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“Core” in the Underlying Fund’s name means that the Underlying Fund focuses its investments in intermediate and long-term investment grade bonds.

The Underlying Fund’s benchmark index is the Bloomberg Barclays U.S. Aggregate Bond Index.

High Yield Fund

Objective. The High Yield Fund seeks a high level of current income and may also consider the potential for capital appreciation.

Primary Investment Focus. The High Yield Fund invests, under normal circumstances, at least 80% of its Net Assets in high-yield, fixed income securities that, at the time of purchase, are non-investment grade securities. Non-investment grade securities are securities rated BB+, Ba1 or below by a NRSRO, or, if unrated, determined by the Investment Adviser to be of comparable credit quality, and are commonly referred to as “junk bonds.” The Underlying Fund may invest in all types of fixed income securities, including loan participations.

The Underlying Fund may invest up to 25% of its total assets in obligations of domestic and foreign issuers which are denominated in currencies other than the U.S. dollar and in securities of issuers located in emerging countries denominated in any currency. However, to the extent that the Underlying Fund’s Investment Adviser has entered into transactions that are intended to hedge the Underlying Fund’s position in a non-dollar denominated obligation against currency risk, such obligation will not be counted when calculating compliance with the 25% limitation on obligations in non-U.S. currency.

Under normal market conditions, the Underlying Fund may invest up to 20% of its Net Assets in investment grade fixed income securities, including U.S. Government Securities.

The Underlying Fund may invest in derivatives, including (i) credit default swap indices (or CDX) for hedging purposes or to seek to increase total return, and (ii) interest rate futures, forwards and swaps to manage the portfolio’s duration.

The Underlying Fund may also seek to obtain exposure to fixed income investments through investments in affiliated or unaffiliated investment companies, including exchange-traded funds (“ETFs”).

The Underlying Fund’s target duration range under normal interest rate conditions is expected to approximate that of the Bloomberg Barclays U.S. High-Yield 2% Issuer Capped Bond Index, plus or minus 2.5 years, depending on the Underlying Fund’s risk-adjusted positioning, and over the last five years ended June 30, 2019, the duration of this Index has ranged between 2.71 and 4.36 years. “Duration” is a measure of a debt security’s price sensitivity to changes in interest rates. The longer the duration of the Underlying Fund (or an individual debt security), the more sensitive its market price to changes in interest rates. For example, if market interest rates increase by 1%, the market price of a debt security with a positive duration of 3 years will generally decrease by approximately 3%. Conversely, a 1% decline in market interest rates will generally result in an increase of approximately 3% of that security’s market price.

The Underlying Fund’s portfolio managers seek to build a portfolio that reflects their investment views across the high yield securities market consistent with the Underlying Fund’s overall risk budget and the views of the Underlying Fund’s Investment Adviser’s Global Fixed Income top-down teams. As market conditions change, the volatility and attractiveness of sectors, securities and strategies can change as well. To optimize the Underlying Fund’s risk/return potential within its long-term risk budget, the portfolio managers may dynamically adjust the mix of top-down and bottom-up strategies in the Underlying Fund’s portfolio.

The Underlying Fund’s benchmark index is the Bloomberg Barclays U.S. High-Yield 2% Issuer Capped Bond Index.

High Yield Floating Rate Fund

Objective. The High Yield Floating Rate Fund seeks a high level of current income.

Primary Investment Focus. The High Yield Floating Rate Fund invests, under normal circumstances, at least 80% of its Net Assets in domestic or foreign floating rate loans and other floating or variable rate obligations rated below investment grade. Non-investment grade obligations are those rated BB+, Ba1 or below by a NRSRO, or, if unrated, determined by the Investment Adviser to be of comparable credit quality, and are commonly referred to as “junk bonds.”

 

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The Underlying Fund’s investments in floating and variable rate obligations may include, without limitation, senior secured loans (including assignments and participations), second lien loans, senior unsecured and subordinated loans, senior and subordinated corporate debt obligations (such as bonds, debentures, notes and commercial paper), debt issued by governments, their agencies and instrumentalities, and debt issued by central banks. The Underlying Fund may invest indirectly in loans by purchasing participations or sub-participations from financial institutions. Participations and sub-participations represent the right to receive a portion of the principal of, and all of the interest relating to such portion of, the applicable loan. The Underlying Fund expects to invest principally in the U.S. loan market and, to a lesser extent, in the European loan market. The Underlying Fund may also invest in other loan markets, although it does not currently intend to do so.

Under normal conditions, the Underlying Fund may invest up to 20% of its Net Assets in fixed income instruments, regardless of rating, including fixed rate corporate bonds, government bonds, convertible debt obligations, and mezzanine fixed income instruments. The Underlying Fund may also invest in floating or variable rate instruments that are rated investment grade and in preferred stock, repurchase agreements and cash securities.

The Underlying Fund may also invest in derivative instruments. Derivatives are instruments that have a value based on another instrument, exchange rate or index. The Underlying Fund’s investments in derivatives may include credit default swaps on credit and loan indices, forward contracts and total return swaps, among others. The Underlying Fund may use currency management techniques, such as forward foreign currency contracts, for hedging or non-hedging purposes. The Underlying Fund may invest in interest rate futures and swaps to manage the portfolio’s duration. Derivatives that provide exposure to floating or variable rate loans or obligations rated below investment grade are counted towards the Underlying Fund’s 80% policy.

The Underlying Fund may also seek to obtain exposure to fixed income investments through investments in affiliated or unaffiliated investment companies, including exchange-traded funds (“ETFs”).

The Underlying Fund’s target duration range under normal interest rate conditions is expected to approximate that of the Credit Suisse Leveraged Loan Index, plus or minus one year, and over the last five years ended June 30, 2019, the duration of the Index has ranged between 0.03 and 1.60 years. The Underlying Fund’s investments in floating rate obligations will generally have short to intermediate maturities (approximately 4-7 years). “Duration” is a measure of a debt security’s price sensitivity to changes in interest rates. The longer the duration of the Underlying Fund (or an individual debt security), the more sensitive its market price to changes in interest rates. For example, if market interest rates increase by 1%, the market price of a debt security with a positive duration of 3 years will generally decrease by approximately 3%. Conversely, a 1% decline in market interest rates will generally result in an increase of approximately 3% of that security’s market price

The Underlying Fund’s investments are selected using a bottom-up analysis that incorporates fundamental research, a focus on market conditions and pricing trends, quantitative research, and news or market events. The selection of individual investments is based on the overall risk and return profile of the investment taking into account liquidity, structural complexity, cash flow uncertainty and downside potential. Research analysts and portfolio managers systematically assess portfolio positions, taking into consideration, among other factors, broader macroeconomic conditions and industry and company specific financial performance and outlook. Based upon this analysis, the Investment Adviser will sell positions determined to be overvalued and reposition the portfolio in more attractive investment opportunities on a relative basis given the current climate.

The Underlying Fund’s benchmark index is the Credit Suisse Leveraged Loan Index.

Local Emerging Markets Debt Fund

Objective. The Local Emerging Markets Debt Fund seeks a high level of total return consisting of income and capital appreciation.

Primary Investment Focus. The Local Emerging Markets Debt Fund invests, under normal circumstances, at least 80% of its Net Assets in sovereign and corporate debt securities of issuers in emerging market countries, denominated in the local currency of such emerging market countries, and other instruments, including credit linked notes and other investments with similar economic exposures.

The Underlying Fund’s portfolio managers seek to build a portfolio across the emerging markets debt market consistent with the Underlying Fund’s overall risk budget and the views of the Underlying Fund’s Investment Adviser’s Global Fixed Income top-down teams. As market conditions change, the volatility and attractiveness of sectors, securities and strategies can change as well. To optimize the Underlying Fund’s risk/return potential within its long-term risk budget, the portfolio managers may dynamically adjust the mix of top-down and bottom-up strategies in the Underlying Fund’s portfolio.

The Underlying Fund may invest in all types of foreign and emerging country fixed income securities, including the following:

 

   

Debt issued by governments, their agencies and instrumentalities, or by their central banks, including Brady Bonds;

 

   

Interests in structured securities;

 

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Fixed and floating rate, senior and subordinated corporate debt obligations (such as bonds, debentures, notes and commercial paper);

 

   

Loan participations; and

 

   

Repurchase agreements with respect to the foregoing.

Foreign securities include securities of issuers located outside the U.S. or securities quoted or denominated in a currency other than the U.S. Dollar.

Currency investments, particularly longer-dated forward contracts, provide the Underlying Fund with economic exposure similar to investments in sovereign and corporate debt with respect to currency and interest rate exposure. The Underlying Fund’s Investment Adviser intends to use structured securities and derivative instruments to attempt to improve the performance of the Underlying Fund or to gain exposure to certain countries or currencies in the Underlying Fund’s investment portfolio in accordance with its investment objective, and the Underlying Fund’s investments in these instruments may be significant. These transactions may result in substantial realized and unrealized capital gains and losses relative to the gains and losses from the Underlying Fund’s investments in bonds and other securities.

The Underlying Fund may also seek to obtain exposure to fixed income investments through investments in affiliated or unaffiliated investment companies, including exchange-traded funds (“ETFs”).

The Underlying Fund may invest in securities without regard to credit rating. The countries in which the Underlying Fund invests may have sovereign ratings that are below investment grade or are unrated. Moreover, to the extent the Underlying Fund invests in corporate or other privately issued debt obligations, many of the issuers of such obligations will be smaller companies with stock market capitalizations of $1 billion or less at the time of investment. Securities of these issuers may be rated below investment grade (so-called “high yield” or “junk” bonds) or unrated. Although a majority of the Underlying Fund’s assets will be denominated in non-U.S. Dollars, the Underlying Fund may invest in securities denominated in the U.S. Dollar.

For purposes of the Underlying Fund’s policy to invest at least 80% of its Net Assets in securities and instruments of “emerging market country” issuers, the Underlying Fund’s investment adviser generally expects a country to be an “emerging market country” if the country is identified as an “emerging market country” in any of the Underlying Fund’s benchmark indices. Such countries are likely to be located in Africa, Asia, the Middle East, Eastern and Central Europe and Central and South America. Sovereign debt consists of debt securities issued by governments or any of their agencies, political subdivisions or instrumentalities, denominated in the local currency. Sovereign debt may also include nominal and real inflation-linked securities. An emerging market country issuer is an issuer economically tied to an emerging country.

The Underlying Fund’s target duration range under normal interest rate conditions is expected to approximate that of the J.P. Morgan Government Bond Index—Emerging Markets (GBI-EMSM) Global Diversified (Gross, USD, Unhedged) Index plus or minus 2 years, and over the last five years ended June 30, 2019, the duration of this Index has ranged between 4.76 and 5.77 years. “Duration” is a measure of a debt security’s price sensitivity to changes in interest rates. The longer the duration of the Underlying Fund (or an individual debt security), the more sensitive its market price to changes in interest rates. For example, if market interest rates increase by 1%, the market price of a debt security with a positive duration of 3 years will generally decrease by approximately 3%. Conversely, a 1% decline in market interest rates will generally result in an increase of approximately 3% of that security’s market price

The Underlying Fund may invest in the aggregate up to 20% of its Net Assets in investments other than emerging country fixed income securities, currency investments and related derivatives, including (without limitation) equity securities and fixed income securities, such as government, corporate and bank debt obligations, of developed country issuers.

Other. The Underlying Fund is non-diversified under the Act, and may invest more of its assets in fewer issuers than diversified mutual funds. The Underlying Fund’s benchmark index is the J.P. Morgan Government Bond Index—Emerging Markets (GBI-EMSM) Global Diversified Index (Gross, USD, Unhedged).

MLP Energy Infrastructure Fund

Objective. The MLP Energy Infrastructure Fund seeks total return through current income and capital appreciation.

Primary Investment Focus. The MLP Energy Infrastructure Fund invests, under normal circumstances, at least 80% of its Net Assets in energy infrastructure master limited partnership (“MLP”) investments. The Underlying Fund’s MLP investments may include, but are not limited to: MLPs structured as limited partnerships (“LPs”) or limited liability companies (“LLCs”); MLPs that are taxed as “C” corporations; institutional units (“I-Units”) issued by MLP affiliates; “C” corporations that hold significant interests in MLPs; private investments in public equities (“PIPEs”) issued by MLPs; and other U.S. and non-U.S. equity and fixed income securities and derivative

 

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instruments, including pooled investment vehicles and exchange-traded notes (“ETNs”), that provide exposure to MLPs. Energy infrastructure MLPs own and operate assets that are used in the energy sector, including assets used in exploring, developing, producing, generating, transporting (including marine), transmitting, terminal operation, storing, gathering, processing, refining, distributing, mining or marketing of natural gas, natural gas liquids, crude oil, refined products, coal or electricity, or that provide energy-related equipment or services. The Underlying Fund’s MLP investments may be of any capitalization size.

MLPs formed as LPs or LLCs are generally treated as partnerships for U.S. federal income tax purposes. To be treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes, an MLP must derive at least 90% of its gross income for each taxable year from qualifying sources, including activities such as the exploration, development, mining, production, processing, refining, transportation, storage and certain marketing of mineral or natural resources. MLPs are generally publicly traded, are regulated by the SEC and must make public filings like any publicly traded corporation.

Many of the MLPs in which the Underlying Fund invests operate oil, gas or petroleum facilities, or other facilities within the energy sector. The Underlying Fund intends to concentrate its investments in the energy sector, with a focus on “midstream” energy infrastructure MLPs. Midstream MLPs are generally engaged in the treatment, gathering, compression, processing, transportation, transmission, fractionation, storage and terminalling of natural gas, natural gas liquids, crude oil, refined products or coal. Midstream MLPs may also operate ancillary businesses including marketing of energy products and logistical services. The Underlying Fund may also invest in “upstream” and “downstream” MLPs. Upstream MLPs are primarily engaged in the exploration, recovery, development and production of crude oil, natural gas and natural gas liquids. Downstream MLPs are primarily engaged in the processing, treatment, and refining of natural gas liquids and crude oil. The MLPs in which the Underlying Fund invests may also engage in owning, managing and transporting alternative energy assets, including alternative fuels such as ethanol, hydrogen and biodiesel.

Other. The Underlying Fund may also invest up to 20% of its Net Assets in non-MLP investments, including, without limitation, securities of U.S. and non-U.S. corporations that operate in the energy sector or that hold energy assets. With respect to non-MLP investments, the applicable issuers may be subject to U.S. federal income tax as well as state, local and foreign income taxes (“issuer level taxes”) that would not be imposed on the applicable issuers of MLP investments. Any issuer level taxes could reduce the Underlying Fund’s return with respect to such non-MLP investments.

The Underlying Fund is treated as a regular corporation, or “C” corporation, for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Accordingly, unlike traditional open-end mutual funds, the Underlying Fund is subject to U.S. federal income tax on its taxable income at the graduated rates applicable to corporations (at a maximum rate of 21%) as well as state and local income taxes.

The Underlying Fund’s benchmark index is the Alerian MLP Index (Total Return, Unhedged, USD). The Alerian MLP Index (Total Return, Unhedged, USD) is the leading gauge of energy MLPs and is a float-adjusted, capitalization-weighted index, whose constituents earn the majority of their cash flow from midstream activities involving energy commodities.

Tactical Tilt Overlay Fund

Objective. The Tactical Tilt Overlay Fund seeks long-term total return.

Primary Investment Focus. The Tactical Tilt Overlay Fund seeks to achieve its investment objective through the implementation of investment ideas that are generally derived from short-term or medium-term market views on a variety of asset classes and instruments (“Tactical Tilts”) generated by the Goldman Sachs Investment Strategy Group (“Investment Strategy Group”). Investment Strategy Group Tactical Tilt recommendations are recommendations to overweight or underweight exposures to certain asset classes, with such overweighting and underweighting to be funded from a “funding source” from which assets should be reallocated. The Investment Strategy Group will consider, among other things, the stand-alone risk/reward of each investment idea that may become a Tactical Tilt recommendation, how it fits with the Investment Strategy Group’s broader global economic and market views, and its merits compared to other ideas. The Investment Adviser determines in its sole discretion how to implement Tactical Tilt recommendations in the Underlying Fund.

Tactical Tilts are generally implemented by investing in any one or in any combination of the following securities and instruments: (i) U.S. and foreign equity securities, including common and preferred stocks; (ii) pooled investment vehicles including, but not limited to, (a) unaffiliated investment companies, ETFs and exchange-traded notes (“ETNs”) and (b) affiliated investment companies that currently exist or that may become available for investment in the future for which GSAM or an affiliate now or in the future acts as investment adviser or principal underwriter; (iii) fixed income instruments, which include, among others, debt issued by governments (including the U.S. and foreign governments), their agencies, instrumentalities, sponsored entities, and political subdivisions, notes, commercial paper, certificates of deposit, debt participations and non-investment grade securities (commonly known as “junk bonds”); (iv) derivatives and (v) commodity investments, primarily through a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Underlying Fund organized as a company under the laws of the Cayman Islands (the “Subsidiary”). The Underlying Fund’s investments may be publicly traded or privately issued or negotiated. The Underlying Fund may invest without restriction as to issuer capitalization, country, currency, maturity or credit rating. The Underlying Fund may implement short positions for hedging purposes or to seek to enhance absolute return, and may do so by using swaps or futures, or through short sales of any instrument that the Underlying Fund may purchase for investment.

 

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The Investment Adviser expects that the Underlying Fund may invest in one or more of the following Underlying Funds in order to implement Tactical Tilts: Goldman Sachs Core Fixed Income Fund, Goldman Sachs Dynamic Municipal Income Fund, Goldman Sachs Emerging Markets Debt Fund, Goldman Sachs Enhanced Income Fund, Goldman Sachs Global Real Estate Securities Fund, Goldman Sachs Government Income Fund, Goldman Sachs High Quality Floating Rate Fund, Goldman Sachs High Yield Fund, Goldman Sachs High Yield Floating Rate Fund, Goldman Sachs High Yield Municipal Fund, Goldman Sachs Inflation Protected Securities Fund, Goldman Sachs International Real Estate Securities Fund, Goldman Sachs Investment Grade Credit Fund, Goldman Sachs Local Emerging Markets Debt Fund, Goldman Sachs MLP Energy Infrastructure Fund, Goldman Sachs Short Duration Income Fund, and Goldman Sachs Short Duration Tax-Free Fund as may be determined by the Investment Adviser from time to time without considering or canvassing the universe of unaffiliated investment companies available.

The Underlying Fund may invest in derivatives for both hedging and non-hedging purposes. Derivative positions may be listed or over the counter (“OTC”) and may or may not be centrally cleared. The Underlying Fund’s derivative investments may include but are not limited to (i) futures contracts, including futures based on equity or fixed income securities and/or equity or fixed income indices, interest rate futures, currency futures and swap futures; (ii) swaps, including equity, currency, interest rate, total return, excess return, variance and credit default swaps, and swaps on futures contracts; (iii) options, including long and short positions in call options and put options on indices, individual securities or currencies, swaptions and options on futures contracts; (iv) forward contracts, including forwards based on equity or fixed income securities and/or equity or fixed income indices, currency forwards, interest rate forwards, swap forwards and non-deliverable forwards; and (v) other instruments, including structured securities and exchange-traded notes. As a result of the Underlying Fund’s use of derivatives, the Underlying Fund may also hold significant amounts of U.S. Treasuries or short-term investments, including money market funds, repurchase agreements, cash and time deposits.

The Underlying Fund seeks to gain exposure to the commodities markets by investing in the Subsidiary. The Underlying Fund may invest up to 25% of its total assets in the Subsidiary. The Subsidiary primarily obtains its commodity exposure by investing in commodity-linked derivative instruments, which may include but are not limited to total return swaps and excess return swaps on commodity indexes, sub-indexes and single commodities, as well as commodity (U.S. or foreign) futures, commodity options and commodity-linked notes. Commodity-linked swaps are derivative instruments whereby the cash flows agreed upon between counterparties are dependent upon the price of the underlying commodity or commodity index over the life of the swap. Commodity futures contracts are standardized, exchange-traded contracts that provide for the sale or purchase of, or economic exposure to the price of, a commodity or a specified basket of commodities at a future time. An option on commodities gives the purchaser the right (and the writer of the option the obligation) to assume a position in a commodity or a specified basket of commodities at a specified exercise price within a specified period of time. The value of these commodity-linked derivatives will rise and fall in response to changes in the underlying commodity or commodity index. Commodity-linked derivatives expose the Subsidiary and the Underlying Fund economically to movements in commodity prices. Such instruments may be leveraged so that small changes in the underlying commodity prices would result in disproportionate changes in the value of the instrument. Neither the Underlying Fund nor the Subsidiary invests directly in physical commodities. The Subsidiary may also invest in other instruments, including fixed income securities, either as investments or to serve as margin or collateral for its swap positions, and foreign currency transactions (including forward contracts).

The Underlying Fund may also gain exposure to commodities by investing in commodity index-linked structured notes, publicly traded partnerships (“PTPs”) and pooled investment vehicles (including ETFs, ETNs and affiliated or unaffiliated investment companies). PTPs are limited partnerships, the interests (or “units”) in which are traded on public exchanges. The Underlying Fund may invest in PTPs that are commodity pools.

The investments and positions that the Investment Adviser determines to use to implement the Tactical Tilt recommendations will constitute the Underlying Fund’s only investments, other than its investments in investment-grade fixed income instruments, cash or cash equivalents or other short-term instruments. At any time, and from time to time, a material portion of the Underlying Fund’s assets may be invested in such instruments, and not for the purpose of implementing Tactical Tilts.

The Underlying Fund is designed to provide investors with an efficient means of implementing the Tactical Tilts strategy, which is intended to complement an investor’s broader, diversified investment portfolio. A Tactical Tilt strategy should be an appropriately sized portion of an investor’s overall investment fund. It is important that investors view an allocation to the Underlying Fund as a long-term addition to a broader, diversified portfolio and not look to opportunistically time their investments in or redemptions from the Underlying Fund.

Other. The Underlying Fund is “non-diversified” under the Act and may invest more of its assets in fewer issuers than diversified mutual funds.

The Underling Fund’s benchmark index is the Bank of America Merrill Lynch U.S. Dollar Three-Month LIBOR Constant Maturity Index. References in the Underlying Fund’s prospectus to the Underlying Fund’s benchmark are for informational purposes only and are not an indication of how the Underlying Fund is managed. The Underlying Fund’s risk profile is different from that of its benchmark and, as a result, the performance of the Underlying Fund may not correlate with that of the benchmark.

 

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Global Real Estate Securities Fund

Objective. The Global Real Estate Securities Fund seeks total return comprised of long-term growth of capital and dividend income.

Primary Investment Focus. The Global Real Estate Securities Fund invests, under normal circumstances, at least 80% of Net Assets in a portfolio of equity investments in issuers that are primarily engaged in or related to the real estate industry (“real estate industry companies”) within and outside the United States. An issuer is primarily engaged in or related to the real estate industry if it derives at least 50% of its gross revenues or net profits from the ownership, development, construction, financing, management or sale of commercial, industrial or residential real estate or interests therein. Real estate industry companies may include real estate investment trusts (“REITs”), REIT-like structures, or real estate operating companies whose businesses and services are related to the real estate industry.

The Underlying Fund’s investment strategy is based on the premise that property market fundamentals are the primary determinant of growth, underlying the success of companies in the real estate industry. The Investment Adviser focuses on companies that can achieve sustainable growth in cash flow and dividend paying capability over time. The Investment Adviser attempts to purchase securities so that its underlying portfolio will be varied geographically and by property type.

The Underlying Fund will invest in securities of real estate industry companies that are economically tied to at least three countries, including the United States. Although the Underlying Fund will invest, under normal circumstances, primarily in securities of real estate industry companies that are economically tied to the United States, Japan, the United Kingdom, Australia, Hong Kong, Singapore, Canada and Continental Europe, the Underlying Fund may invest in securities of real estate industry companies that are economically tied to countries with emerging markets or economies (“emerging countries”), including Central American, South American, African, Middle Eastern, and certain Asian and Eastern European countries.

The Underlying Fund may invest without restriction as to issuer capitalization, currency, maturity or credit rating. A portion of the Underlying Fund’s securities are denominated in foreign currencies and held outside the United States.

The Underlying Fund may also invest up to 20% of its Net Assets (measured at the time of purchase) in issuers that are not real estate industry companies, or fixed income investments, such as government, corporate and bank debt obligations.

The Underlying Fund concentrates its investments in securities of issuers in the real estate industry.

Other. The Underlying Fund is “non-diversified” under the Act may invest a larger percentage of its assets in fewer issuers than diversified mutual funds.

The Underlying Fund’s benchmark index is the FTSE EPRA Nareit Developed Index (Net, USD, Unhedged).

Global Infrastructure Fund

Objective. The Global Infrastructure Fund seeks long-term growth of capital and income.

Primary Investment Focus. The Global Infrastructure Fund invests, under normal circumstances, at least 80% of its Net Assets in a portfolio of investments in issuers that are engaged in or related to the infrastructure group of industries (“infrastructure companies”). The Underlying Fund will invest primarily in the common stock of infrastructure companies.

An issuer is engaged in or related to the infrastructure group of industries if it is involved in the ownership, development, construction, renovation, financing, management, sale or operation of infrastructure assets, or that provide the services and raw materials necessary for the construction and maintenance of infrastructure assets. Infrastructure assets include, but are not limited to, utilities, energy, transportation, real estate, media, telecommunications and capital goods.

The Underlying Fund will invest in the securities of infrastructure companies that are economically tied to at least three countries, including the United States. Although the Underlying Fund will invest, under normal circumstances, primarily in the securities of infrastructure companies that are economically tied to developed countries (namely developed countries in North America and Europe), the Underlying Fund may also invest in the securities of infrastructure companies that are economically tied to countries with emerging markets or economies (“emerging countries”).

The Underlying Fund may invest without restriction as to issuer capitalization (including small- and mid-capitalization companies). A portion of the Underlying Fund’s securities are denominated in foreign currencies and held outside the United States.

The Underlying Fund may invest in REITs. The Underlying Fund may also invest up to 20% of its total assets (measured at time of purchase) in MLPs that are taxed as partnerships and up to 20% of its Net Assets (measured at time of purchase) in issuers that are not infrastructure companies.

ETFs that provide exposure to infrastructure companies and derivative instruments, such as futures, that have similar economic exposures to infrastructure companies will be counted towards the Underlying Fund’s 80% policy discussed above.

 

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The Underlying Fund’s investment strategy combines bottom-up company analysis with fundamental real asset research. The Investment Adviser may decide to sell a position for various reasons, including valuation and price considerations or for risk management purposes.

The Underlying Fund concentrates its investments in the securities of issuers in the infrastructure group of industries.

Other. The Underlying Fund is “non-diversified” under the Act and may invest more of its assets in fewer issuers than diversified mutual funds.

The Underlying Fund’s benchmark index is the Dow Jones Brookfield Global Infrastructure Index (Net, USD, Unhedged).

MLP & Energy Fund

Objective. The MLP & Energy Fund seeks total return through current income and capital appreciation.

Primary Investment Focus. The MLP & Energy Fund invests, under normal circumstances, at least 80% of its Net Assets in U.S. and non-U.S. equity or fixed income securities issued by MLPs and energy companies. The Underlying Fund may invest in fixed income securities without regard to credit quality or duration.

For purposes of the Underlying Fund’s 80% policy discussed above, the Underlying Fund’s investments in energy companies may include: U.S. and non-U.S. companies that (i) are classified by a third party as operating within the oil and gas storage, transportation, refining, marketing, drilling, exploration or production sub-industries or (ii) have at least 50% of their assets, income, sales or profits committed to, or derived from, the exploration, development, production, gathering, transportation (including marine), transmission, terminal operation, processing, storage, refining, distribution, mining or marketing of natural gas, natural gas liquids (including propane), crude oil, refined petroleum products, coal, electricity or other energy sources, energy-related equipment or services.

For purposes of the Underlying Fund’s 80% policy discussed above, the Underlying Fund’s MLP investments may include: MLPs structured as limited partnerships (“LPs”) or limited liability companies (“LLCs”); MLPs that are taxed as “C” corporations; institutional units (“I-Units”) issued by MLP affiliates; private investments in public equities (“PIPEs”) issued by MLPs; and other U.S. and non-U.S. equity and fixed income securities and derivative instruments, including pooled investment vehicles and exchange-traded notes (“ETNs”) that provide exposure to MLPs. The Underlying Fund’s investments in MLP securities taxed/structured as partnerships will not exceed 25% of the Underlying Fund’s total assets as measured at the time of investment.

The Underlying Fund intends to concentrate its investments in the energy sector. The Underlying Fund will invest in investments across all energy segments (upstream, midstream, downstream), with an emphasis in midstream energy infrastructure companies and MLPs. Midstream energy infrastructure companies include companies that are engaged in the treatment, gathering, compression, processing, transportation, transmission, fractionation, storage and terminalling of natural gas, natural gas liquids, crude oil, refined products or coal.

The Underlying Fund may also invest up to 20% of its Net Assets in non-energy investments, including equity and fixed income securities of U.S. and non-U.S. companies. The Underlying Fund may invest in derivatives, including options, futures, forwards, swaps, options on swaps, structured securities and other derivative instruments. While the Underlying Fund may invest in derivatives for hedging purposes, the Underlying Fund generally does not intend to hedge its exposures. Derivatives that provide exposure to MLPs or energy companies will be counted towards the Underlying Fund’s 80% policy discussed above. The Underlying Fund may also invest in privately held companies and companies that only recently began to trade publicly.

Other. The Underlying Fund is “non-diversified” under the Act and may invest more of its assets in fewer issuers than diversified mutual funds.

The Underlying Fund’s benchmark index is the Alerian Midstream Energy Select Index (Total Return, Unhedged, USD). The Alerian Midstream Energy Select Index (Total Return, Unhedged, USD) is a composite of North American energy infrastructure companies and is a capped, float-adjusted, capitalization-weighted index, whose constituents are engaged in midstream activities involving energycommodities.

DESCRIPTION OF INVESTMENT SECURITIES AND PRACTICES

The following description applies generally to the Underlying Funds and to the Portfolios, to the extent that the Portfolios invest directly in securities and other financial instruments, including derivative instruments (such as swaps and futures contracts) and unaffiliated ETFs, other than the Underlying Funds.

 

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The Underlying Fixed Income Funds’ investment adviser uses derivative instruments to manage the duration of each Underlying Fixed Income Fund’s investment portfolio in accordance with its respective target duration. These derivative instruments include financial futures contracts and swap transactions, as well as other types of derivatives. The Underlying Funds’ investments in derivative instruments, including financial futures contracts and swaps, can be significant. These transactions can result in sizeable realized and unrealized capital gains and losses relative to the gains and losses from the Underlying Funds’ investments in bonds and other securities. Short-term and long-term realized capital gains distributions paid by the Underlying Fund are taxable to their shareholders. Financial futures contracts used by the Underlying Fixed Income Fund includes interest rate futures contracts including, among others, Eurodollar futures contracts. Eurodollar futures contracts are U.S. dollar-denominated futures contracts that are based on the implied forward London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”) of a three-month deposit. Further information is included below regarding futures contracts, swaps and other derivative instruments used by the Underlying Fixed Income Funds, including information on the risks presented by these instruments and other purposes for which they may be used by the Underlying Fixed Income Funds.

Interest rates, fixed income securities prices, the prices of futures and other derivatives, and currency exchange rates can be volatile, and a variance in the degree of volatility or in the direction of the market from the Investment Adviser’s expectations may produce significant losses in an Underlying Fixed Income Fund’s investments in derivatives. In addition, a perfect correlation between a derivatives position and a fixed income security position is generally impossible to achieve. As a result, the Investment Adviser’s use of derivatives may not be effective in fulfilling the Investment Adviser’s investment strategies and may contribute to losses that would not have been incurred otherwise.

As stated in the Prospectuses, the Portfolios may also invest a portion of their assets in high quality, short-term debt obligations and engage in certain other investment practices. Further information about the Underlying Funds and their respective investment objectives and policies is included in their respective prospectuses and Statements of Additional Information. There is no assurance that any Portfolio or any Underlying Fund will achieve its objective.

Asset-Backed Securities

Certain of the Underlying Funds may invest in asset-backed securities. Asset-backed securities represent participations in, or are secured by and payable from, assets such as motor vehicle installment sales, installment loan contracts, leases of various types of real and personal property, receivables from revolving credit (credit card) agreements and other categories of receivables. Such assets are securitized through the use of trusts and special purpose corporations. Payments or distributions of principal and interest may be guaranteed up to certain amounts and for a certain time period by a letter of credit or a pool insurance policy issued by a financial institution unaffiliated with the trust or corporation, or other credit enhancements may be present.

Such securities are often subject to more rapid repayment than their stated maturity date would indicate as a result of the pass-through of prepayments of principal on the underlying loans. During periods of declining interest rates, prepayment of loans underlying asset-backed securities can be expected to accelerate. Accordingly, an Underlying Fund’s ability to maintain positions in such securities will be affected by reductions in the principal amount of such securities resulting from prepayments, and its ability to reinvest the returns of principal at comparable yields is subject to generally prevailing interest rates at that time. To the extent that certain of the Underlying Funds invest in asset-backed securities, the values of the Underlying Fund’s portfolio securities will vary with changes in market interest rates generally and the differentials in yields among various kinds of asset-backed securities.

Asset-backed securities present certain additional risks because asset-backed securities generally do not have the benefit of a security interest in collateral that is comparable to mortgage assets. Credit card receivables are generally unsecured and the debtors on such receivables are entitled to the protection of a number of state and federal consumer credit laws, many of which give such debtors the right to set-off certain amounts owed on the credit cards, thereby reducing the balance due. Automobile receivables generally are secured, but by automobiles rather than residential real property. Most issuers of automobile receivables permit the loan servicers to retain possession of the underlying obligations. If the servicer were to sell these obligations to another party, there is a risk that the purchaser would acquire an interest superior to that of the holders of the asset-backed securities. In addition, because of the large number of vehicles involved in a typical issuance and technical requirements under state laws, the trustee for the holders of the automobile receivables may not have a proper security interest in the underlying automobiles. Therefore, if the issuer of an asset-backed security defaults on its payment obligations, there is the possibility that, in some cases, the Underlying Fund will be unable to possess and sell the underlying collateral and that the Underlying Fund’s recoveries on repossessed collateral may not be available to support payments on these securities.

Mortgage-related and other asset-backed securities are subject to certain additional risks. Generally, rising interest rates tend to extend the duration of fixed rate mortgage-backed securities, making them more sensitive to changes in interest rates. As a result, in a period of rising interest rates, if an Underlying Fund or Portfolio holds mortgage-backed securities, it may exhibit additional volatility. This is known as extension risk. In addition, adjustable and fixed rate mortgage-backed securities are subject to prepayment risk. When interest rates decline, borrowers may pay off their mortgages sooner than expected. This can reduce the returns of an Underlying Fund or Portfolio because the Underlying Fund or Portfolio may have to reinvest that money at the lower prevailing interest rates. An Underlying Fund’s or Portfolio’s investments in other asset-backed securities are subject to risks similar to those associated with mortgage-backed securities, as well as additional risks associated with the nature of the assets and the servicing of those assets. Certain Underlying Funds or Portfolios may invest in mortgage-backed securities issued by the U.S. Government (see “U.S. Government

 

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securities Risk”). To the extent that an Underlying Fund or Portfolio invests in mortgage-backed securities offered by non-governmental issuers, such as commercial banks, savings and loan institutions, private mortgage insurance companies, mortgage bankers and other secondary market issuers, the Underlying Fund or Portfolio may be subject to additional risks. Timely payment of interest and principal of non-governmental issuers are supported by various forms of private insurance or guarantees, including individual loan, title, pool and hazard insurance purchased by the issuer. There can be no assurance that the private insurers can meet their obligations under the policies. An unexpectedly high rate of defaults on the mortgages held by a mortgage pool may adversely affect the value of a mortgage-backed security and could result in losses to an Underlying Fund or Portfolio. The risk of such defaults is generally higher in the case of mortgage pools that include subprime mortgages. Subprime mortgages refer to loans made to borrowers with weakened credit histories or with a lower capacity to make timely payments on their mortgages.

Asset Segregation

As investment companies registered with the SEC, the Underlying Funds must identify on their books (often referred to as “asset segregation”) liquid assets, or engage in other SEC- or SEC staff-approved or other appropriate measures, to “cover” open positions with respect to certain kinds of derivative instruments. In the case of swaps, futures contracts, options, forward contracts and other derivative instruments that do not cash settle, for example, an Underlying Fund must identify on its books liquid assets equal to the full notional amount of the instrument while the positions are open, to the extent there is not a permissible offsetting position or a contractual “netting” agreement with respect to swaps (other than credit default swaps where the Underlying Fund is the protection seller). However, with respect to certain swaps, futures contracts, options, forward contracts and other derivative instruments that are required to cash settle, an Underlying Fund may identify liquid assets in an amount equal to the Underlying Fund’s daily marked-to-market net obligations (i.e., the Underlying Fund’s daily net liability) under the instrument, if any, rather than its full notional amount. Forwards and futures contracts that do not cash settle may be treated as cash settled for asset segregation purposes when an Underlying Fund has entered into a contractual arrangement with a third party futures commission merchant (“FCM”) or other counterparty to off-set the Underlying Fund’s exposure under the contract and, failing that, to assign its delivery obligation under the contract to the counterparty. The Underlying Funds reserve the right to modify their asset segregation policies in the future in their discretion, consistent with the Act and SEC or SEC staff guidance. By identifying assets equal to only its net obligations under certain instruments, an Underlying Fund will have the ability to employ leverage to a greater extent than if the Underlying Fund were required to identify assets equal to the full notional amount of the instrument.

In November 2019, the SEC published a proposed rulemaking related to the use of derivatives and certain other transactions by registered investment companies that would, if adopted, for the most part rescind the guidance of the SEC and its staff regarding asset segregation and cover transactions. Instead of complying with current guidance, an Underlying Fund would need to trade derivatives and other transactions that create future payment or delivery obligations (except reverse repurchase agreements and similar financing transactions) subject to a value-at-risk (“VaR”) leverage limit, certain other derivatives risk management program and testing requirements and requirements related to board and SEC reporting. These new requirements would apply unless an Underlying Fund qualified as a “limited derivatives user,” as defined in the SEC’s proposal. If an Underlying Fund trades reverse repurchase agreements or similar financing transactions, it would need to aggregate the amount of indebtedness associated with the reverse repurchase agreements or similar financing transactions with the aggregate amount of any other senior securities representing indebtedness when calculating the Underlying Fund’s asset coverage ratio. Reverse repurchase agreements or similar financing transactions would not be included in the calculation of whether an Underlying Fund is a limited derivatives user. Any new requirements, if adopted, may increase the cost of an Underlying Fund’s investments and cost of doing business, which could adversely affect investors.

Bank Obligations

Certain of the Underlying Funds may invest in obligations issued or guaranteed by U.S. or foreign banks. Bank obligations, including without limitation, time deposits, bankers’ acceptances and certificates of deposit, may be general obligations of the parent bank or may be limited to the issuing branch by the terms of the specific obligations or by government regulation.

Banks are subject to extensive but different governmental regulations which may limit both the amount and types of loans which may be made and interest rates which may be charged. In addition, the profitability of the banking industry is largely dependent upon the availability and cost of funds for the purpose of financing lending operations under prevailing money market conditions. General economic conditions as well as exposure to credit losses arising from possible financial difficulties of borrowers play an important part in the operation of this industry.

Certificates of deposit are certificates evidencing the obligation of a bank to repay funds deposited with it for a specified period of time at a specified rate. Certificates of deposit are negotiable instruments and are similar to saving deposits but have a definite maturity and are evidenced by a certificate instead of a passbook entry. Banks are required to keep reserves against all certificates of deposit. Fixed time deposits are bank obligations payable at a stated maturity date and bearing interest at a fixed rate. Fixed time deposits may be withdrawn on the demand by the investor, but may be subject to early withdrawal penalties which vary depending upon market conditions and the remaining maturity of the obligation. Certain of the Underlying Funds may invest in deposits in U.S. and European banks satisfying the standards set forth above.

Collateralized Loan Obligations and Other Collateralized Debt Obligations

Certain of the Underlying Funds may invest in collateralized loan obligations (“CLOs”) and other similarly structured investments. A CLO is an asset-backed security whose underlying collateral is a pool of loans, which may include, among others, domestic and foreign floating rate and fixed rate senior secured loans, senior unsecured loans, and subordinate corporate loans, including loans that may be rated below investment grade or equivalent unrated loans. In addition to the normal risks associated with loan- and credit-related securities discussed elsewhere in the Prospectus (e.g., loan-related investments risk, interest rate risk and default risk), investments in CLOs carry additional risks including, but not limited to, the risk that: (i) distributions from the collateral may not be adequate to make interest or other payments; (ii) the quality of the collateral may decline in value or default; (iii) an Underlying Fund may invest in tranches of CLOs that are subordinate to other tranches; (iv) the structure and complexity of the transaction and the legal documents could lead to disputes among investors regarding the characterization of proceeds; and (v) the CLO’s manager may perform poorly. CLOs may charge management and other administrative fees, which are in addition to those of an Underlying Fund.

 

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CLOs issue classes or “tranches” that offer various maturity, risk and yield characteristics. Losses caused by defaults on underlying assets are borne first by the holders of subordinate tranches. Tranches are categorized as senior, mezzanine and subordinated/equity, according to their degree of risk. If there are defaults or the CLO’s collateral otherwise underperforms, scheduled payments to senior tranches take precedence over those of mezzanine tranches, and scheduled payments to mezzanine tranches take precedence over those of subordinated/equity tranches. The riskiest portion is the “equity” tranche which bears the bulk of defaults from the collateral and serves to protect the other, more senior tranches from default in all but the most severe circumstances. Because it is partially protected from defaults, a senior tranche from a CLO trust typically has higher ratings and lower yields than its underlying collateral and may be rated investment grade. Despite the protection from the equity and mezzanine tranches, more senior tranches of CLOs can experience losses due to actual defaults, increased sensitivity to defaults due to collateral default and disappearance of more subordinate tranches, market anticipation of defaults, as well as aversion to CLO securities as a class. An Underlying Fund’s investments in CLOs principally consist of senior tranches and, to a lesser extent, mezzanine tranches.

Typically, CLOs are privately offered and sold, and thus, are not registered under the securities laws. As a result, investments in CLOs may have limited independent pricing transparency. However, an active dealer market may exist for CLOs that qualify under the Rule 144A “safe harbor” from the registration requirements of the Securities Act for resales of certain securities to qualified institutional buyers. These and other factors discussed in the section below, entitled “Illiquid Investments,” may impact he liquidity of investments in CLOs.

An Underlying Fund may also invest in collateralized debt obligations (“CDOs”), which are structured similarly to CLOs, but are backed by pools of assets that are debt securities (rather than being limited only to loans), typically including bonds, other structured finance securities (including other asset-backed securities and other CDOs) and/or synthetic instruments. Like CLOs, the risks of an investment in a CDO depend largely on the type and quality of the collateral securities and the tranche of the CDO in which an Underlying Fund invests. CDOs collateralized by pools of asset-backed securities carry the same risks as investments in asset-backed securities directly, including losses with respect to the collateral underlying those asset-backed securities. In addition, certain CDOs may not hold their underlying collateral directly, but rather, use derivatives such as swaps to create “synthetic” exposure to the collateral pool. Such CDOs entail the risks associated with derivative instruments.

Combined Transactions

Certain of the Underlying Funds may enter into multiple transactions, including multiple options transactions, multiple futures transactions, multiple currency transactions (as applicable) (including forward currency contracts) and multiple interest rate and other swap transactions and any combination of futures, options, currency and swap transactions (“component” transactions) as part of a single or combined strategy when, in the opinion of an Underlying Fund’s investment adviser, it is in the best interests of an Underlying Fund to do so. A combined transaction will usually contain elements of risk that are present in each of its component transactions. Although combined transactions are normally entered into based on an Underlying Fund’s investment adviser’s judgment that the combined strategies will reduce risk or otherwise more effectively achieve the desired portfolio management goal, it is possible that the combination will instead increase such risks or hinder achievement of the portfolio management objective.

Commercial Paper and Other Short-Term Corporate Obligations

Certain of the Underlying Funds may invest in commercial paper and other short-term obligations issued or guaranteed by U.S. corporations, non-U.S. corporations or other entities. Commercial paper represents short-term unsecured promissory notes issued in bearer form by banks or bank holding companies, corporations and finance companies.

Commodity-Linked Investments

Certain of the Underlying Funds may invest in commodities through investments in PTPs, ETFs, other investment companies, or other pooled investment vehicles. An Underlying Fund may also seek to provide exposure to the investment returns of real assets that trade in the commodity markets through investments in commodity-linked derivative securities, such as structured notes, discussed below, which are designed to provide this exposure without direct investment in physical commodities or commodities futures contracts. An Underlying Fund may also seek to provide exposure to the investment returns of real assets that trade in the commodity markets through investments in the Subsidiary. Real assets are assets such as oil, gas, industrial and precious metals, livestock, and agricultural or meat products, or other items that have tangible properties, as compared to stocks or bonds, which are financial instruments. In choosing investments, the Investment Adviser seeks to provide exposure to various commodities and commodity sectors. The value of commodity-linked derivative securities held by an Underlying Fund and/or a Subsidiary may be affected by a variety of factors, including, but not limited to, overall market movements and other factors affecting the value of particular industries or commodities, such as weather, disease, embargoes, acts of war or terrorism, or political and regulatory developments.

 

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The prices of commodity-linked derivative instruments may move in different directions than investments in traditional equity and debt securities when the value of those traditional securities is declining due to adverse economic conditions. As an example, during periods of rising inflation, debt securities have historically tended to decline in value due to the general increase in prevailing interest rates. Conversely, during those same periods of rising inflation, the prices of certain commodities, such as oil and metals, have historically tended to increase. Of course, there cannot be any guarantee that these investments will perform in that manner in the future, and at certain times the price movements of commodity-linked instruments have been parallel to those of debt and equity securities. Commodities have historically tended to increase and decrease in value during different parts of the business cycle than financial assets. Nevertheless, at various times, commodities prices may move in tandem with the prices of financial assets and thus may not provide overall portfolio diversification benefits. Under favorable economic conditions, an Underlying Fund’s investments may be expected to underperform an investment in traditional securities. Over the long term, the returns on an Underlying Fund’s investments are expected to exhibit low or negative correlation with stocks and bonds.

Because commodity-linked investments are available from a relatively small number of issuers, the Portfolio’s investments will be particularly subject to counterparty risk, which is the risk that the issuer of the commodity-linked derivative (which issuer may also serve as counterparty to a substantial number of an Underlying Fund’s commodity-linked and other derivative investments) will not fulfill its contractual obligations.

Commodity-Linked Notes

Certain of the Underlying Funds may invest in commodity-linked notes. Commodity-linked notes are a type of structured note. Commodity-linked notes are privately negotiated structured debt securities indexed to the return of an index such as the Dow Jones-UBS Commodity Index Total Return, which is representative of the commodities market. They are available from a limited number of approved counterparties, and all invested amounts are exposed to the dealer’s credit risk. Commodity-linked notes may be leveraged. For example, if an Underlying Fund invests $100 in a three-times leveraged commodity-linked note, it will exchange $100 principal with the dealer to obtain $300 exposure to the commodities market because the value of the note will change by a magnitude of three for every percentage change (positive or negative) in the value of the underlying index. This means a $100 note would be worth $70 if the commodity index decreased by 10 percent. Structured notes also are subject to counterparty risk.

Convertible Securities

Certain of the Underlying Funds may invest in convertible securities. Convertible securities are bonds, debentures, notes, preferred stocks or other securities that may be converted into or exchanged for a specified amount of common stock (or other securities) of the same or different issuer within a particular period of time at a specified price or formula. A convertible security entitles the holder to receive interest that is generally paid or accrued on debt or a dividend that is paid or accrued on preferred stock until the convertible security matures or is redeemed, converted or exchanged. Convertible securities have unique investment characteristics, in that they generally (i) have higher yields than common stocks, but lower yields than comparable non-convertible securities, (ii) are less subject to fluctuation in value than the underlying common stock due to their fixed income characteristics and (iii) provide the potential for capital appreciation if the market price of the underlying common stock increases.

The value of a convertible security is a function of its “investment value” (determined by its yield in comparison with the yields of other securities of comparable maturity and quality that do not have a conversion privilege) and its “conversion value” (the security’s worth, at market value, if converted into the underlying common stock). The investment value of a convertible security is influenced by changes in interest rates, with investment value normally declining as interest rates increase and increasing as interest rates decline. The credit standing of the issuer and other factors may also have an effect on the convertible security’s investment value. The conversion value of a convertible security is determined by the market price of the underlying common stock. If the conversion value is low relative to the investment value, the price of the convertible security is governed principally by its investment value. To the extent the market price of the underlying common stock approaches or exceeds the conversion price, the price of the convertible security will be increasingly influenced by its conversion value. A convertible security generally will sell at a premium over its conversion value by the extent to which investors place value on the right to acquire the underlying common stock while holding a fixed income security.

A convertible security may be subject to redemption at the option of the issuer at a price established in the convertible security’s governing instrument. If a convertible security held by an Underlying Fund is called for redemption, the Underlying Fund will be required to convert the security into the underlying common stock, sell it to a third party or permit the issuer to redeem the security. Any of these actions could have an adverse effect on an Underlying Fund’s ability to achieve its investment objective, which, in turn, could result in losses to the Underlying Fund.

Corporate Debt Obligations

Each Underlying Fund may, under normal market conditions, invest in corporate debt obligations, including obligations of industrial, utility and financial issuers. Certain of the Underlying Funds may only invest in debt securities that are cash equivalents. Corporate debt obligations include bonds, notes, debentures and other obligations of corporations to pay interest and repay principal. Corporate debt obligations are subject to the risk of an issuer’s inability to meet principal and interest payments on the obligations and may also be subject to price volatility due to such factors as market interest rates, market perception of the creditworthiness of the issuer and general market liquidity.

 

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An economic downturn could severely affect the ability of highly leveraged issuers of junk bond securities to service their debt obligations or to repay their obligations upon maturity. Factors having an adverse impact on the market value of junk bonds will have an adverse effect on an Underlying Fund’s net asset value to the extent it invests in such securities. In addition, an Underlying Fund may incur additional expenses to the extent it is required to seek recovery upon a default in payment of principal or interest on its portfolio holdings.

These and other factors discussed in the section below, entitled “Illiquid Investments,” may impact the liquidity of investments in high yield securities.

The secondary market for junk bonds, which is concentrated in relatively few market makers, may not be as liquid as the secondary market for more highly rated securities. This reduced liquidity may have an adverse effect on the ability of an Underlying Fund to dispose of a particular security when necessary to meet its redemption requests or other liquidity needs. Under adverse market or economic conditions, the secondary market for junk bonds could contract further, independent of any specific adverse changes in the condition of a particular issuer. As a result, the investment adviser for an Underlying Fund could find it difficult to sell these securities or may be able to sell the securities only at prices lower than if such securities were widely traded. Prices realized upon the sale of such lower rated or unrated securities, under such circumstances, may be less than the prices used in calculating an Underlying Fund’s net asset value.

Because investors generally perceive that there are greater risks associated with the medium to lower rated securities of the type in which an Underlying Fund may invest, the yields and prices of such securities may tend to fluctuate more than those for higher rated securities. In the lower quality segments of the fixed income securities market, changes in perceptions of issuers’ creditworthiness tend to occur more frequently and in a more pronounced manner than do changes in higher quality segments of the fixed income securities market, resulting in greater yield and price volatility.

Another factor which causes fluctuations in the prices of fixed income securities is the supply and demand for similarly rated securities. In addition, the prices of fixed income securities fluctuate in response to the general level of interest rates. Fluctuations in the prices of portfolio securities subsequent to their acquisition will not affect cash income from such securities but will be reflected in an Underlying Fund’s net asset value.

Corporate debt obligations rated BBB or Baa are considered medium-grade obligations with speculative characteristics, and adverse economic conditions or changing circumstances may weaken their issuers’ capacity to pay interest and repay principal. Medium to lower rated and comparable non-rated securities tend to offer higher yields than higher rated securities with the same maturities because the historical financial condition of the issuers of such securities may not have been as strong as that of other issuers. The price of corporate debt obligations will generally fluctuate in response to fluctuations in supply and demand for similarly rated securities. In addition, the price of corporate debt obligations will generally fluctuate in response to interest rate levels. Fluctuations in the prices of portfolio securities subsequent to their acquisition will not affect cash income from such securities but will be reflected in each Portfolio’s net asset value (“NAV”). Because medium to lower rated securities generally involve greater risks of loss of income and principal than higher rated securities, investors should consider carefully the relative risks associated with investment in securities which carry medium to lower ratings and in comparable unrated securities. In addition to the risk of default, there are the related costs of recovery on defaulted issues. The investment advisers of the Underlying Funds will attempt to reduce these risks through portfolio diversification and by analysis of each issuer and its ability to make timely payments of income and principal, as well as broad economic trends and corporate developments.

The Underlying Fund’s investment adviser employs its own credit research and analysis, which includes a study of existing debt, capital structure, ability to service debt and pay dividends, sensitivity to economic conditions, operating history and current earnings trend. The investment adviser for each Underlying Fund continually monitors the investments in the Underlying Fund’s portfolio and evaluates whether to dispose of or to retain corporate debt obligations whose credit ratings or credit quality may have changed. If after its purchase, a portfolio security is assigned a lower rating or ceases to be rated, an Underlying Fund may continue to hold the security if the Underlying Fund’s investment adviser believes it is in the best interest of the Underlying Fund and its shareholders.

Currency-Linked Notes

Certain of the Underlying Funds may invest in currency-linked notes. Currency-linked notes are short- or intermediate-term debt securities whose value at maturity or interest payments are linked to the change in value of the U.S. dollar against the performance of a currency index or one or more foreign currencies. In some cases, these securities pay an amount at maturity based on a multiple of the amount of a currency’s change against the dollar. If they are sold prior to their maturity, their price may be higher or lower than their purchase price as a result of market conditions or changes in the credit quality of the issuer.

 

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Custodial Receipts and Trust Certificates

Each Underlying Fund may invest in custodial receipts and trust certificates (which may be underwritten by securities dealers or banks), representing interests in securities held by a custodian or trustee. The securities so held may include U.S. Government Securities (as defined below), Municipal Securities (as defined below) or other types of securities in which an Underlying Fund may invest. The custodial receipts or trust certificates are underwritten by securities dealers or banks and may evidence ownership of future interest payments, principal payments or both on the underlying securities, or, in some cases, the payment obligation of a third party that has entered into an interest rate swap or other arrangement with the custodian or trustee. For certain securities law purposes, custodial receipts and trust certificates may not be considered obligations of the U.S. Government or other issuer of the securities held by the custodian or trustee. As a holder of custodial receipts and trust certificates, an Underlying Fund will bear its proportionate share of the fees and expenses charged to the custodial account or trust. The Underlying Funds may also invest in separately issued interests in custodial receipts and trust certificates.

Although under the terms of a custodial receipt or trust certificate an Underlying Fund would typically be authorized to assert its rights directly against the issuer of the underlying obligation, the Underlying Fund could be required to assert through the custodian bank or trustee those rights as may exist against the underlying issuers. Thus, in the event an underlying issuer fails to pay principal and/or interest when due, an Underlying Fund may be subject to delays, expenses and risks that are greater than those that would have been involved if the Underlying Fund had purchased a direct obligation of the issuer. In addition, in the event that the trust or custodial account in which the underlying securities have been deposited is determined to be an association taxable as a corporation, instead of a non-taxable entity, the yield on the underlying securities would be reduced in recognition of any taxes paid.

Certain custodial receipts and trust certificates may be synthetic or derivative instruments that have interest rates that reset inversely to changing short-term rates and/or have embedded interest rate floors and caps that require the issuer to pay an adjusted interest rate if market rates fall below or rise above a specified rate. Because some of these instruments represent relatively recent innovations, and the trading market for these instruments is less developed than the markets for traditional types of instruments, it is uncertain how these instruments will perform under different economic and interest-rate scenarios. Also, because these instruments may be leveraged, their market values may be more volatile than other types of fixed income instruments and may present greater potential for capital gain or loss. The possibility of default by an issuer or the issuer’s credit provider may be greater for these derivative instruments than for other types of instruments. In some cases, it may be difficult to determine the fair value of a derivative instrument because of a lack of reliable objective information and an established secondary market for some instruments may not exist. In many cases, the Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”) has not ruled on the tax treatment of the interest or payments received on the derivative instruments and, accordingly, purchases of such instruments are based on the opinion of counsel to the sponsors of the instruments.

Deferred Interest, Pay-in-Kind and Capital Appreciation Bonds

Certain of the Underlying Funds may invest in deferred interest and capital appreciation bonds and pay-in-kind (“PIK”) securities. Deferred interest and capital appreciation bonds are debt securities issued or sold at a discount from their face value and which do not entitle the holder to any periodic payment of interest prior to maturity or a specified date. The original issue discount varies depending on the time remaining until maturity or cash payment date, prevailing interest rates, the liquidity of the security and the perceived credit quality of the issuer. These securities also may take the form of debt securities that have been stripped of their unmatured interest coupons, the coupons themselves or receipts or certificates representing interests in such stripped debt obligations or coupons.

PIK securities may be debt obligations or preferred shares that provide the issuer with the option of paying interest or dividends on such obligations in cash or in the form of additional securities rather than cash. Similar to zero coupon bonds and deferred interest bonds, PIK securities are designed to give an issuer flexibility in managing cash flow. PIK securities that are debt securities can either be senior or subordinated debt and generally trade flat (i.e., without accrued interest). The trading price of PIK debt securities generally reflects the market value of the underlying debt plus an amount representing accrued interest since the last interest payment.

The market prices of deferred interest, capital appreciation bonds and PIK securities generally are more volatile than the market prices of interest bearing securities and are likely to respond to a greater degree to changes in interest rates than interest bearing securities having similar maturities and credit quality. Moreover, deferred interest, capital appreciation and PIK securities involve the additional risk that, unlike securities that periodically pay interest to maturity, an Underlying Fund will realize no cash until a specified future payment date unless a portion of such securities is sold and, if the issuer of such securities defaults, an Underlying Fund may obtain no return at all on its investment. The valuation of such investments requires judgment regarding the collection of future payments. In addition, even though such securities do not provide for the payment of current interest in cash, an Underlying Fund is nonetheless required to accrue income on such investments for each taxable year and generally are required to distribute such accrued amounts (net of deductible expenses, if any) to avoid being subject to tax. Because no cash is generally received at the time of the accrual, an Underlying Fund may be required to liquidate other portfolio securities to obtain sufficient cash to satisfy federal tax distribution requirements applicable to an Underlying Fund. A portion of the discount with respect to stripped tax-exempt securities or their coupons may be taxable. See “Taxation”.

 

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Distressed Debt

When an Underlying Fund or a Portfolio invests invest in the securities and other obligations of financially troubled companies, including stressed, distressed and bankrupt issuers and debt obligations that are in covenant or payment default. In addition, investments of an Underlying Fund may become distressed or bankrupt following the Underlying Fund’s initial acquisition of the security. Historically, economic downturns or increases in interest rates have, under certain circumstances, resulted in a higher occurrence of default by the issuers of these instruments. Such investments generally trade significantly below par and are considered speculative. The repayment of defaulted obligations is subject to significant uncertainties. Defaulted obligations might be repaid only after lengthy workout or bankruptcy proceedings, during which the issuer might not make any interest or other payments. Typically such workout or bankruptcy proceedings result in only partial recovery of cash payments or an exchange of the defaulted obligation for other debt or equity securities of the issuer or its affiliates, which may in turn be speculative.

In any investment involving stressed and distressed debt obligations, there exists the risk that the transaction involving such debt obligations will be unsuccessful, take considerable time or will result in a distribution of cash or a new security or obligation in exchange for the stressed and distressed debt obligations, the value of which may be less than an Underlying Fund’s purchase price of such debt obligations. Furthermore, if an anticipated transaction does not occur, an Underlying Fund may be required to sell its investment at a loss. Distressed investments may require active participation by the Investment Adviser in the restructuring of an Underlying Fund’s investment or other actions intended to protect the Underlying Fund’s investment; however, there may be situations where the Investment Adviser may determine to not so participate due to regulatory, tax or other considerations. In addition, an Underlying Fund may participate on creditors’ committees to negotiate with the management of financially troubled issuers of securities held by the Underlying Fund. Such participation may subject a Fund to additional expenses (including legal fees) and may make an Underlying Fund an “insider” of the issuer for purposes of the federal securities laws. This may result in increased litigation risks to a Fund or may restrict the Investment Adviser’s ability to dispose of the security.

There are a number of significant risks inherent in the bankruptcy process. Many events in a bankruptcy are the product of contested matters and adversary proceedings and are beyond the control of the creditors. A bankruptcy filing by an issuer may adversely and permanently affect the issuer, and if the proceeding is converted to a liquidation, the value of the issuer may not equal the liquidation value that was believed to exist at the time of the investment. The duration of a bankruptcy proceeding is difficult to predict, and a creditor’s return on investment can be adversely affected by delays until the plan of reorganization ultimately becomes effective. The administrative costs in connection with a bankruptcy proceeding are frequently high and would be paid out of the debtor’s estate prior to any return to creditors. Because the standards for classification of claims under bankruptcy law are vague, there exists the risk that an Underlying Fund’s influence with respect to the class of securities or other obligations it owns can be lost by increases in the number and amount of claims in the same class or by different classification and treatment. In the early stages of the bankruptcy process it is often difficult to estimate the extent of, or even to identify, any contingent claims that might be made. In addition, certain claims that have priority by law (for example, claims for taxes) may be substantial.

These and other factors discussed in the section below, entitled “Illiquid Investments,” may impact the liquidity of investments in securities and other obligations of financially troubled companies.

Dividend-Paying Investments

A Portfolio’s or an Underlying Fund’s investments in dividend-paying securities could cause the Portfolio or an Underlying Fund to underperform other funds that invest in similar asset classes but employ a different investment style. Securities that pay dividends, as a group, can fall out of favor with the market, causing such securities to underperform securities that do not pay dividends. Depending upon market conditions and political and legislative responses to such conditions, dividend-paying securities that meet a Portfolio’s or an Underlying Fund’s investment criteria may not be widely available and/or may be highly concentrated in only a few market sectors. For example, in response to the outbreak of a novel strain of coronavirus (known as COVID-19), the U.S. Government passed the Coronavirus Aid, Relief and Economic Security Act in March 2020, which established loan programs for certain issuers impacted by COVID-19. Among other conditions, borrowers under these loan programs are generally restricted from paying dividends. The adoption of new legislation could further limit or restrict the ability of issuers to pay dividends. To the extent that dividend-paying securities are concentrated in only a few market sectors, a Portfolio or an Underlying Fund may be subject to the risks of volatile economic cycles and/or conditions or developments that may be particular to a sector to a greater extent than if its investments were diversified across different sectors. In addition, issuers that have paid regular dividends or distributions to shareholders may not continue to do so at the same level or at all in the future. A sharp rise in interest rates or an economic downturn could cause an issuer to abruptly reduce or eliminate its dividend. This may limit the ability of the Portfolio or an Underlying Fund to produce current income.

Events Relating to the Mortgage- and Asset-Backed Securities Markets and the Overall Economy

The unprecedented disruption in the residential mortgage-backed securities market (and in particular, the “subprime” residential mortgage market), the broader mortgage-backed securities market and the asset-backed securities market in 2008 and 2009 resulted in downward price pressures and increasing foreclosures and defaults in residential and commercial real estate. Concerns over inflation, energy costs, geopolitical issues, the availability and cost of credit, the mortgage market and a depressed real estate market contributed to increased volatility and diminished expectations for the economy and markets going forward, and contributed to dramatic declines in the housing market, with falling home prices and increasing foreclosures and unemployment, and significant asset write-downs by financial institutions. These conditions prompted a number of financial institutions to seek additional capital, to merge with other institutions and, in some cases, to fail or seek bankruptcy protection. Between 2008-2009, the market for Mortgage-Backed Securities (as well as other asset-backed securities) was particularly adversely impacted by, among other factors, the failure and subsequent sale of Bear, Stearns & Co. Inc. to J.P. Morgan Chase, the merger of Bank of America Corporation and Merrill Lynch & Co., the insolvency of Washington Mutual Inc., the failure and subsequent bankruptcy of Lehman Brothers Holdings, Inc., the extension of approximately $152 billion in emergency credit by the U.S. Department of the Treasury to American International Group Inc., and, as described above, the conservatorship and the control by the U.S. Government of Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae. The global markets also saw an increase in volatility due to uncertainty surrounding the level and sustainability of sovereign debt of certain countries that are part of the European Union (“EU”), including Greece, Spain, Portugal, Ireland and Italy, as well as the sustainability of the EU itself. Concerns over the level and sustainability of the sovereign debt of the United States have aggravated this volatility. No assurance can be made that this uncertainty will not lead to further disruption of the credit markets in the United States or around the globe. These events, coupled with the general global economic downturn, have resulted in a substantial level of uncertainty in the financial markets, particularly with respect to mortgage-related investments.

 

B-26


These events may lead to further declines in income from, or the value of, real estate, including the real estate which secures the Mortgage-Backed Securities held by certain of the Underlying Funds. Additionally, a lack of credit liquidity, adjustments of mortgages to higher rates and decreases in the value of real property have occurred and may reoccur, and potentially prevent borrowers from refinancing their mortgages, which may increase the likelihood of default on their mortgage loans. These economic conditions, coupled with high levels of real estate inventory and elevated incidence of underwater mortgages, may also adversely affect the amount of proceeds the holder of a mortgage loan or mortgage-backed securities (including the Mortgage-Backed Securities in which certain Underlying Funds may invest) would realize in the event of a foreclosure or other exercise of remedies. Moreover, even if such Mortgage-Backed Securities are performing as anticipated, the value of such securities in the secondary market may nevertheless fall or continue to fall as a result of deterioration in general market conditions for such Mortgage-Backed Securities or other asset-backed or structured products. Trading activity associated with market indices may also drive spreads on those indices wider than spreads on Mortgage-Backed Securities, thereby resulting in a decrease in value of such Mortgage-Backed Securities, including the Mortgage-Backed Securities owned by certain of the Underlying Funds.

The U.S. Government, the Federal Reserve, the Treasury, the SEC, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (the “FDIC”) and other governmental and regulatory bodies have taken or are considering taking actions to address the financial crisis. These actions include, but are not limited to, the enactment by the U.S. Congress of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (“Dodd-Frank Act”) which was signed into law on July 21, 2010 and imposes a new regulatory framework over the U.S. financial services industry and the consumer credit markets in general, and the promulgation of additional regulations in this area which could affect these securities. Given the broad scope, sweeping nature, and relatively recent enactment of some of these regulatory measures, the potential impact they could have on any of the asset-backed or Mortgage-Backed Securities held by certain of the Underlying Funds is unknown. There can be no assurance that these measures will not have an adverse effect on the value or marketability of any asset-backed or Mortgage-Backed Securities held by certain of the Underlying Funds. Furthermore, no assurance can be made that the U.S. Government or any U.S. regulatory body (or other authority or regulatory body) will not continue to take further legislative or regulatory action in response to the economic crisis or otherwise, and the effect of such actions, if taken, cannot be known.

Among its other provisions, the Dodd-Frank Act creates a liquidation framework under which the FDIC, may be appointed as receiver following a “systemic risk determination” by the Secretary of Treasury (in consultation with the President) for the resolution of certain nonbank financial companies and other entities, defined as “covered financial companies”, and commonly referred to as “systemically important entities”, in the event such a company is in default or in danger of default and the resolution of such a company under other applicable law would have serious adverse effects on financial stability in the United States, and also for the resolution of certain of their subsidiaries. No assurances can be given that this new liquidation framework would not apply to the originators of asset-backed securities, including Mortgage-Backed Securities, or their respective subsidiaries, including the issuers and depositors of such securities, although the expectation embedded in the Dodd-Frank Act is that the framework will be invoked only very rarely. Guidance from the FDIC indicates that such new framework will largely be exercised in a manner consistent with the existing bankruptcy laws, which is the insolvency regime that would otherwise apply to the sponsors, depositors and issuing entities with respect to asset-backed securities, including Mortgage-Backed Securities. The application of such liquidation framework to such entities could result in decreases or delays in amounts paid on, and hence the market value of, the Mortgage-Backed or asset-backed securities that are owned by an Underlying Fund.

Delinquencies, defaults and losses on residential mortgage loans may increase substantially over certain periods, which may affect the performance of the Mortgage-Backed Securities in which certain of the Underlying Funds may invest. Mortgage loans backing non-agency Mortgage-Backed Securities are more sensitive to economic factors that could affect the ability of borrowers to pay their obligations under the mortgage loans backing these securities. In addition, housing prices and appraisal values in many states and localities over certain periods have declined or stopped appreciating. A continued decline or an extended flattening of those values may result in additional increases in delinquencies and losses on Mortgage-Backed Securities generally (including the Mortgage-Backed Securities that certain of the Underlying Funds may invest in as described above).

The foregoing adverse changes in market conditions and regulatory climate may reduce the cash flow which an Underlying Fund, to the extent it invests in Mortgage-Backed Securities or other asset-backed securities, receives from such securities and increase the incidence and severity of credit events and losses in respect of such securities. In addition, interest rate spreads for Mortgage-Backed Securities and other asset-backed securities are subject to widening and increased volatility due to these adverse changes in market conditions. In the event that interest rate spreads for Mortgage-Backed Securities and other asset-backed securities widen following the purchase of such assets by an Underlying Fund, the market value of such securities is likely to decline and, in the case of a substantial spread widening, could decline by a substantial amount. Furthermore, adverse changes in market conditions may result in reduced liquidity in the market for Mortgage-Backed Securities and other asset-backed securities (including the Mortgage-Backed Securities and other asset-backed securities in which certain of the Underlying Funds may invest) and increased unwillingness by banks, financial institutions and investors to extend credit to servicers, originators and other participants in the market for Mortgage-Backed and other asset-backed securities. As a result, the liquidity and/or the market value of any Mortgage-Backed or asset-backed securities that are owned by certain of the Underlying Funds may experience further declines after they are purchased the Underlying Funds.

 

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Extended Trade Settlement Periods

Because transactions in many floating rate loans are subject to extended trade settlement periods, an Underlying Fund may not receive the proceeds from the sale of a loan for a period after the sale. As a result, sale proceeds related to the sale of floating rate loans may not be available to make additional investments or to meet an Underlying Fund’s redemption obligations for a period after the sale of the loans, and, as a result, the Underlying Fund may have to sell other investments or engage in borrowing transactions, such as borrowing from its credit facility, if necessary to raise cash to meet its obligations.

Foreign Securities

Certain of the other Underlying Funds invest primarily in foreign securities under normal circumstances, or in equity securities of foreign issuers that are traded in the United States. Investments in foreign securities may offer potential benefits not available from investments solely in U.S. dollar-denominated or quoted securities of domestic issuers. Such benefits may include the opportunity to invest in foreign issuers that appear, in the opinion of an Underlying Fund’s investment adviser, to offer the potential for better long-term growth of capital and income than investments in U.S. securities, the opportunity to invest in foreign countries with economic policies or business cycles different from those of the United States and the opportunity to reduce fluctuations in portfolio value by taking advantage of foreign securities markets that do not necessarily move in a manner parallel to U.S. markets. Investing in the securities of foreign issuers also involves, however, certain special risks, including those discussed in the Underlying Funds’ Prospectuses and those set forth below, which are not typically associated with investing in U.S. dollar-denominated securities or quoted securities of U.S. issuers. Many of these risks are more pronounced for investments in emerging economies.

With respect to investments in certain foreign countries, there exist certain economic, political and social risks, including the risk of adverse political developments, nationalization, military unrest, social instability, war and terrorism, confiscation without fair compensation, expropriation or confiscatory taxation, limitations on the movement of funds and other assets between countries, or diplomatic developments, any of which could adversely affect an Underlying Fund’s investment in those countries. Governments in certain foreign countries continue to participate to a significant degree, through ownership interest or regulation, in their respective economies. Action by these governments could have a significant effect on market prices of securities and dividend payments.

Many countries throughout the world are dependent on a healthy U.S. economy and are adversely affected when the U.S. economy weakens or its markets decline. Additionally, many foreign country economies are heavily dependent on international trade and are adversely affected by protective trade barriers and economic conditions of their trading partners. Protectionist trade legislation enacted by those trading partners could have a significant adverse effect on the securities markets of those countries. Individual foreign economies may differ favorably or unfavorably from the U.S. economy in such respects as growth of gross national product, rate of inflation, capital reinvestment, resource self-sufficiency and balance of payments position.

From time to time, certain of the companies in which an Underlying Fund may invest may operate in, or have dealings with, countries subject to sanctions or embargos imposed by the U.S. Government and the United Nations and/or countries identified by the U.S. Government as state sponsors of terrorism. A company may suffer damage to its reputation if it is identified as a company which operates in, or has dealings with, countries subject to sanctions or embargoes imposed by the U.S. Government as state sponsors of terrorism. For example, the United Nations Security Council has imposed certain sanctions relating to Iran and Sudan and both countries are embargoed countries by the Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC) of the US Department of the Treasury.

In addition, from time to time, certain of the companies in which an Underlying Fund may invest may engage in, or have dealings with countries or companies that engage in, activities that may not be considered socially and/or environmentally responsible. Such activities may relate to human rights issues (such as patterns of human rights abuses or violations, persecution or discrimination), impacts to local communities in which companies operate and environmental sustainability. For a description of the Investment Adviser’s approach to responsible and sustainable investing, please see GSAM’s Statement on Responsible and Sustainable Investing at https://www.gsam.com/content/dam/gsam/pdfs/common/en/public/miscellaneous/GSAM_statement_on_respon_sustainable_investing.pdf.

As a result, a company may suffer damage to its reputation if it is identified as a company which engages in, or has dealings with countries or companies that engage in, the above referenced activities. As an investor in such companies, an Underlying Fund would be indirectly subject to those risks.

The Investment Adviser is committed to complying fully with sanctions in effect as of the date of this Statement of Additional Information and any other applicable sanctions that may be enacted in the future with respect to Sudan or any other country.

Investments in foreign securities often involve currencies of foreign countries. Accordingly, an Underlying Fund that invests in foreign securities may be affected favorably or unfavorably by changes in currency rates and in exchange control regulations and may incur costs in connection with conversions between various currencies. An Underlying Fund may be subject to currency exposure independent of its securities positions. To the extent that an Underlying Fund is fully invested in foreign securities while also maintaining net currency positions, it may be exposed to greater combined risk.

 

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Currency exchange rates may fluctuate significantly over short periods of time. They generally are determined by the forces of supply and demand in the foreign exchange markets and the relative merits of investments in different countries, actual or anticipated changes in interest rates and other complex factors, as seen from an international perspective. Currency exchange rates also can be affected unpredictably by intervention (or the failure to intervene) by U.S. or foreign governments or central banks or by currency controls or political developments in the United States or abroad. To the extent that a substantial portion of an Underlying Fund’s total assets, adjusted to reflect the Underlying Fund’s net position after giving effect to currency transactions, is denominated or quoted in the currencies of foreign countries, the Underlying Fund will be more susceptible to the risk of adverse economic and political developments within those countries. An Underlying Fund’s net currency position may expose it to risks independent of its securities positions.

Because foreign issuers generally are not subject to uniform accounting, auditing and financial reporting standards, practices and requirements comparable to those applicable to U.S. companies, there may be less publicly available information about a foreign company than about a U.S. company. Volume and liquidity in most foreign securities markets are less than in the United States and securities of many foreign companies are less liquid and more volatile than securities of comparable U.S. companies. The securities of foreign issuers may be listed on foreign securities exchanges or traded in foreign over-the-counter markets. Fixed commissions on foreign securities exchanges are generally higher than negotiated commissions on U.S. exchanges, although each Underlying Fund endeavors to achieve the most favorable net results on its portfolio transactions. There is generally less government supervision and regulation of foreign securities exchanges, brokers, dealers and listed and unlisted companies than in the United States, and the legal remedies for investors may be more limited than the remedies available in the United States. For example, there may be no comparable provisions under certain foreign laws to insider trading and similar investor protections that apply with respect to securities transactions consummated in the U.S. Mail service between the U.S. and foreign countries may be slower or less reliable than within the U.S., thus increasing the risk of delayed settlement of portfolio transactions or loss of certificates for portfolio securities.

Foreign markets also have different clearance and settlement procedures, and in certain markets there have been times when settlements have been unable to keep pace with the volume of securities transactions, making it difficult to conduct such transactions. Such delays in settlement could result in temporary periods when some of an Underlying Fund’s assets are uninvested and no return is earned on such assets. The inability of an Underlying Fund to make intended security purchases due to settlement problems could cause the Underlying Fund to miss attractive investment opportunities. Inability to dispose of portfolio securities due to settlement problems could result either in losses to an Underlying Fund due to subsequent declines in value of the portfolio securities or, if the Underlying Fund has entered into a contract to sell the securities, could result in possible liability to the purchaser.

These and other factors discussed in the section below, entitled “Illiquid Investments,” may impact the liquidty of investments in securities of foreign issuers.

In the case of certain Underlying Funds, investments in foreign securities may take the form of sponsored and unsponsored American Depositary Receipts (“ADRs”), Global Depositary Receipts (“GDRs”), European Depositary Receipts (“EDRs”) or other similar instruments representing securities of foreign issuers (together, “Depositary Receipts”). ADRs represent the right to receive securities of foreign issuers deposited in a domestic bank or a correspondent bank. ADRs are traded on domestic exchanges or in the U.S. over-the-counter market and, generally, are in registered form. EDRs and GDRs are receipts evidencing an arrangement with a non-U.S. bank similar to that for ADRs and are designed for use in the non-U.S. securities markets. EDRs and GDRs are not necessarily quoted in the same currency as the underlying security.

To the extent an Underlying Fund acquires Depositary Receipts through banks which do not have a contractual relationship with the foreign issuer of the security underlying the Depositary Receipts to issue and service such unsponsored Depositary Receipts, there is an increased possibility that the Underlying Fund will not become aware of and be able to respond to corporate actions such as stock splits or rights offerings involving the foreign issuer in a timely manner. In addition, the lack of information may result in inefficiencies in the valuation of such instruments. Investment in Depositary Receipts does not eliminate all the risks inherent in investing in securities of non-U.S. issuers. The market value of Depositary Receipts is dependent upon the market value of the underlying securities and fluctuations in the relative value of the currencies in which the Depositary Receipts and the underlying securities are quoted. However, by investing in Depositary Receipts, such as ADRs, which are quoted in U.S. dollars, an Underlying Fund may avoid currency risks during the settlement period for purchases and sales.

As described more fully below, certain of the Underlying Funds may invest in countries with emerging economies or securities markets. Political and economic structures in many of such countries may be undergoing significant evolution and rapid development, and such countries may lack the social, political and economic stability characteristic of more developed countries. Certain of such countries have in the past failed to recognize private property rights and have at times nationalized or expropriated the assets of, or ignored internationally accepted standards of due process against, private companies. In addition, a country may take these and other retaliatory actions against a specific private company, including a Portfolio, an Underlying Fund or the Investment Adviser. There may not be legal recourse against these actions, which could arise in connection with the commercial activities of Goldman Sachs or its affiliates or otherwise, and a Portfolio could be subject to substantial losses. In addition, an Underlying Fund or the Investment Adviser may determine not to invest in, or may limit its overall investment in, a particular issuer, country or geographic region due to, among other things, heightened risks regarding repatriation restrictions, confiscation of assets and property, expropriation or nationalization. See “Investing in Emerging Countries” below.

 

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Brady Bonds. Certain foreign debt obligations, customarily referred to as “Brady Bonds,” are created through the exchange of existing commercial bank loans to foreign entities for new obligations in connection with debt restructuring under a plan introduced by former U.S. Secretary of the Treasury, Nicholas F. Brady. Brady Bonds may be fully or partially collateralized or uncollateralized and issued in various currencies (although most are U.S. dollar denominated). In the event of a default on collateralized Brady Bonds for which obligations are accelerated, the collateral for the payment of principal will not be distributed to investors, nor will such obligations be sold and the proceeds distributed. The collateral will be held by the collateral agent to the scheduled maturity of the defaulted Brady Bonds, which will continue to be outstanding, at which time the face amount of the collateral will equal the principal payments which would have then been due on the Brady Bonds in the normal course. In light of the residual risk of the Brady Bonds and, among other factors, the history of default with respect to commercial bank loans by public and private entities of countries issuing Brady Bonds, investments in Brady Bonds may be speculative.

Foreign Government Obligations. Foreign government obligations include securities, instruments and obligations issued or guaranteed by a foreign government, its agencies, instrumentalities or sponsored enterprises. Investment in foreign government obligations can involve a high degree of risk. The governmental entity that controls the repayment of foreign government obligations may not be able or willing to repay the principal and/or interest when due in accordance with the terms of such debt. A governmental entity’s willingness or ability to repay principal and interest due in a timely manner may be affected by, among other factors, its cash flow situation, the extent of its foreign reserves, the availability of sufficient foreign exchange on the date a payment is due, the relative size of the debt service burden to the economy as a whole, the governmental entity’s policy towards the International Monetary Fund and the political constraints to which a governmental entity may be subject. Governmental entities may also be dependent on expected disbursements from foreign governments, multilateral agencies and others abroad to reduce principal and interest on their debt. The commitment on the part of these governments, agencies and others to make such disbursements may be conditioned on a governmental entity’s implementation of economic reforms and/or economic performance and the timely service of such debtor’s obligations. Failure to implement such reforms, achieve such levels of economic performance or repay principal or interest when due may result in the cancellation of such third parties’ commitments to lend funds to the governmental entity, which may further impair such debtor’s ability or willingness to service its debts in a timely manner. Consequently, governmental entities may default on their debt. Holders of foreign government obligations (including certain of the Underlying Funds) may be requested to participate in the rescheduling of such debt and to extend further loans to governmental agencies.

Investing in Asia. Although many countries in Asia have experienced a relatively stable political environment over the last decade, there is no guarantee that such stability will be maintained in the future. As an emerging region, many factors may affect such stability on a country-by-country as well as on a regional basis – increasing gaps between the rich and poor, agrarian unrest, instability of existing coalitions in politically-fractionated countries, hostile relations with neighboring countries, and ethnic, religious and racial disaffection – and may result in adverse consequences to certain Underlying Funds.

The legal infrastructure in each of the countries in Asia is unique and often undeveloped. In most cases, securities laws are evolving and far from adequate for the protection of the public from serious fraud. Investment in Asian securities involves considerations and possible risks not typically involved with investment in other issuers, including changes in governmental administration or economic or monetary policy or changed circumstances in dealings between nations. The application of tax laws (e.g., the imposition of withholding taxes on dividend or interest payments) or confiscatory taxation may also affect investment in Asian securities. Higher expenses may result from investments in Asian securities than would from investments in other securities because of the costs that must be incurred in connection with conversions between various currencies and brokerage commissions that may be higher than more established markets. Asian securities markets also may be less liquid, more volatile and less subject to governmental supervision than elsewhere. Investments in countries in the region could be affected by other factors not present elsewhere, including lack of uniform accounting, auditing and financial reporting standards, inadequate settlement procedures and potential difficulties in enforcing contractual obligations.

Some Asian economies have limited natural resources, resulting in dependence on foreign sources for energy and raw materials and economic vulnerability to global fluctuations of price and supply. Certain countries in Asia are especially prone to natural disasters, such as flooding, drought and earthquakes. Combined with the possibility of man-made disasters, the occurrence of such disasters may adversely affect companies in which an Underlying Fund is invested and, as a result, may result in adverse consequences to such Underlying Fund.

Many of the countries in Asia have experienced rising inflation. Should the governments and central banks of the countries in Asia fail to control inflation, this may have an adverse effect on the performance of an Underlying Fund’s investments in Asian securities.

Several of the countries in Asia remain dependent on the U.S. economy as their largest export customer, and future barriers to entry into the U.S. market could adversely affect an Underlying Fund’s performance. Intraregional trade is becoming an increasingly significant percentage of total trade for the countries in Asia. Consequently, the intertwined economies are becoming increasingly dependent on each other, and any barriers to entry to markets in Asia in the future may adversely affect an Underlying Fund’s performance.

 

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Although an Underlying Fund will generally attempt to invest in those markets which provide the greatest freedom of movement of foreign capital, there is no assurance that this will be possible or that certain countries in Asia will not restrict the movement of foreign capital in the future. Changes in securities laws and foreign ownership laws may have an adverse effect on such Underlying Fund.

Investing in Australia. The Australian economy is heavily dependent on the economies of Asia, Europe and the U.S. as key trading partners, and in particular, on the price and demand for agricultural products and natural resources. By total market capitalization, the Australian stock market is small relative to the U.S. stock market and issues may trade with lesser liquidity. Australian reporting, accounting and auditing standards differ substantially from U.S. standards. In general, Australian corporations do not provide all of the disclosure required by U.S. law and accounting practice, and such disclosure may be less timely and less frequent than that required of U.S. companies.

Investing in Central and South American Countries. A significant portion of certain Underlying Funds’ portfolios may be invested in securities of issuers located in Central and South American countries. The economies of Central and South American countries have experienced considerable difficulties in the past decade, including high inflation rates, high interest rates and currency devaluations. As a result, Central and South American securities markets have experienced great volatility. In addition, many of the region’s economies have become highly dependent upon foreign credit and loans from external sources to fuel their state-sponsored economic plans. A number of Central and South American countries are among the largest emerging country debtors. There have been moratoria on, and reschedulings of, repayment with respect to these debts. Such events can restrict the flexibility of these debtor nations in the international markets and result in the imposition of onerous conditions on their economies.

In the past, many Central and South American countries have experienced substantial, and in some periods extremely high, rates of inflation for many years. High inflation rates have also led to high interest rates. Inflation and rapid fluctuations in inflation rates have had, and could, in the future, have very negative effects on the economies and securities markets of certain Central and South American countries. Many of the currencies of Central and South American countries have experienced steady devaluation relative to the U.S. dollar, and major devaluations have historically occurred in certain countries. Any devaluations in the currencies in which an Underlying Fund’s portfolio securities are denominated may have a detrimental impact on the Underlying Fund. There is also a risk that certain Central and South American countries may restrict the free conversion of their currencies into other currencies. Some Central and South American countries may have managed currencies which are not free floating against the U.S. dollar. This type of system can lead to sudden and large adjustments in the currency that, in turn, can have a disruptive and negative effect on foreign investors. Certain Central and South American currencies may not be internationally traded and it would be difficult for an Underlying Fund to engage in foreign currency transactions designed to protect the value of the Underlying Fund’s interests in securities denominated in such currencies.

In addition, substantial limitations may exist in certain countries with respect to an Underlying Fund’s ability to repatriate investment income, capital or the proceeds of sales of securities by foreign investors. An Underlying Fund could be adversely affected by delays in, or a refusal to grant, any required governmental approval for repatriation of capital, as well as by the application to the Underlying Fund of any restrictions on investments.

The emergence of the Central and South American economies and securities markets will require continued economic and fiscal discipline that has been lacking at times in the past, as well as stable political and social conditions. Governments of many Central and South American countries have exercised and continue to exercise substantial influence over many aspects of the private sector. The political history of certain Central and South American countries has been characterized by political uncertainty, intervention by the military in civilian and economic spheres and political corruption. Now democracy is beginning to become well established in some countries. Domestic economies have been deregulated, state-owned companies privatized, and foreign trade restrictions relaxed. Such developments, if they do not continue, could reverse favorable trends toward market and economic reform, privatization and removal of trade barriers. Social inequality and poverty may contribute to political and economic instability in this region.

International economic conditions, particularly those in the United States, as well as world prices for oil and other commodities may also influence the recovery of the Central and South American economies. Because commodities such as oil, gas, minerals and metals represent a significant percentage of the region’s exports, the economies of Central and South American countries are particularly sensitive to fluctuations in commodity prices. As a result, the economies in many of these countries can experience significant volatility.

Certain Central and South American countries have entered into regional trade agreements that would, among other things, reduce barriers among countries, increase competition among companies and reduce government subsidies in certain industries. No assurance can be given that these changes will result in the economic stability intended. There is a possibility that these trade arrangements will not be implemented, will be implemented but not completed or will be completed but then partially or completely unwound. It is also possible that a significant participant could choose to abandon a trade agreement, which could diminish its credibility and influence. Any of these occurrences could have adverse effects on the markets of both participating and non-participating countries, including share appreciation or depreciation of participant’s national currencies and a significant increase in exchange rate volatility, a resurgence in economic protectionism, an undermining of confidence in the Central and South American markets, an undermining of Central and South American economic stability, the collapse or slowdown of the drive toward Central and South American economic unity, and/or reversion of the attempts to lower government debt and inflation rates that were introduced in anticipation of such trade agreements. Such developments could have an adverse impact on an Underlying Fund’s investments in Central and South America generally or in specific countries participating in such trade agreements.

 

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Investing in Eastern Europe. Certain of the Underlying Funds may seek investment opportunities within Eastern Europe. Most Eastern European countries had a centrally planned, socialist economy for a substantial period of time. The governments of many Eastern European countries have more recently been implementing reforms directed at political and economic liberalization, including efforts to decentralize the economic decision-making process and move towards a market economy. However, business entities in many Eastern European countries do not have an extended history of operating in a market-oriented economy, and the ultimate impact of Eastern European countries’ attempts to move toward more market-oriented economies is currently unclear. Any change in the leadership or policies of Eastern European countries may halt the expansion of or reverse the liberalization of foreign investment policies now occurring and adversely affect existing investment opportunities.

Where an Underlying Fund invests in securities issued by companies incorporated in or whose principal operations are located in Eastern Europe, other risks may also be encountered. Legal, political, economic and fiscal uncertainties in Eastern European markets may affect the value of an Underlying Fund’s investment in such securities. The currencies in which these investments may be denominated may be unstable, may be subject to significant depreciation and may not be freely convertible. Existing laws and regulations may not be consistently applied. The markets of the countries of Eastern Europe are still in the early stages of their development, have less volume, are less highly regulated, are less liquid and experience greater volatility than more established markets. Settlement of transactions may be subject to delay and administrative uncertainties. Custodians are not able to offer the level of service and safekeeping, settlement and administration services that is customary in more developed markets, and there is a risk that an Underlying Fund will not be recognized as the owner of securities held on its behalf by a sub-custodian.

Investing in Emerging Countries. The securities markets of emerging countries are less liquid and subject to greater price volatility, and have a smaller market capitalization, than the U.S. securities markets. In certain countries, there may be fewer publicly traded securities, and the market may be dominated by a few issuers or sectors. Issuers and securities markets in such countries are not subject to as extensive and frequent accounting, financial and other reporting requirements or as comprehensive government regulations as are issuers and securities markets in the U.S. In particular, the assets and profits appearing on the financial statements of emerging country issuers may not reflect their financial position or results of operations in the same manner as financial statements for U.S. issuers. Substantially less information may be publicly available about emerging country issuers than is available about issuers in the United States.

Emerging country securities markets are typically marked by a high concentration of market capitalization and trading volume in a small number of issuers representing a limited number of industries, as well as a high concentration of ownership of such securities by a limited number of investors. The markets for securities in certain emerging countries are in the earliest stages of their development. Even the markets for relatively widely traded securities in emerging countries may not be able to absorb, without price disruptions, a significant increase in trading volume or trades of a size customarily undertaken by institutional investors in the securities markets of developed countries. The limited size of many of the securities markets can cause prices to be erratic for reasons apart from factors that affect the soundness and competitiveness of these securities issuers. For example, prices may be unduly influenced by traders who control large positions in these markets. Additionally, market making and arbitrage activities are generally less extensive in such markets, which may contribute to increased volatility and reduced liquidity of such markets. The limited liquidity of emerging country securities may also affect an Underlying Fund’s ability to accurately value its portfolio securities or to acquire or dispose of securities at the price and time it wishes to do so or in order to meet redemption requests.

With respect to investments in certain emerging market countries, antiquated legal systems may have an adverse impact on the Underlying Funds. For example, while the potential liability of a shareholder of a U.S. corporation with respect to acts of the corporation is generally limited to the amount of the shareholder’s investment, the notion of limited liability is less clear in certain emerging market countries. Similarly, the rights of investors in emerging market companies may be more limited than those of shareholders of U.S. corporations.

Transaction costs, including brokerage commissions or dealer mark-ups, in emerging countries may be higher than in the United States and other developed securities markets. In addition, existing laws and regulations are often inconsistently applied. As legal systems in emerging countries develop, foreign investors may be adversely affected by new or amended laws and regulations. In circumstances where adequate laws exist, it may not be possible to obtain swift and equitable enforcement of the law.

Custodial and/or settlement systems in emerging markets countries may not be fully developed. To the extent that an Underlying Fund invests in emerging markets, an Underlying Fund’s assets that are traded in such markets and which have been entrusted to such sub-custodians in those markets may be exposed to risks for which the sub-custodian will have no liability.

Foreign investment in the securities markets of certain emerging countries is restricted or controlled to varying degrees. These restrictions may limit an Underlying Fund’s investment in certain emerging countries and may increase the expenses of the Underlying Fund. Certain emerging countries require governmental approval prior to investments by foreign persons or limit investment by foreign persons to only a specified percentage of an issuer’s outstanding securities or a specific class of securities which may have less advantageous terms (including price) than securities of the company available for purchase by nationals.

 

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The repatriation of investment income, capital or the proceeds of securities sales from emerging countries may be subject to restrictions which require governmental consents or prohibit repatriation entirely for a period of time, which may make it difficult for an Underlying Fund to invest in such emerging countries. An Underlying Fund could be adversely affected by delays in, or a refusal to grant, any required governmental approval for such repatriation. Even where there is no outright restriction on repatriation of capital, the mechanics of repatriation may affect certain aspects of the operation of an Underlying Fund. An Underlying Fund may be required to establish special custodial or other arrangements before investing in certain emerging countries.

Emerging countries may be subject to a substantially greater degree of economic, political and social instability and disruption than is the case in the United States, Japan and most Western European countries. This instability may result from, among other things, the following: (i) authoritarian governments or military involvement in political and economic decision making, including changes or attempted changes in governments through extra-constitutional means; (ii) popular unrest associated with demands for improved political, economic or social conditions; (iii) internal insurgencies; (iv) hostile relations with neighboring countries; (v) ethnic, religious and racial disaffection or conflict; and (vi) the absence of developed legal structures governing foreign private investments and private property. Such economic, political and social instability could disrupt the principal financial markets in which the Underlying Funds may invest and adversely affect the value of the Underlying Funds’ assets. An Underlying Fund’s investments can also be adversely affected by any increase in taxes or by political, economic or diplomatic developments.

The economies of emerging countries may differ unfavorably from the U.S. economy in such respects as growth of gross domestic product, rate of inflation, capital reinvestment, resources, self-sufficiency and balance of payments. Many emerging countries have experienced in the past, and continue to experience, high rates of inflation. In certain countries inflation has at times accelerated rapidly to hyperinflationary levels, creating a negative interest rate environment and sharply eroding the value of outstanding financial assets in those countries. Other emerging countries, on the other hand, have recently experienced deflationary pressures and are in economic recessions. The economies of many emerging countries are heavily dependent upon international trade and are accordingly affected by protective trade barriers and the economic conditions of their trading partners. In addition, the economies of some emerging countries are vulnerable to weakness in world prices for their commodity exports.

An Underlying Fund’s income and, in some cases, capital gains from foreign stocks and securities will be subject to applicable taxation in certain of the countries in which it invests, and treaties between the U.S. and such countries may not be available in some cases to reduce the otherwise applicable tax rates. See “TAXATION.”

Foreign markets also have different clearance and settlement procedures and in certain markets there have been times when settlements have been unable to keep pace with the volume of securities transactions making it difficult to conduct such transactions. Such delays in settlement could result in temporary periods when a portion of the assets of an Underlying Fund remain uninvested and no return is earned on such assets. The inability of an Underlying Fund to make intended security purchases or sales due to settlement problems could result either in losses to the Underlying Fund due to subsequent declines in value of the portfolio securities or, if the Underlying Fund has entered into a contract to sell the securities, could result in possible liability of the Underlying Fund to the purchaser. The creditworthiness of the local securities firms used by an Underlying Fund in emerging countries may not be as sound as the creditworthiness of firms used in more developed countries, thus subjecting Underlying Fund to a greater risk if a securities firm defaults in the performance of its responsibilities.

From time to time, certain of the companies in which an Underlying Fund may invest may operate in, or have dealings with, countries subject to sanctions or embargos imposed by the U.S. Government and the United Nations and/or countries identified by the U.S. Government as state sponsors of terrorism. A company may suffer damage to its reputation if it is identified as a company which operates in, or has dealings with, countries subject to sanctions or embargoes imposed by the U.S. Government as state sponsors of terrorism. As an investor in such companies, an Underlying Fund will be indirectly subject to those risks.

Investing in Europe. Certain of the Underlying Funds may operate in euros and/or may hold euros and/or euro-denominated bonds and other obligations. The euro requires participation of multiple sovereign states forming the Eurozone and is therefore sensitive to the credit, general economic and political position of each such state, including each state’s actual and intended ongoing engagement with and/or support for the other sovereign states then forming the EU, in particular those within the Eurozone. Changes in these factors might materially adversely impact the value of securities that an Underlying Fund has invested in.

European countries can be significantly affected by the tight fiscal and monetary controls that the European Economic and Monetary Union (“EMU”) imposes for membership. Europe’s economies are diverse, its governments are decentralized, and its cultures vary widely. Several EU countries, including Greece, Ireland, Italy, Spain and Portugal, have faced budget issues, some of which may have negative long-term effects for the economies of those countries and other EU countries. There is continued concern about national-level support for the euro and the accompanying coordination of fiscal and wage policy among EMU member countries. Member countries are required to maintain tight control over inflation, public debt, and budget deficit to qualify for membership in the EMU. These requirements can severely limit the ability of EMU member countries to implement monetary policy to address regional economic conditions.

 

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In a June 2016 referendum, citizens of the United Kingdom voted to leave the EU. In March 2017, the United Kingdom formally notified the European Council of its intention to withdraw from the EU (commonly known as “Brexit”) by invoking Article 50 of the Treaty on European Union, which triggered a two-year period of negotiations on the terms of Brexit. Brexit has resulted in volatility in European and global markets and may also lead to weakening in political, regulatory, consumer, corporate and financial confidence in the markets of the United Kingdom and throughout Europe. The longer term economic, legal, political, regulatory and social framework to be put in place between the United Kingdom and the EU remains unclear and may lead to ongoing political, regulatory and economic uncertainty and periods of exacerbated volatility in both the United Kingdom and in wider European markets for some time. Additionally, the decision made in the British referendum may lead to a call for similar referenda in other European jurisdictions, which may cause increased economic volatility in European and global markets. The mid-to long-term uncertainty may have an adverse effect on the economy generally and on the value of an/ Underlying Fund’s/ investments. This may be due to, among other things: fluctuations in asset values and exchange rates; increased illiquidity of investments located, traded or listed within the United Kingdom, the EU or elsewhere; changes in the willingness or ability of counterparties to enter into transactions at the price and terms on which an Underlying Fund is prepared to transact; and/or changes in legal and regulatory regimes to which certain of an Underlying Fund’s assets are or become subject. Fluctuations in the value of the British Pound and/or the Euro, along with the potential downgrading of the United Kingdom’s sovereign credit rating, may also have an impact on the performance of an Underlying Fund’s assets or investments economically tied to the United Kingdom or Europe.

The effects of Brexit will depend, in part, on agreements the United Kingdom negotiates to retain access to EU markets either during a transitional period or more permanently including, but not limited to, current trade and finance agreements. Brexit could lead to legal and tax uncertainty and potentially divergent national laws and regulations as the United Kingdom determines which EU laws to replace or replicate. The extent of the impact of the withdrawal negotiations in the United Kingdom and in global markets as well as any associated adverse consequences remain unclear, and the uncertainty may have a significant negative effect on the value of an Underlying Fund’s investments.

The withdrawal agreement between the United Kingdom and the EU, endorsed by the European Council on November 25, 2018, sets out the basis on which the United Kingdom will withdraw from the EU and includes certain transitional provisions which have the effect of preserving the application of European Union law in the United Kingdom until December 2020 (or such other later date as may be agreed). The withdrawal agreement, and the associated transitional provisions, will only become effective once approved by the United Kingdom parliament which approval has not yet happened and may not happen, meaning that the United Kingdom may leave the EU without any transitional period (a so-called “hard Brexit”). On October 28, 2019, the United Kingdom came to an agreement with the EU to delay the deadline for withdrawal. Unless the United Kingdom parliament approves the withdrawal agreement by January 31, 2020, it is expected that there will be a hard Brexit on that date absent any further agreements to delay the withdrawal. Consequently, due to this political uncertainty, it is not possible to anticipate, in the absence of an intervening action, when the United Kingdom will leave the EU and whether such departure will benefit from the terms of the withdrawal agreement and the transitional provisions. In the event of a “hard Brexit,” the relationship between the United Kingdom and the EU would be based on the World Trade Organization rules. While it is not currently possible to determine the extent of the impact a hard Brexit may have on an Underlying Fund’s investments, certain measures are being proposed and/or will be introduced, at the EU level or at the member state level, which are designed to minimize disruption in the financial markets. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the prolonged and continued uncertainty of the status of the United Kingdom’s withdrawal from the EU could negatively impact current and future economic conditions in the United Kingdom which, in turn, could negatively impact an Underlying Fund’s investments.

Other economic challenges facing the region include high levels of public debt, significant rates of unemployment, aging populations, and heavy regulation in certain economic sectors. European policy makers have taken unprecedented steps to respond to the economic crisis and to boost growth in the region, which has increased the risk that regulatory uncertainty could negatively affect the value of an Underlying Fund’s investments.

Certain countries have applied to become new member countries of the EU, and these candidate countries’ accessions may become more controversial to the existing EU members. Some member states may repudiate certain candidate countries joining the EU upon concerns about the possible economic, immigration and cultural implications. Also, Russia may be opposed to the expansion of the EU to members of the former Soviet bloc and may, at times, take actions that could negatively impact EU economic activity.

Investing in Greater China. Investing in Greater China (Mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan) involves a high degree of risk and special considerations not typically associated with investing in other more established economies or securities markets. Such risks may include: (a) greater social, economic and political uncertainty (including the risk of armed conflict); (b) the risk of nationalization or expropriation of assets or confiscatory taxation; (c) dependency on exports and the corresponding importance of international trade; (d) the imposition of tariffs or other trade barriers by the U.S. or foreign governments on exports from Mainland China; (e) increasing competition from Asia’s other low-cost emerging economies; (f) greater price volatility and smaller market capitalization of securities markets; (g) decreased liquidity, particularly of certain share classes of Chinese securities; (h) currency exchange rate fluctuations (with respect to investments in Mainland China and Taiwan) and the lack of available currency hedging instruments; (i) higher rates of inflation; (j) controls on foreign investment and limitations on repatriation of invested capital and on an Underlying Fund’s ability to

 

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exchange local currencies for U.S. dollars; (k) greater governmental involvement in and control over the economy; (l) uncertainty regarding the People’s Republic of China’s commitment to economic reforms; (m) the fact that Chinese companies may be smaller, less seasoned and newly-organized companies; (n) the differences in, or lack of, auditing and financial reporting standards which may result in unavailability of material information about issuers; (o) the fact that statistical information regarding the economy of Greater China may be inaccurate or not comparable to statistical information regarding the U.S. or other economies; (p) less extensive, and still developing, legal systems and regulatory frameworks regarding the securities markets, business entities and commercial transactions; (q) the fact that the settlement period of securities transactions in foreign markets may be longer; (r) the fact that it may be more difficult, or impossible, to obtain and/or enforce a judgment than in other countries; and (s) the rapid and erratic nature of growth, particularly in the People’s Republic of China, resulting in inefficiencies and dislocations.

Mainland China. Investments in Mainland China are subject to the risks associated with greater governmental control over the economy, political and legal uncertainties and currency fluctuations or blockage. In particular, the Chinese Communist Party exercises significant control over economic growth in Mainland China through the allocation of resources, controlling payment of foreign currency-denominated obligations, setting monetary policy and providing preferential treatment to particular industries or companies.

Because the local legal system is still developing, it may be more difficult to obtain or enforce judgments with respect to investments in Mainland China. Chinese companies may not be subject to the same disclosure, accounting, auditing and financial reporting standards and practices as U.S. companies. Thus, there may be less information publicly available about Chinese companies than about most U.S. companies. Government supervision and regulation of Chinese stock exchanges, currency markets, trading systems and brokers may be more or less rigorous than that present in the U.S. The procedures and rules governing transactions and custody in Mainland China also may involve delays in payment, delivery or recovery of money or investments. The imposition of tariffs or other trade barriers by the U.S. or other foreign governments on exports from Mainland China may also have an adverse impact on Chinese issuers and China’s economy as a whole.

Foreign investments in Mainland China are somewhat restricted. Securities listed on the Shanghai and Shenzhen Stock Exchanges are divided into two classes of shares: A shares and B Shares. Ownership of A Shares is restricted to Chinese investors, Qualified Foreign Institutional Investors (“QFIIs”) who have obtained a QFII license, and participants in the Shanghai-Hong Kong and Shenzhen-Hong Kong Stock Connect programs (“Stock Connect”). B shares may be owned by Chinese and foreign investors. The Underlying Funds may obtain exposure to the A share market in the People’s Republic of China by either investing directly in A shares through participation in Stock Connect, or by investing in participatory notes issued by banks, broker-dealers and other financial institutions, or other structured or derivative instruments that are designed to replicate, or otherwise provide exposure to, the performance of A shares of Chinese companies. The Underlying Funds may also invest directly in B shares on the Shanghai and Shenzhen Stock Exchanges.

As a result of investing in the People’s Republic of China, an Underlying Fund may be subject to withholding and various other taxes imposed by the People’s Republic of China. To date, a 10% withholding tax has been levied on cash dividends, distributions and interest payments from companies listed in the People’s Republic of China to foreign investors, unless the withholding tax can be reduced by an applicable income tax treaty.

As of November 17, 2014, foreign mutual funds, which qualify as Qualified Foreign Institutional Investors (“QFIIs”) and/or RMB Qualified Foreign Institutional Investors (“RQFIIs”), are temporarily exempt from enterprise income tax on capital gains arising from securities trading in the People’s Republic of China. It is currently unclear when this preferential treatment would end. If the preferential treatment were to end, such capital gains would be subject to a 10% withholding tax in the People’s Republic of China. Meanwhile, the purchase and sale of publicly traded equities by a QFII/RQFII is exempt from value-added tax in the People’s Republic of China.

The tax law and regulations of the People’s Republic of China are constantly changing, and they may be changed with retrospective effect to the advantage or disadvantage of shareholders. The interpretation and applicability of the tax law and regulations by tax authorities may not be as consistent and transparent as those of more developed nations, and may vary from region to region. It should also be noted that any provision for taxation made by the Investment Adviser may be excessive or inadequate to meet final tax liabilities. Consequently, shareholders may be advantaged or disadvantaged depending upon the final tax liabilities, the level of provision and when they subscribed and/or redeemed their shares of an Underlying Fund.

Hong Kong. Hong Kong is a Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China. Since Hong Kong reverted to Chinese sovereignty in 1997, it has been governed by the Basic Law, a “quasi-constitution.” The Basic Law guarantees a high degree of autonomy in certain matters, including economic matters, until 2047. Attempts by the government of the People’s Republic of China to exert greater control over Hong Kong’s economic, political or legal structures or its existing social policy, could negatively affect investor confidence in Hong Kong, which in turn could negatively affect markets and business performance.

In addition, the Hong Kong dollar trades within a fixed trading band rate to (or is “pegged” to) the U.S. dollar. This fixed exchange rate has contributed to the growth and stability of the economy, but could be discontinued. It is uncertain what affect any discontinuance of the currency peg and the establishment of an alternative exchange rate system would have on the Hong Kong economy.

Taiwan. The prospect of political reunification of the People’s Republic of China and Taiwan has engendered hostility between the two regions’ governments. This situation poses a significant threat to Taiwan’s economy, as heightened conflict could potentially lead to distortions in Taiwan’s capital accounts and have an adverse impact on the value of investments throughout Greater China.

 

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Investing in Japan. Japan’s economy is heavily dependent upon international trade and is especially sensitive to any adverse effects arising from trade tariffs and other protectionist measures, as well as the economic condition of its trading partners. Japan’s high volume of exports has caused trade tensions with Japan’s primary trading partners, particularly with the United States. The relaxing of official and de facto barriers to imports, or hardships created by the actions of trading partners, could adversely affect Japan’s economy. Because the Japanese economy is so dependent on exports, any fall-off in exports may be seen as a sign of economic weakness, which may adversely affect Japanese markets. In addition, Japan’s export industry, its most important economic sector, depends heavily on imported raw materials and fuels, including iron ore, copper, oil and many forest products. Japan has historically depended on oil for most of its energy requirements. Almost all of its oil is imported, the majority from the Middle East. In the past, oil prices have had a major impact on the domestic economy, but more recently Japan has worked to reduce its dependence on oil by encouraging energy conservation and use of alternative fuels. However, Japan remains sensitive to fluctuations in commodity prices, and a substantial rise in world oil or commodity prices could have a negative effect on its economy.

The Japanese yen has fluctuated widely during recent periods and may be affected by currency volatility elsewhere in Asia, especially Southeast Asia. In addition, the yen has had a history of unpredictable and volatile movements against the U.S. dollar. A weak yen is disadvantageous to U.S. shareholders investing in yen-denominated securities. A strong yen, however, could be an impediment to strong continued exports and economic recovery, because it makes Japanese goods sold in other countries more expensive and reduces the value of foreign earnings repatriated to Japan.

The performance of the global economy could have a major impact upon equity returns in Japan. As a result of the strong correlation with the economy of the U.S., Japan’s economy and its stock market are vulnerable to any unfavorable economic conditions in the U.S. and poor performance of U.S. stock markets. The growing economic relationship between Japan and its other neighboring countries in the Southeast Asia region, especially China, also exposes Japan’s economy to changes to the economic climates in those countries.

Like many developed countries, Japan faces challenges to its competitiveness. Growth slowed markedly in the 1990s and Japan’s economy fell into a long recession. After a few years of mild recovery in the mid-2000s, the Japanese economy fell into another recession in part due to the recent global economic crisis. This economic recession was likely compounded by an unstable financial sector, low domestic consumption, and certain corporate structural weaknesses, which remain some of the major issues facing the Japanese economy. Japan is reforming its political process and deregulating its economy to address this situation. However, there is no guarantee that these efforts will succeed in making the performance of the Japanese economy more competitive.

Japan has experienced natural disasters, such as earthquakes and tidal waves, of varying degrees of severity. The risks of such phenomena, and the resulting damage, continue to exist and could have a severe and negative impact on an Underlying Fund’s holdings in Japanese securities. Japan also has one of the world’s highest population densities. A significant percentage of the total population of Japan is concentrated in the metropolitan areas of Tokyo, Osaka, and Nagoya. Therefore, a natural disaster centered in or very near to one of these cities could have a particularly devastating effect on Japan’s financial markets. Japan’s recovery from the recession has been affected by economic distress resulting from the earthquake and resulting tsunami that struck northeastern Japan in March 2011 causing major damage along the coast, including damage to nuclear power plants in the region. Since the earthquake, Japan’s financial markets have fluctuated dramatically. The disaster caused large personal losses, reduced energy supplies, disrupted manufacturing, resulted in significant declines in stock market prices and resulted in an appreciable decline in Japan’s economic output. Although production levels are recovering in some industries as work is shifted to factories in areas not directly affected by the disaster, the timing of a full economic recovery is uncertain, and foreign business whose supply chains are dependent on production or manufacturing in Japan may decrease their reliance on Japanese industries in the future.

Emerging Country Government Obligations. Emerging country governmental issuers are among the largest debtors to commercial banks, foreign governments, international financial organizations and other financial institutions. Certain emerging country governmental issuers have not been able to make payments of interest on or principal of debt obligations as those payments have come due. Obligations arising from past restructuring agreements may affect the economic performance and political and social stability of those issuers.

The ability of emerging country governmental issuers to make timely payments on their obligations is likely to be influenced strongly by the issuer’s balance of payments, including export performance, and its access to international credits and investments. An emerging country whose exports are concentrated in a few commodities could be vulnerable to a decline in the international prices of one or more of those commodities. Increased protectionism on the part of an emerging country’s trading partners could also adversely affect the country’s exports and tarnish its trade account surplus, if any. To the extent that emerging countries receive payment for their exports in currencies other than dollars or non-emerging country currencies, the emerging country issuer’s ability to make debt payments denominated in dollars or non-emerging market currencies could be affected.

 

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To the extent that an emerging country cannot generate a trade surplus, it must depend on continuing loans from foreign governments, multilateral organizations or private commercial banks, aid payments from foreign governments and on inflows of foreign investment. The access of emerging countries to these forms of external funding may not be certain, and a withdrawal of external funding could adversely affect the capacity of emerging country governmental issuers to make payments on their obligations. In addition, the cost of servicing emerging country debt obligations can be affected by a change in international interest rates because the majority of these obligations carry interest rates that are adjusted periodically based upon international rates.

Another factor bearing on the ability of emerging countries to repay debt obligations is the level of international reserves of a country. Fluctuations in the level of these reserves affect the amount of foreign exchange readily available for external debt payments and thus could have a bearing on the capacity of emerging countries to make payments on these debt obligations.

As a result of the foregoing or other factors, a governmental obligor, especially in an emerging country, may default on its obligations. If such an event occurs, an Underlying Fund may have limited legal recourse against the issuer and/or guarantor. Remedies must, in some cases, be pursued in the courts of the defaulting party itself, and the ability of the holder of foreign sovereign debt securities to obtain recourse may be subject to the political climate in the relevant country. In addition, no assurance can be given that the holders of commercial bank debt will not contest payments to the holders of other foreign sovereign debt obligations in the event of default under the commercial bank loan agreements.

Restructured Investments. Included among the issuers of emerging country debt securities are entities organized and operated solely for the purpose of restructuring the investment characteristics of various securities. These entities are often organized by investment banking firms which receive fees in connection with establishing each entity and arranging for the placement of its securities. This type of restructuring involves the deposit with or purchase by an entity, such as a corporation or trust, or specified instruments, such as Brady Bonds, and the issuance by the entity of one or more classes of securities (“Restructured Investments”) backed by, or representing interests in, the underlying instruments. The cash flow on the underlying instruments may be apportioned among the newly issued Restructured Investments to create securities with different investment characteristics such as varying maturities, payment priorities or investment rate provisions. Because Restructured Investments of the type in which an Underlying Fund may invest typically involve no credit enhancement, their credit risk will generally be equivalent to that of the underlying instruments.

Certain of the Underlying Funds are permitted to invest in a class of Restructured Investments that is either subordinated or unsubordinated to the right of payment of another class. Subordinated Restructured Investments typically have higher yields and present greater risks than unsubordinated Restructured Investments. Although an Underlying Fund’s purchases of subordinated Restructured Investments would have a similar economic effect to that of borrowing against the underlying securities, such purchases will not be deemed to be borrowing for purposes of the limitations placed on the extent of an Underlying Funds’ assets that may be used for borrowing.

Certain issuers of Restructured Investments may be deemed to be “investment companies” as defined in the Act. As a result, an Underlying Fund may be limited by the restrictions contained in the Act. Restructured Investments are typically sold in private placement transactions, and there currently is no active trading market for most Restructured Investments.

Sovereign Debt Obligations. Certain of the Underlying Funds may invest in sovereign debt obligations. Investment in sovereign debt can involve a high degree of risk. The governmental entity that controls the repayment of sovereign debt may not be able or willing to repay the principal and/or interest when due in accordance with the terms of such debt. A governmental entity’s willingness or ability to repay principal and interest due in a timely manner may be affected by, among other factors, its cash flow situation, the extent of its foreign reserves, the availability of sufficient foreign exchange on the date a payment is due, the relative size of the debt service burden to the economy as a whole, the governmental entity’s policy towards the International Monetary Fund and the political constraints to which a governmental entity may be subject. Governmental entities may also be dependent on expected disbursements from foreign governments, multilateral agencies and others abroad to reduce principal and interest on their debt. The commitment on the part of these governments, agencies and others to make such disbursements may be conditioned on a governmental entity’s implementation of economic reforms and/or economic performance and the timely service of such debtor’s obligations. Failure to implement such reforms, achieve such levels of economic performance or repay principal or interest when due may result in the cancellation of such third parties’ commitments to lend funds to the governmental entity, which may further impair such debtor’s ability or willingness to service its debts in a timely manner. Consequently, governmental entities may default on their sovereign debt. Holders of sovereign debt (including an Underlying Fund) may be requested to participate in the rescheduling of such debt and to extend further loans to governmental agencies.

Forward Foreign Currency Exchange Contracts

Certain of the Underlying Funds, to the extent consistent with their investment policies, may enter into forward foreign currency exchange contracts for hedging purposes and to seek to protect against anticipated changes in future foreign currency exchange rates. Certain of the Underlying Funds may also enter into forward foreign currency exchange contracts to seek to increase total return. A forward foreign currency exchange contract involves an obligation to purchase or sell a specific currency at a future date, which may be any fixed number of days from the date of the contract agreed upon by the parties, at a price set at the time of the contract. These contracts are traded in the interbank market between currency traders (usually large commercial banks) and their customers. A forward contract generally has no deposit requirement, and no commissions are generally charged at any stage for trades.

 

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At the maturity of a forward contract an Underlying Fund may either accept or make delivery of the currency specified in the contract or, at or prior to maturity, enter into a closing transaction involving the purchase or sale of an offsetting contract. Closing transactions with respect to forward contracts are often, but not always, effected with the currency trader who is a party to the original forward contract.

An Underlying Fund may, from time to time, engage in non-deliverable forward transactions to manage currency risk or to gain exposure to a currency without purchasing securities denominated in that currency. A non-deliverable forward is a transaction that represents an agreement between an Underlying Fund and a counterparty (usually a commercial bank) to pay the other party the amount that it would have cost based on current market rates as of the termination date to buy or sell a specified (notional) amount of a particular currency at an agreed upon foreign exchange rate on an agreed upon future date. If the counterparty defaults, the Underlying Fund will have contractual remedies pursuant to the agreement related to the transaction, but the Underlying Fund may be delayed or prevented from obtaining payments owed to it pursuant to non-deliverable forward transactions. Such non-deliverable forward transactions will be settled in cash.

An Underlying Fund may enter into forward foreign currency exchange contracts in several circumstances. First, when an Underlying Fund enters into a contract for the purchase or sale of a security denominated or quoted in a foreign currency, or when an Underlying Fund anticipates the receipt in a foreign currency of dividend or interest payments on such a security which it holds, the Underlying Fund may desire to “lock in” the U.S. dollar price of the security or the U.S. dollar equivalent of such dividend or interest payment, as the case may be. By entering into a forward contract for the purchase or sale, for a fixed amount of U.S. dollars, of the amount of foreign currency involved in the underlying transactions, the Underlying Fund will attempt to protect itself against an adverse change in the relationship between the U.S. dollar and the subject foreign currency during the period between the date on which the security is purchased or sold, or on which the dividend or interest payment is declared, and the date on which such payments are made or received.

Additionally, when an Underlying Fund’s investment adviser believes that the currency of a particular foreign country may suffer a substantial decline against the U.S. dollar, it may enter into a forward contract to sell, for a fixed amount of U.S. dollars, the amount of foreign currency approximating the value of some or all of an Underlying Fund’s portfolio securities quoted or denominated in such foreign currency. The precise matching of the forward contract amounts and the value of the securities involved will not generally be possible because the future value of such securities in foreign currencies will change as a consequence of market movements in the value of those securities between the date on which the contract is entered into and the date it matures. Using forward contracts to protect the value of an Underlying Fund’s portfolio securities against a decline in the value of a currency does not eliminate fluctuations in the underlying prices of the securities. It simply establishes a rate of exchange which an Underlying Fund can achieve at some future point in time. The precise projection of short-term currency market movements is not possible, and short-term hedging provides a means of fixing the U.S. dollar value of only a portion of an Underlying Fund’s foreign assets.

Certain of the Underlying Funds may engage in cross-hedging by using forward contracts in one currency to hedge against fluctuations in the value of securities quoted or denominated in a different currency. In addition, certain Underlying Funds may enter into foreign currency transactions to seek a closer correlation between an Underlying Fund’s overall currency exposure and the currency exposure of the Underlying Fund’s performance benchmark.

Certain of the Underlying Funds will not enter into a forward contract with a term of greater than one year. Certain Underlying Funds may not be required to post cash collateral with their non-U.S. counterparties in certain foreign currency transactions. Accordingly, such an Underlying Fund may remain more fully invested (and more of the Underlying Fund’s assets may be subject to investment and market risk) than if it were required to post cash collateral with its counterparties (which is the case with U.S. counterparties). Because such an Underlying Fund’s non-U.S. counterparties are not required to post cash collateral with the Underlying Fund, the Underlying Fund will be subject to additional counterparty risk.

While an Underlying Fund may enter into forward contracts to reduce currency exchange rate risks, transactions in such contracts involve certain other risks. Thus, while an Underlying Fund may benefit from such transactions, unanticipated changes in currency prices may result in a poorer overall performance for the Underlying Fund than if it had not engaged in any such transactions. Moreover, there may be imperfect correlation between an Underlying Fund’s portfolio holdings of securities quoted or denominated in a particular currency and forward contracts entered into by such Underlying Fund. Such imperfect correlation may cause an Underlying Fund to sustain losses which will prevent the Underlying Fund from achieving a complete hedge or expose the Underlying Fund to risk of foreign exchange loss.

Certain forward foreign currency exchange contracts and other currency transactions are not exchange traded or cleared. Markets for trading such forward foreign currency contracts offer less protection against defaults than is available when trading in currency instruments on an exchange. Such forward contracts are subject to the risk that the counterparty to the contract will default on its obligations. Because these contracts are not guaranteed by an exchange or clearinghouse, a default on a contract would deprive an Underlying Fund of unrealized profits, transaction costs or the benefits of a currency hedge or force the Underlying Fund to cover its purchase or sale commitments, if any, at the current market price. In addition, the institutions that deal in forward foreign currency

 

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contracts are not required to continue to make markets in the currencies they trade and these markets can experience periods of illiquidity. To the extent that a portion of an Underlying Fund’s total assets, adjusted to reflect the Underlying Fund’s net position after giving effect to currency transactions, is denominated or quoted in the currencies of foreign countries, the Underlying Fund will be more susceptible to the risk of adverse economic and political developments within those countries.

These and other factors discussed in the section below, entitled “Illiquid Investments,” may impact the liquidity of investments in issuers of emerging country securities.

Futures Contracts and Options on Futures Contracts

Each Underlying Fund may purchase and sell futures contracts and may also purchase and write options on futures contracts. An Underlying Fund may purchase and sell futures contracts based on various securities, securities indices, foreign currencies and other financial instruments and indices. Certain of the Underlying Funds may engage in transactions only with respect to certain equity indices. An Underlying Fund will engage in futures and related options transactions in order to seek to increase total return or to hedge against changes in interest rates, securities prices or, to the extent an Underlying Fund invests in foreign securities, currency exchange rates, or to otherwise manage its term structure, sector selection and duration in accordance with its investment objective and policies. Each Underlying Fund may also enter into closing purchase and sale transactions with respect to such contracts and options. The investment adviser of the Underlying Fixed Income Funds will also use futures contracts and options on futures contracts to manage the Underlying Funds’ target duration in accordance with their benchmark or benchmarks.

Futures contracts entered into by an Underlying Fund have historically been traded on U.S. exchanges or boards of trade that are licensed and regulated by the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (“CFTC”) or, with respect to certain Underlying Funds, on foreign exchanges. More recently, certain futures may also be traded either over-the-counter or on trading facilities such as derivatives transaction execution facilities, exempt boards of trade or electronic trading facilities that are licensed and/or regulated to varying degrees by the CFTC. Also, certain single stock futures and narrow based security index futures may be traded over-the-counter or on trading facilities such as contract markets, derivatives transaction execution facilities and electronic trading facilities that are licensed and/or regulated to varying degrees by both the CFTC and the SEC or on foreign exchanges.

Neither the CFTC, National Futures Association (“NFA”), SEC nor any domestic exchange regulates activities of any foreign exchange or boards of trade, including the execution, delivery and clearing of transactions, or has the power to compel enforcement of the rules of a foreign exchange or board of trade or any applicable foreign law. This is true even if the exchange is formally linked to a domestic market so that a position taken on the market may be liquidated by a transaction on another market. Moreover, such laws or regulations will vary depending on the foreign country in which the foreign futures or foreign options transaction occurs. For these reasons, an Underlying Fund’s investments in foreign futures or foreign options transactions may not be provided the same protections in respect of transactions on United States exchanges. In particular, persons who trade foreign futures or foreign options contracts may not be afforded certain of the protective measures provided by the Commodity Exchange Act (“CEA”), the CFTC’s regulations and the rules of the NFA and any domestic exchange, including the right to use reparations proceedings before the CFTC and arbitration proceedings provided by the National Futures Association or any domestic futures exchange. Similarly, these persons may not have the protection of the U.S. securities laws.

Futures Contracts. A futures contract may generally be described as an agreement between two parties to buy and sell particular financial instruments for an agreed price during a designated month (or to deliver the final cash settlement price, in the case of a contract relating to an index or otherwise not calling for physical delivery at the end of trading in the contract).

When interest rates are rising or securities prices are falling, an Underlying Fund can seek to offset a decline in the value of its current portfolio securities through the sale of futures contracts. When interest rates are falling or securities prices are rising, an Underlying Fund, through the purchase of futures contracts, can attempt to secure better rates or prices than might later be available in the market when it effects anticipated purchases. Similarly, certain Underlying Funds may purchase and sell futures contracts on a specified currency in order to seek to increase total return or to protect against changes in currency exchange rates. For example, certain Underlying Funds may purchase futures contracts on foreign currency to establish the price in U.S. dollars of a security quoted or denominated in such currency that such Underlying Fund has acquired or expects to acquire. In addition, certain Underlying Funds may enter into futures transactions to seek a closer correlation between the Underlying Fund’s overall currency exposures and the currency exposures of the Underlying Fund’s performance benchmark.

Positions taken in the futures market are not normally held to maturity, but are instead liquidated through offsetting transactions which may result in a profit or a loss. While an Underlying Fund will usually liquidate futures contracts on securities or currency in this manner, an Underlying Fund may instead make or take delivery of the underlying securities or currency whenever it appears economically advantageous for the Underlying Fund to do so. A clearing corporation associated with the exchange on which futures are traded guarantees that, if still open, the sale or purchase will be performed on the settlement date.

 

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Hedging Strategies Using Futures Contracts. When an Underlying Fund uses futures for hedging purposes, the Underlying Fund often seeks to establish with more certainty than would otherwise be possible the effective price or rate of return on portfolio securities (or securities that an Underlying Fund proposes to acquire), or the exchange rate of currencies in which portfolio securities are denominated or quoted. An Underlying Fund may, for example, take a “short” position in the futures market by selling futures contracts to seek to hedge against an anticipated rise in interest rates or a decline in market prices or foreign currency rates that would adversely affect the U.S. dollar value of the Underlying Fund’s portfolio securities. Such futures contracts may include contracts for the future delivery securities held by an Underlying Fund or securities with characteristics similar to those of an Underlying Fund’s portfolio securities. Similarly, certain Underlying Funds may sell futures contracts on any currency in which its portfolio securities are quoted or denominated or sell futures contracts on one currency to seek to hedge against fluctuations in the value of securities quoted or denominated in a different currency if there is an established historical pattern of correlation between the two currencies. If, in the opinion of an Underlying Fund’s investment adviser, there is a sufficient degree of correlation between price trends for an Underlying Fund’s portfolio securities and futures contracts based on other financial instruments, securities indices or other indices, the Underlying Fund may also enter into such futures contracts as part of its hedging strategy. Although under some circumstances prices of securities in an Underlying Fund’s portfolio may be more or less volatile than prices of such futures contracts, its investment adviser will attempt to estimate the extent of this volatility difference based on historical patterns and compensate for any such differential by having the Underlying Fund enter into a greater or lesser number of futures contracts or by attempting to achieve only a partial hedge against price changes affecting the Underlying Fund’s portfolio securities. When hedging of this character is successful, any depreciation in the value of portfolio securities will be substantially offset by appreciation in the value of the futures position. On the other hand, any unanticipated appreciation in the value of an Underlying Fund’s portfolio securities would be substantially offset by a decline in the value of the futures position.

On other occasions, an Underlying Fund may take a “long” position by purchasing such futures contracts. This may be done, for example, when an Underlying Fund anticipates the subsequent purchase of particular securities when it has the necessary cash, but expects the prices or currency exchange rates then available in the applicable market to be less favorable than prices or rates that are currently available.

Options on Futures Contracts. The acquisition of put and call options on futures contracts will give an Underlying Fund the right (but not the obligation), for a specified price, to sell or to purchase, respectively, the underlying futures contract at any time during the option period. As the purchaser of an option on a futures contract, an Underlying Fund obtains the benefit of the futures position if prices move in a favorable direction but limits its risk of loss in the event of an unfavorable price movement to the loss of the premium and transaction costs.

The writing of a call option on a futures contract generates a premium which may partially offset a decline in the value of an Underlying Fund’s assets. By writing a call option, an Underlying Fund becomes obligated, in exchange for the premium, to sell a futures contract if the option is exercised, which may have a value higher than the exercise price. The writing of a put option on a futures contract generates a premium, which may partially offset an increase in the price of securities that an Underlying Fund intends to purchase. However, an Underlying Fund becomes obligated (upon exercise of the option) to purchase a futures contract if the option is exercised, which may have a value lower than the exercise price. Thus, the loss incurred by an Underlying Fund in writing options on futures is potentially unlimited and may exceed the amount of the premium received. An Underlying Fund will incur transaction costs in connection with the writing of options on futures.

The holder or writer of an option on a futures contract may terminate its position by selling or purchasing an offsetting option on the same financial instrument. There is no guarantee that such closing transactions can be effected. An Underlying Fund’s ability to establish and close out positions on such options will be subject to the development and maintenance of a liquid market.

Other Considerations. An Underlying Fund will engage in transactions in futures contracts and related options transactions only to the extent such transactions are consistent with the requirements of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”) for maintaining its qualification as a regulated investment company for federal income tax purposes. Transactions in futures contracts and options on futures involve brokerage costs, require margin deposits and, in certain cases, require an Underlying Fund to identify on its books cash or liquid assets in an amount equal to the underlying value of such contracts and options. An Underlying Fund may cover its transactions in futures contracts and related options by identifying on its books cash or liquid assets or by other means, in any manner permitted by applicable law. For more information about these practices, see “Description of Investment Securities and Practices – Asset Segregation.”

While transactions in futures contracts and options on futures may reduce certain risks, such transactions themselves entail certain other risks. Thus, unanticipated changes in interest rates, securities prices or currency exchange rates may result in a poorer overall performance for an Underlying Fund than if it had not entered into any futures contracts or options transactions. When futures contracts and options are used for hedging purposes, perfect correlation between an Underlying Fund’s futures positions and portfolio positions may be impossible to achieve, particularly where futures contracts based on individual equity or corporate fixed income securities are currently not available. In the event of an imperfect correlation between a futures position and a portfolio position which is intended to be protected, the desired protection may not be obtained and an Underlying Fund may be exposed to risk of loss.

 

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In addition, it is not possible for an Underlying Fund to hedge fully or perfectly against currency fluctuations affecting the value of securities quoted or denominated in foreign currencies because the value of such securities is likely to fluctuate as a result of independent factors unrelated to currency fluctuations. The profitability of an Underlying Fund’s trading in futures depends upon the ability of its investment adviser to analyze correctly the futures markets.

Greenfield Projects

Greenfield projects are energy-related projects built by private joint ventures formed by energy companies. Greenfield projects may include the creation of a new pipeline, processing plant or storage facility or other energy infrastructure asset that is integrated with the company’s existing assets. Certain Underlying Funds, including the MLP Energy Infrastructure Fund, may invest in the equity of greenfield projects and also may invest in the secured debt of greenfield projects. However, an investment also may be structured as pay-in-kind securities with minimal or no cash interest or dividends until construction is completed, at which time interest payments or dividends would be paid in cash. The Investment Adviser believes that this niche leverages the organizational and operating expertise of large, publicly traded companies and provides the MLP Energy Infrastructure Fund with the opportunity to earn higher returns. Greenfield projects involve less investment risk than typical private equity financing arrangements. The primary risk involved with greenfield projects is execution risk or construction risk. Changing project requirements, elevated costs for labor and materials, and unexpected construction hurdles all can increase construction costs. Financing risk exists should changes in construction costs or financial markets occur. Regulatory risk exists should changes in regulation occur during construction or the necessary permits are not secured prior to beginning construction.

High Yield Securities

Certain of the Underlying Funds may invest in bonds rated BB+ or below by Standard & Poor’s Ratings Group (“Standard & Poor’s”) or Ba1 or below by Moody’s Investors Service, Inc. (“Moody’s”) (or comparable rated and unrated securities). These bonds are commonly referred to as “junk bonds” and are considered speculative. The ability of issuers of non-investment grade securities to make principal and interest payments may be questionable. In some cases, such high yield securities may be highly speculative, have poor prospects for reaching investment grade standing and be in default. As a result, investment in such bonds will entail greater risks than those associated with investment grade bonds (i.e., bonds rated AAA, AA, A or BBB by Standard and Poor’s or Aaa, Aa, A or Baa by Moody’s). Analysis of the creditworthiness of issuers of high yield securities may be more complex than for issuers of higher quality debt securities, and the ability of an Underlying Fund to achieve its investment objective may, to the extent of its investments in high yield securities, be more dependent upon such creditworthiness analysis than would be the case if the Underlying Fund were investing in higher quality securities. See Appendix A for a description of the corporate bond and preferred stock ratings by Standard & Poor’s, Moody’s, Fitch, Inc. (“Fitch”) and Dominion Bond Rating Service Limited (“DBRS”).

Risks associated with acquiring the securities of such issuers generally are greater than is the case with higher rated securities because such issuers are often less creditworthy companies or are highly leveraged and generally less able than more established or less leveraged entities to make scheduled payments of principal and interest. High yield securities are also issued by governmental issuers that may have difficulty in making all scheduled interest and principal payments.

The market values of high yield, fixed income securities tend to reflect individual issuer developments to a greater extent than do those of higher rated securities, which react primarily to fluctuations in the general level of interest rates. Issuers of such high yield securities are often highly leveraged, and may not be able to make use of more traditional methods of financing. Their ability to service debt obligations may be more adversely affected by economic downturns or their inability to meet specific projected business forecasts than would be the case for issuers of higher-rated securities. Negative publicity about the junk bond market and investor perceptions regarding lower-rated securities, whether or not based on fundamental analysis, may depress the prices for high yield securities.

In the lower quality segments of the fixed income securities market, changes in perceptions of issuers’ creditworthiness tend to occur more frequently and in a more pronounced manner than do changes in higher quality segments of the fixed income securities market, resulting in greater yield and price volatility.

Another factor which causes fluctuations in the prices of high yield, fixed income securities is the supply and demand for similarly rated securities. In addition, the prices of fixed income securities fluctuate in response to the general level of interest rates. Fluctuations in the prices of portfolio securities subsequent to their acquisition will not affect cash income from such securities but will be reflected in an Underlying Fund’s NAV.

The risk of loss from default for the holders of high yield, fixed income securities is significantly greater than is the case for holders of other debt securities because high yield securities are generally unsecured and are often subordinated to the rights of other creditors of the issuers of such securities. Investment by an Underlying Fund in already defaulted securities poses an additional risk of loss should nonpayment of principal and interest continue in respect of such securities. Even if such securities are held to maturity, recovery by an Underlying Fund of its initial investment and any anticipated income or appreciation is uncertain. In addition, an Underlying Fund may incur additional expenses to the extent that it is required to seek recovery relating to the default in the payment of principal or interest on such securities or otherwise protect its interests. An Underlying Fund may be required to liquidate other portfolio securities to satisfy the Underlying Fund’s annual distribution obligations in respect of accrued interest income on securities which are subsequently written off, even though the Underlying Fund has not received any cash payments of such interest.

 

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The secondary market for fixed income securities is concentrated in relatively few markets and is dominated by institutional investors, including mutual funds, insurance companies and other financial institutions. Accordingly, the secondary market for such securities is not as liquid as and is more volatile than the secondary market for higher-rated securities. In addition, the trading volume for high-yield, fixed income securities is generally lower than that of higher rated securities and the secondary market for high yield, fixed income securities could contract under adverse market or economic conditions independent of any specific adverse changes in the condition of a particular issuer. These factors may have an adverse effect on the ability of an Underlying Fund to dispose of particular portfolio investments. Prices realized upon the sale of such lower rated or unrated securities, under these circumstances, may be less than the prices used in calculating an Underlying Fund’s NAV. A less liquid secondary market also may make it more difficult for an Underlying Fund to obtain precise valuations of the high yield securities in its portfolio.

The adoption of new legislation could adversely affect the secondary market for high yield securities and the financial condition of issuers of these securities. The form of any future legislation, and the probability of such legislation being enacted, is uncertain.

Non-investment grade or high-yield, fixed income securities also present risks based on payment expectations. High yield, fixed income securities frequently contain “call” or buy-back features which permit the issuer to call or repurchase the security from its holder. If an issuer exercises such a “call option” and redeems the security, an Underlying Fund may have to replace such security with a lower-yielding security, resulting in a decreased return for investors. In addition, if an Underlying Fund experiences unexpected net redemptions of its shares, it may be forced to sell its higher-rated securities, resulting in a decline in the overall credit quality of the Underlying Fund’s portfolio and increasing the exposure of the Underlying Fund to the risks of high-yield securities.

Credit ratings issued by credit rating agencies are designed to evaluate the safety of principal and interest payments of rated securities. They do not, however, evaluate the market value risk of non-investment grade securities and, therefore, may not fully reflect the true risks of an investment. In addition, credit rating agencies may or may not make timely changes in a rating to reflect changes in the economy or in the conditions of the issuer that affect the market value of the security. Consequently, credit ratings are used only as a preliminary indicator of investment quality. Investments in non-investment grade and comparable unrated obligations will be more dependent on the credit analysis of an Underlying Fund’s investment adviser than would be the case with investments in investment-grade debt obligations.

Illiquid Investments

Pursuant to Rule 22e-4 under the 1940 Act, an Underlying Fund may not acquire any “illiquid investment” if, immediately after the acquisition, the Underlying Fund would have invested more than 15% of its net assets in illiquid investments that are assets. Illiquid investments include repurchase agreements with a notice or demand period of more than seven days, certain SMBS, certain municipal leases, certain over-the-counter derivative instruments, securities and other financial instruments that are not readily marketable, certain Senior Loans and Second Lien Loans, certain CDOs, CLOs, CBOs, certain bank obligations, certain non-investment grade securities and other credit instruments and Restricted Securities unless, based upon a review of the relevant market, trading and investment-specific considerations, those investments are determined not to be illiquid. The Trust has implemented a liquidity risk management program and related procedures to identify illiquid investments pursuant to Rule 22e-4, and the Trustees have approved the designation of the Investment Adviser to administer the Trust’s liquidity risk management program and related procedures. In determining whether an investment is an illiquid investment, the Investment Adviser will take into account actual or estimated daily transaction volume of an investment, group of related investments or asset class and other relevant market, trading, and investment-specific considerations. In addition, in determining the liquidity of an investment, the Investment Adviser must determine whether trading varying portions of a position in a particular portfolio investment or asset class, in sizes that an Underlying Fund would reasonably anticipate trading, is reasonably expected to significantly affect its liquidity, and if so, the Underlying Fund must take this determination into account when classifying the liquidity of that investment or asset class.

In addition to actual or estimated daily transaction volume of an investment, group of related investments or asset class and other relevant market, trading, and investment-specific considerations, the following factors, among others, will generally impact the classification of an investment as an “illiquid investment”: (i) any investment that is placed on the Investment Adviser’s restricted trading list; and (ii) any investment that is delisted or for which there is a trading halt at the close of the trading day on the primary listing exchange at the time of classification (and in respect of which no active secondary market exists). Investments purchased by an Underlying Fund that are liquid at the time of purchase may subsequently become illiquid due to these and other events and circumstances. If one or more investments in an Underlying Fund’s portfolio become illiquid, the Underlying Fund may exceed the 15% limitation in illiquid investments. In the event that changes in the portfolio or other external events cause a Portfolio or Underlying Fund to exceed this limit, the Portfolio or Underlying Fund must take steps to bring its illiquid investments that are assets to or below 15% of its net assets within a reasonable period of time. This requirement would not force a Portfolio or Fund to liquidate any portfolio instrument where the Portfolio or Underlying Fund would suffer a loss on the sale of that instrument.

 

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Income Trusts

Certain of the Underlying Funds, including the MLP Energy Infrastructure Fund, may invest in income trusts, including business trusts and oil royalty trusts. Income trusts are operating businesses that have been put into a trust. They pay out the bulk of their free cash flow to unit holders. The businesses that are sold into these trusts are usually mature and stable income-producing companies that lend themselves to fixed (monthly or quarterly) distributions. These trusts are regarded as equity investments with fixed-income attributes or high-yield debt with no fixed maturity date. These trusts typically offer regular income payments and a significant premium yield compared to other types of fixed income investments.

Business Trusts. A business trust is an income trust where the principal business of the underlying corporation or other entity is in the manufacturing, service or general industrial sectors. It is anticipated that the number of businesses constituted or reorganized as income trusts will increase significantly in the future. Conversion to the income trust structure is attractive to many existing mature businesses with relatively high, stable cash flows and low capital expenditure requirements, due to tax efficiency and investor demand for high-yielding equity securities. One of the primary attractions of business trusts, in addition to their relatively high yield, is their ability to enhance diversification in the portfolio as they cover a broad range of industries and geographies, including public refrigerated warehousing, mining, coal distribution, sugar distribution, forest products, retail sales, food sales and processing, chemical recovery and processing, data processing, gas marketing and check printing. Each business represented is typically characterized by long life assets or businesses that have exhibited a high degree of stability. Investments in business trusts are subject to various risks, including risks related to the underlying operating companies controlled by such trusts. These risks may include lack of or limited operating histories and increased susceptibility to interest rate risks.

Oil Royalty Trusts. A royalty trust typically controls an operating company which purchases oil and gas properties using the trust’s capital. The royalty trust then receives royalties and/or interest payments from its operating company, and distributes them as income to its unit holders. Units of the royalty trust represent an economic interest in the underlying assets of the trust.

An Underlying Fund may invest in oil royalty trusts that are traded on stock exchanges. Oil royalty trusts are income trusts that own or control oil and gas operating companies. Oil royalty trusts pay out substantially all of the cash flow they receive from the production and sale of underlying crude oil and natural gas reserves to shareholders (unitholders) in the form of monthly dividends (distributions). As a result of distributing the bulk of their cash flow to unitholders, royalty trusts are effectively precluded from internally originating new oil and gas prospects. Therefore, these royalty trusts typically grow through acquisition of producing companies or those with proven reserves of oil and gas, funded through the issuance of additional equity or, where the trust is able, additional debt. Consequently, oil royalty trusts are considered less exposed to the uncertainties faced by a traditional exploration and production corporation. However, they are still exposed to commodity risk and reserve risk, as well as operating risk.

The operations and financial condition of oil royalty trusts, and the amount of distributions or dividends paid on their securities is dependent on oil prices. Prices for commodities vary and are determined by supply and demand factors, including weather, and general economic and political conditions. A decline in oil prices could have a substantial adverse effect on the operations and financial conditions of the trusts. Such trusts are also subject to the risk of an adverse change in the regulations of the natural resource industry and other operational risks relating to the energy sector. In addition, the underlying operating companies held or controlled by the trusts are usually involved in oil exploration; however, such companies may not be successful in holding, discovering, or exploiting adequate commercial quantities of oil, the failure of which will adversely affect their values. Even if successful, oil and gas prices have fluctuated widely during the most recent years and may continue to do so in the future. The Investment Adviser expects that the combination of global demand growth and depleting reserves, together with current geopolitical instability, will continue to support strong crude oil prices over the long term. However, there is no guarantee that these prices will not decline. Declining crude oil prices may cause an Underlying Fund to incur losses on its investments. In addition, the demand in and supply to the developing markets could be affected by other factors such as restrictions on imports, increased taxation, and creation of government monopolies, as well as social, economic and political uncertainty and instability. Furthermore, there is no guarantee that non-conventional sources of natural gas will not be discovered which would adversely affect the oil industry.

Moreover, as the underlying oil and gas reserves are produced the remaining reserves attributable to the royalty trust are depleted. The ability of a royalty trust to replace reserves is therefore fundamental to its ability to maintain distribution levels and unit prices over time. Certain royalty trusts have demonstrated consistent positive reserve growth year-over-year and, as such, certain royalty trusts have been successful to date in this respect and are thus currently trading at unit prices significantly higher than those of five or ten years ago. Oil royalty trusts manage reserve depletion through reserve additions resulting from internal capital development activities and through acquisitions. When an Underlying Fund invests in foreign oil royalty trusts, it will also be subject to foreign securities risks, which are described below under “Foreign Securities.”

 

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Index Swaps, Interest Rate Swaps, Mortgage Swaps, Credit Swaps, Currency Swaps, Total Return Swaps, Equity Swaps, Options on Swaps and Interest Rate Swaps, Caps, Floors and Collars

Certain of the Underlying Funds may enter into currency swaps for both hedging purposes and to seek to increase total return. In addition, certain of the Underlying Funds may enter into mortgage, credit, index, equity, interest rate, credit, currency and total return swaps and other interest rate swap arrangements such as rate caps, floors and collars, for both hedging purposes and to seek to increase total return. Certain of the Underlying Funds may also purchase and write (sell) options contracts on swaps, commonly referred to as swaptions.

In a standard “swap” transaction, two parties agree to exchange the returns, differentials in rates of return or some other amount earned or realized on particular predetermined investments or instruments, which may be adjusted for an interest factor. The gross returns to be exchanged or “swapped” between the parties are generally calculated with respect to a “notional amount,” i.e., the return on or increase in value of a particular dollar amount invested at a particular interest rate, in a particular foreign currency or security, or in a “basket” of securities representing a particular index. Bilateral swap agreements are two party contracts entered into primarily by institutional investors. Cleared swaps are transacted through futures commission merchants (“FCMs”) that are members of central clearinghouses with the clearinghouse serving as a central counterparty similar to transactions in futures contracts. Funds post initial and variation margin by making payments to their clearing member FCMs.

Currency swaps involve the exchange by an Underlying Fund with another party of their respective rights to make or receive payments in specified currencies. Interest rate swaps involve the exchange by an Underlying Fund with another party of commitments to pay or receive payments for floating rate payments based on interest rates at specified intervals in the future. Two types of interest rate swaps include “fixed-for-floating rate swaps” and “basis swaps.” Fixed-for-floating rate swaps involve the exchange of payments based on a fixed interest rate for payments based on a floating interest rate index. By contrast, basis swaps involve the exchange of payments based on two different floating interest rate indices. Mortgage swaps are similar to interest rate swaps in that they represent commitments to pay and receive interest. The notional principal amount, however, is tied to a reference pool or pools of mortgages. Index swaps involve the exchange by an Underlying Fund with another party of payments based on a notional principal amount of a specified index or indices. Total return swaps are contracts that obligate a party to pay or receive interest in exchange for payment by the other party of the total return generated by a security, a basket of securities, an index, or an index component. Equity swap contracts may be structured in different ways. For example, as a total return swap where a counterparty may agree to pay the Underlying Fund the amount, if any, by which the notional amount of the equity swap contract would have increased in value had it been invested in particular stocks (or a group of stocks), plus the dividends that would have been received on those stocks. In other cases, the counterparty and the Underlying Fund may each agree to pay the difference between the relative investment performances that would have been achieved if the notional amount of the equity swap contract had been invested in different stocks (or a group of stocks). Credit swaps (also referred to as credit default swaps) involve the exchange of a floating or fixed rate payment in return for assuming potential credit losses of an underlying security or pool of securities.

A swaption is an option to enter into a swap agreement. Like other types of options, the buyer of a swaption pays a non-refundable premium for the option and obtains the right, but not the obligation, to enter into or modify an underlying swap or to modify the terms of an existing swap on agreed-upon terms. The seller of a swaption, in exchange for the premium, becomes obligated (if the option is exercised) to enter into or modify an underlying swap on agreed-upon terms, which generally entails a greater risk of loss than incurred in buying a swaption. The purchase of an interest rate cap entitles the purchaser, to the extent that a specified index exceeds a predetermined interest rate, to receive payment of interest on a notional principal amount from the party selling such interest rate cap. The purchase of an interest rate floor entitles the purchaser, to the extent that a specified index falls below a predetermined interest rate, to receive payments of interest on a notional principal amount from the party selling the interest rate floor. An interest rate collar is the combination of a cap and a floor that preserves a certain return within a predetermined range of interest rates. Because interest rate, mortgage and currency swaps and interest rate caps, floors and collars are individually negotiated, an Underlying Fund expects to achieve an acceptable degree of correlation between its portfolio investments and its swap, cap, floor and collar positions.

A great deal of flexibility may be possible in the way swap transactions are structured. However, generally an Underlying Fund will enter into interest rate, total return, credit, mortgage and index swaps on a net basis, which means that the two payment streams are netted out, with the Underlying Fund receiving or paying, as the case may be, only the net amount of the two payments. Interest rate, total return, credit, index and mortgage swaps do not normally involve the delivery of securities, other underlying assets or principal. Accordingly, the risk of loss with respect to interest rate, total return, credit, index and mortgage swaps is normally limited to the net amount of interest payments that the Underlying Fund is contractually obligated to make. If the other party to an interest rate, total return, credit, index or mortgage swap defaults, the Underlying Fund’s risk of loss consists of the net amount of interest payments that the Underlying Fund is contractually entitled to receive, if any.

In contrast, currency swaps usually involve the delivery of a gross payment stream in one designated currency in exchange for the gross payment stream in another designated currency. Therefore, the entire payment stream under a currency swap is subject to the risk that the other party to the swap will default on its contractual delivery obligations. A credit swap may have as reference obligations one or more securities that may, or may not, be currently held by an Underlying Fund. The protection “buyer” in a credit swap is generally

 

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obligated to pay the protection “seller” an upfront or a periodic stream of payments over the term of the swap provided that no credit event, such as a default, on a reference obligation has occurred. If a credit event occurs, the seller generally must pay the buyer the “par value” (full notional value) of the swap in exchange for an equal face amount of deliverable obligations of the reference entity described in the swap, or the seller may be required to deliver the related net cash amount, if the swap is cash settled. An Underlying Fund may be either the protection buyer or seller in the transaction. If the Underlying Fund is a buyer and no credit event occurs, the Underlying Fund may recover nothing if the swap is held through its termination date. However, if a credit event occurs, the buyer generally may elect to receive the full notional value of the swap in exchange for an equal face amount of deliverable obligations of the reference entity whose value may have significantly decreased. As a seller, an Underlying Fund generally receives an upfront payment or a rate of income throughout the term of the swap provided that there is no credit event. As the seller, an Underlying Fund would effectively add leverage to its portfolio because, in addition to its total net assets, an Underlying Fund would be subject to investment exposure on the notional amount of the swap. If a credit event occurs, the value of any deliverable obligation received by the Underlying Fund as seller, coupled with the upfront or periodic payments previously received, may be less than the full notional value it pays to the buyer, resulting in a loss of value to the Underlying Fund. To the extent that an Underlying Fund’s exposure in a transaction involving a swap, a swaption or an interest rate floor, cap or collar is covered by the identifying cash or liquid assets on the Fund’s books or is covered by other means in accordance with SEC- or SEC staff-approved guidance or other appropriate measures, the Underlying Funds and their investment advisers believe that the transactions do not constitute senior securities under the Act and, accordingly, will not treat them as being subject to an Underlying Fund’s borrowing restrictions. For more information about these practices, see “Description of Investment Securities and Practices – Asset Segregation.”

As a result of recent regulatory developments, certain standardized swaps are currently subject to mandatory central clearing and some of these cleared swaps must be traded on an exchange or swap execution facility (“SEF”). A SEF is a trading platform in which multiple market participants can execute swap transactions by accepting bids and offers made by multiple other participants on the platform. Transactions executed on a SEF may increase market transparency and liquidity but may cause a Portfolio to incur increased expenses to execute swaps. Central clearing should decrease counterparty risk and increase liquidity compared to bilateral swaps because central clearing interposes the central clearinghouse as the counterparty to each participant’s swap. However, central clearing does not eliminate counterparty risk or liquidity risk entirely. In addition, depending on the size of an Underlying Fund and other factors, the margin required under the rules of a clearinghouse and by a clearing member may be in excess of the collateral required to be posted by the Underlying Fund to support its obligations under a similar bilateral swap. However, the CFTC and other applicable regulators have adopted rules imposing certain margin requirements, including minimums, on uncleared swaps which may result in the Fund and its counterparties posting higher margin amounts for uncleared swaps. Requiring margin on uncleared swaps may reduce, but not eliminate, counterparty credit risk.

The use of swaps and swaptions, as well as interest rate caps, floors and collars, is a highly specialized activity which involves investment techniques and risks different from those associated with ordinary portfolio securities transactions. The use of a swap requires an understanding not only of the referenced asset, reference rate, or index but also of the swap itself, without the benefit of observing the performance of the swap under all possible market conditions. If an Underlying Fund’s investment adviser is incorrect in its forecasts of market values, credit quality, interest rates and currency exchange rates, the investment performance of an Underlying Fund would be less favorable than it would have been if this investment technique were not used.

In addition, these transactions can involve greater risks than if an Underlying Fund had invested in the reference obligation directly because, in addition to general market risks, swaps are subject to liquidity risk, counterparty risk, credit risk and pricing risk. Regulators also may impose limits on an entity’s or group of entities’ positions in certain swaps. However, certain risks are reduced (but not eliminated) if the Underlying Fund invests in cleared swaps. Bilateral swap agreements are two party contracts that may have terms of greater than seven days. Moreover, an Underlying Fund bears the risk of loss of the amount expected to be received under a swap agreement in the event of the default or bankruptcy of a swap counterparty. Many swaps are complex and often valued subjectively. Swaps and other derivatives may also be subject to pricing or “basis” risk, which exists when the price of a particular derivative diverges from the price of corresponding cash market instruments. Under certain market conditions it may not be economically feasible to imitate a transaction or liquidate a position in time to avoid a loss or take advantage of an opportunity. If a swap transaction is particularly large or if the relevant market is illiquid, it may not be possible to initiate a transaction or liquidate a position at an advantageous time or price, which may result in significant losses.

Regulators are in the process of development rules that would require trading and execution of most liquid swaps on trading facilities. Moving trading to an exchange-type system may increase market transparency and liquidity but may require an Underlying Fund to incur increased expenses to access the same types of swaps.

Certain rules also require centralized reporting of detailed information about many types of cleared and uncleared swaps. This information is available to regulators and, to a more limited extent and on an anonymous basis, to the public. Reporting of swap data may result in greater market transparency, which may be beneficial to funds that use swaps to implement trading strategies. However, these rules place potential additional administrative obligations on these funds, and the safeguards established to protect anonymity may not function as expected.

 

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The swap market has grown substantially in recent years with a large number of banks and investment banking firms acting both as principals and as agents utilizing standardized swap documentation. As a result, the swap market has become relatively liquid in comparison with the markets for other similar instruments which are traded in the interbank market. These and other factors discussed in the section above, entitled “Illiquid Investments,” may impact the liquidity of investments in swaps.

Inverse Floating Rate Securities

Permissible investments for certain of the Underlying Funds include inverse floating rate debt instruments (“inverse floaters”), including “leveraged inverse floaters”. The interest rate on an inverse floater resets in the opposite direction from the market rate of interest to which the inverse floater is indexed. An inverse floater may be considered to be leveraged to the extent that its interest rate varies by a magnitude that exceeds the magnitude of the change in the index rate of interest. The higher degree of leverage inherent in inverse floaters is associated with greater volatility in their market values. Accordingly, the duration of an inverse floater may exceed its stated final maturity.

Investing through Bond Connect

Certain Underlying Funds invest in bonds traded in the China Interbank Bond Market (“CIBM”) through the Bond Connect program (“Bond Connect Securities”). Bond Connect is an arrangement between Hong Kong and Mainland China that enables Hong Kong and overseas investors to trade various types of fixed income instruments in the CIBM through a connection between the relevant respective financial infrastructure institutions. Eligible foreign investors may submit trade requests for bonds circulated in the CIBM market through offshore electronic bond trading platforms (such as Tradeweb), which will in turn transmit the requests for quotation to the China Foreign Exchange Trade System & National Interbank Funding Centre (“CFETS”). CFETS will send the requests for quotation to a number of approved onshore dealers (including market makers and others engaged in the market making business) in Mainland China. The approved onshore dealers will respond to the requests for quotation via CFETS and CFETS will send their responses to those eligible foreign investors through the same offshore electronic bond trading platforms. Once the eligible foreign investor accepts the quotation, the trade is concluded on CFETS. Under the settlement link between CMU, as an offshore custody agent, and the China Central Depository & Clearing Co. (“CCDC”) or the Shanghai Clearing House (“SCH”), as onshore custodians and clearing institutions in Mainland China, CCDC or SCH will effect gross settlement of confirmed trades onshore and CMU will process bond settlement instructions from CMU members on behalf of eligible foreign investors in accordance with its relevant rules. Since the introduction of delivery versus payment (DVP) settlement, the movement of cash and securities is carried out simultaneously on a real-time basis. However, it should be noted that there is no assurance that settlement risks can be eliminated and DVP settlement practices in the People’s Republic of China (“PRC”) may differ from practices in developed markets. In particular, such settlement may not be instantaneous and be subject to a delay of a period of hours. Where the counterparty does not perform its obligations under a transaction or there is otherwise a failure due to CCDC or SCH (as applicable), an Underlying Fund may sustain losses.

A failure or delay by CMU, CCDC or SCH in the performance of their respective obligations may result in a failure of settlement, or the loss, of Bond Connect Securities and/or monies in connection with them and an Underlying Fund may suffer losses as a result. In the event that the nominee holder (i.e., CMU) becomes insolvent, such Bond Connect Securities may form part of the pool of assets of the nominee holder available for distribution to its creditors and an Underlying Fund, as a beneficial owner, may have no rights whatsoever in respect thereof.

Trading through Bond Connect is subject to a number of restrictions that may affect an Underlying Fund’s investments and returns. Investments made through Bond Connect are subject to order, clearance and settlement procedures that are relatively untested, which could pose risks to an Underlying Fund. Furthermore, an Underlying Fund’s investments through Bond Connect will be held on behalf of the Underlying Fund via a book entry omnibus account in the name of the CMU maintained with a Mainland China-based custodian (either CCDC or SCH). An Underlying Fund’s ownership interest in investments through Bond Connect will not be reflected directly in book entry with CCDC or SCH and will instead only be reflected on the books of its Hong Kong sub-custodian. This custody arrangement subjects the Underlying Funds to various risks, including the risk that an Underlying Fund may have a limited ability to enforce rights as a beneficial owner as well as the risks of settlement delays and counterparty default or error of the Hong Kong sub-custodian. While the ultimate investors hold a beneficial interest in their investments through Bond Connect, the mechanisms that beneficial owners may use to enforce their rights are relatively new and courts in Mainland China have limited experience in applying the concept of beneficial ownership. As such, an Underlying Fund may not be able to participate in corporate actions affecting its rights as a bondholder, such as timely payment of distributions, due to time constraints or for other operational reasons. Bond Connect trades are settled in CNY and investors must have timely access to a reliable supply of CNY in Hong Kong, which may incur conversion costs and cannot be guaranteed. Moreover, Bond Connect Securities generally may not be sold, purchased or otherwise transferred other than through Bond Connect in accordance with applicable rules.

Investing through Bond Connect will subject the Underlying Funds to Chinese laws and rules applicable to investors in Chinese fixed income instruments. Therefore, the Underlying Funds’ investments through Bond Connect are generally subject to Mainland China’s securities laws and listing requirements, among other restrictions. Such securities may lose their eligibility at any time, in which case they could be sold but could no longer be purchased through Bond Connect. The Underlying Funds will not benefit from access to

 

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Hong Kong investor compensation funds, which are set up to protect against defaults of trades, when investing through Bond Connect. Bond Connect is only available on days when markets in both Mainland China and Hong Kong are open. As a result, prices of Bond Connect securities may fluctuate at times when an Underlying Fund is unable to add to or exit its position and, therefore, may limit the Underlying Fund’s ability to trade when it would otherwise do so. Finally, uncertainties in Mainland China’s tax rules governing taxation of income and gains from investments via Bond Connect could result in unexpected tax liabilities for an Unerlying Fund. The withholding tax treatment of interests and capital gains payable to overseas investors currently is unsettled.

Bond Connect is a relatively new program and may be subject to further interpretation, guidance or modifications. Laws, rules, regulations, policies, notices, circulars or guidelines relating to the Bond Connect as published or applied by any of the authorities are untested and are subject to change from time to time. There can be no assurance that Bond Connect will not be restricted, suspended, discontinued or abolished in the future. In addition, the trading, settlement and information technology systems required for overseas investors to trade through Bond Connect are relatively new and continuing to evolve. In the event that the relevant systems do not function properly, trading through Bond Connect could be disrupted. In addition, the application and interpretation of the laws and regulations of Hong Kong and Mainland China, and the rules, policies or guidelines published or applied by relevant regulators and exchanges in respect of Bond Connect are uncertain and may affect the Underlying Funds’ investments.

Bond Connect is only available on days when markets in both China and Hong Kong are open. As a result, prices of Bond Connect Securities may fluctuate at times when an Underlying Fund is unable to add to or exit its position and, therefore, may limit the Underlying Fund’s ability to trade when it would otherwise do so.

Potential lack of liquidity due to low trading volume of certain Bond Connect Securities may result in prices of certain fixed income securities traded on such market fluctuating significantly, which may expose an Underlying Fund to liquidity risks. The bid and offer spreads of the prices of Bond Connect Securities may be large, and the Underlying Funds may therefore incur significant trading and realization costs and may even suffer losses when disposing of such investments.

Hedging activities under Bond Connect are subject to Bond Connect regulations and any prevailing market practice. There is no guarantee that the Underlying Funds will be able to carry out hedging transactions at terms which are satisfactory and to the best interest of the Underlying Funds. An Underlying Fund may also be required to unwind its hedge in unfavorable market conditions.

The People’s Bank of China will exercise on-going supervision of the Underlying Funds as a participant in the CIBM and may take relevant administrative actions such as suspension of trading and mandatory exit against an Underlying Fund and/or the Investment Adviser in the event of non-compliance with the local market rules as well as Bond Connect regulations.

As a result of investing in the PRC, the Underlying Funds may be subject to withholding and various other taxes imposed by the PRC.

Except for interest income from certain bonds (i.e., government bonds, local government bonds and railway bonds which are entitled to a 100% PRC Corporate Income Tax (“CIT”) exemption and 50% CIT exemption respectively in accordance with the Implementation Rules to the Enterprise Income Tax Law and a circular dated March 19, 2016 on the Circular on Income Tax Policies on Interest Income from Railway Bonds under Caishui [2016] No. 30), interest income derived by non-resident institutional investors from other bonds traded through Bond Connect is PRC-sourced income and should be subject to PRC withholding income tax at a rate of 10% and value-added tax (“VAT”) at a rate of 6%. On November 22, 2018, the Ministry of Finance and State Administration of Taxation jointly issued Circular 108, the circular dated 7 November 2018 on the Taxation Policy of Corporate Income Tax and Value-Added Tax in relation to Bond Investments made by Offshore Institutions in Domestic Bond Market, to clarify that foreign institutional investors (including foreign institutional investors under Bond Connect) are temporarily exempt from PRC withholding income tax and VAT with respect to bond interest income derived in the PRC bond market for the period from November 7, 2018 to November 6, 2021. Circular 108 is silent on the PRC withholding income tax and VAT treatment with respect to non-government bond interest derived prior to November 7, 2018, which is subject to clarification from the PRC tax authorities.

Capital gains derived by non-resident institutional investors (with no place or establishment or permanent establishment in the PRC) from the trading of bonds through the Bond Connect are technically non PRC-sourced income under the current CIT law and regulations, therefore, not subject to PRC CIT. While the PRC tax authorities are currently enforcing such non-taxable treatment in practice, there is a lack of clarity on such non-taxable treatment under the current CIT regulations.

The tax law and regulations of the PRC are constantly changing, and they may be changed with retrospective effect to the advantage or disadvantage of shareholders. The interpretation and applicability of the tax law and regulations by tax authorities may not be as consistent and transparent as those of more developed nations, and may vary from region to region. It should also be noted that any provision for taxation made by the Investment Adviser may be excessive or inadequate to meet final tax liabilities. Consequently, shareholders may be advantaged or disadvantaged depending upon the final tax liabilities, the level of provision and when they subscribed and/or redeemed their shares of an Underlying Fund.

 

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Investments in the Wholly-Owned Subsidiary

The Underlying Tactical Fund may invest in the Subsidiary. Investments in the Subsidiary are expected to provide the Underlying Tactical Fund with exposure to the commodity markets within the limitations of Subchapter M of the Code and IRS rulings. Historically, the IRS issued private letter rulings in which the IRS specifically concluded that income and gains from investments in commodity index-linked structured notes (the “Notes Rulings”) or a wholly-owned foreign subsidiary that invests in commodity-linked instruments are “qualifying income” for purposes of compliance with the Code. However, the Underlying Tactical Fund has not received such a private letter ruling, and is not able to rely on private letter rulings issued to other taxpayers.

The IRS issued a revenue procedure, which states that the IRS will not in the future issue private letter rulings that would require a determination of whether an asset (such as a commodity index-linked note) is a “security” under the Investment Company Act. In connection with issuing such revenue procedure, the IRS has revoked the Note Rulings on a prospective basis. In light of the revocation of the Note Rulings, the Underlying Tactical Fund intends to limit its investments in commodity index-linked structured notes.

The IRS recently issued final regulations that would generally treat the Underlying Tactical Fund’s income inclusion with respect to the Subsidiary as qualifying income either if (A) there is a distribution out of the earnings and profits of the Subsidiary that are attributable to such income inclusion (the “Subpart F Distribution Rule”) or (B) such inclusion is derived with respect to the Underlying Tactical Fund’s business of investing in stock, securities, or currencies.

In reliance on an opinion of counsel (“Tax Opinion”), the Underlying Tactical Fund may gain exposure to the commodity markets through investments in the Subsidiary. As a condition to receiving the Tax Opinion, the Underlying Tactical Fund already seeks to satisfy the Subpart F Distribution Rule.

The tax treatment of the Underlying Tactical Fund’s investments in the Subsidiary could affect whether income derived from such investments is “qualifying income” under Subchapter M of Code, or otherwise affect the character, timing and/or amount of the Underlying Tactical Fund’s taxable income or any gains and distributions made by the Underlying Tactical Fund. If the IRS were to successfully assert that the Underlying Tactical Fund’s income from such investments was not “qualifying income,” the Underlying Tactical Fund may fail to qualify as a RIC under Subchapter M of the Code if over 10% of its gross income was derived from these investments. If the Fund failed to qualify as a RIC, it would be subject to federal and state income tax on all of its taxable income at regular corporate tax rates with no deduction for any distributions paid to shareholders, which would significantly adversely affect the returns to, and could cause substantial losses for, Underlying Tactical Fund shareholders.

The Subsidiary is a company organized under the laws of the Cayman Islands and is overseen by its own board of directors. The Underlying Tactical Fund is currently the sole shareholder of the Subsidiary. The Subsidiary may invest without limitation in commodity index-linked securities (including leveraged and unleveraged structured notes) and other commodity-linked securities and derivative instruments that provide exposure to the performance of the commodity markets. Although the Underlying Tactical Fund may invest in commodity-linked derivative instruments directly, it could also gain exposure to these derivative instruments indirectly by investing in the Subsidiary. The Subsidiary also invests in fixed income securities, which are intended to serve as margin or collateral for the Subsidiary’s derivative positions. To the extent that the Underlying Tactical Fund invests in the Subsidiary, it may be subject to the risks associated with those derivative instruments and other securities, which are discussed elsewhere in the Underlying Tactical Fund’s Prospectuses and SAI.

The Subsidiary is not an investment company registered under the Act and, unless otherwise noted in the applicable Prospectus and this SAI, is not subject to all of the investor protections of the Act and other U.S. regulations. Changes in the laws of the United States and/or the Cayman Islands could result in the inability of the Underlying Tactical Fund and/or the Subsidiary to operate as described in the Prospectuses and this SAI and could negatively affect the Underlying Tactical Fund and the Portfolios.

Investment in Unseasoned Companies

Certain of the Underlying Funds may invest in companies (including predecessors) which have operated less than three years. The securities of such companies may have limited liquidity, which can result in their being priced higher or lower than might otherwise be the case. In addition, investments in unseasoned companies are more speculative and entail greater risk than do investments in companies with an established operating record.

Lending of Portfolio Securities

Certain of the Underlying Funds may lend their portfolio securities to brokers, dealers and other institutions, including Goldman Sachs. By lending its securities, an Underlying Fund attempts to increase its net investment income.

 

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Securities loans are required to be secured continuously by collateral in cash, cash equivalents, letters of credit or U.S. Government Securities equal to at least 100% of the value of the loaned securities. This collateral must be valued, or “marked to market,” daily. Borrowers are required to furnish additional collateral to the Underlying Fund as necessary to fully cover their obligations.

With respect to loans that are collateralized by cash, the Underlying Fund may reinvest that cash in short-term investments and pay the borrower a pre-negotiated fee or “rebate” from any return earned on the investment. Investing the collateral subjects it to market depreciation or appreciation, and the Underlying Fund is responsible for any loss that may result from its investment of the borrowed collateral. Cash collateral may be invested in, among other things, other registered or unregistered funds, including private investing funds or money market funds that are managed by the Underlying Fund’s investment adviser or its affiliates, and which pay the Underlying Fund’s investment adviser or its affiliates for their services. If the Underlying Fund would receive non-cash collateral, the Underlying Fund receives a fee from the borrower equal to a negotiated percentage of the market value of the loaned securities.

For the duration of any securities loan, the Underlying Fund will continue to receive the equivalent of the interest, dividends or other distributions paid by the issuer on the loaned securities. The Underlying Fund will not have the right to vote its loaned securities during the period of the loan, but the Underlying Fund may attempt to recall a loaned security in anticipation of a material vote if it desires to do so. An Underlying Fund will have the right to terminate a loan at any time and recall the loaned securities within the normal and customary settlement time for securities transactions.

Securities lending involves certain risks. The Underlying Fund may lose money on its investment of cash collateral, resulting in a loss of principal, or may fail to earn sufficient income on its investment to cover the fee or rebate it has agreed to pay the borrower. An Underlying Fund may incur losses in connection with its securities lending activities that exceed the value of the interest income and fees received in connection with such transactions. Securities lending subjects an Underlying Fund to the risk of loss resulting from problems in the settlement and accounting process, and to additional credit, counterparty and market risk. These risks could be greater with respect to non-U.S. securities. Engaging in securities lending could have a leveraging effect, which may intensify the other risks associated with investments in the Underlying Fund. In addition, an Underlying Fund bears the risk that the price of the securities on loan will increase while they are on loan, or that the price of the collateral will decline in value during the period of the loan, and that the counterparty will not provide, or will delay in providing, additional collateral. An Underlying Fund also bears the risk that a borrower may fail to return securities in a timely manner or at all, either because the borrower fails financially or for other reasons. If a borrower of securities fails financially, an Underlying Fund may also lose its rights in the collateral. An Underlying Fund could experience delays and costs in recovering the loaned securities or in gaining access to and liquidating the collateral, which could result in actual financial loss and which could interfere with portfolio management decisions or the exercise of ownership rights in the loaned securities. If an Underlying Fund is not able to recover the securities lent, the Underlying Fund may sell the collateral and purchase replacement securities in the market. However, the Underlying Fund will incur transaction costs on the purchase of replacement securities. These events could trigger adverse tax consequences for the Underlying Fund. In determining whether to lend securities to a particular borrower, and throughout the period of the loan, the creditworthiness of the borrower will be considered and monitored. Loans will only be made to firms deemed to be of good standing, and where the consideration that can be earned currently from securities loans of this type is deemed to justify the attendant risk. It is intended that the value of securities loaned by an Underlying Fund will not exceed one-third of the value of an Underlying Fund’s total assets (including the loan collateral).

An Underlying Fund will consider the loaned securities as assets of the Underlying Fund, but will not consider any collateral as an Underlying Fund asset except when determining total assets for the purpose of the above one-third limitation. Loan collateral (including any investment of the collateral) is not subject to the percentage limitations stated elsewhere in this SAI, the Prospectuses or the Underlying Funds’ Prospectuses or SAIs regarding investing in fixed income securities and cash equivalents.

The Underlying Funds’ Board of Trustees has approved each Underlying Fund’s participation in a securities lending program and has adopted policies and procedures relating thereto. Under the current securities lending program, each Underlying Fund has retained either an affiliate of its investment adviser or State Street Bank and Trust Company to serve as its securities lending agent.

For its services, the securities lending agent may receive a fee from an Underlying Fund, including a fee based on the returns earned on the Underlying Fund’s investment of cash received as collateral for the loaned securities. In addition, an Underlying Fund may make brokerage and other payments to Goldman Sachs and its affiliates in connection with the Underlying Fund’s portfolio investment transactions. An Underlying Fund’s Board of Trustees periodically reviews reports on securities loan transactions for which a Goldman Sachs affiliate has acted as lending agent for compliance with the Underlying Fund’s securities lending procedures. Goldman Sachs also has been approved as a borrower under an Underlying Funds’ securities lending program, subject to certain conditions.

Limited Liability Company Common Units

Some energy companies in which certain Underlying Funds, including the MLP Energy Infrastructure Fund, may invest have been organized as limited liability companies (“MLP LLCs”). Such MLP LLCs are treated in the same manner as MLPs for federal income tax purposes. Consistent with its investment objective and policies, an Underlying Fund may invest in common units or other securities of such MLP LLCs. MLP LLC common units represent an equity ownership interest in an MLP LLC, entitling the holders to a share of

 

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the MLP LLC’s success through distributions and/or capital appreciation. Similar to MLPs, MLP LLCs typically do not pay federal income tax at the entity level and are required by their operating agreements to distribute a large percentage of their current operating earnings. MLP LLC common unitholders generally have first right to an MQD prior to distributions to subordinated unitholders and typically have arrearage rights if the MQD is not met. In the event of liquidation, MLP LLC common unitholders have first right to the MLP LLC’s remaining assets after bondholders, other debt holders and preferred unitholders, if any, have been paid in full. MLP LLC common units trade on a national securities exchange or OTC. In contrast to MLPs, MLP LLCs have no general partner and there are generally no incentives that entitle management or other unitholders to increased percentages of cash distributions as distributions reach higher target levels. In addition, MLP LLC common unitholders typically have voting rights with respect to the MLP LLC, whereas MLP common units have limited voting rights.

Loans and Loan Participations

An Underlying Fund or a Portfolio may invest in loans and loan participations. A loan participation is an interest in a loan to a U.S. or foreign company or other borrower which is administered and sold by a financial intermediary. The Underlying Funds and Portfolios may only invest in loans to issuers in whose obligations it may otherwise invest. Loan participation interests may take the form of a direct or co-lending relationship with the corporate borrower, an assignment of an interest in the loan by a co-lender or another participant, or a participation in the seller’s share of the loan. When acting as co-lender in connection with a participation interest or when acquiring certain participation interests, a Portfolio or Underlying Fund will have direct recourse against the borrower if the borrower fails to pay scheduled principal and interest. In cases where direct recourse is lacking, an Underlying Fund or Portfolio will look to an agent for the lenders (the “agent lender”) to enforce appropriate credit remedies against the borrower. In these cases, the Portfolio or Underlying Fund may be subject to delays, expenses and risks that are greater than those that would have been involved in purchasing a direct obligation (such as commercial paper) of such borrower. Moreover, under the terms of the loan participation, the Underlying Fund or Portfolio may be regarded as a creditor of the agent lender (rather than of the underlying corporate borrower), so that the Underlying Fund or Portfolio may also be subject to the risk that the agent lender may become insolvent.

Loan obligations are subject to the credit risk of nonpayment of principal or interest. Substantial increases in interest rates may cause an increase in loan obligation defaults. Although a loan obligation may be fully collateralized at the time of acquisition, the collateral may decline in value, be relatively illiquid, or lose all or substantially all of its value subsequent to investment, leaving all or part of a loan obligation unsecured. Unsecured loan obligations or unsecured portions of loan obligations are subject to greater risk of loss in the event of default by the borrower than secured loans. Many loan obligations are subject to legal or contractual restrictions on resale and are relatively illiquid and may be difficult to value. The purchase and sale of a loan obligation are subject to the requirements of the credit agreement governing the loan obligation. Loan obligations are not traded on an exchange and purchasers and sellers rely on certain market makers, such as the administrative agent for the particular loan obligation, to trade that loan obligation. These factors will also have an adverse impact on an Underlying Fund’s or Portfolio’s ability to dispose of particular loan obligations or loan participations when necessary to meet the Underlying Fund’s or Portfolio’s liquidity needs or when necessary in response to a specific economic event, such as a decline in the credit quality of the borrower. Underlying Funds or Portfolios investing in loan participations may have limited recourse against a borrower who fails to pay scheduled principal and interest.

Master Limited Partnerships

Certain of the Underlying Funds, including the MLP Energy Infrastructure Fund, may invest in MLPs. An MLP is an entity receiving partnership taxation treatment under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), and whose interests or “units” are traded on securities exchanges like shares of corporate stock. A typical MLP consists of a general partner and limited partners; however, some entities receiving partnership taxation treatment under the Code are established as limited liability companies. The general partner manages the partnership; has an ownership stake in the partnership; and is typically eligible to receive an incentive distribution. The limited partners provide capital to the partnership, have a limited (if any) role in the operation and management of the partnership, and receive cash distributions. Due to their partnership structure, MLPs generally do not pay income taxes.

Holders of MLP units could potentially become subject to liability for all of the obligations of an MLP, if a court determines that the rights of the unitholders to take certain action under the limited partnership agreement would constitute “control” of the business of that MLP, or if a court or governmental agency determines that the MLP is conducting business in a state without complying with the limited partnership statute of that state.

To be treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes, an MLP must derive at least 90% of its gross income for each taxable year from qualifying sources, including activities such as the exploration, development, mining, production, processing, refining, transportation, storage and certain marketing of mineral or natural resources. Many of the MLPs in which an Underlying Fund may invest operate oil, gas or petroleum facilities, or other facilities within the energy sector. The MLP Energy Infrastructure Fund intends to concentrate its investments in the energy sector, with a focus on “midstream” energy infrastructure MLPs. The MLP Energy Infrastructure Fund may, however, invest in MLP entities in any sector of the economy.

 

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Midstream MLPs are generally engaged in the treatment, gathering, compression, processing, transportation, transmission, fractionation, storage and terminalling of natural gas, natural gas liquids, crude oil, refined products or coal. Midstream MLPs may also operate ancillary businesses including marketing of energy products and logistical services. An Underlying Fund may also invest in “upstream” and “downstream” MLPs. Upstream MLPs are primarily engaged in the exploration, recovery, development and production of crude oil, natural gas and natural gas liquids. Downstream MLPs are primarily engaged in the processing, treatment, and refining of natural gas liquids and crude oil. The MLPs in which an Underlying Fund invests may also engage in owning, managing and transporting alternative energy assets, including alternative fuels such as ethanol, hydrogen and biodiesel.

MLP Equity Securities. Equity securities issued by MLPs generally consist of common units, subordinated units and preferred units, as described more fully below.

MLP Common Units. The common units of many MLPs are listed and traded on U.S. securities exchanges, including the New York Stock Exchange, Inc. (“NYSE”) and the National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotations System (“NASDAQ”). An Underlying Fund may purchase such common units through open market transactions and underwritten offerings, but may also acquire common units through direct placements and privately negotiated transactions. Holders of MLP common units typically have very limited control and voting rights. Holders of such common units are typically entitled to receive a minimum quarterly distribution (“MQD”) from the issuer, and typically have a right, to the extent that an MLP fails to make a previous MQD, to recover in future distributions the amount by which the MQD was short (“arrearage rights”). Generally, an MLP must pay (or set aside for payment) the MQD to holders of common units before any distributions may be paid to subordinated unit holders. In addition, incentive distributions are typically not paid to the general partner or managing member unless the quarterly distributions on the common units exceed specified threshold levels above the MQD. In the event of a liquidation, common unit holders are intended to have a preference with respect to the remaining assets of the issuer over holders of subordinated units. MLPs issue different classes of common units that may have different voting, trading, and distribution rights. An Underlying Fund may invest in different classes of common units.

MLP Subordinated Units. Subordinated units, which, like common units, represent limited partner or member interests, are not typically listed or traded on an exchange. An Underlying Fund may purchase outstanding subordinated units through negotiated transactions directly with holders of such units or newly issued subordinated units directly from the issuer. Holders of such subordinated units are generally entitled to receive a distribution only after the MQD and any arrearages from prior quarters have been paid to holders of common units. Holders of subordinated units typically have the right to receive distributions before any incentive distributions are payable to the general partner or managing member. Subordinated units generally do not provide arrearage rights. Most MLP subordinated units are convertible into common units after the passage of a specified period of time or upon the achievement by the issuer of specified financial goals. MLPs issue different classes of subordinated units that may have different voting, trading, and distribution rights. An Underlying Fund may invest in different classes of subordinated units.

MLP Convertible Subordinated Units. MLP convertible subordinated units are typically issued by MLPs to founders, corporate general partners of MLPs, entities that sell assets to MLPs, and institutional investors. Convertible subordinated units increase the likelihood that, during the subordination period, there will be available cash to be distributed to common unitholders. MLP convertible subordinated units generally are not entitled to distributions until holders of common units have received their specified MQD, plus any arrearages, and may receive less than common unitholders in distributions upon liquidation. Convertible subordinated unitholders generally are entitled to MQD prior to the payment of incentive distributions to the general partner, but are not entitled to arrearage rights. Therefore, MLP convertible subordinated units generally entail greater risk than MLP common units. Convertible subordinated units are generally convertible automatically into senior common units of the same issuer at a one-to-one ratio upon the passage of time or the satisfaction of certain financial tests. Convertible subordinated units do not trade on a national exchange or over-the-counter (“OTC”), and there is no active market for them. The value of a convertible subordinated unit is a function of its worth if converted into the underlying common units. Convertible subordinated units generally have similar voting rights as do MLP common units. Distributions may be paid in cash or in-kind.

MLP Preferred Units. MLP preferred units are not typically listed or traded on an exchange. An Underlying Fund may purchase MLP preferred units through negotiated transactions directly with MLPs, affiliates of MLPs and institutional holders of such units. Holders of MLP preferred units can be entitled to a wide range of voting and other rights, depending on the structure of each separate security.

MLP General Partner or Managing Member Interests. The general partner or managing member interest in an MLP is typically retained by the original sponsors of an MLP, such as its founders, corporate partners and entities that sell assets to the MLP. The holder of the general partner or managing member interest can be liable in certain circumstances for amounts greater than the amount of the holder’s investment in the general partner or managing member. General partner or managing member interests often confer direct board participation rights in, and in many cases control over the operations of, the MLP. General partner or managing member interests can be privately held or owned by publicly traded entities. General partner or managing member interests receive cash distributions, typically in an amount of up to 2% of available cash, which is contractually defined in the partnership or limited liability company agreement. In addition, holders of general partner or managing member interests typically receive incentive distribution rights (“IDRs”), which provide them with an increasing share of the entity’s aggregate cash distributions upon the payment of per common unit distributions that exceed

 

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specified threshold levels above the MQD. Incentive distributions to a general partner are designed to encourage the general partner, who controls and operates the partnership, to maximize the partnership’s cash flow and increase distributions to the limited partners. Due to the IDRs, general partners of MLPs have higher distribution growth prospects than their underlying MLPs, but quarterly incentive distribution payments would also decline at a greater rate than the decline rate in quarterly distributions to common and subordinated unit holders in the event of a reduction in the MLP’s quarterly distribution. The ability of the limited partners or members to remove the general partner or managing member without cause is typically very limited. In addition, some MLPs permit the holder of IDRs to reset, under specified circumstances, the incentive distribution levels and receive compensation in exchange for the distribution rights given up in the reset.

MLP Debt Securities. Debt securities issued by MLPs may include those rated below investment grade. An Underlying Fund may invest in MLP debt securities without regard to credit quality or maturity. Investments in such securities may not offer the tax characteristics of equity securities of MLPs.

MLP Affiliates and I-Units

Other MLP Equity and Debt Securities. Certain Underlying Funds, including the MLP Energy Infrastructure Fund, may invest in equity and debt securities issued by affiliates of MLPs, including the general partners or managing members of MLPs and companies that own MLP general partner interests and are energy companies. Such issuers may be organized and/or taxed as corporations and therefore may not offer the advantageous tax characteristics of MLP units. An Underlying Fund may purchase such other MLP equity securities through market transactions, but may also do so through direct placements.

I-Units. I-Units represent an indirect ownership interest in an MLP and are issued by an MLP affiliate. The MLP affiliate uses the proceeds from the sale of I-Units to purchase limited partnership interests in its affiliated MLP. Thus, I-Units represent an indirect interest in an MLP. I-Units have limited voting rights and are similar in that respect to MLP common units. I-Units differ from MLP common units primarily in that instead of receiving cash distributions, holders of I-Units will receive distributions of additional I-Units in an amount equal to the cash distributions received by common unit holders. I-Units are traded on the NYSE. Issuers of MLP I-Units are treated as corporations and not partnerships for tax purposes.

Mortgage Dollar Rolls

Certain of the Underlying Funds may enter into mortgage “dollar rolls” in which an Underlying Fund sells securities for delivery in the current month and simultaneously contracts with the same counterparty to repurchase similar, but not identical securities on a specified future date. During the roll period, an Underlying Fund loses the right to receive principal and interest paid on the securities sold. However, an Underlying Fund would benefit to the extent of any difference between the price received for the securities sold and the lower forward price for the future purchase or fee income plus the interest earned on the cash proceeds of the securities sold until the settlement date of the forward purchase. All cash proceeds will be invested in instruments that are permissible investments for the applicable Underlying Fund. An Underlying Fund will, until the settlement date, identify cash or liquid assets on its books, as permitted by applicable law, in an amount equal to its forward purchase price.

For financial reporting and tax purposes, the Underlying Funds treat mortgage dollar rolls as two separate transactions: one involving the purchase of a security and a separate transaction involving a sale. The Underlying Funds do not currently intend to enter into mortgage dollar rolls for financing and do not treat them as borrowings.

Mortgage dollar rolls involve certain risks including the following: if the broker-dealer to whom an Underlying Fund sells the security becomes insolvent, an Underlying Fund’s right to purchase or repurchase the mortgage-related securities subject to the mortgage dollar roll may be restricted. Also the instrument which an Underlying Fund is required to repurchase may be worth less than an instrument which an Underlying Fund originally held. Successful use of mortgage dollar rolls will depend upon the ability of an Underlying Fund’s investment adviser to manage an Underlying Fund’s interest rate and mortgage prepayments exposure. For these reasons, there is no assurance that mortgage dollar rolls can be successfully employed. The use of this technique may diminish the investment performance of an Underlying Fund compared to what such performance would have been without the use of mortgage dollar rolls.

Mortgage Loans and Mortgage-Backed Securities

Certain of the Underlying Funds may invest in mortgage loans and mortgage pass-through securities and other securities representing an interest in or collateralized by adjustable and fixed rate mortgage loans (“Mortgage-Backed Securities”).

Mortgage-Backed Securities (including collateralized mortgage obligations, real estate mortgage investment conduits (“REMICs”) and stripped mortgage-backed securities as described below) are subject to both call risk and extension risk. Because of these risks, these securities can have significantly greater price and yield volatility than traditional fixed income securities.

 

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General Characteristics of Mortgage Backed Securities.

In general, each mortgage pool underlying Mortgage-Backed Securities consists of mortgage loans evidenced by promissory notes secured by first mortgages or first deeds of trust or other similar security instruments creating a first lien on owner occupied and non-owner occupied one-unit to four-unit residential properties, multi-family (i.e., five-units or more) properties, agricultural properties, commercial properties and mixed use properties (the “Mortgaged Properties”). The Mortgaged Properties may consist of detached individual dwelling units, multi-family dwelling units, individual condominiums, townhouses, duplexes, triplexes, fourplexes, row houses, individual units in planned unit developments, other attached dwelling units (“Residential Mortgaged Properties”) or commercial properties, such as office properties, retail properties, hospitality properties, industrial properties, healthcare related properties or other types of income producing real property (“Commercial Mortgaged Properties”). Residential Mortgaged Properties may also include residential investment properties and second homes. In addition, the Mortgage-Backed Securities which are residential mortgage-backed securities may also consist of mortgage loans evidenced by promissory notes secured entirely or in part by second priority mortgage liens on Residential Mortgaged Properties.

The investment characteristics of adjustable and fixed rate Mortgage-Backed Securities differ from those of traditional fixed income securities. The major differences include the payment of interest and principal on Mortgage-Backed Securities on a more frequent (usually monthly) schedule, and the possibility that principal may be prepaid at any time due to prepayments on the underlying mortgage loans or other assets. These differences can result in significantly greater price and yield volatility than is the case with traditional fixed income securities. As a result, if an Underlying Fund purchases Mortgage-Backed Securities at a premium, a faster than expected prepayment rate will reduce both the market value and the yield to maturity from their anticipated levels. A prepayment rate that is slower than expected will have the opposite effect, increasing yield to maturity and market value. Conversely, if an Underlying Fund purchases Mortgage-Backed Securities at a discount, faster than expected prepayments will increase, while slower than expected prepayments will reduce yield to maturity and market value. To the extent that an Underlying Fund invests in Mortgage-Backed Securities, its investment adviser may seek to manage these potential risks by investing in a variety of Mortgage-Backed Securities and by using certain hedging techniques.

Prepayments on a pool of mortgage loans are influenced by changes in current interest rates and a variety of economic, geographic, social and other factors (such as changes in mortgagor housing needs, job transfers, unemployment, mortgagor equity in the mortgage properties and servicing decisions). The timing and level of prepayments cannot be predicted. A predominant factor affecting the prepayment rate on a pool of mortgage loans is the difference between the interest rates on outstanding mortgage loans and prevailing mortgage loan interest rates (giving consideration to the cost of any refinancing). Generally, prepayments on mortgage loans will increase during a period of falling mortgage interest rates and decrease during a period of rising mortgage interest rates. Accordingly, the amounts of prepayments available for reinvestment by an Underlying Fund are likely to be greater during a period of declining mortgage interest rates. If general interest rates decline, such prepayments are likely to be reinvested at lower interest rates than an Underlying Fund was earning on the mortgage-backed securities that were prepaid. Due to these factors, mortgage-backed securities may be less effective than U.S. Treasury and other types of debt securities of similar maturity at maintaining yields during periods of declining interest rates. Because an Underlying Fund’s investments in Mortgage-Backed Securities are interest-rate sensitive, an Underlying Fund’s performance will depend in part upon the ability of the Underlying Fund to anticipate and respond to fluctuations in market interest rates and to utilize appropriate strategies to maximize returns to the Underlying Fund, while attempting to minimize the associated risks to its investment capital. Prepayments may have a disproportionate effect on certain mortgage-backed securities and other multiple class pass-through securities, which are discussed below.

The rate of interest paid on mortgage-backed securities is normally lower than the rate of interest paid on the mortgages included in the underlying pool due to (among other things) the fees paid to any servicer, special servicer and trustee for the trust fund which holds the mortgage pool, other costs and expenses of such trust fund, fees paid to any guarantor, such as Ginnie Mae (as defined below) or to any credit enhancers, mortgage pool insurers, bond insurers and/or hedge providers, and due to any yield retained by the issuer. Actual yield to the holder may vary from the coupon rate, even if adjustable, if the mortgage-backed securities are purchased or traded in the secondary market at a premium or discount. In addition, there is normally some delay between the time the issuer receives mortgage payments from the servicer and the time the issuer (or the trustee of the trust fund which holds the mortgage pool) makes the payments on the mortgage-backed securities, and this delay reduces the effective yield to the holder of such securities.

The issuers of certain mortgage-backed obligations may elect to have the pool of mortgage loans (or indirect interests in mortgage loans) underlying the securities treated as a REMIC, which is subject to special federal income tax rules. A description of the types of mortgage loans and mortgage-backed securities in which certain of the Underlying Funds may invest is provided below. The descriptions are general and summary in nature, and do not detail every possible variation of the types of securities that are permissible investments for these Underlying Funds.

 

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Certain General Characteristics of Mortgage Loans

Adjustable Rate Mortgage Loans (“ARMs”). Certain of the Underlying Funds may invest in ARMs. ARMs generally provide for a fixed initial mortgage interest rate for a specified period of time. Thereafter, the interest rates (the “Mortgage Interest Rates”) may be subject to periodic adjustment based on changes in the applicable index rate (the “Index Rate”). The adjusted rate would be equal to the Index Rate plus a fixed percentage spread over the Index Rate established for each ARM at the time of its origination. ARMs allow an Underlying Fund to participate in increases in interest rates through periodic increases in the securities coupon rates. During periods of declining interest rates, coupon rates may readjust downward resulting in lower yields to an Underlying Fund.

Adjustable interest rates can cause payment increases that some mortgagors may find difficult to make. However, certain ARMs may provide that the Mortgage Interest Rate may not be adjusted to a rate above an applicable lifetime maximum rate or below an applicable lifetime minimum rate for such ARM. Certain ARMs may also be subject to limitations on the maximum amount by which the Mortgage Interest Rate may adjust for any single adjustment period (the “Maximum Adjustment”). Other ARMs (“Negatively Amortizing ARMs”) may provide instead or as well for limitations on changes in the monthly payment on such ARMs. Limitations on monthly payments can result in monthly payments which are greater or less than the amount necessary to amortize a Negatively Amortizing ARM by its maturity at the Mortgage Interest Rate in effect in any particular month. In the event that a monthly payment is not sufficient to pay the interest accruing on a Negatively Amortizing ARM, any such excess interest is added to the principal balance of the loan, causing negative amortization, and will be repaid through future monthly payments. It may take borrowers under Negatively Amortizing ARMs longer periods of time to build up equity and may increase the likelihood of default by such borrowers. In the event that a monthly payment exceeds the sum of the interest accrued at the applicable Mortgage Interest Rate and the principal payment which would have been necessary to amortize the outstanding principal balance over the remaining term of the loan, the excess (or “accelerated amortization”) further reduces the principal balance of the ARM. Negatively Amortizing ARMs do not provide for the extension of their original maturity to accommodate changes in their Mortgage Interest Rate. As a result, unless there is a periodic recalculation of the payment amount (which there generally is), the final payment may be substantially larger than the other payments. After the expiration of the initial fixed rate period and upon the periodic recalculation of the payment to cause timely amortization of the related mortgage loan, the monthly payment on such mortgage loan may increase substantially which may, in turn, increase the risk of the borrower defaulting in respect of such mortgage loan. These limitations on periodic increases in interest rates and on changes in monthly payments protect borrowers from unlimited interest rate and payment increases, but may result in increased credit exposure and prepayment risks for lenders. When interest due on a mortgage loan is added to the principal balance of such mortgage loan, the related mortgaged property provides proportionately less security for the repayment of such mortgage loan. Therefore, if the related borrower defaults on such mortgage loan, there is a greater likelihood that a loss will be incurred upon any liquidation of the mortgaged property which secures such mortgage loan.

ARMs also have the risk of prepayment. The rate of principal prepayments with respect to ARMs has fluctuated in recent years. The value of Mortgage-Backed Securities collateralized by ARMs is less likely to rise during periods of declining interest rates than the value of fixed-rate securities during such periods. Accordingly, ARMs may be subject to a greater rate of principal repayments in a declining interest rate environment resulting in lower yields to an Underlying Fund. For example, if prevailing interest rates fall significantly, ARMs could be subject to higher prepayment rates (than if prevailing interest rates remain constant or increase) because the availability of low fixed-rate mortgages may encourage mortgagors to refinance their ARMs to “lock-in” a fixed-rate mortgage. On the other hand, during periods of rising interest rates, the value of ARMs will lag behind changes in the market rate. ARMs are also typically subject to maximum increases and decreases in the interest rate adjustment which can be made on any one adjustment date, in any one year, or during the life of the security. In the event of dramatic increases or decreases in prevailing market interest rates, the value of an Underlying Fund’s investment in ARMs may fluctuate more substantially because these limits may prevent the security from fully adjusting its interest rate to the prevailing market rates. As with fixed-rate mortgages, ARM prepayment rates vary in both stable and changing interest rate environments.

There are two main categories of indices which provide the basis for rate adjustments on ARMs: those based on U.S. Treasury securities and those derived from a calculated measure, such as a cost of funds index or a moving average of mortgage rates. Indices commonly used for this purpose include the one-year, three-year and five-year constant maturity Treasury rates, the three-month Treasury bill rate, the 180-day Treasury bill rate, rates on longer-term Treasury securities, the 11th District Federal Home Loan Bank Cost of Funds, the National Median Cost of Funds, the one-month, three-month, six-month or one-year London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”), the prime rate of a specific bank, or commercial paper rates. Some indices, such as the one-year constant maturity Treasury rate, closely mirror changes in market interest rate levels. Others, such as the 11th District Federal Home Loan Bank Cost of Funds index, tend to lag behind changes in market rate levels and tend to be somewhat less volatile. The degree of volatility in the market value of ARMs in an Underlying Fund’s portfolio and, therefore, in the net asset value of the Underlying Fund’s shares, will be a function of the length of the interest rate reset periods and the degree of volatility in the applicable indices.

Fixed-Rate Mortgage Loans. Generally, fixed-rate mortgage loans included in mortgage pools (the “Fixed-Rate Mortgage Loans”) will bear simple interest at fixed annual rates and have original terms to maturity ranging from 5 to 40 years. Fixed-Rate Mortgage Loans generally provide for monthly payments of principal and interest in substantially equal installments for the term of the mortgage note in sufficient amounts to fully amortize principal by maturity, although certain Fixed-Rate Mortgage Loans provide for a large final “balloon” payment upon maturity.

 

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Certain Legal Considerations of Mortgage Loans. The following is a discussion of certain legal and regulatory aspects of the mortgage loans in which certain of the Underlying Funds may invest. This discussion is not exhaustive, and does not address all of the legal or regulatory aspects affecting mortgage loans. These regulations may impair the ability of a mortgage lender to enforce its rights under the mortgage documents. These regulations may also adversely affect an Underlying Fund’s investments in Mortgage-Backed Securities (including those issued or guaranteed by the U.S. Government, its agencies or instrumentalities) by delaying the Underlying Fund’s receipt of payments derived from principal or interest on mortgage loans affected by such regulations.

 

1.

Foreclosure. A foreclosure of a defaulted mortgage loan may be delayed due to compliance with statutory notice or service of process provisions, difficulties in locating necessary parties or legal challenges to the mortgagee’s right to foreclose. Depending upon market conditions, the ultimate proceeds of the sale of foreclosed property may not equal the amounts owed on the Mortgage-Backed Securities. Furthermore, courts in some cases have imposed general equitable principles upon foreclosure generally designed to relieve the borrower from the legal effect of default and have required lenders to undertake affirmative and expensive actions to determine the causes for the default and the likelihood of loan reinstatement.

 

2.

Rights of Redemption. In some states, after foreclosure of a mortgage loan, the borrower and foreclosed junior lienors are given a statutory period in which to redeem the property, which right may diminish the mortgagee’s ability to sell the property.

 

3.

Legislative Limitations. In addition to anti-deficiency and related legislation, numerous other federal and state statutory provisions, including the federal bankruptcy laws and state laws affording relief to debtors, may interfere with or affect the ability of a secured mortgage lender to enforce its security interest. For example, a bankruptcy court may grant the debtor a reasonable time to cure a default on a mortgage loan, including a payment default. The court in certain instances may also reduce the monthly payments due under such mortgage loan, change the rate of interest, reduce the principal balance of the loan to the then-current appraised value of the related mortgaged property, alter the mortgage loan repayment schedule and grant priority of certain liens over the lien of the mortgage loan. If a court relieves a borrower’s obligation to repay amounts otherwise due on a mortgage loan, the mortgage loan servicer will not be required to advance such amounts, and any loss may be borne by the holders of securities backed by such loans. In addition, numerous federal and state consumer protection laws impose penalties for failure to comply with specific requirements in connection with origination and servicing of mortgage loans.

 

4.

“Due-on-Sale” Provisions. Fixed-rate mortgage loans may contain a so-called “due-on-sale” clause permitting acceleration of the maturity of the mortgage loan if the borrower transfers the property. The Garn-St. Germain Depository Institutions Act of 1982 sets forth nine specific instances in which no mortgage lender covered by that Act may exercise a “due-on-sale” clause upon a transfer of property. The inability to enforce a “due-on-sale” clause or the lack of such a clause in mortgage loan documents may result in a mortgage loan being assumed by a purchaser of the property that bears an interest rate below the current market rate.

 

5.

Usury Laws. Some states prohibit charging interest on mortgage loans in excess of statutory limits. If such limits are exceeded, substantial penalties may be incurred and, in some cases, enforceability of the obligation to pay principal and interest may be affected.

 

6.

Recent Governmental Action, Legislation and Regulation. The rise in the rate of foreclosures of properties in certain states or localities has resulted in legislative, regulatory and enforcement action in such states or localities seeking to prevent or restrict foreclosures, particularly in respect of residential mortgage loans. Actions have also been brought against issuers and underwriters of residential Mortgage-Backed Securities collateralized by such residential mortgage loans and investors in such residential Mortgage-Backed Securities. Legislative or regulatory initiatives by federal, state or local legislative bodies or administrative agencies, if enacted or adopted, could delay foreclosure or the exercise of other remedies, provide new defenses to foreclosure, or otherwise impair the ability of the loan servicer to foreclose or realize on a defaulted residential mortgage loan included in a pool of residential mortgage loans backing such residential Mortgage-Backed Securities. While the nature or extent of limitations on foreclosure or exercise of other remedies that may be enacted cannot be predicted, any such governmental actions that interfere with the foreclosure process could increase the costs of such foreclosures or exercise of other remedies in respect of residential mortgage loans which collateralize Mortgage-Backed Securities held by an Underlying Fund, delay the timing or reduce the amount of recoveries on defaulted residential mortgage loans which collateralize Mortgage-Backed Securities held by an Underlying Fund, and consequently, could adversely impact the yields and distributions an Underlying Fund may receive in respect of its ownership of Mortgage-Backed Securities collateralized by residential mortgage loans. For example, the Helping Families Save Their Homes Act of 2009 authorized bankruptcy courts to assist bankrupt borrowers by restructuring residential mortgage loans secured by a lien on the borrower’s primary residence. Bankruptcy judges are permitted to reduce the interest rate of the bankrupt borrower’s residential mortgage loan, extend its term to maturity to up to 40 years or take other actions to reduce the borrower’s monthly payment. As a result, the value of, and the cash flows in respect of, the Mortgage-Backed Securities collateralized by these residential mortgage loans may be adversely impacted, and, as a consequence, an Underlying Fund’s investment in such Mortgage-Backed Securities could be adversely impacted. Other federal legislation, including the Home Affordability Modification Program (“HAMP”), encourages servicers to modify residential mortgage loans that are either already in default or are at risk of imminent default. Furthermore, HAMP provides incentives for servicers to modify residential mortgage loans that are contractually current. This program, as

 

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  well other legislation and/or governmental intervention designed to protect consumers, may have an adverse impact on servicers of residential mortgage loans by increasing costs and expenses of these servicers while at the same time decreasing servicing cash flows. Such increased financial pressures may have a negative effect on the ability of servicers to pursue collection on residential mortgage loans that are experiencing increased delinquencies and defaults and to maximize recoveries on the sale of underlying residential mortgaged properties following foreclosure. Other legislative or regulatory actions include insulation of servicers from liability for modification of residential mortgage loans without regard to the terms of the applicable servicing agreements. The foregoing legislation and current and future governmental regulation activities may have the effect of reducing returns to an Underlying Fund to the extent it has invested in Mortgage-Backed Securities collateralized by these residential mortgage loans.

Mortgage Pass-Through Securities

To the extent consistent with their investment policies, certain of the Underlying Funds may invest in both government guaranteed and privately issued mortgage pass-through securities (“Mortgage Pass-Throughs”) that are fixed or adjustable rate Mortgage-Backed Securities which provide for monthly payments that are a “pass-through” of the monthly interest and principal payments (including any prepayments) made by the individual borrowers on the pooled mortgage loans, net of any fees or other amounts paid to any guarantor, administrator and/or servicer of the underlying mortgage loans. The seller or servicer of the underlying mortgage obligations will generally make representations and warranties to certificate-holders as to certain characteristics of the mortgage loans and as to the accuracy of certain information furnished to the trustee in respect of each such mortgage loan. Upon a breach of any representation or warranty that materially and adversely affects the interests of the related certificate-holders in a mortgage loan, the seller or servicer generally may be obligated either to cure the breach in all material respects, to repurchase the mortgage loan or, if the related agreement so provides, to substitute in its place a mortgage loan pursuant to the conditions set forth therein. Such a repurchase or substitution obligation may constitute the sole remedy available to the related certificate-holders or the trustee for the material breach of any such representation or warranty by the seller or servicer.

The following discussion describes certain aspects of only a few of the wide variety of structures of Mortgage Pass-Throughs that are available or may be issued.

General Description of Certificates. Mortgage Pass-Throughs may be issued in one or more classes of senior certificates and one or more classes of subordinate certificates. Each such class may bear a different pass-through rate. Generally, each certificate will evidence the specified interest of the holder thereof in the payments of principal or interest or both in respect of the mortgage pool comprising part of the trust fund for such certificates.

Any class of certificates may also be divided into subclasses entitled to varying amounts of principal and interest. If a REMIC election has been made, certificates of such subclasses may be entitled to payments on the basis of a stated principal balance and stated interest rate, and payments among different subclasses may be made on a sequential, concurrent, pro rata or disproportionate basis, or any combination thereof. The stated interest rate on any such subclass of certificates may be a fixed rate or one which varies in direct or inverse relationship to an objective interest index.

Generally, each registered holder of a certificate will be entitled to receive its pro rata share of monthly distributions of all or a portion of principal of the underlying mortgage loans or of interest on the principal balances thereof, which accrues at the applicable mortgage pass-through rate, or both. The difference between the mortgage interest rate and the related mortgage pass-through rate (less the amount, if any, of retained yield) with respect to each mortgage loan will generally be paid to the servicer as a servicing fee. Because certain adjustable rate mortgage loans included in a mortgage pool may provide for deferred interest (i.e., negative amortization), the amount of interest actually paid by a mortgagor in any month may be less than the amount of interest accrued on the outstanding principal balance of the related mortgage loan during the relevant period at the applicable mortgage interest rate. In such event, the amount of interest that is treated as deferred interest will generally be added to the principal balance of the related mortgage loan and will be distributed pro rata to certificate-holders as principal of such mortgage loan when paid by the mortgagor in subsequent monthly payments or at maturity.

Government Guaranteed Mortgage-Backed Securities. There are several types of government guaranteed Mortgage-Backed Securities currently available, including guaranteed mortgage pass-through certificates and multiple class securities, which include guaranteed Real Estate Mortgage Investment Conduit Certificates (“REMIC Certificates”), other collateralized mortgage obligations and stripped Mortgage-Backed Securities. An Underlying Fund is permitted to invest in other types of Mortgage-Backed Securities that may be available in the future to the extent consistent with its investment policies and objective.

An Underlying Fund’s investments in Mortgage-Backed Securities may include securities issued or guaranteed by the U.S. Government or one of its agencies, authorities, instrumentalities or sponsored enterprises, such as the Government National Mortgage Association (“Ginnie Mae”), the Federal National Mortgage Association (“Fannie Mae”) and the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (“Freddie Mac”). Ginnie Mae securities are backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Government, which means that the U.S. Government guarantees that the interest and principal will be paid when due. Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac securities are not

 

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backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Government. Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac have the ability to borrow from the U.S. Treasury, and as a result, they have historically been viewed by the market as high quality securities with low credit risks. From time to time, proposals have been introduced before Congress for the purpose of restricting or eliminating federal sponsorship of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. The Trust cannot predict what legislation, if any, may be proposed in the future in Congress as regards such sponsorship or which proposals, if any, might be enacted. Such proposals, if enacted, might materially and adversely affect the availability of government guaranteed Mortgage-Backed Securities and the liquidity and value of an Underlying Fund’s portfolio.

There is risk that the U.S. Government will not provide financial support to its agencies, authorities, instrumentalities or sponsored enterprises. An Underlying Fund may purchase U.S. Government securities that are not backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Government, such as those issued by Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. The maximum potential liability of the issuers of some U.S. Government securities held by an Underlying Fund may greatly exceed such issuers’ current resources, including such issuers’ legal right to support from the U.S. Treasury. It is possible that issuers of U.S. Government securities will not have the funds to meet their payment obligations in the future.

Below is a general discussion of certain types of guaranteed Mortgage-Backed Securities in which certain of the Underlying Funds may invest.

 

   

Ginnie Mae Certificates. Ginnie Mae is a wholly-owned corporate instrumentality of the United States. Ginnie Mae is authorized to guarantee the timely payment of the principal of and interest on certificates that are based on and backed by a pool of mortgage loans insured by the Federal Housing Administration (“FHA”), or guaranteed by the Veterans Administration (“VA”), or by pools of other eligible mortgage loans. In order to meet its obligations under any guaranty, Ginnie Mae is authorized to borrow from the United States Treasury in an unlimited amount. The National Housing Act provides that the full faith and credit of the U.S. Government is pledged to the timely payment of principal and interest by Ginnie Mae of amounts due on Ginnie Mae certificates.

 

   

Fannie Mae Certificates. Fannie Mae is a stockholder-owned corporation chartered under an act of the United States Congress. Generally, Fannie Mae Certificates are issued and guaranteed by Fannie Mae and represent an undivided interest in a pool of mortgage loans (a “Pool”) formed by Fannie Mae. A Pool consists of residential mortgage loans either previously owned by Fannie Mae or purchased by it in connection with the formation of the Pool. The mortgage loans may be either conventional mortgage loans (i.e., not insured or guaranteed by any U.S. Government agency) or mortgage loans that are either insured by the FHA or guaranteed by the VA. However, the mortgage loans in Fannie Mae Pools are primarily conventional mortgage loans. The lenders originating and servicing the mortgage loans are subject to certain eligibility requirements established by Fannie Mae. Fannie Mae has certain contractual responsibilities. With respect to each Pool, Fannie Mae is obligated to distribute scheduled installments of principal and interest after Fannie Mae’s servicing and guaranty fee, whether or not received, to Certificate holders. Fannie Mae also is obligated to distribute to holders of Certificates an amount equal to the full principal balance of any foreclosed mortgage loan, whether or not such principal balance is actually recovered. The obligations of Fannie Mae under its guaranty of the Fannie Mae Certificates are obligations solely of Fannie Mae. See “Certain Additional Information with Respect to Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae” below.

The mortgage loans underlying the Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae Certificates consist of adjustable rate or fixed-rate mortgage loans with original terms to maturity of up to forty years. These mortgage loans are usually secured by first liens on one-to-four-family residential properties or multi-family projects. Each mortgage loan must meet the applicable standards set forth in the law creating Freddie Mac or Fannie Mae. A Freddie Mac Certificate group may include whole loans, participation interests in whole loans, undivided interests in whole loans and participations comprising another Freddie Mac Certificate group.

 

   

Freddie Mac Certificates. Freddie Mac is a publicly held U.S. Government sponsored enterprise. A principal activity of Freddie Mac currently is the purchase of first lien, conventional, residential and multifamily mortgage loans and participation interests in such mortgage loans and their resale in the form of mortgage securities, primarily Freddie Mac Certificates. A Freddie Mac Certificate represents a pro rata interest in a group of mortgage loans or participations in mortgage loans (a “Freddie Mac Certificate group”) purchased by Freddie Mac. Freddie Mac guarantees to each registered holder of a Freddie Mac Certificate the timely payment of interest at the rate provided for by such Freddie Mac Certificate (whether or not received on the underlying loans). Freddie Mac also guarantees to each registered Certificate holder ultimate collection of all principal of the related mortgage loans, without any offset or deduction, but does not, generally, guarantee the timely payment of scheduled principal. The obligations of Freddie Mac under its guaranty of Freddie Mac Certificates are obligations solely of Freddie Mac. See “Certain Additional Information with Respect to Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae” below.

 

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The mortgage loans underlying the Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae Certificates consist of adjustable rate or fixed-rate mortgage loans with original terms to maturity of up to forty years. These mortgage loans are usually secured by first liens on one-to-four-family residential properties or multi-family projects. Each mortgage loan must meet the applicable standards set forth in the law creating Freddie Mac or Fannie Mae. A Freddie Mac Certificate group may include whole loans, participation interests in whole loans, undivided interests in whole loans and participations comprising another Freddie Mac Certificate group.

Conventional Mortgage Loans. The conventional mortgage loans underlying the Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae Certificates consist of adjustable rate or fixed-rate mortgage loans normally with original terms to maturity of between five and thirty years. Substantially all of these mortgage loans are secured by first liens on one- to four-family residential properties or multi-family projects. Each mortgage loan must meet the applicable standards set forth in the law creating Freddie Mac or Fannie Mae. A Freddie Mac Certificate group may include whole loans, participation interests in whole loans, undivided interests in whole loans and participations comprising another Freddie Mac Certificate group.

Certain Additional Information with Respect to Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae. The volatility and disruption that impacted the capital and credit markets during late 2008 and into 2009 have led to increased market concerns about Freddie Mac’s and Fannie Mae’s ability to withstand future credit losses associated with securities held in their investment portfolios, and on which they provide guarantees, without the direct support of the federal government. On September 6, 2008, both Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae were placed under the conservatorship of the Federal Housing Finance Agency (“FHFA”). Under the plan of conservatorship, the FHFA has assumed control of, and generally has the power to direct, the operations of Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae, and is empowered to exercise all powers collectively held by their respective shareholders, directors and officers, including the power to (1) take over the assets of and operate Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae with all the powers of the shareholders, the directors, and the officers of Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae and conduct all business of Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae; (2) collect all obligations and money due to Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae; (3) perform all functions of Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae which are consistent with the conservator’s appointment; (4) preserve and conserve the assets and property of Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae; and (5) contract for assistance in fulfilling any function, activity, action or duty of the conservator. In addition, in connection with the actions taken by the FHFA, the U.S. Treasury has entered into certain preferred stock purchase agreements with each of Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae which established the U.S. Treasury as the holder of a new class of senior preferred stock in each of Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae, which stock was issued in connection with financial contributions from the Treasury to Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae. The conditions attached to the financial contribution made by the U.S. Treasury to Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae and the issuance of this senior preferred stock place significant restrictions on the activities of Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae. Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae must obtain the consent of the U.S. Treasury to, among other things, (i) make any payment to purchase or redeem its capital stock or pay any dividend other than in respect of the senior preferred stock issued to the U.S. Treasury, (ii) issue capital stock of any kind, (iii) terminate the conservatorship of the FHFA except in connection with a receivership, or (iv) increase its debt beyond certain specified levels. In addition, significant restrictions were placed on the maximum size of each of Freddie Mac’s and Fannie Mae’s respective portfolios of mortgages and Mortgage-Backed Securities, and the purchase agreements entered into by Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae provide that the maximum size of their portfolios of these assets must decrease by a specified percentage each year. The future status and role of Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae could be impacted by (among other things) the actions taken and restrictions placed on Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae by the FHFA in its role as conservator, the restrictions placed on Freddie Mac’s and Fannie Mae’s operations and activities as a result of the senior preferred stock investment made by the U.S. Treasury, market responses to developments at Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae, and future legislative and regulatory action that alters the operations, ownership, structure and/or mission of these institutions, each of which may, in turn, impact the value of, and cash flows on, any Mortgage-Backed Securities guaranteed by Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae, including any such Mortgage-Backed Securities held by an Underlying Fund. On June 16, 2010, FHFA ordered Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac’s stock de-listed from the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”) after the price of common stock in Fannie Mae fell below the NYSE minimum average closing price of $1 for more than 30 days.

Privately Issued Mortgage-Backed Securities. Certain of the Underlying Funds may invest in privately issued Mortgage-Backed Securities. Privately issued Mortgage-Backed Securities are generally backed by pools of conventional (i.e., non-government guaranteed or insured) mortgage loans. The seller or servicer of the underlying mortgage obligations will generally make representations and warranties to certificate-holders as to certain characteristics of the mortgage loans and as to the accuracy of certain information furnished to the trustee in respect of each such mortgage loan. Upon a breach of any representation or warranty that materially and adversely affects the interests of the related certificate-holders in a mortgage loan, the seller or servicer generally will be obligated either to cure the breach in all material respects, to repurchase the mortgage loan or, if the related agreement so provides, to substitute in its place a mortgage loan pursuant to the conditions set forth therein. Such a repurchase or substitution obligation may constitute the sole remedy available to the related certificate-holders or the trustee for the material breach of any such representation or warranty by the seller or servicer.

Ratings. The ratings assigned by a rating organization to Mortgage Pass-Throughs generally address the likelihood of the receipt of distributions on the underlying mortgage loans by the related certificate-holders under the agreements pursuant to which such certificates are issued. A rating organization’s ratings normally take into consideration the credit quality of the related mortgage pool, including any credit support providers, structural and legal aspects associated with such certificates, and the extent to which the payment stream on such mortgage pool is adequate to make payments required by such certificates. A rating organization’s ratings on such certificates do not, however, constitute a statement regarding frequency of prepayments on the related mortgage loans. In addition, the rating assigned by a rating organization to a certificate may not address the possibility that, in the event of the insolvency of the issuer of certificates

 

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where a subordinated interest was retained, the issuance and sale of the senior certificates may be recharacterized as a financing and, as a result of such recharacterization, payments on such certificates may be affected. A rating organization may downgrade or withdraw a rating assigned by it to any Mortgage Pass-Through at any time, and no assurance can be made that any ratings on any Mortgage Pass-Throughs included in an Underlying Fund will be maintained, or that if such ratings are assigned, they will not be downgraded or withdrawn by the assigning rating organization.

In the past, rating agencies have placed on credit watch or downgraded the ratings previously assigned to a large number of mortgage-backed securities (which may include certain of the Mortgage-Backed Securities in which certain of the Underlying Funds may have invested or may in the future be invested), and may continue to do so in the future. In the event that any Mortgage-Backed Security held by an Underlying Fund is placed on credit watch or downgraded, the value of such Mortgage-Backed Security may decline and the Underlying Fund may consequently experience losses in respect of such Mortgage-Backed Security.

Credit Enhancement. Mortgage pools created by non-governmental issuers generally offer a higher yield than government and government-related pools because of the absence of direct or indirect government or agency payment guarantees. To lessen the effect of failures by obligors on underlying assets to make payments, Mortgage Pass-Throughs may contain elements of credit support. Credit support falls generally into two categories: (i) liquidity protection and (ii) protection against losses resulting from default by an obligor on the underlying assets. Liquidity protection refers to the provision of advances, generally by the entity administering the pools of mortgages, the provision of a reserve fund, or a combination thereof, to ensure, subject to certain limitations, that scheduled payments on the underlying pool are made in a timely fashion. Protection against losses resulting from default ensures ultimate payment of the obligations on at least a portion of the assets in the pool. Such credit support can be provided by, among other things, payment guarantees, letters of credit, pool insurance, subordination, or any combination thereof.

Subordination; Shifting of Interest; Reserve Fund. In order to achieve ratings on one or more classes of Mortgage Pass-Throughs, one or more classes of certificates may be subordinate certificates which provide that the rights of the subordinate certificate-holders to receive any or a specified portion of distributions with respect to the underlying mortgage loans may be subordinated to the rights of the senior certificate holders. If so structured, the subordination feature may be enhanced by distributing to the senior certificate-holders on certain distribution dates, as payment of principal, a specified percentage (which generally declines over time) of all principal payments received during the preceding prepayment period (“shifting interest credit enhancement”). This will have the effect of accelerating the amortization of the senior certificates while increasing the interest in the trust fund evidenced by the subordinate certificates. Increasing the interest of the subordinate certificates relative to that of the senior certificates is intended to preserve the availability of the subordination provided by the subordinate certificates. In addition, because the senior certificate-holders in a shifting interest credit enhancement structure are entitled to receive a percentage of principal prepayments which is greater than their proportionate interest in the trust fund, the rate of principal prepayments on the mortgage loans may have an even greater effect on the rate of principal payments and the amount of interest payments on, and the yield to maturity of, the senior certificates.

In addition to providing for a preferential right of the senior certificate-holders to receive current distributions from the mortgage pool, a reserve fund may be established relating to such certificates (the “Reserve Fund”). The Reserve Fund may be created with an initial cash deposit by the originator or servicer and augmented by the retention of distributions otherwise available to the subordinate certificate-holders or by excess servicing fees until the Reserve Fund reaches a specified amount.

The subordination feature, and any Reserve Fund, are intended to enhance the likelihood of timely receipt by senior certificate-holders of the full amount of scheduled monthly payments of principal and interest due to them and will protect the senior certificate-holders against certain losses; however, in certain circumstances the Reserve Fund could be depleted and temporary shortfalls could result. In the event that the Reserve Fund is depleted before the subordinated amount is reduced to zero, senior certificate-holders will nevertheless have a preferential right to receive current distributions from the mortgage pool to the extent of the then outstanding subordinated amount. Unless otherwise specified, until the subordinated amount is reduced to zero, on any distribution date any amount otherwise distributable to the subordinate certificates or, to the extent specified, in the Reserve Fund will generally be used to offset the amount of any losses realized with respect to the mortgage loans (“Realized Losses”). Realized Losses remaining after application of such amounts will generally be applied to reduce the ownership interest of the subordinate certificates in the mortgage pool. If the subordinated amount has been reduced to zero, Realized Losses generally will be allocated pro rata among all certificate-holders in proportion to their respective outstanding interests in the mortgage pool.

Alternative Credit Enhancement. As an alternative, or in addition to the credit enhancement afforded by subordination, credit enhancement for Mortgage Pass-Throughs may be provided through bond insurers, or at the mortgage loan-level through mortgage insurance, hazard insurance, or through the deposit of cash, certificates of deposit, letters of credit, a limited guaranty or by such other methods as are acceptable to a rating agency. In certain circumstances, such as where credit enhancement is provided by bond insurers, guarantees or letters of credit, the security is subject to credit risk because of its exposure to the credit risk of an external credit enhancement provider.

 

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Voluntary Advances. Generally, in the event of delinquencies in payments on the mortgage loans underlying the Mortgage Pass-Throughs, the servicer may agree to make advances of cash for the benefit of certificate-holders, but generally will do so only to the extent that it determines such voluntary advances will be recoverable from future payments and collections on the mortgage loans or otherwise.

Optional Termination. Generally, the servicer may, at its option with respect to any certificates, repurchase all of the underlying mortgage loans remaining outstanding at such time if the aggregate outstanding principal balance of such mortgage loans is less than a specified percentage (generally 5-10%) of the aggregate outstanding principal balance of the mortgage loans as of the cut-off date specified with respect to such series.

Multiple Class Mortgage-Backed Securities and Collateralized Mortgage Obligations. Certain of the Underlying Funds may invest in multiple class securities including collateralized mortgage obligations (“CMOs”) and REMIC Certificates. These securities may be issued by U.S. Government agencies, instrumentalities or sponsored enterprises such as Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac or by trusts formed by private originators of, or investors in, mortgage loans, including savings and loan associations, mortgage bankers, commercial banks, insurance companies, investment banks and special purpose subsidiaries of the foregoing. In general, CMOs are debt obligations of a legal entity that are collateralized by, and multiple class Mortgage-Backed Securities represent direct ownership interests in, a pool of mortgage loans or Mortgage-Backed Securities the payments on which are used to make payments on the CMOs or multiple class Mortgage-Backed Securities.

Fannie Mae REMIC Certificates are issued and guaranteed as to timely distribution of principal and interest by Fannie Mae. In addition, Fannie Mae will be obligated to distribute the principal balance of each class of REMIC Certificates in full, whether or not sufficient funds are otherwise available.

Freddie Mac guarantees the timely payment of interest on Freddie Mac REMIC Certificates and also guarantees the payment of principal as payments are required to be made on the underlying mortgage participation certificates (“PCs”). PCs represent undivided interests in specified level payment, residential mortgages or participations therein purchased by Freddie Mac and placed in a PC pool. With respect to principal payments on PCs, Freddie Mac generally guarantees ultimate collection of all principal of the related mortgage loans without offset or deduction but the receipt of the required payments may be delayed. Freddie Mac also guarantees timely payment of principal of certain PCs.

CMOs and guaranteed REMIC Certificates issued by Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac are types of multiple class Mortgage-Backed Securities. The REMIC Certificates represent beneficial ownership interests in a REMIC trust, generally consisting of mortgage loans or Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac or Ginnie Mae guaranteed Mortgage-Backed Securities (the “Mortgage Assets”). The obligations of Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac under their respective guaranty of the REMIC Certificates are obligations solely of Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac, respectively. See “Certain Additional Information with Respect to Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae.”

CMOs and REMIC Certificates are issued in multiple classes. Each class of CMOs or REMIC Certificates, often referred to as a “tranche,” is issued at a specific adjustable or fixed interest rate and must be fully retired no later than its final distribution date. Principal prepayments on the mortgage loans or the Mortgage Assets underlying the CMOs or REMIC Certificates may cause some or all of the classes of CMOs or REMIC Certificates to be retired substantially earlier than their final distribution dates. Generally, interest is paid or accrues on all classes of CMOs or REMIC Certificates on a monthly basis.

The principal of and interest on the Mortgage Assets may be allocated among the several classes of CMOs or REMIC Certificates in various ways. In certain structures (known as “sequential pay” CMOs or REMIC Certificates), payments of principal, including any principal prepayments, on the Mortgage Assets generally are applied to the classes of CMOs or REMIC Certificates in the order of their respective final distribution dates. Thus, no payment of principal will be made on any class of sequential pay CMOs or REMIC Certificates until all other classes having an earlier final distribution date have been paid in full.

Additional structures of CMOs and REMIC Certificates include, among others, “parallel pay” CMOs and REMIC Certificates. Parallel pay CMOs or REMIC Certificates are those which are structured to apply principal payments and prepayments of the Mortgage Assets to two or more classes concurrently on a proportionate or disproportionate basis. These simultaneous payments are taken into account in calculating the final distribution date of each class.

A wide variety of REMIC Certificates may be issued in parallel pay or sequential pay structures. These securities include accrual certificates (also known as “Z-Bonds”), which only accrue interest at a specified rate until all other certificates having an earlier final distribution date have been retired and are converted thereafter to an interest-paying security, and planned amortization class (“PAC”) certificates, which are parallel pay REMIC Certificates that generally require that specified amounts of principal be applied on each payment date to one or more classes or REMIC Certificates (the “PAC Certificates”), even though all other principal payments and prepayments of the Mortgage Assets are then required to be applied to one or more other classes of the PAC Certificates. The scheduled principal payments for the PAC Certificates generally have the highest priority on each payment date after interest due has been paid to all classes entitled to receive interest currently. Shortfalls, if any, are added to the amount payable on the next payment date. The PAC Certificate payment schedule is taken into account in calculating the final distribution date of each class of PAC. In order to create PAC tranches, one or more tranches generally must be created that absorb most of the volatility in the underlying mortgage assets. These tranches tend to have market prices and yields that are much more volatile than other PAC classes.

 

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Commercial Mortgage-Backed Securities. Commercial mortgage-backed securities (“CMBS”) are a type of Mortgage Pass-Through that are primarily backed by a pool of commercial mortgage loans. The commercial mortgage loans are, in turn, generally secured by commercial mortgaged properties (such as office properties, retail properties, hospitality properties, industrial properties, healthcare related properties or other types of income producing real property). CMBS generally entitle the holders thereof to receive payments that depend primarily on the cash flow from a specified pool of commercial or multifamily mortgage loans. CMBS will be affected by payments, defaults, delinquencies and losses on the underlying mortgage loans. The underlying mortgage loans generally are secured by income producing properties such as office properties, retail properties, multifamily properties, manufactured housing, hospitality properties, industrial properties and self storage properties. Because issuers of CMBS have no significant assets other than the underlying commercial real estate loans and because of the significant credit risks inherent in the underlying collateral, credit risk is a correspondingly important consideration with respect to the related CMBS. Certain of the mortgage loans underlying CMBS constituting part of the collateral interests may be delinquent, in default or in foreclosure.

Commercial real estate lending may expose a lender (and the related Mortgage-Backed Security) to a greater risk of loss than certain other forms of lending because it typically involves making larger loans to single borrowers or groups of related borrowers. In addition, in the case of certain commercial mortgage loans, repayment of loans secured by commercial and multifamily properties depends upon the ability of the related real estate project to generate income sufficient to pay debt service, operating expenses and leasing commissions and to make necessary repairs, tenant improvements and capital improvements, and in the case of loans that do not fully amortize over their terms, to retain sufficient value to permit the borrower to pay off the loan at maturity through a sale or refinancing of the mortgaged property. The net operating income from and value of any commercial property is subject to various risks, including changes in general or local economic conditions and/or specific industry segments; declines in real estate values; declines in rental or occupancy rates; increases in interest rates, real estate tax rates and other operating expenses; changes in governmental rules, regulations and fiscal policies; acts of God; terrorist threats and attacks and social unrest and civil disturbances. In addition, certain of the mortgaged properties securing the pools of commercial mortgage loans underlying CMBS may have a higher degree of geographic concentration in a few states or regions. Any deterioration in the real estate market or economy or adverse events in such states or regions, may increase the rate of delinquency and default experience (and as a consequence, losses) with respect to mortgage loans related to properties in such state or region. Pools of mortgaged properties securing the commercial mortgage loans underlying CMBS may also have a higher degree of concentration in certain types of commercial properties. Accordingly, such pools of mortgage loans represent higher exposure to risks particular to those types of commercial properties. Certain pools of commercial mortgage loans underlying CMBS consist of a fewer number of mortgage loans with outstanding balances that are larger than average. If a mortgage pool includes mortgage loans with larger than average balances, any realized losses on such mortgage loans could be more severe, relative to the size of the pool, than would be the case if the aggregate balance of the pool were distributed among a larger number of mortgage loans. Certain borrowers or affiliates thereof relating to certain of the commercial mortgage loans underlying CMBS may have had a history of bankruptcy. Certain mortgaged properties securing the commercial mortgage loans underlying CMBS may have been exposed to environmental conditions or circumstances. The ratings in respect of certain of the CMBS comprising the Mortgage-Backed Securities may have been withdrawn, reduced or placed on credit watch since issuance. In addition, losses and/or appraisal reductions may be allocated to certain of such CMBS and certain of the collateral or the assets underlying such collateral may be delinquent and/or may default from time to time.

CMBS held by an Underlying Fund may be subordinated to one or more other classes of securities of the same series for purposes of, among other things, establishing payment priorities and offsetting losses and other shortfalls with respect to the related underlying mortgage loans. Realized losses in respect of the mortgage loans included in the CMBS pool and trust expenses generally will be allocated to the most subordinated class of securities of the related series. Accordingly, to the extent any CMBS is or becomes the most subordinated class of securities of the related series, any delinquency or default on any underlying mortgage loan may result in shortfalls, realized loss allocations or extensions of its weighted average life and will have a more immediate and disproportionate effect on the related CMBS than on a related more senior class of CMBS of the same series. Further, even if a class is not the most subordinate class of securities, there can be no assurance that the subordination offered to such class will be sufficient on any date to offset all losses or expenses incurred by the underlying trust. CMBS are typically not guaranteed or insured, and distributions on such CMBS generally will depend solely upon the amount and timing of payments and other collections on the related underlying commercial mortgage loans.

Stripped Mortgage-Backed Securities. Certain of the Underlying Funds may invest in stripped mortgage-backed securities (“SMBS”), which are derivative multiclass mortgage securities, issued or guaranteed by the U.S. Government, its agencies or instrumentalities or non-governmental originators. SMBS are usually structured with two different classes: one that receives substantially all of the interest payments (the interest-only, or “IO” and/or the high coupon rate with relatively low principal amount, or “IOette”), and the other that receives substantially all of the principal payments (the principal-only, or “PO”), from a pool of mortgage loans.

Certain SMBS may not be readily marketable. The market value of POs generally is unusually volatile in response to changes in interest rates. The yields on IOs and IOettes are generally higher than prevailing market yields on other Mortgage-Backed Securities because their cash flow patterns are more volatile and there is a greater risk that the initial investment will not be fully recouped. An Underlying Fund’s investments in SMBS may require the Underlying Fund to sell certain of its portfolio securities to generate sufficient cash to satisfy certain income distribution requirements. These and other factors discussed in the section above, entitled “Illiquid Investments,” may impact the liquidity of investments in SMBS.

 

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Municipal Securities

Certain of the Underlying Funds may invest in bonds, notes and other instruments issued by or on behalf of states, territories and possessions of the United States (including the District of Columbia) and their political subdivisions, agencies or instrumentalities (“Municipal Securities”). Dividends paid by the Underlying Funds that are derived from interest paid on both tax-exempt and taxable Municipal Securities will be taxable to the Underlying Funds’ shareholders.

Municipal Securities are often issued to obtain funds for various public purposes including refunding outstanding obligations, obtaining funds for general operating expenses, and obtaining funds to lend to other public institutions and facilities. Municipal Securities also include certain “private activity bonds” or industrial development bonds, which are issued by or on behalf of public authorities to provide financing aid to acquire sites or construct or equip facilities within a municipality for privately or publicly owned corporations.

Investments in municipal securities are subject to the risk that the issuer could default on its obligations. Such a default could result from the inadequacy of the sources or revenues from which interest and principal payments are to be made or the assets collateralizing such obligations. Municipal securities and issuers of municipal securities may be more susceptible to downgrade, default, and bankruptcy as a result of recent periods of economic stress. In the aftermath of the 2007-2008 financial crisis, several municipalities filed for bankruptcy or indicated that they may seek bankruptcy protection in the future. Revenue bonds (as described further below), including private activity bonds, are backed only by specific assets or revenue sources and not by the full faith and credit of the governmental issuer.

The two principal classifications of Municipal Securities are “general obligations” and “revenue obligations.” General obligations are secured by the issuer’s pledge of its full faith and credit for the payment of principal and interest, although the characteristics and enforcement of general obligations may vary according to the law applicable to the particular issuer. Revenue obligations, which include, but are not limited to, private activity bonds, resource recovery bonds, certificates of participation and certain municipal notes, are not backed by the credit and taxing authority of the issuer, and are payable solely from the revenues derived from a particular facility or class of facilities or, in some cases, from the proceeds of a special excise or other specific revenue source. Nevertheless, the obligations of the issuer of a revenue obligation may be backed by a letter of credit, guarantee or insurance. General obligations and revenue obligations may be issued in a variety of forms, including commercial paper, fixed, variable and floating rate securities, tender option bonds, auction rate bonds, zero coupon bonds, deferred interest bonds and capital appreciation bonds.

In addition to general obligations and revenue obligations, there are a variety of hybrid and special types of Municipal Securities. There are also numerous differences in the security of Municipal Securities both within and between these two principal classifications.

An entire issue of Municipal Securities may be purchased by one or a small number of institutional investors, including one or more Underlying Funds. Thus, the issue may not be said to be publicly offered. Unlike some securities that are not publicly offered, a secondary market exists for many Municipal Securities that were not publicly offered initially and such securities may be readily marketable.

The credit rating assigned to Municipal Securities may reflect the existence of guarantees, letters of credit or other credit enhancement features available to the issuers or holders of such Municipal Securities.

The obligations of the issuer to pay the principal of and interest on a Municipal Security are subject to the provisions of bankruptcy, insolvency and other laws affecting the rights and remedies of creditors, such as the Federal Bankruptcy Code, and laws, if any, that may be enacted by Congress or state legislatures extending the time for payment of principal or interest or imposing other constraints upon the enforcement of such obligations. There is also the possibility that, as a result of litigation or other conditions, the power or ability of the issuer to pay when due principal of or interest on a Municipal Security may be materially affected.

From time to time, proposals have been introduced before Congress for the purpose of restricting or eliminating the federal income tax exemption for interest on Municipal Securities. For example, under the Tax Reform Act of 1986, interest on certain private activity bonds must be included in an investor’s federal alternative minimum taxable income. The Trust cannot predict what legislation, if any, may be proposed in the future in Congress as regards the federal income tax status of interest on Municipal Securities or which proposals, if any, might be enacted. Such proposals, if enacted, might materially and adversely affect the liquidity and value of the Municipal Securities in an Underlying Fund’s portfolio.

 

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Municipal Leases, Certificates of Participation and Other Participation Interests. Municipal Securities include leases, certificates of participation and other participation interests. A municipal lease is an obligation in the form of a lease or installment purchase which is issued by a state or local government to acquire equipment and facilities. Income from such obligations is generally exempt from state and local taxes in the state of issuance. Municipal leases frequently involve special risks not normally associated with general obligations or revenue bonds. Leases and installment purchase or conditional sale contracts (which normally provide for title to the leased asset to pass eventually to the governmental issuer) have evolved as a means for governmental issuers to acquire property and equipment without meeting the constitutional and statutory requirements for the issuance of debt. The debt issuance limitations are deemed to be inapplicable because of the inclusion in many leases or contracts of “non-appropriation” clauses that relieve the governmental issuer of any obligation to make future payments under the lease or contract unless money is appropriated for such purpose by the appropriate legislative body on a yearly or other periodic basis. In addition, such leases or contracts may be subject to the temporary abatement of payments in the event the issuer is prevented from maintaining occupancy of the leased premises or utilizing the leased equipment. Although the obligations may be secured by the leased equipment or facilities, the disposition of the property in the event of non-appropriation or foreclosure might prove difficult, time consuming and costly, and result in a delay in recovering or the failure to fully recover an Underlying Fund’s original investment. To the extent that an Underlying Fund invests in unrated municipal leases or participates in such leases, the credit quality rating and risk of cancellation of such unrated leases will be monitored on an ongoing basis.

Certificates of participation represent undivided interests in municipal leases, installment purchase agreements or other instruments. The certificates are typically issued by a trust or other entity which has received an assignment of the payments to be made by the state or political subdivision under such leases or installment purchase agreements.

Certain municipal lease obligations and certificates of participation may be deemed to be illiquid for the purpose of an Underlying Fund’s limitation on illiquid investments. Other municipal lease obligations and certificates of participation acquired by an Underlying Fund may be determined by the Investment Adviser to be liquid for the purpose of such limitation. In determining the liquidity of municipal lease obligations and certificates of participation, the Investment Adviser will consider a variety of factors including: (i) the willingness of dealers to bid for the security; (ii) the number of dealers willing to purchase or sell the obligation and the number of other potential buyers; (iii) the frequency of trades or quotes for the obligation; and (iv) the nature of the marketplace trades. In addition, the Investment Adviser will consider factors unique to particular lease obligations and certificates of participation affecting the marketability thereof. These include the general creditworthiness of the issuer, the importance to the issuer of the property covered by the lease and the likelihood that the marketability of the obligation will be maintained throughout the time the obligation is held by an Underlying Fund.

Certain of the Underlying Funds may purchase participations in Municipal Securities held by a commercial bank or other financial institution. Such participations provide an Underlying Fund with the right to a pro rata undivided interest in the underlying Municipal Securities. In addition, such participations generally provide an Underlying Fund with the right to demand payment, on not more than seven days’ notice, of all or any part of such Underlying Fund’s participation interest in the underlying Municipal Securities, plus accrued interest. An Underlying Fund will only invest in such participations if, in the opinion of bond counsel, counsel for the issuers of such participations or counsel selected by the investment advisors, the interest from such participation is exempt from regular federal income tax.

Auction Rate Securities. Municipal Securities also include auction rate Municipal Securities and auction rate preferred securities issued by closed-end investment companies that invest primarily in Municipal Securities (collectively, “auction rate securities”). Provided that the auction mechanism is successful, auction rate securities usually permit the holder to sell the securities in an auction at par value at specified intervals. The dividend is reset by “Dutch” auction in which bids are made by broker-dealers and other institutions for a certain amount of securities at a specified minimum yield. The dividend rate set by the auction is the lowest interest or dividend rate that covers all securities offered for sale. While this process is designed to permit auction rate securities to be traded at par value, there is some risk that an auction will fail due to insufficient demand for the securities. In certain recent market environments, auction failures have been more prevalent, which may adversely affect the liquidity and price of auction rate securities. Moreover, between auctions, there may be no secondary market for these securities, and sales conducted on a secondary market may not be on terms favorable to the seller. Thus, with respect to liquidity and price stability, auction rate securities may differ substantially from cash equivalents, notwithstanding the frequency of auctions and the credit quality of the security.

An Underlying Fund’s investments in auction rate securities of closed-end funds are subject to the limitations prescribed by the Act. An Underlying Fund will indirectly bear its proportionate share of any management and other fees paid by such closed-end funds in addition to the advisory fees payable directly by the Underlying Funds.

Other Types of Municipal Securities. Other types of Municipal Securities in which certain of the Underlying Funds may invest include municipal notes, tax-exempt commercial paper, pre-refunded municipal bonds, industrial development bonds, tender option bonds and insured municipal obligations.

Call Risk and Reinvestment Risk. Municipal Securities may include “call” provisions which permit the issuers of such securities, at any time or after a specified period, to redeem the securities prior to their stated maturity. In the event that Municipal Securities held in an Underlying Fund’s portfolio are called prior to the maturity, the Underlying Fund will be required to reinvest the proceeds on such securities at an earlier date and may be able to do so only at lower yields, thereby reducing the Underlying Fund’s return on its portfolio securities.

 

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Options on Securities and Securities Indices and Foreign Currencies

Writing and Purchasing Call and Put Options on Securities and Securities Indices. Certain of the Underlying Funds may write (sell) call and put options on any securities in which they may invest or on any securities index consisting of securities in which it may invest. An Underlying Fund may purchase and write such options on securities that are listed on national domestic securities exchanges or foreign securities exchanges or traded in the over-the-counter market. A call option written by an Underlying Fund obligates such Underlying Fund to sell specified securities to the holder of the option at a specified price if the option is exercised on or before the expiration date. Depending upon the type of call option, the purchaser of a call option either (i) has the right to any appreciation in the value of the security over a fixed price (the “exercise price”) on a certain date in the future (the “expiration date”) or (ii) has the right to any appreciation in the value of the security over the exercise price at any time prior to the expiration of the option. If the purchaser exercises the option, an Underlying Fund pays the purchaser the difference between the price of the security and the exercise price of the option. The premium, the exercise price and the market value of the security determine the gain or loss realized by an Underlying Fund as the seller of the call option. An Underlying Fund can also repurchase the call option prior to the expiration date, ending its obligation. In this case, the cost of entering into closing purchase transactions will determine the gain or loss realized by the Underlying Fund. All call options written by an Underlying Fund are covered, which means that such Underlying Fund will own the securities subject to the option as long as the option is outstanding or such Underlying Fund will use the other methods described below. An Underlying Fund’s purpose in writing call options is to realize greater income than would be realized on portfolio securities transactions alone. However, an Underlying Fund may forego the opportunity to profit from an increase in the market price of the underlying security.

A put option written by an Underlying Fund would obligate such Underlying Fund to purchase specified securities from the option holder at a specified price if, depending upon the type of put option, either (i) the option is exercised at any time on or before the expiration date or (ii) the option is exercised on the expiration date. All put options written by an Underlying Fund would be covered, which means that such Underlying Fund will identify on its books cash or liquid assets with a value at least equal to the exercise price of the put option (less any margin on deposit) or will use the other methods described below. The purpose of writing such options is to generate additional income for the Underlying Fund. However, in return for the option premium, an Underlying Fund accepts the risk that it may be required to purchase the underlying securities at a price in excess of the securities’ market value at the time of purchase. For more information about these practices, see “Description of Investment Securities and Practices – Asset Segregation.”

In the case of a call option, the option may be “covered” if an Underlying Fund owns the instrument underlying the call or has an absolute and immediate right to acquire that instrument without additional cash consideration (or, if additional cash consideration is required, liquid assets in such amount are identified on the Underlying Fund’s books) upon conversion or exchange of other instruments held by it. A call option is also covered if an Underlying Fund holds a call on the same instrument as the option written where the exercise price of the option held is (i) equal to or less than the exercise price of the option written, or (ii) greater than the exercise price of the option written provided the Underlying Fund identifies liquid assets in the amount of the difference. A put option may also be covered if an Underlying Fund holds a put on the same instrument as the option written where the exercise price of the option held is (i) equal to or higher than the exercise price of the option written, or (ii) less than the exercise price of the option written provided the Underlying Fund identifies on its books liquid assets in the amount of the difference. An Underlying Fund may also cover options on securities by identifying cash or liquid assets, as permitted by applicable law, with a value, when added to any margin on deposit that is equal to the market value of the securities in the case of a call option. Identified cash or liquid assets may be quoted or denominated in any currency. An Underlying Fund may also cover call options on securities by identifying cash or liquid assets, as permitted by applicable law, with a value, when added to any margin on deposit, which is equal to the market value of the securities in the case of a call option. Identified cash or liquid assets may be quoted or denominated in any currency.

An Underlying Fund may also write (sell) call and put options on any securities index comprised of securities in which it may invest. Options on securities indices are similar to options on securities, except that the exercise of securities index options requires cash payments and does not involve the actual purchase or sale of securities. In addition, securities index options are designed to reflect price fluctuations in a group of securities or segment of the securities market rather than price fluctuations in a single security.

An Underlying Fund may cover call options on a securities index by owning securities whose price changes are expected to be similar to those of the underlying index, or by having an absolute and immediate right to acquire such securities without additional cash consideration (or for additional consideration which has been identified by the Underlying Fund on its books) upon conversion or exchange of other securities in its portfolio. An Underlying Fund may also cover call and put options by identifying cash or liquid assets, as permitted by applicable law, with a value, when added to any margin on deposit, that is equal to the market value of the underlying securities in the case of a call option or the exercise price in the case of a put option, or by owning offsetting options as described above.

An Underlying Fund may terminate its obligations under an exchange-traded call or put option by purchasing an option identical to the one it has written. Obligations under over-the-counter options may be terminated only by entering into an offsetting transaction with the counterparty to such option. Such purchases are referred to as “closing purchase transactions.”

 

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Certain of the Underlying Funds may also purchase put and call options on securities in which they may invest or any securities index comprised of securities in which they may invest. An Underlying Fund may also, to the extent that it invests in foreign securities, purchase put and call options on foreign currencies. An Underlying Fund may also enter into closing sale transactions in order to realize gains or minimize losses on options it had purchased.

An Underlying Fund may purchase call options in anticipation of an increase, or put options in anticipation of a decrease (“protective puts”), in the market value of securities of the type in which it may invest. The purchase of a call option would entitle an Underlying Fund, in return for the premium paid, to purchase specified securities or other instruments at a specified price during the option period. An Underlying Fund would ordinarily realize a gain on the purchase of a call option if, during the option period, the value of such securities exceeded the sum of the exercise price, the premium paid and transaction costs; otherwise such an Underlying Fund would realize either no gain or a loss on the purchase of the call option.

The purchase of a put option would entitle an Underlying Fund, in exchange for the premium paid, to sell specified securities or other instruments at a specified price during the option period. The purchase of protective puts is designed to offset or hedge against a decline in the market value of an Underlying Fund’s securities or other instruments. Put options may also be purchased by an Underlying Fund for the purpose of affirmatively benefiting from a decline in the price of securities or other instruments which it does not own. An Underlying Fund would ordinarily realize a gain if, during the option period, the value of the underlying securities or other instruments decreased below the exercise price sufficiently to cover the premium and transaction costs; otherwise the Underlying Fund would realize either no gain or a loss on the purchase of the put option. Gains and losses on the purchase of put options may be offset by countervailing changes in the value of the underlying portfolio securities or other instruments.

An Underlying Fund would purchase put and call options on securities indices for the same purposes as it would purchase options on individual securities. For a description of options on securities indices, see “Writing Covered Options” above.

Yield Curve Options. Certain of the Underlying Funds may enter into options on the yield “spread” or differential between two securities. Such transactions are referred to as “yield curve” options. In contrast to other types of options, a yield curve option is based on the difference between the yields of designated securities, rather than the prices of the individual securities, and is settled through cash payments. Accordingly, a yield curve option is profitable to the holder if this differential widens (in the case of a call) or narrows (in the case of a put), regardless of whether the yields of the underlying securities increase or decrease.

An Underlying Fund may purchase or write yield curve options for the same purposes as other options on securities. For example, an Underlying Fund may purchase a call option on the yield spread between two securities if the Underlying Fund owns one of the securities and anticipates purchasing the other security and wants to hedge against an adverse change in the yield spread between the two securities. An Underlying Fund may also purchase or write yield curve options in an effort to increase current income if, in the judgment of its investment adviser, the Underlying Fund will be able to profit from movements in the spread between the yields of the underlying securities. The trading of yield curve options is subject to all of the risks associated with the trading of other types of options. In addition, however, such options present risk of loss even if the yield of one of the underlying securities remains constant, or if the spread moves in a direction or to an extent which was not anticipated.

Yield curve options written by an Underlying Fund will be “covered.” A call (or put) option is covered if an Underlying Fund holds another call (or put) option on the spread between the same two securities and identifies on its books cash or liquid assets sufficient to cover the Underlying Fund’s net liability under the two options. Therefore, an Underlying Fund’s liability for such a covered option is generally limited to the difference between the amount of the Underlying Fund’s liability under the option written by the Underlying Fund less the value of the option held by the Underlying Fund. Yield curve options may also be covered in such other manner as may be in accordance with the requirements of the counterparty with which the option is traded and applicable laws and regulations. Yield curve options are traded over-the-counter, and established trading markets for these options may not exist.

Risks Associated with Options Transactions. There is no assurance that a liquid secondary market on an options exchange will exist for any particular exchange-traded option or at any particular time. If an Underlying Fund is unable to effect a closing purchase transaction with respect to options it has written, the Underlying Fund will not be able to sell the underlying securities or dispose of the assets identified on its books to cover the position until the options expire or are exercised. Similarly, if an Underlying Fund is unable to effect a closing sale transaction with respect to options it has purchased, it will have to exercise the options in order to realize any profit and will incur transaction costs upon the purchase or sale of underlying securities.

Reasons for the absence of a liquid secondary market on an exchange include the following: (i) there may be insufficient trading interest in certain options; (ii) restrictions may be imposed by an exchange on opening or closing transactions or both; (iii) trading halts, suspensions or other restrictions may be imposed with respect to particular classes or series of options; (iv) unusual or unforeseen circumstances may interrupt normal operations on an exchange; (v) the facilities of an exchange or the Options Clearing Corporation may not at all times be adequate to handle current trading volume; or (vi) one or more exchanges could, for economic or other reasons, decide or be compelled at some future date to discontinue the trading of options (or a particular class or series of options), in which event the secondary market on that exchange (or in that class or series of options) would cease to exist, although outstanding options on that exchange that had been issued by the Options Clearing Corporation as a result of trades on that exchange would continue to be exercisable in accordance with their terms.

 

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There can be no assurance that higher trading activity, order flow or other unforeseen events will not, at times, render certain of the facilities of the Options Clearing Corporation or various exchanges inadequate. Such events have, in the past, resulted in the institution by an exchange of special procedures, such as trading rotations, restrictions on certain types of order or trading halts or suspensions with respect to one or more options. These special procedures may limit liquidity.

An Underlying Fund may purchase and sell both options that are traded on U.S. and foreign exchanges and options traded over-the-counter with broker-dealers who make markets in these options. The ability to terminate over-the-counter options is more limited than with exchange traded options and may involve the risk that broker-dealers participating in such transactions will not fulfill their obligations.

Transactions by an Underlying Fund in options on securities and indices will be subject to limitations established by each of the exchanges, boards of trade or other trading facilities on which such options are traded governing the maximum number of options in each class which may be written or purchased by a single investor or group of investors acting in concert regardless of whether the options are written or purchased on the same or different exchanges, boards of trade or other trading facilities or are held in one or more accounts or through one or more brokers. Thus, the number of options which an Underlying Fund may write or purchase may be affected by options written or purchased by other investment advisory clients of the Underlying Funds’ investment advisers. An exchange, board of trade or other trading facility may order the liquidation of positions found to be in excess of these limits, and it may impose certain other sanctions.

The writing and purchase of options is a highly specialized activity which involves investment techniques and risks different from those associated with ordinary portfolio securities transactions. The use of options to seek to increase total return involves the risk of loss if an investment adviser is incorrect in its expectation of fluctuations in securities prices or interest rates. The successful use of options for hedging purposes also depends in part on the ability of an investment adviser to manage future price fluctuations and the degree of correlation between the options and securities markets. If an investment adviser is incorrect in its expectation of changes in securities prices or determination of the correlation between the securities or securities indices on which options are written and purchased and the securities in an Underlying Fund’s investment portfolio, the Underlying Fund may incur losses that it would not otherwise incur. The writing of options could increase an Underlying Fund’s portfolio turnover rate and, therefore, associated brokerage commissions or spreads.

Special Risks Associated With Options on Currency. An exchange traded options position may be closed out only on an options exchange that provides a secondary market for an option of the same series. Although an Underlying Fund will generally purchase or write only those options for which there appears to be an active secondary market, there is no assurance that a liquid secondary market on an exchange will exist for any particular option, or at any particular time. For some options, no secondary market on an exchange may exist. In such event, it might not be possible to effect closing transactions in particular options, with the result that an Underlying Fund would have to exercise its options in order to realize any profit and would incur transaction costs upon the sale of underlying securities pursuant to the exercise of put options. If an Underlying Fund as an option writer is unable to effect a closing purchase transaction in a secondary market, it may not be able to sell the underlying currency (or security quoted or denominated in that currency) or dispose of the identified assets, until the option expires or it delivers the underlying currency upon exercise.

There is no assurance that higher than anticipated trading activity or other unforeseen events might not, at times, render certain of the facilities of the Options Clearing Corporation inadequate, and thereby result in the institution by an exchange of special procedures which may interfere with the timely execution of customers’ orders.

An Underlying Fund may purchase and write over-the-counter options. Trading in over-the-counter options is subject to the risk that the other party will be unable or unwilling to close out options purchased or written by an Underlying Fund.

The amount of the premiums which an Underlying Fund may pay or receive may be adversely affected as new or existing institutions, including other investment companies, engage in or increase their option purchasing and writing activities.

Writing and Purchasing Call and Put Options on Currency. Certain of the Underlying Funds may, to the extent they invest in foreign securities, write and purchase put and call options on foreign currencies for the purpose of protecting against declines in the U.S. dollar value of foreign portfolio securities and against increases in the U.S. dollar cost of foreign securities to be acquired. As with other kinds of option transactions, however, the writing of an option on foreign currency will constitute only a partial hedge, up to the amount of the premium received. If and when an Underlying Fund seeks to close out an option, the Underlying Fund could be required to purchase or sell foreign currencies at disadvantageous exchange rates, thereby incurring losses. The purchase of an option on foreign currency may constitute an effective hedge against exchange rate fluctuations; however, in the event of exchange rate movements adverse to an Underlying Fund’s position, the Underlying Fund may forfeit the entire amount of the premium plus related transaction costs. Options on foreign currencies may be traded on U.S. and foreign exchanges or over-the-counter. Certain of the Underlying Funds may purchase call options on currency to seek to increase total return.

 

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Options on currency may also be used for cross-hedging purposes, which involves writing or purchasing options on one currency to seek to hedge against changes in exchange rates for a different currency with a pattern of correlation, or to seek to increase total return when an Underlying Fund’s investment adviser anticipates that the currency will appreciate or depreciate in value, but the securities quoted or denominated in that currency do not present attractive investment opportunities and are not included in the Underlying Fund’s portfolio.

A call option written by an Underlying Fund obligates an Underlying Fund to sell a specified currency to the holder of the option at a specified price if the option is exercised before the expiration date. A put option written by an Underlying Fund obligates the Underlying Fund to purchase a specified currency from the option holder at a specified price if the option is exercised before the expiration date. The writing of currency options involves a risk that an Underlying Fund will, upon exercise of the option, be required to sell currency subject to a call at a price that is less than the currency’s market value or be required to purchase currency subject to a put at a price that exceeds the currency’s market value. Written put and call options on foreign currencies may be covered in a manner similar to written put and call options on securities and securities indices described under “Writing Covered Options” above.

An Underlying Fund may terminate its obligations under a written call or put option by purchasing an option identical to the one it has written. Such purchases are referred to as “closing purchase transactions.” An Underlying Fund may enter into closing sale transactions in order to realize gains or minimize losses on options purchased by the Underlying Fund.

An Underlying Fund may purchase call options on foreign currency in anticipation of an increase in the U.S. dollar value of currency in which securities to be acquired by an Underlying Fund are quoted or denominated. The purchase of a call option would entitle the Underlying Fund, in return for the premium paid, to purchase specified currency at a specified price during the option period. An Underlying Fund would ordinarily realize a gain if, during the option period, the value of such currency exceeded the sum of the exercise price, the premium paid and transaction costs; otherwise the Underlying Fund would realize either no gain or a loss on the purchase of the call option.

An Underlying Fund may purchase put options in anticipation of a decline in the U.S. dollar value of the currency in which securities in its portfolio are quoted or denominated (“protective puts”). The purchase of a put option would entitle an Underlying Fund, in exchange for the premium paid, to sell specified currency at a specified price during the option period. The purchase of protective puts is usually designed to offset or hedge against a decline in the U.S. dollar value of an Underlying Fund’s portfolio securities due to currency exchange rate fluctuations. An Underlying Fund would ordinarily realize a gain if, during the option period, the value of the underlying currency decreased below the exercise price sufficiently to more than cover the premium and transaction costs; otherwise the Underlying Fund would realize either no gain or a loss on the purchase of the put option. Gains and losses on the purchase of protective put options would tend to be offset by countervailing changes in the value of underlying currency or portfolio securities.

In addition to using options for the hedging purposes described above, certain Underlying Funds may use options on currency to seek to increase total return. These Underlying Funds may write (sell) put and call options on any currency in order to realize greater income than would be realized on portfolio securities transactions alone. However, in writing call options for additional income, an Underlying Fund may forego the opportunity to profit from an increase in the market value of the underlying currency. Also, when writing put options, an Underlying Fund accepts, in return for the option premium, the risk that it may be required to purchase the underlying currency at a price in excess of the currency’s market value at the time of purchase.

Participation Notes

Certain of the Underlying Funds may invest in participation notes. Some countries, especially emerging markets countries, do not permit foreigners to participate directly in their securities markets or otherwise present difficulties for efficient foreign investment. An Underlying Fund may use participation notes to establish a position in such markets as a substitute for direct investment. Participation notes are issued by banks or broker-dealers and are designed to track the return of a particular underlying equity or debt security, currency or market. When a participation note matures, the issuer of the participation note will pay to, or receive from, an Underlying Fund the difference between the nominal value of the underlying instrument at the time of purchase and that instrument’s value at maturity. Investments in participation notes involve the same risks associated with a direct investment in the underlying security, currency or market that they seek to replicate. In addition, participation notes are generally traded over-the-counter and are subject to counterparty risk. Counterparty risk is the risk that the broker-dealer or bank that issues them will not fulfill its contractual obligation to complete the transaction with an Underlying Fund. Participation notes constitute general unsecured contractual obligations of the banks or broker-dealers that issue them, and an Underlying Fund would be relying on the creditworthiness of such banks or broker-dealers and would have no rights under a participation note against the issuer of the underlying assets. In addition, participation notes may trade at a discount to the value of the underlying securities or markets that they seek to replicate.

 

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Pooled Investment Vehicles

Certain of the Underlying Funds may invest in securities of pooled investment vehicles, including other investment companies ETFs. An Underlying Fund will indirectly bear its proportionate share of any management fees and other expenses paid by pooled investment vehicles in which it invests, in addition to the management fees (and other expenses) paid by the Underlying Fund. An Underlying Fund’s investments in pooled investment vehicles are subject to statutory limitations prescribed by the Act, including in certain circumstances a prohibition on the Underlying Fund acquiring more than 3% of the voting shares of any other investment company, and a prohibition on investing more than 5% of the Underlying Fund’s total assets in securities of any one investment company or more than 10% of its total assets in the securities of all investment companies. Many ETFs, however, have obtained exemptive relief from the SEC to permit unaffiliated funds (such as the Underlying Funds) to invest in their shares beyond these statutory limits, subject to certain conditions and pursuant to contractual arrangements between the ETFs and the investing funds. An Underlying Fund may rely on these exemptive orders in investing in ETFs. Moreover, subject to applicable law and/or pursuant to an exemptive order obtained from the SEC or under an exemptive rule adopted by the SEC, certain Underlying Funds may invest in investment companies, including ETFs and money market funds for which the Investment Adviser, or any of its affiliates, serves as investment adviser, administrator and/or distributor. With respect to an Underlying Fund’s investments in money market funds, to the extent that an Underlying Fund invests in a money market fund for which the Investment Adviser or any of its affiliates acts as investment adviser, the management fees payable by the Underlying Fund to the Investment Adviser will, to the extent required by the SEC, be reduced by an amount equal to the Underlying Fund’s proportionate share of the management fees paid by such money market fund to its investment adviser. Although the Underlying Funds do not expect to do so in the foreseeable future, each Underlying Fund is authorized to invest substantially all of its assets in a single open-end investment company or series thereof that has substantially the same investment policies and fundamental restrictions as the Underlying Fund. Additionally, for so long as any Underlying Fund serves as an underlying fund to another Goldman Sachs Fund, including the Portfolios, that Underlying Fund may invest a percentage of its assets in other investment companies only if those instruments are consistent with applicable law and/or exemptive relief obtained from the SEC.

Certain of the Underlying Funds may purchase shares of investment companies investing primarily in foreign securities, including “country funds.” Country funds have portfolios consisting primarily of securities of issuers located in specified foreign countries or regions.

ETFs are shares of pooled investment vehicles issuing shares which are traded like traditional equity securities on a stock exchange. An ETF represents a portfolio of securities or other assets, which is often designed to track a particular market segment or index. An investment in an ETF, like one in any pooled investment vehicle, carries risks of its underlying securities. An ETF may fail to accurately track the returns of the market segment or index that it is designed to track, and the price of an ETF’s shares may fluctuate or lose money. In addition, because they, unlike other pooled investment vehicles, are traded on an exchange, ETFs are subject to the following risks: (i) the market price of the ETF’s shares may trade at a premium or discount to the ETF’s NAV; (ii) an active trading market for an ETF may not develop or be maintained; and (iii) there is no assurance that the requirements of the exchange necessary to maintain the listing of the ETF will continue to be met or remain unchanged. In the event substantial market or other disruptions affecting ETFs should occur in the future, the liquidity and value of an Underlying Fund’s shares could also be substantially and adversely affected.

Portfolio Maturity

Dollar-weighted average maturity is derived by multiplying the value of each investment by the time remaining to its maturity, adding these calculations, and then dividing the total by the value of an Underlying Fixed Income Fund’s portfolio. An obligation’s maturity is typically determined on a stated final maturity basis, although there are some exceptions. For example, if an issuer of an instrument takes advantage of a maturity-shortening device, such as a call, refunding, or redemption provision, the date on which the instrument is expected to be called, refunded, or redeemed may be considered to be its maturity date. There is no guarantee that the expected call, refund or redemption will occur, and an Underlying Fixed Income Fund’s average maturity may lengthen beyond the investment adviser’s expectations should the expected call refund or redemption not occur. Similarly, in calculating its dollar-weighted average maturity, an Underlying Fixed Income Fund may determine the maturity of a variable or floating rate obligation according to the interest rate reset date, or the date principal can be recovered on demand, rather than the date of ultimate maturity.

Portfolio Turnover

Each Underlying Fund may engage in active short-term trading to benefit from price disparities among different issues of securities or among the markets for equity or fixed income securities, or for other reasons. As a result of active management, it is anticipated that the portfolio turnover rate of each Underlying Fund may vary greatly from year to year as well as within a particular year, and may be affected by changes in the holdings of specific issuers, changes in country and currency weightings, cash requirements for redemption of shares and by requirements which enable the Underlying Funds to receive favorable tax treatment. An Underlying Fund is not restricted by policy with regard to portfolio turnover and will make changes in its investment portfolio from time to time as business and economic conditions as well as market prices may dictate.

 

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Preferred Stock, Warrants and Stock Purchase Rights

Certain of the Underlying Funds may invest in preferred stock, warrants or stock purchase rights (“rights”) (in addition to those acquired in units or attached to other securities). Preferred stocks are securities that represent an ownership interest providing the holder with claims on the issuer’s earnings and assets before common stock owners but after bond owners. Unlike debt securities, the obligations of an issuer of preferred stock, including dividend and other payment obligations, may not typically be accelerated by the holders of such preferred stock on the occurrence of an event of default (such as a covenant default or filing of a bankruptcy petition) or other non-compliance by the issuer with the terms of the preferred stock. Often, however, on the occurrence of any such event of default or non-compliance by the issuer, preferred stockholders will be entitled to gain representation on the issuer’s board of directors or increase their existing board representation. In addition, preferred stockholders may be granted voting rights with respect to certain issues on the occurrence of any event of default. Warrants and other rights and options that entitle the holder to buy equity securities at a specific price for a specific period of time. An Underlying Fund will invest in warrants and rights only if such equity securities are deemed appropriate by its investment adviser for investment by the Underlying Fund. Warrants and rights have no voting rights, receive no dividends and have no rights with respect to the assets of the issuer.

Private Investment in Public Equities (“PIPEs”)

Certain of the Underlying Funds may elect to invest in PIPEs and other unregistered or otherwise restricted securities issued by public MLPs and similar entities, including unregistered MLP preferred units. The Investment Adviser expects most such private securities to be liquid within six to nine months of funding, but may also invest in other private securities with significantly longer or shorter restricted periods. PIPEs involve the direct placement of equity securities to a purchaser such as an Underlying Fund. Equity issued in this manner is often unregistered and therefore less liquid than equity issued through a public offering. Such private equity offerings provide issuers greater flexibility in structure and timing as compared to public offerings. The following highlights some of the reasons MLPs choose to issue equity through private placements:

Effective Acquisition Funding Vehicle. MLPs typically distribute all of their available cash at the end of each quarter, and therefore generally finance acquisitions through the issuance of additional equity and debt securities. PIPEs allow MLPs to structure the equity funding to close concurrently with an acquisition, thereby eliminating or reducing the equity funding risk. This avoids equity overhang issues (discussed below) and can ease rating agency concerns over interim excessive leverage associated with an acquisition.

Eliminates or Reduces Equity Overhang Issues. Generally an MLP unit price declines when investors know the MLP will be issuing public equity in the near term. An example of this is when an MLP closes a sizeable acquisition funded under its credit facility or with another form of debt financing. In this situation, equity investors will typically wait for the public offering to provide additional liquidity, and therefore the demand for units is reduced, and the unit price falls. Issuing units through a PIPE in conjunction with the acquisition eliminates this equity overhang.

Broadens Investor Base. Public equity offerings for MLPs are typically allocated primarily to retail investors. Private placements allow issuers to access new pools of equity capital. In addition, institutional investors, such as an Underlying Fund, that participate in PIPEs are potential investors for future equity financings.

Greater Structural Flexibility. Certain acquisitions and organic development projects require a more structured form of equity. For example, organic projects that require significant capital expenditures that do not generate near-term cash flow may require a class of equity that does not pay a distribution for a certain period. The public equity market is generally not an efficient venue to raise this type of specialized equity. Given the significant number of organic projects that have been announced by MLPs, the private placement of PIPEs are believed by the Investment Adviser to be likely to remain an important funding component in the MLP sector.

Avoided Cost and Uncertainty of Public Equity Issuance. Some issuers prefer the certainty of a private placement at a specified fixed discount, compared to the uncertainty of a public offering. The underwriting costs of a public equity issuance in the MLP space can significantly reduce gross equity proceeds, and the unit price of the issuance can decline during the marketing of a public deal, resulting in increased cost to an issuer. The cost of a PIPE can be competitive with that of a public issuance while providing greater certainty of funding.

More Expedient Process with Limited Marketing Requirements. Unlike public equity offerings, private placements are typically more time efficient for management teams, with negotiations, due diligence and marketing required only for a small targeted group of sophisticated institutional investors.

Monetizations. Financial sponsors, founding partners and/or parent companies typically own significant stakes in MLPs in the form of subordinated units. As these units are not registered, monetization alternatives are limited. PIPEs provide liquidity in these situations.

 

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Many MLPs rely on the private placement market as a source of equity capital. Given the limitations in raising equity from a predominantly retail investor base and the tax and administrative constraints to significant institutional participation, PIPEs have been a popular financing alternative with many MLPs.

Real Estate Investment Trusts

Certain of the Underlying Funds may invest in shares of REITs. REITs are pooled investment vehicles which invest primarily in real estate or real estate related loans. REITs are generally classified as equity REITs, mortgage REITs or a combination of equity and mortgage REITs. Equity REITs invest the majority of their assets directly in real property and derive income primarily from the collection of rents. Equity REITs can also realize capital gains by selling properties that have appreciated in value. Mortgage REITs invest the majority of their assets in real estate mortgages and derive income from the collection of interest payments. Like regulated investment companies such as the Underlying Funds, REITs are not taxed on income distributed to shareholders provided they comply with certain requirements under the Code. An Underlying Fund will indirectly bear its proportionate share of any expenses paid by REITs in which it invests in addition to the expenses paid by an Underlying Fund.

Investing in REITs involves certain unique risks. Equity REITs may be affected by changes in the value of the underlying property owned by such REITs, while mortgage REITs may be affected by the quality of any credit extended. REITs are dependent upon management skills, are not diversified (except to the extent the Code requires), and are subject to the risks of financing projects. REITs are subject to heavy cash flow dependency, default by borrowers, self-liquidation, and the possibilities of failing to qualify for the exemption from tax for distributed income under the Code and failing to maintain their exemptions from the Act. REITs (especially mortgage REITs) are also subject to interest rate risks.

Repurchase Agreements

Each Underlying Fund may enter into repurchase agreements with eligible counterparties approved by the Investment Adviser pursuant to procedures approved by the Board of Trustees that furnish collateral at least equal in value or market price to the amount of the repurchase obligation. The collateral may consist of any type of security in which an Underlying Fund is eligible to invest. Certain Underlying Funds may also enter into repurchase agreements involving obligations other than U.S. Government Securities (such as foreign government securities, commercial paper, corporate bonds, mortgage loans and equities) which may be subject to special risks and may not have the benefit of certain protections in the event of the counterparty’s insolvency. A repurchase agreement is an arrangement under which an Underlying Fund purchases securities and the seller agrees to repurchase the securities within a particular time and at a specified price. Custody of the securities is maintained by an Underlying Fund’s custodian (or sub-custodian). The repurchase price may be higher than the purchase price, the difference being income to an Underlying Fund, or the purchase and repurchase prices may be the same, with interest at a stated rate due to an Underlying Fund together with the repurchase price on repurchase. In either case, the income to an Underlying Fund is unrelated to the interest rate on the security subject to the repurchase agreement.

For purposes of the Act, and generally, for tax purposes, a repurchase agreement is deemed to be a loan from the Underlying Fund to the seller of the underlying security. For other purposes, it is not always clear whether a court would consider the security purchased by the Underlying Fund subject to a repurchase agreement as being owned by the Underlying Fund or as being collateral for a loan by the Underlying Fund to the seller. In the event of commencement of bankruptcy or insolvency proceedings with respect to the seller of the security before repurchase of the security under a repurchase agreement, an Underlying Fund may encounter delay and incur costs before being able to sell the security. Such a delay may involve loss of interest or a decline in the price of the security. If the court characterizes the transaction as a loan and the Underlying Fund has not perfected a security interest in the security, the Underlying Fund may be required to return the security to the seller’s estate and be treated as an unsecured creditor of the seller. As an unsecured creditor, an Underlying Fund would be at risk of losing some or all of the principal and interest involved in the transaction.

Apart from the risk of bankruptcy or insolvency proceedings, there is also the risk that the seller may fail to repurchase the security. However, if the market value of the security subject to the repurchase agreement becomes less than the repurchase price (including accrued interest), an Underlying Fund will direct the seller of the security to deliver additional securities so that the market value of all securities subject to the repurchase agreement equals or exceeds the repurchase price. Certain repurchase agreements which provide for settlement in more than seven days can be liquidated before the nominal fixed term on seven days or less notice.

The Underlying Funds, together with other registered investment companies having advisory agreements with the Investment Adviser or its affiliates, may transfer uninvested cash balances into a single joint account, the daily aggregate balance of which will be invested in one or more repurchase agreements.

 

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Restricted Securities

Certain of the Underlying Funds may purchase securities and other financial instruments that are not registered or that are offered in an exempt non-public offering (“Restricted Securities”) under the Securities Act of 1933 (the “1933 Act”), including, for example, restricted securities eligible for resale to pursuant to an exemption from registration under the 1933 Act.

The purchase price and subsequent valuation of Restricted Securities may reflect a discount from the price at which such securities trade when they are not restricted, because the restriction makes them less liquid. The amount of the discount from the prevailing market price is expected to vary depending upon the type of security, the character of the issuer, the party who will bear the expenses of registering the Restricted Securities and prevailing supply and demand conditions. These and other factors discussed in the section above, entitled “Illiquid Investments,” may impact the liquidity of investments in Restricted Securities.

Reverse Repurchase Agreements

Certain of the Underlying Funds may borrow money by entering into transactions called reverse repurchase agreements. Under these arrangements, an Underlying Fund may sell portfolio securities to banks and other financial institutions, with an agreement to repurchase the security on an agreed date, price and interest payment. For certain Underlying Funds, these reverse repurchase agreements may involve certain foreign government securities. Reverse repurchase agreements involve the possible risk that the value of portfolio securities an Underlying Fund relinquishes may decline below the price the Underlying Fund must pay when the transaction closes. Borrowings may magnify the potential for gain or loss on amounts invested resulting in an increase in the speculative character of an Underlying Fund’s outstanding shares.

When an Underlying Fund enters into a reverse repurchase agreement, it identifies on its books cash or liquid assets that have a value equal to or greater than the repurchase price. The amount of cash or liquid assets so identified is then monitored continuously by its investment adviser to make sure that an appropriate value is maintained. Reverse repurchase agreements are considered to be borrowings under the Act.

Risks of Qualified Financial Contracts

Regulations adopted by federal banking regulators under the Dodd-Frank Act, which are scheduled to take effect throughout 2019, require that certain qualified financial contracts (“QFCs”) with counterparties that are part of U.S. or foreign global systemically important banking organizations be amended to include contractual restrictions on close-out and cross-default rights. QFCs include, but are not limited to, securities contracts, commodities contracts, forward contracts, repurchase agreements, securities lending agreements and swaps agreements, as well as related master agreements, security agreements, credit enhancements, and reimbursement obligations. If a covered counterparty of an Underlying Fund or certain of the covered counterparty’s affiliates were to become subject to certain insolvency proceedings, the Underlying Fund may be temporarily unable to exercise certain default rights, and the QFC may be transferred to another entity. These requirements may impact an Underlying Fund’s credit and counterparty risks.

Second Lien Loans

Certain Underlying Funds or Portfolios may invest in Second Lien Loans, which have the same characteristics as Senior Loans except that such loans are second in lien property rather than first. Second Lien Loans typically have adjustable floating rate interest payments. Accordingly, the risks associated with Second Lien Loans are higher than the risk of loans with first priority over the collateral. In the event of default on a Second Lien Loan, the first priority lien holder has first claim to the underlying collateral of the loan. It is possible that no collateral value would remain for the second priority lien holder and therefore result in a loss of investment to the Underlying Fund or Portfolio.

Senior Loans

Certain Underlying Funds or Portfolios may invest in Senior Loans. Senior Loans hold the most senior position in the capital structure of a business entity (the “Borrower”), are typically secured with specific collateral and have a claim on the assets and/or stock of the Borrower that is senior to that held by subordinated debt holders and stockholders of the Borrower. The proceeds of Senior Loans primarily are used to finance leveraged buyouts, recapitalizations, mergers, acquisitions, stock repurchases, refinancings and to finance internal growth and for other corporate purposes. Senior Loans typically have a stated term of between five and nine years, and have rates of interest which typically are redetermined daily, monthly, quarterly or semi-annually by reference to a base lending rate, plus a premium or credit spread. Longer interest rate reset periods would generally increase fluctuations in the net asset value as a result of changes in market interest rates. As a result, as short-term interest rates increase, interest payable to the Underlying Fund or Portfolio from its investments in Senior Loans should increase, and as short-term interest rates decrease, interest payable to the Underlying Fund or Portfolio from its investments in Senior Loans should decrease. An Underlying Fund or Portfolio may acquire Senior Loan assignments or participations. The purchaser of an assignment typically succeeds to all the rights and obligations of the assigning institution and becomes a lender under the credit agreement with respect to the debt obligation; however, the purchaser’s rights can be more restricted than those of the assigning institution, and, in any event, an Underlying Fund or Portfolio may not be able to unilaterally enforce all rights and remedies under the loan and with regard to any associated collateral. A participation typically results in a contractual relationship only with the institution participating out the interest, not with the Borrower. In purchasing participations, an Underlying Fund or Portfolio generally will have no right to enforce compliance by the Borrower with the terms of the loan agreement against the Borrower, and an Underlying Fund or Portfolio may not directly benefit from the collateral supporting the debt obligation in which it has purchased the participation. As a result, the Underlying Fund or Portfolio will be exposed the credit risk of both the Borrower and the institution selling the participation.

 

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No active trading market may exist for some Senior Loans, and some loans may be subject to restrictions on resale. A secondary market may be subject to irregular trading activity, wide bid/ask spreads and extended trade settlement periods, which may impair the ability to realize full value and thus cause a material decline in the net asset value of an Underlying Fund. Because transactions in many Senior Loans are subject to extended trade settlement periods, an Underlying Fund may not receive the proceeds from the sale of Senior Loans for a period after the sale of the Senior Loans. In addition, an Underlying Fund may not be able to readily dispose of its Senior Loans at prices that approximate those at which the Underlying Fund could sell such loans if they were more widely-traded and, as a result of the relative illiquidity of the trading markets for Senior Loans, an Underlying Fund may have to sell other investments or engage in borrowing transactions, such as borrowing from its credit facility, if necessary to raise cash to meet its obligations, including redemption obligations. During periods of limited supply and liquidity of Senior Loans, an Underlying Fund’s yield may be lower.

Short Sales

The Portfolios and certain of the Underlying Funds may engage in short sales. Short sales are transactions in which a Portfolio or Underlying Fund sells a security it does not own in anticipation of a decline in the market value of that security. To complete such a transaction, the Portfolio or Underlying Fund must borrow the security to make delivery to the buyer. The Portfolio or Underlying Fund then is obligated to replace the security borrowed by purchasing it at the market price at the time of replacement. The price at such time may be more or less than the price at which the security was sold by the Portfolio or Underlying Fund. Until the security is replaced, the Portfolio or Underlying Fund is required to pay to the lender amounts equal to any dividend which accrues during the period of the loan. To borrow the security, the Portfolio or Underlying Fund also may be required to pay a premium, which would increase the cost of the security sold. There will also be other costs associated with short sales.

A Portfolio or Underlying Fund will incur a loss as a result of the short sale if the price of the security increases between the date of the short sale and the date on which the Portfolio or Underlying Fund replaces the borrowed security. The Underlying Fund will realize a gain if the security declines in price between those dates. This result is the opposite of what one would expect from a cash purchase of a long position in a security. The amount of any gain will be decreased, and the amount of any loss increased, by the amount of any premium or amounts in lieu of interest the Portfolio or Underlying Fund may be required to pay in connection with a short sale, and will be also decreased by any transaction or other costs.

Until a Portfolio or Underlying Fund replaces a borrowed security in connection with a short sale, the Portfolio or Underlying Fund will (a) identify on its books cash or liquid assets at such a level that the identified assets plus any amount deposited as collateral will equal the current value of the security sold short or (b) otherwise cover its short position in accordance with applicable law.

There is no guarantee that a Portfolio or Underlying Fund will be able to close out a short position at any particular time or at an acceptable price. During the time that a Portfolio or Underlying Fund is short a security, it is subject to the risk that the lender of the security will terminate the loan at a time when the Portfolio or Underlying Fund is unable to borrow the same security from another lender. If that occurs, the Portfolio or Underlying Fund may be “bought in” at the price required to purchase the security needed to close out the short position, which may be a disadvantageous price.

The Portfolios and certain of the Underlying Funds may engage in short sales against the box. As noted above, a short sale is made by selling a security the seller does not own. A short sale is “against the box” to the extent that the seller contemporaneously owns or has the right to obtain, at no added cost, securities identical to those sold short. It may be entered into by a Portfolio or an Underlying Fund, for example, to lock in a sales price for a security the Portfolio or Underlying Fund does not wish to sell immediately. If a Portfolio or an Underlying Fund sells securities short against the box, it may protect itself from loss if the price of the securities declines in the future, but will lose the opportunity to profit on such securities if the price rises.

If a Portfolio or an Underlying Fund effects a short sale of securities at a time when it has an unrealized gain on the securities, it may be required to recognize that gain as if it had actually sold the securities (as a “constructive sale”) on the date it effects the short sale. However, such constructive sale treatment may not apply if a Portfolio or an Underlying Fund closes out the short sale with securities other than the appreciated securities held at the time of the short sale and if certain other conditions are satisfied. Uncertainty regarding the tax consequences of effecting short sales may limit the extent to which a Portfolio or an Underlying Fund may effect short sales.

Structured Notes

Certain Underlying Funds may invest in structured notes. In one type of structured note in which an Underlying Fund may invest, the issuer of the note will be a highly creditworthy party. The terms of such notes will be in accordance with applicable IRS guidelines. The note will be issued at par value. The amount payable at maturity, early redemption or “knockout” (as defined below) of the note will depend directly on the performance of the S&P GSCI Index. As described more precisely below, the amount payable at

 

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maturity will be computed using a formula under which the issue price paid for the note is adjusted to reflect the percentage appreciation or depreciation of the index over the term of the note in excess of a specified interest factor, and an agreed-upon multiple (the “leverage factor”) of three. The note will also bear interest at a floating rate that is pegged to LIBOR. The interest rate will be based generally on the issuer’s funding spread and prevailing interest rates. The interest will be payable at maturity. The issuer of the note will be entitled to an annual fee for issuing the note, which will be payable at maturity, and which may be netted against payments otherwise due under the note. The amount payable at maturity, early redemption or knockout of each note will be calculated by starting with an amount equal to the face amount of the note plus any remaining unpaid interest on the note and minus any accumulated fee amount, and then adding (or subtracting, in the case of a negative number) the amount equal to the product of (i) the percentage increase (or decrease) of the S&P GSCI Index over the applicable period, less a specified interest percentage, multiplied by (ii) the face amount of the note, and by (iii) the leverage factor of three. The holder of the note will have a right to put the note to the issuer for redemption at any time before maturity. The note will become automatically payable (i.e., will “knockout”) if the relevant index declines by 15%. In the event that the index has declined to the knockout level (or below) during any day, the redemption price of the note will be based on the closing index value of the next day. The issuer of the note will receive payment in full of the purchase price of the note substantially contemporaneously with the delivery of the note. An Underlying Fund, while holding the note, will not be required to make any payment to the issuer of the note in addition to the purchase price paid for the note, whether as margin, settlement payment, or otherwise, during the life of the note or at maturity. The issuer of the note will not be subject by the terms of the instrument to mark-to-market margining requirements of the CEA. The note will not be marketed as a contract of sale of a commodity for future delivery (or option on such a contract) subject to the CEA.

With respect to a second type of structured note in which an Underlying Fund intends to invest, the issuer of the note will be a highly creditworthy party. The term of the note will be for six months. The note will be issued at par value. The amount payable at maturity or early redemption of the note will depend directly on the performance of a specified basket of 6-month futures contracts with respect to all of the commodities in the S&P GSCI Index, with weightings of the different commodities similar to the weightings in the S&P GSCI Index. As described more precisely below, the amount payable at maturity will be computed using a formula under which the issue price paid for the note is adjusted to reflect the percentage appreciation or depreciation of the value of the specified basket of commodities futures over the term of the note in excess of a specified interest factor, and the leverage factor of three, but in no event will the amount payable at maturity be less than 51% of the issue price of the note. The note will also bear interest at a floating rate that is pegged to LIBOR. The interest rate will be based generally on the issuer’s funding spread and prevailing interest rates. The interest will be payable at maturity. The issuer of the note will be entitled to a fee for issuing the note, which will be payable at maturity, and which may be netted against payments otherwise due under the note. The amount payable at maturity or early redemption of each note will be the greater of (i) 51% of the issue price of the note and (ii) the amount calculated by starting with an amount equal to the face amount of the note plus any remaining unpaid interest on the note and minus any accumulated fee amount, and then adding (or subtracting, in the case of a negative number) the amount equal to the product of (A) the percentage increase (or decrease) of the specified basket of commodities futures over the applicable period, less a specified interest percentage, multiplied by (B) the face amount of the note, and by (C) the leverage factor of three. The holder of the note will have a right to put the note to the issuer for redemption at any time before maturity. The issuer of the note will receive payment in full of the purchase price of the note substantially contemporaneously with the delivery of the note. An Underlying Fund, while holding the note, will not be required to make any payment to the issuer of the note in addition to the purchase price paid for the note, whether as margin, settlement payment, or otherwise, during the life of the note or at maturity. The issuer of the note will not be subject by the terms of the instrument to mark-to-market margining requirements of the CEA. The note will not be marketed as a contract of sale of a commodity for future delivery (or option on such a contract) subject to the CEA.

Temporary Investments

The Portfolios and Underlying Funds may, for temporary defensive purposes, invest a certain percentage of their total assets in some or all of the following: U.S. Government Securities; commercial paper rated at least A-2 by Standard & Poor’s, P-2 by Moody’s or having a comparable credit rating by another NRSRO (or, if unrated, determined by an Underlying Fund’s investment adviser to be of comparable credit quality); certificates of deposit; bankers’ acceptances; repurchase agreements; non-convertible preferred stocks and non-convertible corporate bonds with a remaining maturity of less than one year; cash items; and exchange-traded funds and other investment companies. When an Underlying Fund’s assets are invested in such instruments, the Underlying Fund may not be achieving its investment objective.

Trust Preferred Securities

Certain of the Underlying Funds may invest in trust preferred securities. A trust preferred or capital security is a long dated bond (for example 30 years) with preferred features. The preferred features are that payment of interest can be deferred for a specified period without initiating a default event. From a bondholder’s viewpoint, the securities are senior in claim to standard preferred but are junior to other bondholders. From the issuer’s viewpoint, the securities are attractive because their interest is deductible for tax purposes like other types of debt instruments.

 

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U.S. Government Securities

Certain of the Underlying Funds and each Portfolio may invest in U.S. Government Securities, which are obligations issued or guaranteed by the U.S. Government, its agencies, instrumentalities or sponsored enterprises (“U.S. Government Securities”). Some U.S. Government Securities (such as Treasury bills, notes and bonds, which differ only in their interest rates, maturities and times of issuance) are supported by the full faith and credit of the United States. Others, such as obligations issued or guaranteed by U.S. Government agencies, instrumentalities or sponsored enterprises, are supported either by (i) the right of the issuer to borrow from the U.S. Treasury, (ii) the discretionary authority of the U.S. Government to purchase certain obligations of the issuer or (iii) the credit of the issuer. The U.S. Government is under no legal obligation, in general, to purchase the obligations of its agencies, instrumentalities or sponsored enterprises. No assurance can be given that the U.S. Government will provide financial support to the U.S. Government agencies, instrumentalities or sponsored enterprises in the future, and the U.S. Government may be unable to pay debts when due.

U.S. Government Securities include (to the extent consistent with the Act) securities for which the payment of principal and interest is backed by an irrevocable letter of credit issued by the U.S. Government, or its agencies, instrumentalities or sponsored enterprises. U.S. Government Securities may also include (to the extent consistent with the Act) participations in loans made to foreign governments or their agencies that are guaranteed as to principal and interest by the U.S. Government or its agencies, instrumentalities or sponsored enterprises. The secondary market for certain of these participations is extremely limited. These and other factors discussed in the section above, entitled “Illiquid Investments,” may impact the liquidity of investments in these participations.

Certain of the Underlying Funds and each Portfolio may also purchase U.S. Government Securities in private placements, subject to the Underlying Fund’s limitation on illiquid investments. The Underlying Funds may also invest in separately traded principal and interest components of securities guaranteed or issued by the U.S. Treasury that are traded independently under the separate trading of registered interest and principal of securities program (“STRIPS”). Certain of the Underlying Funds may also invest in zero coupon U.S. Treasury securities and in zero coupon securities issued by financial institutions which represent a proportionate interest in underlying U.S. Treasury securities. A zero coupon security pays no interest to its holder during its life and its value consists of the difference between its face value at maturity and its cost. The market prices of zero coupon securities generally are more volatile than the market prices of securities that pay interest periodically.

Inflation-Protected Securities. Certain of the Underlying Funds may invest in inflation-protected securities (“IPS”) of varying maturities issued by the U.S. Treasury and other U.S. and non-U.S. Government agencies and corporations. IPS are fixed income securities whose principal value is periodically adjusted according to the rate of inflation. The interest rate on IPS is fixed at issuance, but over the life of the bond this interest may be paid on an increasing or decreasing principal value that has been adjusted for inflation. Although repayment of the greater of the adjusted or original bond principal upon maturity is guaranteed, the market value of IPS is not guaranteed, and will fluctuate.

The values of IPS generally fluctuate in response to changes in real interest rates, which are in turn tied to the relationship between nominal interest rates and the rate of inflation. If inflation were to rise at a faster rate than nominal interest rates, real interest rates will decline, leading to an increase in the value of IPS. In contrast, if nominal interest rates were to increase at a faster rate than inflation, real interest rates will rise, leading to a decrease in the value of IPS. If inflation is lower than expected during the period an Underlying Fund holds IPS, an Underlying Fund may earn less on the IPS than on a conventional bond. If interest rates rise due to reasons other than inflation (for example, due to changes in the currency exchange rates), investors in IPS may not be protected to the extent that the increase is not reflected in the bonds’ inflation measure. There can be no assurance that the inflation index for IPS will accurately measure the real rate of inflation in the prices of goods and services.

The U.S. Treasury utilizes the Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers (CPI-U) as the measurement of inflation, while other issuers of IPS may use different indices as the measure of inflation. Any increase in principal value of IPS caused by an increase in the consumer price index is taxable in the year the increase occurs, even though an Underlying Fund holding IPS will not receive cash representing the increase at that time. As a result, an Underlying Fund could be required at times to liquidate other investments, including when it is not advantageous to do so, in order to satisfy its distribution requirements as a regulated investment company.

If an Underlying Fund invests in IPS, it will be required to treat as original issue discount any increase in the principal amount of the securities that occurs during the course of its taxable year. If an Underlying Fund purchases such inflation protected securities that are issued in stripped form either as stripped bonds or coupons, it will be treated as if it had purchased a newly issued debt instrument having original issue discount.

Because an Underlying Fund is required to distribute substantially all of its net investment income (including accrued original issue discount), an Underlying Fund’s investment in either zero coupon bonds or IPS may require an Underlying Fund to distribute to shareholders an amount greater than the total cash income it actually receives. Accordingly, in order to make the required distributions, an Underlying Fund may be required to borrow or liquidate securities.

 

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Variable and Floating Rate Securities

The interest rates payable on certain fixed income securities in which certain of the Underlying Funds may invest are not fixed and may fluctuate based upon changes in market rates. Variable and floating rate obligations are debt instruments issued by companies or other entities with interest rates that reset periodically (typically daily, monthly, quarterly or semi-annually) in response to changes in the market rate of interest on which the interest rate is based. Moreover, such obligations may fluctuate in value in response to interest rate changes if there is a delay between changes in market interest rates and the interest reset date for the obligation, or for other reasons. The value of these obligations is generally more stable than that of a fixed rate obligation in response to changes in interest rate levels, but they may decline in value if their interest rates do not rise as much, or as quickly, as interest rates in general. Conversely, floating rate securities will not generally increase in value if interest rates decline.

When-Issued Securities and Forward Commitments

Certain of the Underlying Funds may purchase securities on a when-issued basis, including TBA (“To Be Announced”) securities, or purchase or sell securities on a forward commitment basis beyond the customary settlement time. TBA securities, which are usually mortgage-backed securities, are purchased on a forward commitment basis with an approximate principal amount and no defined maturity date. These transactions involve a commitment by an Underlying Fund to purchase or sell securities at a future date. The price of the underlying securities (usually expressed in terms of yield) and the date when the securities will be delivered and paid for (the settlement date) are fixed at the time the transaction is negotiated. In addition, recently finalized rules of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (“FINRA”) include mandatory margin requirements that require an Underlying Fund to post collateral in connection with its TBA transactions. There is no similar requirement applicable to an Underlying Fund’s TBA counterparties. The required collateralization of TBA trades could increase the cost of TBA transactions to an Underlying Fund and impose added operational complexity. When-issued purchases and forward commitment transactions are negotiated directly with the other party, and such commitments are not traded on exchanges. An Underlying Fund will generally purchase securities on a when-issued basis or purchase or sell securities on a forward commitment basis only with the intention of completing the transaction and actually purchasing or selling the securities. If deemed advisable as a matter of investment strategy, however, an Underlying Fund may dispose of or negotiate a commitment after entering into it. An Underlying Fund may also sell securities it has committed to purchase before those securities are delivered to the Underlying Fund on the settlement date. An Underlying Fund may realize a capital gain or loss in connection with these transactions. For purposes of determining an Underlying Fund’s duration, the maturity of when-issued or forward commitment securities will be calculated from the commitment date. An Underlying Fund is generally required to identify on its books cash and liquid assets in an amount sufficient to meet the purchase price unless the Underlying Fund’s obligations are otherwise covered. Alternatively, an Underlying Fund may enter into offsetting contracts for the forward sale of other securities that it owns. Securities purchased or sold on a when-issued or forward commitment basis involve a risk of loss if the value of the security to be purchased declines prior to the settlement date or if the value of the security to be sold increases prior to the settlement date.

Zero Coupon Bonds

Certain of the Underlying Funds’ investments in fixed income securities may include zero coupon bonds. Zero coupon bonds are debt obligations issued or purchased at a discount from face value. The discount approximates the total amount of interest the bonds would have accrued and compounded over the period until maturity. A zero coupon bond pays no interest to its holder during its life and its value consists of the difference between its face value at maturity and its cost. Such investments benefit the issuer by mitigating its need for cash to meet debt service but also require a higher rate of return to attract investors who are willing to defer receipt of such cash. Such investments may experience greater volatility in market value than debt obligations which provide for regular payments of interest. Moreover, zero coupon bonds involve the additional risk that, unlike securities that periodically pay interest to maturity, an Underlying Fund will realize no cash until a specified future payment date unless a portion of such securities is sold and, if the issuer of such securities defaults, the Underlying Fund may obtain no return at all on its investment. The valuation of such investments requires judgment regarding the collection of futures payments. An Underlying Fund will accrue income on such investments for each taxable year which (net of deductible expenses, if any) is distributable to shareholders and which, because no cash is generally received at the time of accrual, may require the liquidation of other portfolio securities to obtain sufficient cash to satisfy the Underlying Fund’s distribution obligations.

Special Note Regarding Regulatory Changes and Other Market Events

Federal, state, and foreign governments, regulatory agencies, and self-regulatory organizations may take actions that affect the regulation of a Portfolio or an Underlying Fund or the instruments in which a Portfolio or an Underlying Fund invests, or the issuers of such instruments, in ways that are unforeseeable. Future legislation or regulation or other governmental actions could limit or preclude a Portfolio’s or an Underlying Fund’s ability to achieve its investment objective or otherwise adversely impact an investment in a Portfolio or an Underlying Fund. Furthermore, worsened market conditions, including as a result of U.S. government shutdowns or the perceived creditworthiness of the United States, could have a negative impact on securities markets.

 

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The Portfolios’ and Underlying Funds’ investments, payment obligations and financing terms may be based on floating rates, such as London Interbank Offer Rate (“LIBOR”), EURIBOR and other similar types of reference rates (each, a “Reference Rate”). On July 27, 2017, the Chief Executive of the U.K. Financial Conduct Authority (FCA) which regulates LIBOR, announced that the FCA will no longer persuade nor compel banks to submit rates for the calculation of LIBOR and certain other Reference Rates after 2021. Such announcement indicates that the continuation of LIBOR and other Reference Rates on the current basis cannot and will not be guaranteed after 2021. This announcement and any additional regulatory or market changes may have an adverse impact on a Portfolio’s or an Underlying Fund’s investments, performance or financial condition. Until then, the Portfolios and Underlying Funds may continue to invest in instruments that reference such rates or otherwise use such Reference Rates due to favorable liquidity or pricing.

In advance of 2021, regulators and market participants will seek to work together to identify or develop successor Reference Rates and how the calculation of associated spreads (if any) should be adjusted. Additionally, prior to 2021, it is expected that industry trade associations and participants will focus on the transition mechanisms by which the Reference Rates and spreads (if any) in existing contracts or instruments may be amended, whether through marketwide protocols, fallback contractual provisions, bespoke negotiations or amendments or otherwise. Nonetheless, the termination of certain Reference Rates presents risks to the Portfolios and the Underlying Funds. At this time, it is not possible to exhaustively identify or predict the effect of any such changes, any establishment of alternative Reference Rates or any other reforms to Reference Rates that may be enacted in the United Kingdom or elsewhere. The elimination of a Reference Rate or any other changes or reforms to the determination or supervision of Reference Rates may affect the value, liquidity or return on certain Underlying Fund investments and may result in costs incurred in connection with closing out positions and entering into new trades, adversely impacting a Portfolio’s or an Underlying Fund’s or on its overall financial condition or results of operations. The impact of any successor or substitute Reference Rate, if any, will vary on an investment-by-investment basis, and any differences may be material and/or create material economic mismatches, especially if investments are used for hedging or similar purposes. In addition, although certain Underlying Fund investments may provide for a successor or substitute Reference Rate (or terms governing how to determine a successor or substitute Reference Rate) if the Reference Rate becomes unavailable, certain Underlying Fund investments may not provide such a successor or substitute Reference Rate (or terms governing how to determine a successor or substitute Reference Rate). Accordingly, there may be disputes as to: (i) any successor or substitute Reference Rate; or (ii) the enforceability of any Underlying Fund investment that does not provide such a successor or substitute Reference Rate (or terms governing how to determine a successor or substitute Reference Rate). The Investment Adviser, Goldman Sachs and/or their affiliates may have discretion to determine a successor or substitute Reference Rate, including any price or other adjustments to account for differences between the successor or substitute Reference Rate and the previous rate. The successor or substitute Reference Rate and any adjustments selected may negatively impact a Portfolio’s or Underlying Fund’s investments, performance or financial condition, including in ways unforeseen by the Investment Adviser, Goldman Sachs and/or their affiliates. In addition, any substitute Reference Rate and any pricing adjustments imposed by a regulator or by counterparties or otherwise may adversely affect a Portfolio’s or an Underlying Fund’s performance and/or NAV, and may expose a Portfolio or Underlying Fund to additional tax, accounting and regulatory risks.

In the aftermath of the 2007-2008 financial crisis, the financial sector experienced reduced liquidity in credit and other fixed income markets, and an unusually high degree of volatility, both domestically and internationally. While entire markets were impacted, issuers that had exposure to the real estate, mortgage and credit markets were particularly affected. The instability in the financial markets led the U.S. Government to take a number of unprecedented actions designed to support certain financial institutions and certain segments of the financial markets. For example, the Dodd-Frank Act, which was enacted in 2010, provides for broad regulation of financial institutions, consumer financial products and services, broker-dealers, over-the-counter derivatives, investment advisers, credit rating agencies and mortgage lending.

Governments or their agencies may also acquire distressed assets from financial institutions and acquire ownership interests in those institutions. The implications of government ownership and disposition of these assets are unclear, and such ownership or disposition may have positive or negative effects on the liquidity, valuation and performance of the Portfolios’ and the Underlying Funds’ portfolio holdings.

In addition, global economies and financial markets are becoming increasingly interconnected, and political, economic and other conditions and events (including, but not limited to, natural disasters, pandemics, epidemics, and social unrest) in one country, region, or financial market may adversely impact issuers in a different country, region or financial market. Furthermore, the occurrence of, among other events, natural or man-made disasters, severe weather or geological events, fires, floods, earthquakes, outbreaks of disease (such as COVID-19, avian influenza or H1N1/09), epidemics, pandemics, malicious acts, cyber-attacks, terrorist acts or the occurrence of climate change, may also adversely impact the performance of a Portfolio or an Underlying Fund. Such events may result in, among other things, closing borders, exchange closures, health screenings, healthcare service delays, quarantines, cancellations, supply chain disruptions, lower consumer demand, market volatility and general uncertainty. Such events could adversely impact issuers, markets and economies over the short- and long-term, including in ways that cannot necessarily be foreseen. A Portfolio or an Underlying Fund could be negatively impacted if the value of a portfolio holding were harmed by such political or economic conditions or events. Moreover, such negative political and economic conditions and events could disrupt the processes necessary for a Portfolio’s or an Underlying Fund’s operations. See “Special Note Regarding Operational, Cyber Security and Litigation Risks” for additional information on operational risks.

Special Note Regarding Operational, Cyber Security and Litigation Risks

An investment in the Portfolios and/or an Underlying Fund may be negatively impacted because of the operational risks arising from factors such as processing errors and human errors, inadequate or failed internal or external processes, failures in systems and technology, changes in personnel, and errors caused by third-party service providers or trading counterparties. The use of certain investment strategies that involve manual or additional processing, such as over-the-counter derivatives, increases these risks. Although the Portfolios and/or an Underlying Fund attempts to minimize such failures through controls and oversight, it is not possible to identify all of the operational risks that may affect the Portfolios and/or an Underlying Fund or to develop processes and controls that completely eliminate or mitigate the occurrence of such failures. The Portfolios and/or an Underlying Fund and its shareholders could be negatively impacted as a result.

 

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The Portfolios and/or an Underlying Fund is also susceptible to operational and information security risks resulting from cyber-attacks. In general, cyber-attacks result from deliberate attacks, but other events may have effects similar to those caused by cyber-attacks. Cyber-attacks include, among others, stealing or corrupting confidential information and other data that is maintained online or digitally for financial gain, denial-of-service attacks on websites causing operational disruption, and the unauthorized release of confidential information and other data. Cyber-attacks affecting the Portfolios and/or an Underlying Fund or its investment adviser, sub-adviser, custodian, transfer agent, intermediary or other third-party service provider may adversely impact the Portfolios and/or an Underlying Fund and its shareholders. These cyber-attacks have the ability to cause significant disruptions and impact business operations; to result in financial losses; to prevent shareholders from transacting business; to interfere with the Portfolios and/or an Underlying Fund’s calculation of NAV and to lead to violations of applicable privacy and other laws, regulatory fines, penalties, reputational damage, reimbursement or other compensation costs and/or additional compliance costs. Similar to operational risk in general, the Portfolios and/or an Underlying Fund and its service providers, including GSAM, have instituted risk management systems designed to minimize the risks associated with cyber security. However, there is a risk that these systems will not succeed (or that any remediation efforts will not be successful), especially because the Portfolios and/or an Underlying Fund does not directly control the risk management systems of the service providers to the Portfolios and/or an Underlying Fund, its trading counterparties or the issuers in which the Portfolios and/or an Underlying Fund may invest. Moreover, there is a risk that cyber-attacks will not be detected.

The Portfolios and/or an Underlying Fund may be subject to third-party litigation, which could give rise to legal liability. These matters involving the Portfolios and/or an Underlying Fund may arise from their activities and investments and could have a materially adverse effect on the Portfolios and/or an Underlying Fund, including the expense of defending against claims and paying any amounts pursuant to settlements or judgments. There can be no guarantee that these matters will not arise in the normal course of business. If the Portfolios and/or an Underlying Fund were to be found liable in any suit or proceeding, any associated damages and/or penalties could have a materially adverse effect on the Portfolios’ and/or an Underlying Fund’s finances, in addition to being materially damaging to their reputation.

INVESTMENT RESTRICTIONS

The investment restrictions set forth below have been adopted by the Trust as fundamental policies that cannot be changed with respect to a Portfolio without the affirmative vote of the holders of a majority (as defined in the Act) of the outstanding voting securities of the affected Portfolio. The investment objective of each Portfolio and all other investment policies or practices of each Portfolio are considered by the Trust not to be fundamental and accordingly may be changed without shareholder approval. For purposes of the Act, a “majority” of the outstanding voting securities” means the lesser of the vote of (i) 67% or more of the shares of a Portfolio present at a meeting, if the holders of more than 50% of the outstanding shares of the Portfolio are present or represented by proxy, or (ii) more than 50% of the outstanding shares of a Portfolio. For purposes of the following limitations (except for the asset coverage requirement with respect to borrowings, which is subject to different requirements under the Act), any limitation which involves a maximum percentage will not be considered violated unless an excess over the percentage occurs immediately after, and is caused by, an acquisition or encumbrance of securities or assets of, or borrowings by, a Portfolio. With respect to the Portfolios’ fundamental investment restriction number (3) below, asset coverage of at least 300% (as defined in the Act), inclusive of any amounts borrowed, must be maintained at all times.

As a matter of fundamental policy, each Portfolio may not:

 

  (1)

Make any investment inconsistent with the Portfolio’s classification as a diversified company under the Act;

 

  (2)

Invest 25% or more of its total assets in the securities of one or more issuers conducting their principal business activities in the same industry (excluding investment companies and the U.S. government or any of its agencies or instrumentalities). (For the purposes of this restriction, state and municipal governments and their agencies, authorities and instrumentalities are not deemed to be industries; telephone companies are considered to be a separate industry from water, gas or electric utilities; personal credit finance companies and business credit finance companies are deemed to be separate industries; and wholly-owned finance companies are considered to be in the industry of their parents if their activities are primarily related to financing the activities of their parents.) This restriction does not apply to investments in Municipal Securities which have been pre-refunded by the use of obligations of the U.S. Government or any of its agencies or instrumentalities;

 

  (3)

Borrow money, except (a) the Portfolio may borrow from banks (as defined in the Act), other affiliated investment companies and other persons or through reverse repurchase agreements in amounts up to 33-1/3% of its total assets (including the amount borrowed), (b) the Portfolio may, to the extent permitted by applicable law, borrow up to an additional 5% of its total assets for temporary purposes, (c) the Portfolio may obtain such short-term credits as may be necessary for the clearance of purchases and sales of portfolio securities, (d) the Portfolio may purchase securities on margin to the extent permitted by applicable law and (e) the Portfolio may engage in transactions in mortgage dollar rolls which are accounted for as financings;

 

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The following interpretation applies to, but is not part of, this fundamental policy: In determining whether a particular investment in portfolio instruments or participation in portfolio transactions is subject to this borrowing policy, the accounting treatment of such instrument or participation shall be considered, but shall not by itself be determinative. Whether a particular instrument or transaction constitutes a borrowing shall be determined by the Board, after consideration of all of the relevant circumstances.

 

  (4)

Make loans, except through (a) the purchase of debt obligations in accordance with the Portfolio’s investment objective and policies, (b) repurchase agreements with banks, brokers, dealers and other financial institutions; (c) loans of securities as permitted by applicable law and (d) loans to affiliates of the Portfolio to the extent permitted by law;

 

  (5)

Underwrite securities issued by others, except to the extent that the sale of portfolio securities by the Portfolio may be deemed to be an underwriting;

 

  (6)

Purchase, hold or deal in real estate, although the Portfolio may purchase and sell securities that are secured by real estate or interests therein, securities of real estate investment trusts and mortgage-related securities and may hold and sell real estate acquired by the Portfolio as a result of the ownership of securities;

 

  (7)

Invest in commodities or commodity contracts, except that the Portfolio may invest in currency and financial instruments and contracts that are commodities or commodity contracts; and

 

  (8)

Issue senior securities to the extent such issuance would violate applicable law.

Notwithstanding any other fundamental investment restriction or policy, each Portfolio may invest some or all of its assets in a single open end investment company or series thereof with substantially the same fundamental investment restrictions and policies as the Portfolio.

For purposes of each Portfolio’s industry concentration policy, the Investment Adviser may analyze the characteristics of a particular issuer and instrument and may assign an industry classification consistent with those characteristics. The Investment Adviser may, but need not, consider industry classifications provided by third parties, and the classifications applied to Portfolio investments will be informed by applicable law.

The Underlying Funds in which the Portfolios may invest have adopted certain investment restrictions which may be more or less restrictive than those listed above, thereby allowing the Portfolios to participate in certain investment strategies indirectly that are prohibited under the fundamental investment restrictions and policies listed above. The investment restrictions of these Underlying Funds are set forth in their respective SAIs.

TRUSTEES AND OFFICERS

The Trust’s Leadership Structure

The business and affairs of the Portfolios are managed under the direction of the Board of Trustees (the “Board”), subject to the laws of the State of Delaware and the Trust’s Declaration of Trust. The Trustees are responsible for deciding matters of overall policy and reviewing the actions of the Trust’s service providers. The officers of the Trust conduct and supervise each Portfolio’s daily business operations. Trustees who are not deemed to be “interested persons” of the Trust as defined in the Act are referred to as “Independent Trustees.” Trustees who are deemed to be “interested persons” of the Trust are referred to as “Interested Trustees.” The Board is currently composed of seven Independent Trustees and one Interested Trustee. The Board has selected an Independent Trustee to act as Chair, whose duties include presiding at meetings of the Board and acting as a focal point to address significant issues that may arise between regularly scheduled Board and Committee meetings. In the performance of the Chair’s duties, the Chair will consult with the other Independent Trustees and the Portfolio’s officers and legal counsel, as appropriate. The Chair may perform other functions as requested by the Board from time to time.

The Board meets as often as necessary to discharge its responsibilities. Currently, the Board conducts regular, in-person meetings at least six times a year, and holds special in-person or telephonic meetings as necessary to address specific issues that require attention prior to the next regularly scheduled meeting. In addition, the Independent Trustees meet at least annually to review, among other things, investment management agreements, distribution (Rule 12b-1) and/or service plans and related agreements, transfer agency agreements and certain other agreements providing for the compensation of Goldman Sachs and/or its affiliates by the Portfolios, and to consider such other matters as they deem appropriate.

 

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The Board has established five standing committees — Audit, Governance and Nominating, Compliance, Valuation and Contract Review Committees. The Board may establish other committees, or nominate one or more Trustees to examine particular issues related to the Board’s oversight responsibilities, from time to time. Each Committee meets periodically to perform its delegated oversight functions and reports its findings and recommendations to the Board. For more information on the Committees, see the section “STANDING BOARD COMMITTEES,” below.

The Trustees have determined that the Trust’s leadership structure is appropriate because it allows the Trustees to effectively perform their oversight responsibilities.

Trustees of the Trust

Information pertaining to the Trustees of the Trust as of March 27, 2020 is set forth below.

Independent Trustees

 

Name, Address and
Age1

  

Position(s)
Held with the
Trust

  

Term of
Office and
Length of
Time Served2

  

Principal Occupation(s) During Past 5 Years

  

Number of
Portfolios in Fund
Complex Overseen
by Trustee3

  

Other
Directorships
Held by
Trustee4

Jessica Palmer

Age: 71

   Chair of the Board of Trustees   

Since 2018

(Trustee since 2007)

  

Ms. Palmer is retired. She was formerly Consultant, Citigroup Human Resources Department (2007–2008); Managing Director, Citigroup Corporate and Investment Banking (previously, Salomon Smith Barney/Salomon Brothers) (1984–2006). Ms. Palmer was a Member of the Board of Trustees of Indian Mountain School (private elementary and secondary school) (2004–2009).

 

Chair of the Board of Trustees—Goldman Sachs Trust and Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust.

   104    None

Dwight L. Bush

Age: 63

   Trustee    Since 2020   

Ambassador Bush is President and CEO of D.L. Bush & Associates (a financial advisory and private investment firm) (2002–2014 and 2017–present); and was formerly U.S. Ambassador to the Kingdom of Morocco (2014–2017) and a Member of the Board of Directors of Santander Bank, N.A. (2018–2019). Previously, Ambassador Bush served as an Advisory Board Member of Goldman Sachs Trust and Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust (October 2019– January 2020).

 

Trustee—Goldman Sachs Trust and Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust.

   104    None

Kathryn A. Cassidy

Age: 66

   Trustee    Since 2015   

Ms. Cassidy is retired. Formerly, she was Advisor to the Chairman (May 2014–December 2014); and Senior Vice President and Treasurer (2008–2014), General Electric Company & General Electric Capital Corporation (technology and financial services companies).

 

Trustee—Goldman Sachs Trust and Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust.

   104    None

Diana M. Daniels

Age: 70

   Trustee    Since 2007   

Ms. Daniels is retired. Formerly, she was Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary, The Washington Post Company (1991–2006). Ms. Daniels is a Trustee Emeritus and serves as a Presidential Councillor of Cornell University (2013–Present); former Member of the Legal Advisory Board, New York Stock Exchange (2003–2006) and of the Corporate Advisory Board, Standish Mellon Management Advisors (2006–2007).

 

Trustee—Goldman Sachs Trust and Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust.

   104    None

 

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Name, Address and
Age1

  

Position(s)
Held with the
Trust

  

Term of
Office and
Length of
Time Served2

  

Principal Occupation(s) During Past 5 Years

  

Number of
Portfolios in Fund
Complex Overseen
by Trustee3

  

Other
Directorships Held
by Trustee4

Joaquin Delgado

Age: 60

   Trustee    Since 2020   

Dr. Delgado is retired. He is Director, Hexion Inc. (a specialty chemical manufacturer) (2019–present); and Director, Stepan Company (a specialty chemical manufacturer) (2011–present); and was formerly Executive Vice President, Consumer Business Group of 3M Company (July 2016–July 2019); and Executive Vice President, Health Care Business Group of 3M Company (October 2012–July 2016). Previously, Dr. Delgado served as an Advisory Board Member of Goldman Sachs Trust and Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust (October 2019– January 2020).

 

Trustee—Goldman Sachs Trust and Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust.

   104    Stepan Company (a specialty chemical manufacturer)
Roy W. Templin
Age: 59
   Trustee    Since 2013   

Mr. Templin is retired. He is Director, Armstrong World Industries, Inc. (a designer and manufacturer of ceiling, wall and suspension system solutions) (2016–Present); and was formerly Chairman of the Board of Directors, Con-Way Incorporated (a transportation, logistics and supply chain management service company) (2014–2015); Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer, Whirlpool Corporation (an appliance manufacturer and marketer) (2004–2012). Previously, Mr. Templin served as an Advisory Board Member of Goldman Sachs Trust and Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust (June 2013 – October 2013).

 

Trustee—Goldman Sachs Trust and Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust.

   104    Armstrong World Industries, Inc. (a ceiling, wall and suspension systems solutions manufacturer)

Gregory G. Weaver

Age: 68

   Trustee    Since 2015   

Mr. Weaver is retired. He is Director, Verizon Communications Inc. (2015–Present); and was formerly Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Deloitte & Touche LLP (a professional services firm) (2001–2005 and 2012–2014); and Member of the Board of Directors, Deloitte & Touche LLP (2006–2012).

 

Trustee—Goldman Sachs Trust and Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust.

   104    Verizon Communications Inc.

 

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Interested Trustee

Name, Address and Age1

  

Position(s)
Held with the
Trust

  

Term of
Office and
Length of
Time Served2

  

Principal Occupation(s) During Past 5 Years

  

Number of
Portfolios in Fund
Complex Overseen
by Trustee3

  

Other
Directorships
Held by
Trustee4

James A. McNamara* Age: 57    President and Trustee    Since 2007   

Advisory Director, Goldman Sachs (January 2018–Present); Managing Director, Goldman Sachs (January 2000–December 2017); Director of Institutional Fund Sales, GSAM (April 1998–December 2000); and Senior Vice President and Manager, Dreyfus Institutional Service Corporation (January 1993–April 1998).

 

President and Trustee—Goldman Sachs Trust; Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust; Goldman Sachs Trust II; Goldman Sachs MLP Income Opportunities Fund; Goldman Sachs MLP and Energy Renaissance Fund; Goldman Sachs ETF Trust; Goldman Sachs Credit Income Fund; and Goldman Sachs Real Estate Diversified Income Fund.

   169    None

 

* 

Mr. McNamara is considered to be an “Interested Trustee” because he holds positions with Goldman Sachs and owns securities issued by The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. Mr. McNamara holds comparable positions with certain other companies of which Goldman Sachs, GSAM or an affiliate thereof is the investment adviser, administrator and/or distributor.

1 

Each Trustee may be contacted by writing to the Trustee, c/o Goldman Sachs, 200 West Street, New York, New York, 10282, Attn: Caroline Kraus.

2 

Subject to such policies as may be adopted by the Board from time-to-time, each Trustee holds office for an indefinite term, until the earliest of: (a) the election of his or her successor; (b) the date the Trustee resigns or is removed by the Board or shareholders, in accordance with the Trust’s Declaration of Trust; or (c) the termination of the Trust. The Board has adopted policies which provide that (a) no Trustee shall hold office for more than 15 years and (b) a Trustee shall retire as of December 31st of the calendar year in which he or she reaches his or her 74th birthday, unless a waiver of such requirement shall have been adopted by a majority of the other Trustees. These policies may be changed by the Trustees without shareholder vote.

 

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3 

The Goldman Sachs Fund Complex includes certain other companies listed above for each respective Trustee. As of March 27, 2020, Goldman Sachs Trust consisted of 91 portfolios (89 of which offered shares to the public); Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust consisted of 13 portfolios; Goldman Sachs Trust II consisted of 19 portfolios (17 of which offered shares to the public); Goldman Sachs ETF Trust consisted of 42 portfolios (21 of which offered shares to the public); and Goldman Sachs MLP Income Opportunities Fund, Goldman Sachs MLP and Energy Renaissance Fund, Goldman Sachs Credit Income Fund and Goldman Sachs Real Estate Diversified Income Fund each consisted of one portfolio. Goldman Sachs Credit Income Fund and Goldman Sachs Real Estate Diversified Income Fund did not offer shares to the public.

 

4 

This column includes only directorships of companies required to report to the SEC under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (i.e., “public companies”) or other investment companies registered under the Act.

The significance or relevance of a Trustee’s particular experience, qualifications, attributes and/or skills is considered by the Board on an individual basis. Experience, qualifications, attributes and/or skills common to all Trustees include the ability to critically review, evaluate and discuss information provided to them and to interact effectively with the other Trustees and with representatives of the Investment Adviser and its affiliates, other service providers, legal counsel and the Portfolios’ independent registered public accounting firm, the capacity to address financial and legal issues and exercise reasonable business judgment, and a commitment to the representation of the interests of the Portfolios and their shareholders. The Governance and Nominating Committee’s charter contains certain other factors that are considered by the Governance and Nominating Committee in identifying and evaluating potential nominees to serve as Independent Trustees. Based on each Trustee’s experience, qualifications, attributes and/or skills, considered individually and with respect to the experience, qualifications, attributes and/or skills of other Trustees, the Board has concluded that each Trustee should serve as a Trustee. Below is a brief discussion of the experience, qualifications, attributes and/or skills of each individual Trustee as of March 27, 2020 that led the Board to conclude that such individual should serve as a Trustee.

Jessica Palmer. Ms. Palmer has served as a Trustee since 2007 and Chair of the Board since 2018. Ms. Palmer worked at Citigroup Corporate and Investment Banking (previously, Salomon Smith Barney/Salomon Brothers) for over 20 years, where she was a Managing Director. While at Citigroup Corporate and Investment Banking, Ms. Palmer was Head of Global Risk Management, Chair of the Global Commitment Committee, Co-Chair of International Investment Banking (New York) and Head of Fixed Income Capital Markets. Ms. Palmer was also a member of the Management Committee and Risk Management Operating Committee of Citigroup, Inc. Ms. Palmer was also Assistant Vice President of the International Division at Wells Fargo Bank, N.A. Ms. Palmer was also a member of the Board of Trustees of a private elementary and secondary school. Based on the foregoing, Ms. Palmer is experienced with financial and investment matters.

Dwight L. Bush. Ambassador Bush has served as a Trustee since 2020. Ambassador Bush also serves as President and CEO of D.L. Bush & Associates, a financial advisory and private investment firm. From 2014 to 2017, he served as U.S. Ambassador to the Kingdom of Morocco. Prior to his service as U.S. Ambassador, he established and served as CEO of Urban Trust Bank and UTB Education Finance, LLC, an integrated provider of education credit services. Ambassador Bush was previously Vice President of Corporate Development for SLM Corporation (commonly known as Sallie Mae). He has served as a member of the Board of Directors of Santander Bank, N.A., JER Investors Trust, a specialty real estate finance company, and as Vice Chairman of the Board of Directors of CASI Pharmaceuticals (formerly Entremed, Inc.) where he was Chairman of the Audit Committee. He also serves as a member of the Board of Directors for several philanthropic organizations, including the Middle East Investment Initiative and the American Council of Young Political Leaders, and has served on the executive committee of Cornell University. Ambassador Bush previously served on the Trust’s Advisory Board. Based on the foregoing, Ambassador Bush is experienced with financial and investment matters.

Kathryn A. Cassidy. Ms. Cassidy has served as a Trustee since 2015. Previously, Ms. Cassidy held several senior management positions at General Electric Company (“GE”) and General Electric Capital Corporation (“GECapital”) and its subsidiaries, where she worked for 35 years, most recently as Advisor to the Chairman of GECapital and Senior Vice President and Treasurer of GE and GECapital. As Senior Vice President and Treasurer, Ms. Cassidy led capital markets and treasury matters of multiple initial public offerings. Ms. Cassidy was responsible for managing global treasury operations, including global funding, hedging, derivative accounting and execution, cash and liquidity management, cash operations and treasury services, and global regulatory compliance and reporting for liquidity, derivatives, market risk and counterparty credit risk. Ms. Cassidy also serves as a Director of buildOn, a not-for-profit organization, where she serves as Chair of the Finance Committee. Based on the foregoing, Ms. Cassidy is experienced with financial and investment matters.

Diana M. Daniels. Ms. Daniels has served as a Trustee since 2007. Ms. Daniels also serves as a Trustee Emeritus and Presidential Councillor of Cornell University. Ms. Daniels held several senior management positions at The Washington Post Company and its subsidiaries, where she worked for 29 years. While at The Washington Post Company, Ms. Daniels served as Vice President, General Counsel, Secretary to the Board of Directors and Secretary to the Audit Committee. Previously, Ms. Daniels served as Vice President and General Counsel of Newsweek, Inc. Ms. Daniels has also served as Vice Chair and Chairman of the Executive Committee of the Board of Trustees of Cornell University and as a member of the Corporate Advisory Board of Standish Mellon Management Advisors and of the Legal Advisory Board of New York Stock Exchange. Ms. Daniels is also a member of the American Law Institute and of the Advisory Council of the Inter-American Press Association. Based on the foregoing, Ms. Daniels is experienced with legal, financial and investment matters.

Joaquin Delgado. Dr. Delgado has served as a Trustee since 2020. Dr. Delgado is a member of the Board of Directors for Stepan Company, a publicly-traded specialty chemical manufacturer, and Hexion Inc., a privately held specialty chemical manufacturer. Previously, Dr. Delgado held several senior management positions at 3M Company, where he worked for over 30 years, most recently as Executive Vice President of 3M Company’s Consumer Business Group. As Executive Vice President, Vice President, and General Manager at 3M Company, Dr. Delgado directed mergers and acquisitions worldwide, and was responsible for managing global operations in specialized markets such as semiconductors, consumer electronics, communications, medical and office supplies and software. Dr. Delgado also serves as a Director of MacPhail Center for Music, a not-for-profit organization. Dr. Delgado previously served on the Trust’s Advisory Board. Based on the foregoing, Dr. Delgado is experienced with financial and investment matters.

Roy W. Templin. Mr. Templin has served as a Trustee since 2013. Mr. Templin is a member of the Board of Directors of Armstrong World Industries, Inc., a ceiling, wall and suspension system solutions manufacturer, where he serves as Chair of the Finance Committee and a member of the Nominating and Governance Committee, Management Development and Compensation Committee and Audit Committee. Previously, Mr. Templin served as Chairman of the Board of Directors of Con-Way Incorporated, a transportation, logistics and supply-chain management services company, prior to its sale to XPO Logistics, Inc. in 2015. Mr. Templin held a number of senior management positions at Whirlpool Corporation, an appliance manufacturer and marketer, including Executive Vice President and Chief

 

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Financial Officer, Vice President and Corporate Controller there. At Whirlpool, Mr. Templin served on the Executive Committee and was responsible for all aspects of finance globally, including treasury, accounting, risk management, investor relations, internal auditing, tax and facilities. Prior to joining Whirlpool, Mr. Templin served in several roles at Kimball International, a furniture and electronic assemblies manufacturer, including Vice President of Finance and Chief Accounting Officer. Mr. Templin was also a Director of Corporate Finance for Cummins, Inc., a diesel engine manufacturer, a Director of Financial Development at NCR Corporation, a computer hardware and electronics company, and a member of the audit staff of Price Waterhouse (now PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP). Mr. Templin is a certified public accountant, a certified management accountant and a member of the Institute of Management Accountants Accounting Honor Society Advisory Board. Based on the foregoing, Mr. Templin is experienced with accounting, financial and investment matters.

Gregory G. Weaver. Mr. Weaver has served as a Trustee since 2015. Mr. Weaver has been designated as the Board’s “audit committee financial expert” given his extensive accounting and finance experience. Mr. Weaver also serves as a Director of Verizon Communications Inc., where he serves as Chair of the Audit Committee. Previously, Mr. Weaver was a partner with Deloitte & Touche LLP for 30 years. He was the firm’s first chairman and chief executive officer from 2001–2005, and was elected to serve a second term (2012–2014). While serving as chairman at Deloitte & Touche LLP, Mr. Weaver led the audit and enterprise risk services practice, overseeing all operations, strategic positioning, audit quality, and talent matters. Mr. Weaver also served as a member of the firm’s Board of Directors for six years where he served on the Governance Committee and Partner Earnings and Benefits Committee and was chairman of the Elected Leaders Committee and Strategic Investment Committee. Mr. Weaver is also a Board member and Audit Committee chair of the YMCA of Westfield, New Jersey. Mr. Weaver has also served as President of the Council of Boy Scouts of America in Long Rivers, Connecticut, President of A Better Chance in Glastonbury, Connecticut, as a member of the Financial Accounting Standards Advisory Council and as a board member of the Stan Ross Department of Accountancy, Baruch College. Based on the foregoing, Mr. Weaver is experienced with accounting, financial and investment matters.

James A. McNamara. Mr. McNamara has served as a Trustee and President of the Trust since 2007 and has served as an officer of the Trust since 2001. Mr. McNamara is an Advisory Director to Goldman Sachs. Prior to retiring as Managing Director at Goldman Sachs in 2017, Mr. McNamara was head of Global Third Party Distribution at GSAM and was previously head of U.S. Third Party Distribution. Prior to that role, Mr. McNamara served as Director of Institutional Fund Sales. Prior to joining Goldman Sachs, Mr. McNamara was Vice President and Manager at Dreyfus Institutional Service Corporation. Based on the foregoing, Mr. McNamara is experienced with financial and investment matters.

 

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Officers of the Trust

Information pertaining to the officers of the Trust as of December 14, 2020 is set forth below.

 

Name, Age and Address

  

Position(s) Held

with the Trust

  

Term of Office and
Length of Time Served1

  

Principal Occupation(s) During Past 5 Years

James A. McNamara

200 West Street

New York, NY 10282

Age: 58

  

Trustee and

President

   Since 2007   

Advisory Director, Goldman Sachs (January 2018 – Present); Managing Director, Goldman Sachs (January 2000 – December 2017); Director of Institutional Fund Sales, GSAM (April 1998 – December 2000); and Senior Vice President and Manager, Dreyfus Institutional Service Corporation (January 1993 – April 1998).

 

President and Trustee—Goldman Sachs Trust; Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust; Goldman Sachs Trust II; Goldman Sachs MLP and Energy Renaissance Fund; Goldman Sachs ETF Trust; Goldman Sachs Credit Income Fund; and Goldman Sachs Real Estate Diversified Income Fund.

Joseph F. DiMaria

30 Hudson Street

Jersey City, NJ 07302

Age: 52

   Treasurer, Principal Financial Officer and Principal Accounting Officer    Since 2017 (Treasurer and Principal Financial Officer since 2019)   

Managing Director, Goldman Sachs (November 2015 – Present) and Vice President – Mutual Fund Administration, Columbia Management Investment Advisers, LLC (May 2010 – October 2015).

 

Treasurer, Principal Financial Officer and Principal Accounting Officer—Goldman Sachs Trust (previously Assistant Treasurer (2016)); Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust (previously Assistant Treasurer (2016)); Goldman Sachs Trust II (previously Assistant Treasurer (2017)); Goldman Sachs MLP and Energy Renaissance Fund (previously Assistant Treasurer (2017)); Goldman Sachs ETF Trust (previously Assistant Treasurer (2017)); Goldman Sachs Credit Income Fund; and Goldman Sachs Real Estate Diversified Income Fund.

Julien Yoo

200 West Street

New York, NY 10282

Age: 49

   Chief Compliance Officer    Since 2019   

Managing Director, Goldman Sachs (January 2020–Present); Vice President, Goldman Sachs (December 2014–December 2019); and Vice President, Morgan Stanley Investment Management (2005–2010).

 

Chief Compliance Officer—Goldman Sachs Trust; Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust; Goldman Sachs Trust II; Goldman Sachs BDC, Inc.; Goldman Sachs Private Middle Market Credit LLC; Goldman Sachs Private Middle Market Credit II LLC; Goldman Sachs Middle Market Lending Corp.; Goldman Sachs MLP and Energy Renaissance Fund; Goldman Sachs ETF Trust; Goldman Sachs Credit Income Fund; and Goldman Sachs Real Estate Diversified Income Fund.

Peter W. Fortner

30 Hudson Street

Jersey City, NJ 07302

Age: 62

   Assistant Treasurer    Since 2000   

Vice President, Goldman Sachs (July 2000–Present); Principal Accounting Officer, Commerce Bank Mutual Fund Complex (2008–Present); and Treasurer of Goldman Sachs Philanthropy Fund (2019–Present).

 

Assistant Treasurer—Goldman Sachs Trust; Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust; Goldman Sachs Trust II; Goldman Sachs MLP and Energy Renaissance Fund; Goldman Sachs ETF Trust; Goldman Sachs Credit Income Fund; and Goldman Sachs Real Estate Diversified Income Fund.

Allison Fracchiolla

30 Hudson Street

Jersey City, NJ 07302

Age: 37

   Assistant Treasurer    Since 2014   

Vice President, Goldman Sachs (January 2013–Present).

 

Assistant Treasurer—Goldman Sachs Trust; Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust; Goldman Sachs Trust II; and Goldman Sachs ETF Trust.

 

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Name, Age and Address

  

Position(s) Held

with the Trust

  

Term of Office and
Length of Time Served1

  

Principal Occupation(s) During Past 5 Years

Tyler Hanks

222 S. Main St

Salt Lake City, UT 84101

Age: 38

   Assistant Treasurer   

Since 2019

  

Vice President, Goldman Sachs (January 2016—Present); and Associate, Goldman Sachs (January 2014—January 2016).

 

Assistant Treasurer—Goldman Sachs Trust; Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust; Goldman Sachs Trust II; Goldman Sachs MLP and Energy Renaissance Fund; Goldman Sachs ETF Trust; Goldman Sachs Credit Income Fund; and Goldman Sachs Real Estate Diversified Income Fund.

Kirsten Frivold Imohiosen

200 West Street

New York, NY 10282

Age: 50

   Assistant Treasurer   

Since 2019

  

Managing Director, Goldman Sachs (January 2018–Present); and Vice President, Goldman Sachs (May 1999–December 2017).

 

Assistant Treasurer—Goldman Sachs Trust; Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust; Goldman Sachs Trust II; Goldman Sachs MLP and Energy Renaissance Fund; Goldman Sachs BDC, Inc.; Goldman Sachs Private Middle Market Credit LLC; Goldman Sachs Private Middle Market Credit II LLC; Goldman Sachs Middle Market Lending Corp.; Goldman Sachs ETF Trust; Goldman Sachs Credit Income Fund; and Goldman Sachs Real Estate Diversified Income Fund.

Steven Z. Indich

30 Hudson Street

Jersey City, NJ 07302

Age: 51

   Assistant Treasurer   

Since 2019

  

Vice President, Goldman Sachs (February 2010 – Present).

 

Assistant Treasurer—Goldman Sachs Trust; Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust; Goldman Sachs Trust II; Goldman Sachs MLP and Energy Renaissance Fund; Goldman Sachs BDC, Inc.; Goldman Sachs Private Middle Market Credit LLC; Goldman Sachs Private Middle Market Credit II LLC; Goldman Sachs Middle Market Lending Corp.; Goldman Sachs ETF Trust; Goldman Sachs Credit Income Fund; and Goldman Sachs Real Estate Diversified Income Fund.

Carol Liu

30 Hudson Street

Jersey City, NJ 07302

Age: 45

   Assistant Treasurer   

Since 2019

  

Vice President, Goldman Sachs (October 2017 – Present); Tax Director, The Raine Group LLC (August 2015 – October 2017); and Tax Director, Icon Investments LLC (January 2012 – August 2015).

 

Assistant Treasurer—Goldman Sachs Trust; Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust; Goldman Sachs Trust II; Goldman Sachs MLP and Energy Renaissance Fund; Goldman Sachs BDC, Inc.; Goldman Sachs Private Middle Market Credit LLC; Goldman Sachs Private Middle Market Credit II LLC; Goldman Sachs Middle Market Lending Corp.; Goldman Sachs ETF Trust; Goldman Sachs Credit Income Fund; and Goldman Sachs Real Estate Diversified Income Fund.

Christopher Bradford

30 Hudson Street

Jersey City, NJ 07302

Age: 39

   Vice President    Since 2020   

Vice President, Goldman Sachs (January 2014–Present).

 

Vice President—Goldman Sachs Trust; Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust; Goldman Sachs Trust II; Goldman Sachs ETF Trust; Goldman Sachs MLP and Energy Renaissance Fund; Goldman Sachs Real Estate Diversified Income Fund; and Goldman Sachs Credit Income Fund.

 

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Name, Age and Address

  

Position(s) Held

with the Trust

  

Term of Office and
Length of Time Served1

  

Principal Occupation(s) During Past 5 Years

Jesse Cole

71 South Wacker Drive

Chicago, IL 60606

Age: 57

   Vice President    Since 1998   

Managing Director, Goldman Sachs (December 2006 – Present); Vice President, GSAM (June 1998 – Present); and Vice President, AIM Management Group, Inc. (investment adviser) (April 1996 – June 1998).

 

Vice President—Goldman Sachs Trust; Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust; and Goldman Sachs Trust II.

Miriam L. Cytryn

200 West Street

New York, NY 10282

Age: 62

   Vice President    Since 2008   

Vice President, GSAM (2008 – Present); Vice President of Divisional Management, Investment Management Division (2007 – 2008); Vice President and Chief of Staff, GSAM US Distribution (2003 – 2007); and Vice President of Employee Relations, Goldman Sachs (1996 – 2003).

 

Vice President—Goldman Sachs Trust; Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust; and Goldman Sachs Trust II.

Frank Murphy

200 West Street

New York, NY 10282

Age: 46

   Vice President    Since 2019   

Managing Director, Goldman Sachs (2015 – Present); Vice President, Goldman Sachs (2003 – 2014); Associate, Goldman Sachs (2001 – 2002); and Analyst, Goldman Sachs (1999 – 2001).

 

Vice President—Goldman Sachs Trust; and Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust.

Patrick Hyland

200 West Street

New York, NY 10282

Age: 46

   Vice President    Since 2019   

Vice President, Goldman Sachs (2010 – Present).

 

Vice President—Goldman Sachs Trust; and Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust.

Emily Stecher

200 West Street

New York, NY 10282

Age: 33

   Vice President    Since 2020   

Managing Director, Goldman Sachs (January 2020–Present); Vice President, Goldman Sachs (January 2015–December 2019).

 

Vice President—Goldman Sachs Trust; Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust; Goldman Sachs Trust II; Goldman Sachs ETF Trust; Goldman Sachs MLP and Energy Renaissance Fund; Goldman Sachs Real Estate Diversified Income Fund; and Goldman Sachs Credit Income Fund.

Caroline L. Kraus

200 West Street

New York, NY 10282

Age: 43

   Secretary    Since 2012   

Managing Director, Goldman Sachs (January 2016–Present); Vice President, Goldman Sachs (August 2006–December 2015); Senior Counsel, Goldman Sachs (January 2020–Present); Associate General Counsel, Goldman Sachs (2012–December 2019); Assistant General Counsel, Goldman Sachs (August 2006–December 2011); and Associate, Weil, Gotshal & Manges, LLP (2002–2006).

 

Secretary—Goldman Sachs Trust (previously Assistant Secretary (2012)); Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust (previously Assistant Secretary (2012)); Goldman Sachs Trust II; Goldman Sachs BDC, Inc.; Goldman Sachs Private Middle Market Credit LLC; Goldman Sachs Private Middle Market Credit II LLC; Goldman Sachs Middle Market Lending Corp.; Goldman Sachs MLP and Energy Renaissance Fund; Goldman Sachs ETF Trust; Goldman Sachs Credit Income Fund; and Goldman Sachs Real Estate Diversified Income Fund.

David A. Fishman

200 West Street

New York, NY 10282

Age: 56

   Assistant Secretary    Since 2001   

Managing Director, Goldman Sachs (December 2001 – Present); and Vice President, Goldman Sachs (1997 – December 2001).

 

Assistant Secretary—Goldman Sachs Trust; and Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust.

Robert Griffith

200 West Street

New York, NY 10282

Age: 46

   Assistant Secretary    Since 2011   

Vice President, Goldman Sachs (August 2011 – Present); Associate General Counsel, Goldman Sachs (December 2014 – Present); Assistant General Counsel, Goldman Sachs (August 2011 – December 2014); Vice President and Counsel, Nomura Holding America, Inc. (2010 – 2011); and Associate, Simpson Thacher & Bartlett LLP (2005 – 2010).

 

Assistant Secretary—Goldman Sachs Trust; Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust; Goldman Sachs Trust II; Goldman Sachs MLP and Energy Renaissance Fund; Goldman Sachs ETF Trust; Goldman Sachs Credit Income Fund; and Goldman Sachs Real Estate Diversified Income Fund.

Shaun Cullinan

200 West Street

New York, NY 10282

Age: 40

   Assistant Secretary    Since 2018   

Managing Director, Goldman Sachs (2018 – Present); Vice President, Goldman Sachs (2009 – 2017); Associate, Goldman Sachs (2006 – 2008); Analyst, Goldman Sachs (2004 – 2005).

 

Assistant Secretary—Goldman Sachs Trust; Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust; and Goldman Sachs Trust II.

 

1 

Officers hold office at the pleasure of the Board of Trustees or until their successors are duly elected and qualified. Each officer holds comparable positions with certain other companies of which Goldman Sachs, GSAM or an affiliate thereof is the investment adviser, administrator and/or distributor.

 

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Standing Board Committees

The Audit Committee oversees the audit process and provides assistance to the Board with respect to fund accounting, tax compliance and financial statement matters. In performing its responsibilities, the Audit Committee selects and recommends annually to the Board an independent registered public accounting firm to audit the books and records of the Trust for the ensuing year, and reviews with the firm the scope and results of each audit. All of the Independent Trustees serve on the Audit Committee and Mr. Weaver serves as Chair of the Audit Committee. The Audit Committee held five meetings during the fiscal year ended August 31, 2019.

The Governance and Nominating Committee has been established to: (i) assist the Board in matters involving mutual fund governance, which includes making recommendations to the Board with respect to the effectiveness of the Board in carrying out its responsibilities in governing the Portfolios and overseeing their management; (ii) select and nominate candidates for appointment or election to serve as Independent Trustees; and (iii) advise the Board on ways to improve its effectiveness. All of the Independent Trustees serve on the Governance and Nominating Committee. The Governance and Nominating Committee held two meetings during the fiscal year ended August 31, 2019. As stated above, each Trustee holds office for an indefinite term until the occurrence of certain events. In filling Board vacancies, the Governance and Nominating Committee will consider nominees recommended by shareholders. Nominee recommendations should be submitted to the Trust at its mailing address stated in the Portfolios’ Prospectuses and should be directed to the attention of the Goldman Sachs Trust Governance and Nominating Committee.

The Compliance Committee has been established for the purpose of overseeing the compliance processes: (i) of the Portfolios; and (ii) insofar as they relate to services provided to the Portfolios, of the Portfolios’ Investment Adviser, Distributor, administrator (if any), and Transfer Agent, except that compliance processes relating to the accounting and financial reporting processes, and certain related matters, are overseen by the Audit Committee. In addition, the Compliance Committee provides assistance to the full Board with respect to compliance matters. The Compliance Committee met five times during the fiscal year ended August 31, 2019. All of the Independent Trustees serve on the Compliance Committee.

The Valuation Committee is authorized to act for the Board in connection with the valuation of portfolio securities held by the Portfolios in accordance with the Trust’s Valuation Procedures. Messrs. McNamara and DiMaria serve on the Valuation Committee. The Valuation Committee met twelve times during the fiscal year ended August 31, 2019.

The Contract Review Committee has been established for the purpose of overseeing the processes of the Board for reviewing and monitoring performance under the Portfolios’ investment management, distribution, transfer agency, and certain other agreements with the Portfolios’ Investment Adviser and its affiliates. The Contract Review Committee is also responsible for overseeing the Board’s processes for considering and reviewing performance under the operation of the Portfolios’ distribution, service, shareholder administration and other plans, and any agreements related to the plans, whether or not such plans and agreements are adopted pursuant to Rule 12b-1 under the Act. The Contract Review Committee also provides appropriate assistance to the Board in connection with the Board’s approval, oversight and review of the Portfolios’ other service providers including, without limitation, the Portfolios’ custodian/fund accounting agent, sub-transfer agents, professional (legal and accounting) firms and printing firms. The Contract Review Committee met four times during the fiscal year ended August 31, 2098. All of the Independent Trustees serve on the Contract Review Committee.

Risk Oversight

The Board is responsible for the oversight of the activities of the Portfolios and the Underlying Funds, including oversight of risk management. Day-to-day risk management with respect to the Portfolios and the Underlying Funds is the responsibility of GSAM or other service providers (depending on the nature of the risk), subject to supervision by GSAM. The risks of the Portfolios and the Underlying Funds include, but are not limited to, liquidity risk, investment risk, compliance risk, operational risk, reputational risk, credit risk and counterparty risk. Each of GSAM and the other service providers have their own independent interest in risk management and their policies and methods of risk management may differ from the Portfolios’, the Underlying Funds’ and each other’s in the setting of priorities, the resources available or the effectiveness of relevant controls. As a result, the Board recognizes that it is not possible to identify all of the risks that may affect the Portfolios or the Underlying Funds or to develop processes and controls to eliminate or mitigate their occurrence or effects, and that some risks are simply beyond the control of the Portfolios or GSAM, its affiliates or other service providers.

The Board effectuates its oversight role primarily through regular and special meetings of the Board and Board committees. In certain cases, risk management issues are specifically addressed in reports, presentations and discussions. For example, on an annual basis, GSAM will provide the Board with a written report that addresses the operation, adequacy and effectiveness of the Trust’s liquidity risk management program, which is designed to assess and manage the Fund’s liquidity risk. GSAM also has a risk management team that assists GSAM in managing investment risk. Representatives from the risk management team meet regularly with the Board to discuss their analysis and methodologies. In addition, investment risk is discussed in the context of regular presentations to the Board on Portfolio and Underlying Fund strategy and performance. Other types of risk are addressed as part of presentations on related topics (e.g. compliance policies) or in the context of presentations focused specifically on one or more risks. The Board also receives reports from GSAM management on operational risks, reputational risks and counterparty risks relating to the Portfolios and the Underlying Funds.

 

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Board oversight of risk management is also performed by various Board committees. For example, the Audit Committee meets with both the Portfolios’ independent registered public accounting firm and GSAM’s internal audit group to review risk controls in place that support the Portfolios as well as test results, and the Compliance Committee meets with the CCO and representatives of GSAM’s compliance group to review testing results of the Portfolios’ compliance policies and procedures and other compliance issues. Board oversight of risk is also performed as needed between meetings through communications between GSAM and the Board. The Board may, at any time and in its discretion, change the manner in which it conducts risk oversight. The Board’s oversight role does not make the Board a guarantor of the Portfolios’ investments or activities.

Trustee Ownership of Fund Shares

The following table shows the dollar range of shares beneficially owned by each Trustee (then serving) in the Portfolios and other portfolios of the Goldman Sachs Fund Complex as of December 31, 2018 unless otherwise noted.

 

Name of Trustee

   Dollar Range of Equity Securities in the Portfolios(1)    Aggregate Dollar Range of
Equity Securities in All
Portfolios in Fund Complex
Overseen By Trustee

Kathryn A. Cassidy

   None    Over $100,000

Diana M. Daniels

   None    Over $100,000

James A. McNamara

   TAG – Over $100,000    Over $100,000

Jessica Palmer

   None    Over $100,000

Roy W. Templin

   None    Over $100,000

Gregory G. Weaver

   None    Over $100,000

 

1 

Includes the value of shares beneficially owned by each Trustee in each Portfolio described in this SAI.

As of December 1, 2019, the Trustees and Officers of the Trust as a group owned less than 1% of the outstanding shares of beneficial interest of each Portfolio.

Board Compensation

Each Independent Trustee is compensated with a unitary annual fee for his or her services as a Trustee of the Trust and as a member of the Governance and Nominating Committee, Compliance Committee, Contract Review Committee, and Audit Committee. The Chair and “audit committee financial expert” receive additional compensation for their services. The Independent Trustees are also reimbursed for reasonable travel expenses incurred in connection with attending meetings. The Trust may also pay the reasonable incidental costs of a Trustee to attend training or other types of conferences relating to the investment company industry.

The following table sets forth certain information with respect to the compensation of each Trustee of the Trust (then serving) for the fiscal year ended August 31, 2019:

Trustee Compensation

 

Name of Trustee

   TAG    EDGE    Pension or
Retirement
Benefits
Accrued as Part
of the Trust’s
Expenses
   Total
Compensation
From the Fund
Complex
(including the
Portfolios)

Kathryn A. Cassidy

   $3,191    $2,613    $0    $83,000

Diana M. Daniels

   3,191    2,613    0    83,000

James A. McNamara(1)

   —      —      —      —  

Jessica Palmer

   4,790    3,923    0    124,500

Roy Templin

   3,191    2,613    0    83,000

Gregory G. Weaver(2)

   3,704    3,033    0    96,500

 

Represents fees paid to each Trustee during the fiscal year ended August 31, 2019 from the Goldman Sachs Fund Complex. As of the most recent fiscal year end, neither the Portfolios nor the Fund Complex paid any fees to either of Ambassador Bush or Dr. Delgado, who were not yet serving as Trustees.

 

(1)

Mr. McNamara is an Interested Trustee, and as such, receives no compensation from the Portfolios or the Goldman Sachs Fund Complex.

(2)

Includes compensation as “audit committee financial expert,” as defined in Item 3 of Form N-CSR.

 

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Miscellaneous

The Trust, its investment advisers and principal underwriter have adopted codes of ethics under Rule 17j-1 of the Act that permit personnel subject to their particular codes of ethics to invest in securities, including securities that may be purchased or held by the Portfolios or the Underlying Funds.

MANAGEMENT SERVICES

As stated in the Portfolios’ Prospectuses, GSAM, 200 West Street, New York, New York 10282, serves as Investment Adviser to the Portfolios and to the Underlying Funds. GSAM is an indirect, wholly-owned subsidiary of The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. and an affiliate of Goldman Sachs. See “Service Providers” in the Portfolios’ Prospectuses for a description of the Investment Adviser’s duties to the Portfolios.

Founded in 1869, The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. is a publicly-held financial holding company and a leading global investment banking, securities and investment management firm. Goldman Sachs is a leader in developing portfolio strategies and in many fields of investing and financing, participating in financial markets worldwide and serving individuals, institutions, corporations and governments. Goldman Sachs is also among the principal market sources for current and thorough information on companies, industrial sectors, markets, economies and currencies, and trades and makes markets in a wide range of equity and debt securities 24 hours a day. The firm is headquartered in New York with offices in countries throughout the world. It has trading professionals throughout the United States, as well as in London, Frankfurt, Tokyo, Sao Paulo, Seoul and other major financial centers around the world. The active participation of Goldman Sachs in the world’s financial markets enhances its ability to identify attractive investments. Goldman Sachs has agreed to permit the Portfolios and the Underlying Funds to use the name “Goldman Sachs” or a derivative thereof as part of each Portfolio’s and Underlying Fund’s names for as long as a Portfolio’s and Underlying Fund’s respective Management Agreements (as described below) are in effect.

The Management Agreements for the Portfolios and the Underlying Funds provide that their investment advisers (and their affiliates) may render similar services to others so long as the services provided by them under the Management Agreements are not impaired thereby. The Portfolios’ Management Agreement was most recently approved by the Trustees of the Trust, including a majority of the Trustees of the Trust who are not parties to the Management Agreement or “interested persons” (as such term is defined in the Act) of any party thereto (the “non-interested Trustees”), at a meeting held on June 11-12, 2019. A discussion regarding the Board of Trustees’ basis for approving the Management Agreement on behalf of each Portfolio is available in the Portfolios’ Annual Report dated August 31, 2019.

The Portfolios’ Management Agreement will remain in effect until June 30, 2020 and will continue in effect with respect to the Portfolios from year to year thereafter provided such continuance is specifically approved at least annually by (i) the vote of a majority of the outstanding voting securities of such Portfolio or a majority of the Trustees of the Trust, and (ii) the vote of a majority of the non-interested Trustees of the Trust, cast in person at a meeting called for the purpose of voting on such approval.

The Management Agreements for the Underlying Funds then in existence on April 21, 1997 were last approved by the shareholders of such Underlying Funds on that date. The Management Agreements for the Portfolios and those Underlying Funds that commenced investment operations after April 21, 1997 were last approved by the initial sole shareholder of each Portfolio and each such Underlying Fund, prior to the Portfolio’s or Underlying Fund’s commencement of operations.

The Portfolios’ Management Agreement will terminate automatically with respect to a Portfolio if assigned (as defined in the Act). The Management Agreement is also terminable at any time without penalty by the Trustees of the Trust or by vote of a majority of the outstanding voting securities of the applicable Portfolio on 60 days written notice to the Investment Adviser or by the Investment Adviser on 60 days written notice to the Trust.

Pursuant to the Portfolios’ Management Agreement, the Investment Adviser is entitled to receive the fees set forth below, payable monthly, based on each Portfolio’s average daily net assets. Also included below are the actual rates paid by each Portfolio (after reflection of any voluntary management fee waivers, as indicated) for the fiscal year ended August 31, 2019. The management fee waivers will remain effect through at least December 27, 2020, and prior to such date, the Investment Adviser may not terminate these arrangements without the approval of the Board of Trustees. The management fee waivers may be modified or terminated by the Investment Adviser at its discretion and without shareholder approval after such date, although the Investment Adviser does not presently intend to do so. The Actual Rate may not correlate to the Contractual Rate as a result of these management fee waivers that may be in effect from time to time. The Investment Adviser may waive a portion of its management fee payable by a Portfolio in an amount equal to any management fees it earns as an investment adviser to any of the affiliated funds in which the Portfolio invests.

 

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Portfolio

   Contractual Rate     Actual Rate for the fiscal
year ended August 31, 2019
 

Tax-Advantaged Global Equity Portfolio

     0.15     0.08 %1 

Enhanced Dividend Global Equity Portfolio

     0.15     0.08 %1 

 

1 

The Investment Adviser has agreed to waive a portion of its management fee in order to achieve an effective rate of 0.08% as an annual percentage rate of average daily net assets of each Portfolio through at least December 27, 2020, and prior to such date, the Investment Adviser may not terminate the arrangements without the approval of the Board of Trustees. In addition, the Investment Adviser has agreed to reduce or limit “Other Expenses” (excluding acquired (underlying) fund fees and expenses, transfer agency fees and expenses, taxes, interest, brokerage fees, expenses of shareholder meetings, litigation and indemnification, and extraordinary expenses) to 0.014% of each Portfolio’s average daily net assets through at least December 27, 2020, and prior to such date, the Investment Adviser may not terminate the arrangement without the approval of the Board of Trustees.

For the fiscal years ended August 31, 2019, August 31, 2018 and August 31, 2017, the amounts of the fees (net of fee waivers, as applicable) incurred by each Portfolio under the Management Agreement were as follows.

 

     Fiscal Year Ended
August 31, 2019
     Fiscal Year Ended
August 31, 2018
     Fiscal Year Ended
August 31, 2017
 

Portfolio

   With Fee
Waiver
     Without Fee
Waiver
     With Fee
Waiver
     Without Fee
Waiver
     With Fee
Waiver
     Without Fee
Waiver
 

Tax-Advantaged Global Equity Portfolio

   $ 2,183,341      $ 4,093,739      $ 2,052,315      $ 3,848,067      $ 1,601,817      $ 3,003,400  

Enhanced Dividend Global Equity Portfolio

   $ 498,081      $ 933,897      $ 538,650      $ 1,009,962      $ 460,414      $ 863,275  

Unless required to be performed by others pursuant to agreements with the Portfolios, the Investment Adviser also performs certain administrative services for each Portfolio under the Management Agreement. Such administrative services include, subject to the general supervision of the Trustees of the Trust, (i) providing supervision of all aspects of the Portfolio’s non-investment operations; (ii) providing the Portfolio with personnel to perform such executive, administrative and clerical services as are reasonably necessary to provide effective administration of the Portfolio; (iii) arranging for, at the Portfolio’s expense, the preparation of all of the Portfolio’s required tax returns, the preparation and submission of reports to existing shareholders, the periodic updating of the Portfolio’s prospectus and statement of additional information, and the preparation of reports filed with the SEC and other regulatory authorities; (iv) maintaining all of the Portfolio’s records; and (v) providing the Portfolio with adequate office space and all necessary office equipment and services.

Legal Proceedings. On October 22, 2020, The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. announced a settlement of matters involving 1Malaysia Development Bhd. (1MDB), a Malaysian sovereign wealth fund, with the United States Department of Justice as well as criminal and civil authorities in the United Kingdom, Singapore and Hong Kong. Further information regarding the 1MDB settlement can be found at https://www.goldmansachs.com/media-relations/press-releases/current/goldman-sachs-2020-10-22.html. The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. previously entered into a settlement agreement with the Government of Malaysia and 1MDB to resolve all criminal and regulatory proceedings in Malaysia relating to 1MDB.

The Investment Adviser, Goldman Sachs and certain of their affiliates have received exemptive relief from the SEC to permit them to continue serving as investment adviser and principal underwriter for U.S.-registered investment companies.

Portfolio Managers – Other Accounts Managed by the Portfolio Managers

The following tables disclose other accounts within each type of category listed below for which the portfolio managers are jointly and primarily responsible for day to day portfolio management as of August 31, 2019.

For each portfolio manager listed below, the total number of accounts managed is a reflection of accounts within the strategy they oversee or manage, as well as accounts which participate in the sector in which they manage. There are multiple portfolio managers involved with each account.

 

     Number of Other Accounts Managed and Total Assets by Account Type**  
     Registered Investment
Companies
     Other Pooled
Investment Vehicles
     Other Accounts  

Name of Portfolio Manager*

   Number
of Accounts
     Assets
Managed
($ millions)
     Number of
Accounts
     Assets
Managed
($ millions)
     Number of
Accounts
     Assets
Managed
($ millions)
 

Monali Vora

     11      $ 5,566        3      $ 1,001        11,047      $ 76,654  

Aron Kershner

     11      $ 5,566        3      $ 1,001        11,047      $ 76,654  

John Sienkiewicz

     2      $ 2,778        —          —          —          —    

 

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     Number of Accounts and Total Assets for Which Advisory Fee is Performance Based**  
     Registered Investment
Companies
     Other Pooled
Investment Vehicles
     Other Accounts  

Name of Portfolio Manager*

   Number
of Accounts
     Assets
Managed
($ millions)
     Number of
Accounts
     Assets
Managed
($ millions)
     Number of
Accounts
     Assets
Managed
($ millions)
 

Monali Vora

     —          —          —          —          —          —    

Aron Kershner

     —          —          —          —          —          —    

John Sienkiewicz

     —          —          —          —          —          —    

 

*

Monali Vora, Aron Kershner and John Sienkiewicz are all members of the Quantitative Investment Strategies Team and are the portfolio managers for each of the Portfolios.

**

Includes wrap accounts as a single account.

 

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Conflicts of Interest. The Investment Adviser’s portfolio managers are often responsible for managing one or more Portfolios as well as other registered funds, accounts, including proprietary accounts, separate accounts and other pooled investment vehicles, such as unregistered hedge funds. A portfolio manager may manage a separate account or other pooled investment vehicle which may have materially higher fee arrangements than the Portfolios and may also have a performance-based fee. The side-by-side management of these funds may raise potential conflicts of interest relating to cross trading, the allocation of investment opportunities and the aggregation and allocation of trades.

The Investment Adviser has a fiduciary responsibility to manage all client accounts in a fair and equitable manner. It seeks to provide best execution of all securities transactions and aggregate and then allocate securities to client accounts in a fair and timely manner. To this end, the Investment Adviser has developed policies and procedures designed to mitigate and manage the potential conflicts of interest that may arise from side-by-side management. In addition, the Investment Adviser and the Portfolios have adopted policies limiting the circumstances under which cross-trades may be effected between the Portfolios and another client account. The Investment Adviser conducts periodic reviews of trades for consistency with these policies. For more information about conflicts of interests that may arise in connection with the portfolio manager’s management of the Portfolios’ investments and the investments of other accounts, see “POTENTIAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST.”

Portfolio Managers — Compensation

Compensation for portfolio managers of the Investment Adviser is comprised of a base salary and year-end discretionary variable compensation. The base salary is fixed from year to year. Year-end discretionary variable compensation is primarily a function of each portfolio manager’s individual performance and his or her contribution to overall team performance; the performance of GSAM and Goldman Sachs; the team’s net revenues for the past year which in part is derived from advisory fees, and for certain accounts, performance-based fees; and anticipated compensation levels among competitor firms. Portfolio managers are rewarded, in part, for their delivery of investment performance, which is reasonably expected to meet or exceed the expectations of clients and fund shareholders in terms of: peer group ranking, risk management and factors specific to certain funds such as yield or regional focus. Performance is judged over 1-, 3-, and 5-year time horizons.

The benchmark for each Portfolio is a composite benchmark comprised of: the Morgan Stanley Capital International All Country World Index Investable Market Index (90%) and the Bloomberg Barclays U.S. Aggregate Bond Index (10%).

The discretionary variable compensation for portfolio managers is also significantly influenced by various factors, including: (1) effective participation in team research discussions and process; and (2) management of risk in alignment with the targeted risk parameters and investment objectives of a Portfolio. Other factors may also be considered, including: (1) general client/shareholder orientation and (2) teamwork and leadership.

As part of their year-end discretionary variable compensation and subject to certain eligibility requirements, portfolio managers may receive deferred equity-based and similar awards, in the form of: (1) shares of The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. (restricted stock units); and, (2) for certain portfolio managers, performance-tracking (or “phantom”) shares of a Portfolio or multiple portfolios. Performance-tracking shares are designed to provide a rate of return (net of fees) equal to that of the Portfolio(s) that a portfolio manager manages, or one or more other eligible portfolios, as determined by senior management, thereby aligning portfolio manager compensation with portfolio shareholder interests. The awards are subject to vesting requirements, deferred payment and clawback and forfeiture provisions. GSAM, Goldman Sachs or their affiliates expect, but are not required to, hedge the exposure of the performance-tracking shares of a Portfolio by, among other things, purchasing shares of the relevant Portfolio(s).

Other Compensation. In addition to base salary and year-end discretionary variable compensation, the Investment Adviser has a number of additional benefits in place including: (1) a 401(k) program that enables employees to direct a percentage of their base salary and bonus income into a tax-qualified retirement plan; and (2) investment opportunity programs in which certain professionals may participate subject to certain eligibility requirements.

Portfolio Managers – Portfolio Managers’ Ownership of Securities in the Portfolios

The following table shows the portfolio managers’ ownership of securities, including those beneficially owned as well as those owned pursuant to the deferred compensation plan discussed above, in the Portfolios as of June 30, 2020:

 

Name of Portfolio Manager

   Dollar Range of Equity Securities Beneficially Owned by the
Portfolio Manager
 

Enhanced Dividend Global Equity Portfolio

  

Monali Vora

     $50,001–$100,000  

Aron Kershner

     $10,001–$50,000  

John Sienkiewicz

     $10,001–$50,000  

Tax-Advantaged Global Equity Portfolio

  

Monali Vora

     $50,001–$100,000  

Aron Kershner

     $50,001–$100,000  

John Sienkiewicz

     $50,001–$100,000  

 

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Distributor and Transfer Agent

Distributor. Goldman Sachs, 200 West Street, New York, New York 10282, serves as the exclusive distributor of shares of the Portfolios pursuant to a “best efforts” arrangement as provided by a distribution agreement with the Trust on behalf of each Portfolio. Shares of the Portfolios are offered and sold on a continuous basis by Goldman Sachs, acting as agent. Pursuant to the distribution agreement, after the Portfolios’ Prospectuses and periodic reports have been prepared, set in type and mailed to shareholders, Goldman Sachs will pay for the printing and distribution of copies thereof used in connection with the offering to prospective investors. Goldman Sachs will also pay for other supplementary sales literature and advertising costs. Goldman Sachs may enter into sales agreements with certain investment dealers and other financial service firms (the “Intermediaries”) to solicit subscriptions for Class A, Class R6 and Class P Shares of the Portfolios. Goldman Sachs receives a portion of the sales charge imposed on the sale, and in certain cases, redemption, of Class A Shares of the Portfolios. Goldman Sachs retained approximately the following commissions on sales of Class A Shares during the following periods:

 

Portfolio

   Fiscal Year Ended
August 31, 2019
     Fiscal Year Ended
August 31, 2018
     Fiscal Year Ended
August 31, 2017
 

Tax-Advantaged Global Equity Portfolio

   $ 385      $ 0      $ 46  

Enhanced Dividend Global Equity Portfolio

   $ 1,990      $ 3,605      $ 6,857  

Dealer Reallowances. Class A Shares of the Portfolios are sold subject to a front-end sales charge, as described in the applicable Prospectus and in this SAI in the section “SHARES OF THE TRUST.” Goldman Sachs may pay commissions to Intermediaries who sell Class A shares of the Portfolios in the form of a “reallowance” of all or a portion of the sales charge paid on the purchase of those shares. Goldman Sachs reallows the following amounts, expressed as a percentage of each Fund’s offering price with respect to purchases of Class A Shares under $50,000:

 

Portfolios

   % of sales charge
re-allowed to broker/dealers
 

Tax-Advantaged Global Equity Portfolio

     4.61

Enhanced Dividend Global Equity Portfolio

     4.61

Dealer allowances may be changed periodically. During special promotions, the entire sales charge may be reallowed to Intermediaries. Intermediaries to whom substantially the entire sales charge is reallowed may be deemed to be “underwriters” under the 1933 Act.

Transfer Agent. Goldman Sachs, 71 South Wacker Drive, Chicago, IL 60606 serves as the Trust’s transfer and dividend disbursing agent. Under its transfer agency agreement with the Trust, Goldman Sachs has undertaken with the Trust with respect to each Portfolio to: (i) record the issuance, transfer and redemption of shares; (ii) provide purchase and redemption confirmations and quarterly statements, as well as certain other statements; (iii) provide certain information to the Trust’s custodian and the relevant sub-custodian in connection with redemptions; (iv) provide dividend crediting and certain disbursing agent services; (v) maintain shareholder accounts, (vi) provide certain state Blue Sky and other information; (vii) provide shareholders and certain regulatory authorities with tax-related information; (viii) respond to shareholder inquiries; and (ix) render certain other miscellaneous services. For its transfer agency services, Goldman Sachs is entitled to receive a transfer agency fee equal, on an annualized basis, to 0.03% of average daily net assets with respect to each Fund’s Class R6 and Class P Shares, to 0.04% of average daily net assets with respect to each Portfolio’s Institutional Shares and 0.17% of average daily net assets with respect to each Portfolio’s Class A Shares. Goldman Sachs may pay to certain intermediaries who perform transfer agent services to shareholders a networking or sub-transfer agent fee. These payments will be made from the transfer agency fees noted above and in the Portfolios’ Prospectuses.

As compensation for services rendered to the Trust by Goldman Sachs as transfer and dividend disbursing agent and the assumption by Goldman Sachs of the expenses related thereto, Goldman Sachs received fees for the fiscal years ended August 31, 2019, August 31, 2018 and August 31, 2017 from each Portfolio as follows under the fee schedules then in effect:

 

     Fiscal Year Ended
August 31, 2019
     Fiscal Year Ended
August 31, 2018
     Fiscal Year Ended
August 31, 2017
 

Portfolio

   Institutional      Class A*      Institutional      Class A*      Institutional      Class A*  

Tax-Advantaged Global Equity Portfolio

   $ 19,497      $ 981      $ 931,890      $ 1,200      $ 800,687      $ 1,047  

Enhanced Dividend Global Equity Portfolio

   $ 11,462      $ 17,150        205,628        17,980        227,194        14,226  

 

* 

Prior to July 28, 2017, the fee for transfer agent and dividend disbursing agent services with respect to Class A Shares was 0.19%.

 

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     Fiscal Year Ended
August 31, 2019
     Fiscal Year Ended
August 31, 2018
 

Portfolio

   Class
R6
     Class P      Class
R6*
     Class
P**
 

Tax-Advantaged Global Equity Portfolio

   $ 4      $ 803,937      $ 2      $ 70,497  

Enhanced Dividend Global Equity Portfolio

   $ 4      $ 175,292        2        44,773  

 

* 

Class R6 Shares of the Portfolios commenced on December 29, 2017.

** 

Class P Shares of the Portfolios commenced on April 16, 2018.

The Trust’s distribution and transfer agency agreements each provide that Goldman Sachs may render similar services to others so long as the services Goldman Sachs provides thereunder are not impaired thereby. Such agreements also provide that the Trust will indemnify Goldman Sachs against certain liabilities.

Expenses

The Trust, on behalf of each Portfolio, is responsible for the payment of each Portfolio’s respective expenses. The expenses include, without limitation, the fees payable to the Investment Adviser, service fees and shareholder administration fees paid to Intermediaries, the fees and expenses of the Trust’s custodian and sub-custodians, transfer agent fees and expenses, pricing service fees and expenses, brokerage fees and commissions, filing fees for the registration or qualification of the Trust’s shares under federal or state securities laws, expenses of the organization of the Portfolios, fees and expenses incurred by the Trust in connection with membership in investment company organizations including, but not limited to, the Investment Company Institute, taxes, interest, costs of liability insurance, fidelity bonds or indemnification, any costs, expenses or losses arising out of any liability of, or claim for damages or other relief asserted against, the Trust for violation of any law, legal, tax and auditing fees and expenses (including the cost of legal and certain accounting services rendered by employees of Goldman Sachs and its affiliates with respect to the Trust), expenses of preparing and setting in type Prospectuses, SAIs, proxy material, reports and notices and the printing and distributing of the same to the Trust’s shareholders and regulatory authorities, any expenses assumed by a Portfolio pursuant to its distribution and service plans, compensation and expenses of its “non-interested” Trustees, the fees and expenses of pricing services, dividend expenses on short sales and extraordinary expenses, if any, incurred by the Trust. Except for fees and expenses under any service plan, shareholder distribution and service plan applicable to a particular class and transfer agency fees and expenses, all Portfolio expenses are borne on a non-class specific basis.

The imposition of the Investment Adviser’s fees, as well as other operating expenses, will have the effect of reducing the total return to investors. From time to time, the Investment Adviser may waive receipt of its fees and/or voluntarily assume certain expenses of a Portfolio or Underlying Fund, which would have the effect of lowering the Portfolio’s or Underlying Fund’s overall expense ratio and increasing total return to investors at the time such amounts are waived or assumed, as the case may be.

As of December 27, 2019, the Investment Adviser has agreed to reduce or limit certain “Other Expenses” (excluding acquired (underlying) fund fees and expenses, transfer agency fees and expenses, taxes, interest, brokerage fees, expenses of shareholder meetings, litigation and indemnification and other extraordinary expenses) for the Portfolios to the extent that such expenses exceed, on an annual basis, 0.014% of each Portfolio’s average daily net assets through at least December 27, 2020. This expense limitation undertaking does not apply to the Underlying Fund expenses. After December 27, 2020, such reductions or limits, if any, may be discontinued or modified by the Investment Adviser in its discretion at any time and without shareholder approval, although the Investment Adviser currently has no intention of doing so. A Portfolio’s “Other Expenses” may be further reduced by a custody and transfer agency fee credit received by the Portfolios.

Fees and expenses borne by the Portfolios relating to legal counsel, registering shares of a Portfolio, holding meetings and communicating with shareholders may include an allocable portion of the cost of maintaining an internal legal and compliance department. Each Portfolio may also bear an allocable portion of the Investment Adviser’s costs of performing certain accounting services not being provided by a Portfolio’s custodian.

 

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Reimbursement and Other Expense Reductions

For the fiscal years ended August 31, 2019, August 31, 2018 and August 31, 2017, the amounts of “Other Expenses” of TAG and EDGE that were reduced or otherwise limited were as follows:

 

Portfolio

   Fiscal Year Ended
August 31, 2019
     Fiscal Year Ended
August 31, 2018
     Fiscal Year Ended
August 31, 2017
 

Tax-Advantaged Global Equity Portfolio

   $ 398,582      $ 225,281      $ 208,819  

Enhanced Dividend Global Equity Portfolio

     358,808        196,314        186,578  

Custodian and Sub-Custodians

JPMorgan Chase, 270 Park Avenue, New York, New York 10017, is the custodian of the Trust’s portfolio securities and cash. JPMorgan Chase also maintains the Trust’s accounting records. JPMorgan Chase may appoint domestic and foreign sub-custodians and use depositories from time to time to hold certain securities and other instruments purchased by the Trust in foreign countries and to hold cash and currencies for the Trust.

Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, 101 Seaport Boulevard, Suite 500, Boston, Massachusetts, 02210, is the Portfolios’ independent registered public accounting firm. In addition to audit services, PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP provides assistance on certain non-audit matters.

POTENTIAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST

General Categories of Conflicts Associated with the Portfolios

Goldman Sachs (which, for purposes of this “POTENTIAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST” section, shall mean, collectively, The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc., the Investment Adviser and their affiliates, directors, partners, trustees, managers, members, officers and employees) is a worldwide, full-service investment banking, broker-dealer, asset management and financial services organization and a major participant in global financial markets. As such, it provides a wide range of financial services to a substantial and diversified client base that includes corporations, financial institutions, governments and individuals. Goldman Sachs acts as broker-dealer, investment adviser, investment banker, underwriter, research provider, administrator, financier, adviser, market maker, trader, prime broker, derivatives dealer, clearing agent, lender, counterparty, agent, principal, distributor, investor or in other commercial capacities for accounts or companies or affiliated or unaffiliated investment funds (including pooled investment vehicles and private funds). In those and other capacities, Goldman Sachs advises and deals with clients and third parties in all markets and transactions and purchases, sells, holds and recommends a broad array of investments, including securities, derivatives, loans, commodities, currencies, credit default swaps, indices, baskets and other financial instruments and products, for its own account and for the accounts of clients and of its personnel. In addition, Goldman Sachs has direct and indirect interests in the global fixed income, currency, commodity, equities, bank loan and other markets. In certain cases, the Investment Adviser causes the Portfolios to invest in products and strategies sponsored, managed or advised by Goldman Sachs or in which Goldman Sachs has an interest, either directly or indirectly, or otherwise restricts the Portfolios from making such investments, as further described herein. In this regard, Goldman Sachs’ activities and dealings with other clients and third parties may affect the Portfolios in ways that may disadvantage the Portfolios and/or benefit Goldman Sachs or other Accounts.

In addition, the Investment Adviser’s activities on behalf of certain other entities that are not investment advisory clients of the Investment Adviser create conflicts of interest between such entities, on the one hand, and Accounts (including the Portfolios), on the other hand, that are the same as or similar to the conflicts that arise between the Portfolios and other Accounts, as described herein. In managing conflicts of interest that arise as a result of the foregoing, the Investment Adviser generally will be subject to fiduciary requirements. For purposes of this “POTENTIAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST” section, “Funds” shall mean, collectively, the Portfolios and any of the other Goldman Sachs Funds, and “Accounts” shall mean Goldman Sachs’ own accounts, accounts in which personnel of Goldman Sachs have an interest, accounts of Goldman Sachs’ clients, including separately managed accounts (or separate accounts), and investment vehicles that Goldman Sachs sponsors, manages or advises, including the Portfolios.

The conflicts herein do not purport to be a complete list or explanation of the conflicts associated with the financial or other interests the Investment Adviser or Goldman Sachs may have now or in the future. Additional information about potential conflicts of interest regarding the Investment Adviser and Goldman Sachs is set forth in the Investment Adviser’s Form ADV. A copy of Part 1 and Part 2A of the Investment Adviser’s Form ADV is available on the SEC’s website (www.adviserinfo.sec.gov).

The Sale of Fund Shares and the Allocation of Investment Opportunities

Sales Incentives and Related Conflicts Arising from Goldman Sachs’ Financial and Other Relationships with Intermediaries

Goldman Sachs and its personnel, including employees of the Investment Adviser, receive benefits and earn fees and compensation for services provided to Accounts (including the Funds) and in connection with the distribution of the Funds. Any such fees and compensation are generally paid directly or indirectly out of the fees payable to the Investment Adviser in connection with the management of such Accounts (including the Funds). Moreover, Goldman Sachs and its personnel, including employees of the Investment Adviser, have relationships (both involving and not involving the Funds, and including without limitation placement, brokerage, advisory and board relationships) with distributors, consultants and others who recommend, or engage in transactions with or for, the Funds. Such distributors, consultants and other parties may receive compensation from Goldman Sachs or the Funds in connection with such relationships. As a result of these relationships, distributors, consultants and other parties have conflicts that create incentives for them to promote the Funds.

To the extent permitted by applicable law, Goldman Sachs and the Funds have in the past made, and may in the future make, payments to authorized dealers and other financial intermediaries and to salespersons to promote the Funds. These payments may be made out of Goldman Sachs’ assets or amounts payable to Goldman Sachs. These payments create an incentive for such persons to highlight, feature or recommend the Funds.

 

 

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Allocation of Investment Opportunities Among the Funds and Other Accounts

The Investment Adviser manages or advises multiple Accounts (including Accounts in which Goldman Sachs and its personnel have an interest) that have investment objectives that are the same or similar to the Funds and that seek to make or sell investments in the same securities or other instruments, sectors or strategies as the Funds. This creates potential conflicts, particularly in circumstances where the availability or liquidity of such investment opportunities is limited (e.g., in local and emerging markets, high yield securities, fixed income securities, regulated industries, small capitalization, direct or indirect investments in private investment funds, investments in master limited partnerships in the oil and gas industry and initial public offerings/new issues).

Accounts (including the Funds) may invest in other Accounts (including the Funds) at or near the establishment of such Accounts, which may facilitate the Accounts achieving a specified size or scale.

The Investment Adviser does not receive performance-based compensation in respect of its investment management activities on behalf of the Funds, but may simultaneously manage Accounts for which the Investment Adviser receives greater fees or other compensation (including performance-based fees or allocations) than it receives in respect of the Funds. The simultaneous management of Accounts that pay greater fees or other compensation and the Funds creates a conflict of interest as the Investment Adviser has an incentive to favor Accounts with the potential to receive greater fees when allocating resources, services, functions or investment opportunities among Accounts. For instance, the Investment Adviser will be faced with a conflict of interest when allocating scarce investment opportunities given the possibly greater fees from Accounts that pay performance-based fees. To address these types of conflicts, the Investment Adviser has adopted policies and procedures under which it will allocate investment opportunities in a manner that it believes is consistent with its obligations and fiduciary duties as an investment adviser. However, the availability, amount, timing, structuring or terms of an investment available to the Funds differ from, and performance may be lower than, the investments and performance of other Accounts in certain cases.

To address these potential conflicts, the Investment Adviser has developed allocation policies and procedures that provide that the Investment Adviser’s personnel making portfolio decisions for Accounts will make investment decisions for, and allocate investment opportunities among, such Accounts consistent with the Investment Adviser’s fiduciary obligations. These policies and procedures may result in the pro rata allocation (on a basis determined by the Investment Adviser) of limited opportunities across eligible Accounts managed by a particular portfolio management team, but in other cases such allocation may not be pro rata.

Allocation-related decisions for the Funds and other Accounts are made by reference to one or more factors. Factors may include: the Account’s portfolio and its investment horizons and objectives (including with respect to portfolio construction), guidelines and restrictions (including legal and regulatory restrictions affecting certain Accounts or affecting holdings across Accounts); client instructions; strategic fit and other portfolio management considerations, including different desired levels of exposure to certain strategies; the expected future capacity of the Funds and the applicable Accounts; limits on the Investment Adviser’s brokerage discretion; cash and liquidity needs and other considerations; the availability (or lack thereof) of other appropriate or substantially similar investment opportunities; and differences in benchmark factors and hedging strategies among Accounts. Suitability considerations, reputational matters and other considerations may also be considered.

In a case in which one or more Accounts are intended to be the Investment Adviser’s primary investment vehicles focused on, or to receive priority with respect to, a particular trading strategy, other Accounts (including the Funds) may not have access to such strategy or may have more limited access than would otherwise be the case. To the extent that such Accounts are managed by areas of Goldman Sachs other than the Investment Adviser, such Accounts will not be subject to the Investment Adviser’s allocation policies. Investments by such Accounts may reduce or eliminate the availability of investment opportunities to, or otherwise adversely affect, the Fund. Furthermore, in cases in which one or more Accounts are intended to be the Investment Adviser’s primary investment vehicles focused on, or receive priority with respect to, a particular trading strategy or type of investment, such Accounts have specific policies or guidelines with respect to Accounts or other persons receiving the opportunity to invest alongside such Accounts with respect to one or more investments (“Co-Investment Opportunities”). As a result, certain Accounts or other persons will receive allocations to, or rights to invest in, Co-Investment Opportunities that are not available generally to the Funds.

In addition, in some cases the Investment Adviser makes investment recommendations to Accounts that make investment decisions independently of the Investment Adviser. In circumstances in which there is limited availability of an investment opportunity, if such Accounts invest in the investment opportunity at the same time as, or prior to, a Fund, the availability of the investment opportunity for the Fund will be reduced irrespective of the Investment Adviser’s policies regarding allocations of investments.

The Investment Adviser, from time to time, develops and implements new trading strategies or seeks to participate in new trading strategies and investment opportunities. These strategies and opportunities are not employed in all Accounts or employed pro rata among Accounts where they are used, even if the strategy or opportunity is consistent with the objectives of such Accounts. Further, a trading strategy employed for a Fund that is similar to, or the same as, that of another Account may be implemented differently, sometimes to a material extent. For example, a Fund may invest in different securities or other assets, or invest in the same securities and other assets but in different proportions, than another Account with the same or similar trading strategy. The implementation of the Fund’s trading strategy depends on a variety of factors, including the portfolio managers involved in managing the trading strategy for the Account, the time difference associated with the location of different portfolio management teams, and the factors described above and in Item 6 (“PERFORMANCE-BASED FEES AND SIDE-BY-SIDE MANAGEMENT—Side-by-Side Management of Advisory Accounts; Allocation of Opportunities”) of the Investment Adviser’s Form ADV.

 

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During periods of unusual market conditions, the Investment Adviser may deviate from its normal trade allocation practices. For example, this may occur with respect to the management of unlevered and/or long-only Accounts that are typically managed on a side-by-side basis with levered and/or long-short Accounts.

The Investment Adviser and the Funds may receive notice of, or offers to participate in, investment opportunities from third parties for various reasons. The Investment Adviser in its sole discretion will determine whether a Fund will participate in any such investment opportunities and investors should not expect that the Fund will participate in any such investment opportunities unless the opportunities are received pursuant to contractual requirements, such as preemptive rights or rights offerings, under the terms of the Fund’s investments. Some or all Funds may, from time to time, be offered investment opportunities that are made available through Goldman Sachs businesses outside of the Investment Adviser, including, for example, interests in real estate and other private investments. In this regard, a conflict of interest exists to the extent that Goldman Sachs controls or otherwise influences the terms and pricing of such investments and/or retains other benefits in connection therewith. However, Goldman Sachs businesses outside of the Investment Adviser are under no obligation or other duty to provide investment opportunities to the Funds, and generally are not expected to do so. Further, opportunities sourced within particular portfolio management teams within the Investment Adviser may not be allocated to Accounts (including the Funds) managed by such teams or by other teams. Opportunities not allocated (or not fully allocated) to the Funds or other Accounts managed by the Investment Adviser may be undertaken by Goldman Sachs (including the Investment Adviser), including for Goldman Sachs Accounts, or made available to other Accounts or third parties, and the Funds will not receive any compensation related to such opportunities. Additional information about the Investment Adviser’s allocation policies is set forth in Item 6 (“PERFORMANCE-BASED FEES AND SIDE-BY-SIDE MANAGEMENT—Side-by-Side Management of Advisory Accounts; Allocation of Opportunities”) of the Investment Adviser’s Form ADV.

As a result of the various considerations above, there will be cases in which certain Accounts (including Accounts in which Goldman Sachs and personnel of Goldman Sachs have an interest) receive an allocation of an investment opportunity at times that the Funds do not, or when the Funds receive an allocation of such opportunities but on different terms than other Accounts (which may be less favorable). The application of these considerations may cause differences in the performance of different Accounts that employ strategies the same or similar to those of the Funds.

Multiple Accounts (including the Funds) may participate in a particular investment or incur expenses applicable in connection with the operation or management of the Accounts, or otherwise may be subject to costs or expenses that are allocable to more than one Account (which may include, without limitation, research expenses, technology expenses, expenses relating to participation in bondholder groups, restructurings, class actions and other litigation, and insurance premiums). The Investment Adviser may allocate investment-related and other expenses on a pro rata or different basis. Certain Accounts are, by their terms or by determination of the Investment Adviser, on a case-by-case basis, not responsible for their share of such expenses, and, in addition, the Investment Adviser has agreed with certain Accounts to cap the amount of expenses (or the amount of certain types of expenses) borne by such Accounts, which results in such Accounts not bearing the full share of expenses they would otherwise have borne as described above. As a result, certain Accounts are responsible for bearing a different or greater amount of expenses, while other Accounts do not bear any, or do not bear their full share, of such expenses. The Investment Adviser may bear any such expenses on behalf of certain Accounts and not for others, as it determines in its sole discretion.

Accounts will generally incur expenses with respect to the consideration and pursuit of transactions that are not ultimately consummated (“broken-deal expenses”). Examples of broken-deal expenses include (i) research costs, (ii) fees and expenses of legal, financial, accounting, consulting or other advisers (including the Investment Adviser or its affiliates) in connection with conducting due diligence or otherwise pursuing a particular non-consummated transaction, (iii) fees and expenses in connection with arranging financing for a particular non-consummated transaction, (iv) travel, entertainment and overtime meal and transportation costs, (v) deposits or down payments that are forfeited in connection with, or amounts paid as a penalty for, a particular non-consummated transaction and (vi) other expenses incurred in connection with activities related to a particular non-consummated transaction.

The Investment Adviser has adopted a policy relating to the allocation of broken-deal expenses among Accounts (including the Funds) and other potential investors. Pursuant to the policy, broken-deal expenses generally will be allocated among Accounts in the manner that the Investment Adviser determines to be fair and equitable, which will be pro rata or on a different basis.

Goldman Sachs’ Financial and Other Interests May Incentivize Goldman Sachs to Promote the Sale of Fund Shares

Goldman Sachs and its personnel have interests in promoting sales of Fund shares, and the compensation from such sales may be greater than the compensation relating to sales of interests in other Accounts. Therefore, Goldman Sachs and its personnel may have a financial interest in promoting Fund shares over interests in other Accounts.

Management of the Funds by the Investment Adviser

Considerations Relating to Information Held by Goldman Sachs

Goldman Sachs has established certain information barriers and other policies to address the sharing of information between different businesses within Goldman Sachs. As a result of information barriers, the Investment Adviser generally will not have access, or will have limited access, to certain information and personnel in other areas of Goldman Sachs relating to business transactions for clients (including transactions in investing, banking, prime brokerage and certain other areas), and generally will not manage the Funds with the benefit of information held by such other areas. Goldman Sachs, due to its access to and knowledge of funds, markets and securities based on its prime brokerage and other businesses, may make decisions based on information or take (or refrain from taking) actions with respect to interests in investments of the kind held (directly or indirectly) by the Funds in a manner that may be adverse to the Funds, and will not have any obligation or other duty to share information with the Investment Adviser.

 

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In limited circumstances, however, including for purposes of managing business and reputational risk, and subject to policies and procedures, personnel on one side of an information barrier may have access to information and personnel on the other side of the information barrier through “wall crossings.” The Investment Adviser faces conflicts of interest in determining whether to engage in such wall crossings. Information obtained in connection with such wall crossings may limit or restrict the ability of the Investment Adviser to engage in or otherwise effect transactions on behalf of the Funds (including purchasing or selling securities that the Investment Adviser may otherwise have purchased or sold for an Account in the absence of a wall crossing). In managing conflicts of interest that arise as a result of the foregoing, the Investment Adviser generally will be subject to fiduciary requirements. Information barriers also exist between certain businesses within the Investment Adviser, and the conflicts described herein with respect to information barriers and otherwise with respect to Goldman Sachs and the Investment Adviser will also apply to the businesses within the Investment Adviser. There may also be circumstances in which, as a result of information held by certain portfolio management teams in the Investment Adviser, the Investment Adviser limits an activity or transaction for a Fund, including if the Fund is managed by a portfolio management team other than the team holding such information.

In addition, regardless of the existence of information barriers, Goldman Sachs will not have any obligation or other duty to make available for the benefit of the Funds any information regarding Goldman Sachs’ trading activities, strategies or views, or the activities, strategies or views used for other Accounts. Furthermore, to the extent that the Investment Adviser has access to fundamental analysis and proprietary technical models or other information developed by Goldman Sachs and its personnel, or other parts of the Investment Adviser, the Investment Adviser will not be under any obligation or other duty to effect transactions on behalf of Accounts (including the Funds) in accordance with such analysis and models. In the event Goldman Sachs elects not to share certain information with the Investment Adviser or personnel involved in decision-making for Accounts (including the Funds), the Funds may make investment decisions that differ from those they would have made if Goldman Sachs had provided such information, which may be disadvantageous to the Funds.

Different areas of the Investment Adviser and Goldman Sachs take views, and make decisions or recommendations, that are different than other areas of the Investment Adviser and Goldman Sachs. Different portfolio management teams within the Investment Adviser make decisions based on information or take (or refrain from taking) actions with respect to Accounts they advise in a manner different than or adverse to the Funds. Such teams may not share information with the Funds’ portfolio management teams, including as a result of certain information barriers and other policies, and will not have any obligation or other duty to do so.

Goldman Sachs operates a business known as Goldman Sachs Securities Services (“GSS”), which provides prime brokerage, administrative and other services to clients which may involve investment funds (including pooled investment vehicles and private funds) in which one or more Accounts invest (“Underlying Funds”) or markets and securities in which Accounts invest. GSS and other parts of Goldman Sachs have broad access to information regarding the current status of certain markets, investments and funds and detailed information about fund operators that is not available to the Investment Adviser. In addition, Goldman Sachs may act as a prime broker to one or more Underlying Funds, in which case Goldman Sachs will have information concerning the investments and transactions of such Underlying Funds that is not available to the Investment Adviser. As a result of these and other activities, parts of Goldman Sachs may be in possession of information in respect of markets, investments, investment advisers that are affiliated or unaffiliated with Goldman Sachs and Underlying Funds, which, if known to the Investment Adviser, might cause the Investment Adviser to seek to dispose of, retain or increase interests in investments held by Accounts or acquire certain positions on behalf of Accounts, or take other actions. Goldman Sachs will be under no obligation or other duty to make any such information available to the Investment Adviser or personnel involved in decision-making for Accounts (including the Funds).

Valuation of the Funds’ Investments

The Investment Adviser, while not the primary valuation agent of the Funds, performs certain valuation services related to securities and assets held in the Funds. The Investment Adviser performs such valuation services in accordance with its valuation policies. The Investment Adviser may value an identical asset differently than another division or unit within Goldman Sachs values the asset, including because such other division or unit has information or uses valuation techniques and models that it does not share with, or that are different than those of, the Investment Adviser. This is particularly the case in respect of difficult-to-value assets. The Investment Adviser may also value an identical asset differently in different Accounts, including because different Accounts are subject to different valuation guidelines pursuant to their respective governing agreements (e.g., in connection with certain regulatory restrictions applicable to different Accounts). Differences in valuation may also exist because different third-party vendors are hired to perform valuation functions for the Accounts, the Accounts are managed or advised by different portfolio management teams within the Investment Adviser that employ different valuation policies or procedures, or otherwise. The Investment Adviser will face a conflict with respect to valuations generally because of their effect on the Investment Adviser’s fees and other compensation. Furthermore, the application of particular valuation policies with respect to the Funds will, under certain circumstances, result in improved performance of the Funds.

 

 

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Goldman Sachs’ and the Investment Adviser’s Activities on Behalf of Other Accounts

The Investment Adviser provides advisory services to the Funds. Goldman Sachs (including the Investment Adviser), the clients it advises, and its personnel have interests in and advise Accounts that have investment objectives or portfolios similar to, related to or opposed to those of the Funds. Goldman Sachs may receive greater fees or other compensation (including performance-based fees) from such Accounts than it does from the Funds, in which case Goldman Sachs is incentivized to favor such Accounts. In addition, Goldman Sachs (including the Investment Adviser), the clients it advises, and its personnel may engage (or consider engaging) in commercial arrangements or transactions with Accounts, and/or may compete for commercial arrangements or transactions in the same types of companies, assets securities and other instruments, as the Funds. Such arrangements, transactions or investments may adversely affect such Funds by, for example, limiting their ability to engage in such activity or affecting the pricing or terms of such arrangements, transactions or investments. Moreover, a particular Fund on the one hand, and Goldman Sachs or other Accounts, on the other hand, may vote differently on or take or refrain from taking different actions with respect to the same security, which may be disadvantageous to the Fund. Additionally, as described below, the Investment Adviser faces conflicts of interest arising out of Goldman Sachs’ relationships and business dealings in connection with decisions to take or refrain from taking certain actions on behalf of Accounts when doing so would be adverse to Goldman Sachs’ relationships or other business dealings with such parties.

Transactions by, advice to and activities of Accounts (including with respect to investment decisions, voting and the enforcement of rights) may involve the same or related companies, securities or other assets or instruments as those in which the Funds invest, and such Accounts may engage in a strategy while a Fund is undertaking the same or a differing strategy, any of which could directly or indirectly disadvantage the Fund (including its ability to engage in a transaction or other activities).

For example, Goldman Sachs may be engaged to provide advice to an Account that is considering entering into a transaction with a Fund, and Goldman Sachs may advise the Account not to pursue the transaction with the Fund, or otherwise in connection with a potential transaction provide advice to the Account that would be adverse to the Fund. Additionally, a Fund may buy a security and an Account may establish a short position in that same security or in similar securities. This short position may result in the impairment of the price of the security that the Fund holds or may be designed to profit from a decline in the price of the security. A Fund could similarly be adversely impacted if it establishes a short position, following which an Account takes a long position in the same security or in similar securities. In addition, Goldman Sachs (including the Investment Adviser) may make filings in connection with a shareholder class action lawsuit or similar matter involving a particular security on behalf of an Account (including a Fund), but not on behalf of a different Account (including a Fund) that holds or held the same security, or that is invested in or has extended credit to different parts of the capital structure of the same issuer. Accounts may also have different rights in respect of an investment with the same issuer, or invest in different classes of the same issuer that have different rights, including, without limitation, with respect to liquidity. The determination to exercise such rights by the Investment Adviser on behalf of such other Accounts may have an adverse effect on the Funds.

The Funds are expected to transact with a variety of counterparties. Some of these counterparties will also engage in transactions with other Accounts managed by the Investment Adviser or another Goldman Sachs entity. For example, a Fund may directly or indirectly purchase assets from a counterparty at the same time the counterparty (or an affiliate thereof) is also negotiating to purchase different assets from another Account. This creates potential conflicts of interest, particularly with respect to the terms and purchase prices of the sales. For example, Goldman Sachs may receive fees or other compensation in connection with the sale of assets by an Account, which creates an incentive to negotiate a higher purchase price for those assets in a transaction where the Fund is a purchaser. To address these potential conflicts the Investment Adviser implements in such situations policies and procedures to ensure that any transaction is consistent with the Investment Adviser’s fiduciary obligations.

Shareholders may be offered access to advisory services through several different Goldman Sachs businesses (including through Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC and the Investment Adviser). Different advisory businesses within Goldman Sachs manage Accounts according to different strategies and may also apply different criteria to the same or similar strategies and may have differing investment views in respect of an issuer or a security or other investment. Similarly, within the Investment Adviser, certain investment teams or portfolio managers may have differing or opposite investment views in respect of an issuer or a security, and the positions a Fund’s investment team or portfolio managers take in respect of the Fund may be inconsistent with, or adversely affected by, the interests and activities of the Accounts advised by other investment teams or portfolio managers of the Investment Adviser. Research, analyses or viewpoints may be available to clients or potential clients at different times. Goldman Sachs will not have any obligation or other duty to make available to the Funds any research or analysis at any particular time or prior to its public dissemination. The Investment Adviser is responsible for making investment decisions on behalf of the Funds, and such investment decisions can differ from investment decisions or recommendations by Goldman Sachs on behalf of other Accounts. The timing of transactions entered into or recommended by Goldman Sachs, on behalf of itself or its clients, including the Funds, may negatively impact the Funds or benefit certain other Accounts. For example, if Goldman Sachs, on behalf of one or more Accounts, implements an investment decision or strategy ahead of, or contemporaneously with, or behind similar investment decisions or strategies made for the Funds (whether or not the investment decisions emanate from the same research analysis or other information), it could result, due to market impact or other factors, in liquidity constraints or in certain Funds receiving less favorable investment or trading results or incurring increased costs. Similarly, Goldman Sachs may implement an investment decision or strategy that results in a purchase (or sale) of a security for one Fund that may increase the value of such security already held by another Account (or decrease the value of such security that such other Account intends to purchase), thereby benefitting such other Account.

 

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Subject to applicable law, the Investment Adviser may cause the Funds to invest in securities, bank loans or other obligations of companies affiliated with or advised by Goldman Sachs or in which Goldman Sachs or Accounts have an equity, debt or other interest, or to engage in investment transactions that may result in other Accounts being relieved of obligations or otherwise divested of investments, which may enhance the profitability of Goldman Sachs’ or other Accounts’ investment in and activities with respect to such companies. The Investment Adviser, in its discretion and in certain circumstances, recommends that certain Funds have ongoing business dealings, arrangements or agreements with persons who are (i) former employees of Goldman Sachs, (ii) affiliates or other portfolio companies of Goldman Sachs or other Accounts, (iii) Goldman Sachs’ employees’ family members and/or relatives and/or certain of their portfolio companies or (iv) persons otherwise associated with an investor in an Account or a portfolio company or service provider of Goldman Sachs or an Account. The Funds may bear, directly or indirectly, the costs of such dealings, arrangements or agreements. These recommendations, and recommendations relating to continuing any such dealings, arrangements or agreements, pose conflicts of interest and may be based on differing incentives due to Goldman Sachs’ relationships with such persons. In particular, when acting on behalf of, and making decisions for, Accounts, the Investment Adviser may take into account Goldman Sachs’ interests in maintaining its relationships and business dealings with such persons. As a result, the Investment Adviser faces conflicts of interest arising out of Goldman Sachs’ relationships and business dealings in connection with decisions to take or refrain from taking certain actions on behalf of Accounts when doing so would be adverse to Goldman Sachs’ relationships or other business dealings with such parties.

When the Investment Adviser wishes to place an order for different types of Accounts (including the Funds) for which aggregation is not practicable, the Investment Adviser may use a trade sequencing and rotation policy to determine which type of Account is to be traded first. Under this policy, each portfolio management team may determine the length of its trade rotation period and the sequencing schedule for different categories of clients within this period provided that the trading periods and these sequencing schedules are designed to be reasonable. Within a given trading period, the sequencing schedule establishes when and how frequently a given client category will trade first in the order of rotation. The Investment Adviser may deviate from the predetermined sequencing schedule under certain circumstances, and the Investment Adviser’s trade sequencing and rotation policy may be amended, modified or supplemented at any time without prior notice to clients.

Potential Conflicts Relating to Follow-On Investments

From time to time, the Investment Adviser provides opportunities to Accounts (including potentially the Funds) to make investments in companies in which certain Accounts have already invested. Such follow-on investments can create conflicts of interest, such as the determination of the terms of the new investment and the allocation of such opportunities among Accounts (including the Funds). Follow-on investment opportunities may be available to the Funds notwithstanding that the Funds have no existing investment in the issuer, resulting in the assets of the Funds potentially providing value to, or otherwise supporting the investments of, other Accounts. Accounts (including the Funds) may also participate in releveraging, recapitalization, and similar transactions involving companies in which other Accounts have invested or will invest. Conflicts of interest in these and other transactions arise between Accounts (including the Funds) with existing investments in a company and Accounts making subsequent investments in the company, which may have opposing interests regarding pricing and other terms. The subsequent investments may dilute or otherwise adversely affect the interests of the previously-invested Accounts (including the Funds).

Diverse Interests of Shareholders

The various types of investors in and beneficiaries of the Funds, including to the extent applicable the Investment Adviser and its affiliates, may have conflicting investment, tax and other interests with respect to their interests in the Funds. When considering a potential investment for a Fund, the Investment Adviser will generally consider the investment objectives of the Fund, not the investment objectives of any particular investor or beneficiary. The Investment Adviser makes decisions, including with respect to tax matters, from time to time that may be more beneficial to one type of investor or beneficiary than another, or to the Investment Adviser and its affiliates than to investors or beneficiaries unaffiliated with the Investment Adviser. In addition, Goldman Sachs faces certain tax risks based on positions taken by the Funds, including as a withholding agent. Goldman Sachs reserves the right on behalf of itself and its affiliates to take actions adverse to the Funds or other Accounts in these circumstances, including withholding amounts to cover actual or potential tax liabilities.

Selection of Service Providers

The Funds expect to engage service providers (including attorneys and consultants) that in certain cases also provide services to Goldman Sachs and other Accounts. In addition, certain service providers to the Investment Adviser or Funds are also portfolio companies or other affiliates of the Investment Adviser or other Accounts (for example, a portfolio company of an Account may retain a portfolio company of another Account). To the extent it is involved in such selection, the Investment Adviser intends to select these service providers based on a number of factors, including expertise and experience, knowledge of related or similar products, quality of service, reputation in the marketplace, relationships with the Investment Adviser, Goldman Sachs or others, and price. These service providers may have business, financial, or other relationships with Goldman Sachs (including its personnel), which may influence the Investment Adviser’s selection of these service providers for the Funds. In such circumstances, there is a conflict of interest between Goldman Sachs (acting on behalf of the Funds) and the Funds or between Funds if the Funds determine not to engage or continue to engage these service providers.

 

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The Investment Adviser may, in its sole discretion, determine to provide, or engage or recommend an affiliate of the Investment Adviser to provide, certain services to the Funds, instead of engaging or recommending one or more third parties to provide such services. Subject to the governance requirements of a particular Fund and applicable law, the Investment Adviser or its affiliates, as applicable, will receive compensation in connection with the provision of such services. As a result, the Investment Adviser faces a conflict of interest when selecting or recommending service providers for the Funds. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the selection or recommendation of service providers for the Funds will be conducted in accordance with the Investment Adviser’s fiduciary obligations to the Funds. The service providers selected or recommended by the Investment Adviser may charge different rates to different recipients based on the specific services provided, the personnel providing the services, the complexity of the services provided or other factors. As a result, the rates paid with respect to these service providers by a Fund, on the one hand, may be more or less favorable than the rates paid by Goldman Sachs, including the Investment Adviser, on the other hand. In addition, the rates paid by the Investment Adviser or the Funds, on the one hand, may be more or less favorable than the rates paid by other parts of Goldman Sachs or Accounts managed by other parts of Goldman Sachs, on the other hand. Goldman Sachs (including the Investment Adviser), its personnel, and/or Accounts may hold investments in companies that provide services to entities in which the Funds invest generally, and, subject to applicable law, the Investment Adviser may refer or introduce such companies’ services to entities that have issued securities held by the Funds.

Investments in Goldman Sachs Funds

To the extent permitted by applicable law, the Funds will, from time to time invest in money market and/or other funds sponsored, managed or advised by Goldman Sachs. In connection with any such investments, a Fund, to the extent permitted by the Act, will pay all advisory, administrative or Rule 12b-1 fees applicable to the investment. To the extent consistent with applicable law, certain Funds that invest in other funds sponsored, managed or advised by Goldman Sachs pay advisory fees to the Investment Adviser that are not reduced by any fees payable by such other funds to Goldman Sachs as manager of such other funds (i.e., there will be “double fees” involved in making any such investment, which would not arise in connection with the direct allocation of assets by investors in the Funds to such other funds). In such circumstances, as well as in all other circumstances in which Goldman Sachs receives any fees or other compensation in any form relating to the provision of services, no accounting or repayment to the Funds will be required.

Goldman Sachs May In-Source or Outsource

Subject to applicable law, Goldman Sachs, including the Investment Adviser, may from time to time and without notice to investors in-source or outsource certain processes or functions in connection with a variety of services that it provides to the Funds in its administrative or other capacities. Such in-sourcing or outsourcing may give rise to additional conflicts of interest.

Distributions of Assets Other Than Cash

With respect to redemptions from the Funds, the Funds will, in certain circumstances, have discretion to decide whether to permit or limit redemptions and whether to make distributions in connection with redemptions in the form of securities or other assets, and in such case, the composition of such distributions. In making such decisions, the Investment Adviser will sometimes have a potentially conflicting division of loyalties and responsibilities to redeeming investors and remaining investors.

Goldman Sachs Will Act in a Capacity Other Than Investment Adviser to the Funds

Investments in and Advice Regarding Different Parts of an Issuer’s Capital Structure

In some cases, Goldman Sachs (including the Investment Adviser) or Accounts, on the one hand, and the Funds, on the other hand, invest in or extend credit to different parts of the capital structure of a single issuer. As a result, Goldman Sachs (including the Investment Adviser) or Accounts may take actions that adversely affect the Funds. In addition, in some cases, Goldman Sachs (including the Investment Adviser) advises Accounts with respect to different parts of the capital structure of the same issuer, or classes of securities that are subordinate or senior to securities, in which the Funds invest. Goldman Sachs (including the Investment Adviser) may pursue rights, provide advice or engage in other activities, or refrain from pursuing rights, providing advice or engaging in other activities, on behalf of itself or other Accounts with respect to an issuer in which the Funds have invested, and such actions (or refraining from action) may have a material adverse effect on the Funds.

 

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For example, in the event that Goldman Sachs (including the Investment Adviser) or an Account holds loans, securities or other positions in the capital structure of an issuer that ranks senior in preference to the holdings of a Fund in the same issuer, and the issuer experiences financial or operational challenges, Goldman Sachs (including the Investment Adviser), acting on behalf of itself or the Account, may seek a liquidation, reorganization or restructuring of the issuer, or terms in connection with the foregoing, that may have an adverse effect on or otherwise conflict with the interests of the Fund’s holdings in the issuer. In connection with any such liquidation, reorganization or restructuring, the Fund’s holdings in the issuer may be extinguished or substantially diluted, while Goldman Sachs (including the Investment Adviser) or another Account may receive a recovery of some or all of the amounts due to them. In addition, in connection with any lending arrangements involving the issuer in which Goldman Sachs (including the Investment Adviser) or an Account participates, Goldman Sachs (including the Investment Adviser) or the Account may seek to exercise its rights under the applicable loan agreement or other document, which may be detrimental to the Fund. In situations in which Goldman Sachs (including the Investment Adviser) holds positions in multiple parts of the capital structure of an issuer across Accounts (including the Funds), the Investment Adviser may not pursue actions or remedies that may be available to the Fund, as a result of legal and regulatory requirements or otherwise.

These potential issues are examples of conflicts that Goldman Sachs (including the Investment Adviser) will face in situations in which the Funds, and Goldman Sachs (including the Investment Adviser) or other Accounts, invest in or extend credit to different parts of the capital structure of a single issuer. Goldman Sachs (including the Investment Adviser) addresses these issues based on the circumstances of particular situations. For example, Goldman Sachs (including the Investment Adviser) may determine to rely on information barriers between different Goldman Sachs (including the Investment Adviser) business units or portfolio management teams. Goldman Sachs (including the Investment Adviser) may determine to rely on the actions of similarly situated holders of loans or securities rather than, or in connection with, taking such actions itself on behalf of the Funds.

As a result of the various conflicts and related issues described above and the fact that conflicts will not necessarily be resolved in favor of the interests of the Funds, the Funds could sustain losses during periods in which Goldman Sachs (including the Investment Adviser) and other Accounts (including Accounts sponsored, managed or advised by the Investment Adviser) achieve profits generally or with respect to particular holdings in the same issuer, or could achieve lower profits or higher losses than would have been the case had the conflicts described above not existed. The negative effects described above may be more pronounced in connection with transactions in, or the Funds’ use of, small capitalization, emerging market, distressed or less liquid strategies.

Principal and Cross Transactions

When permitted by applicable law and the Investment Adviser’s policies, the Investment Adviser, acting on behalf of certain Funds (for example, those employing taxable fixed income, municipal bond fixed income and structured investment strategies), may enter into transactions in securities and other instruments with or through Goldman Sachs or in Accounts managed by the Investment Adviser or its affiliates, and may (but is under no obligation or other duty to) cause the Funds to engage in transactions in which the Investment Adviser acts as principal on its own behalf (principal transactions), advises both sides of a transaction (cross transactions) and acts as broker for, and receives a commission from, the Funds on one side of a transaction and a brokerage account on the other side of the transaction (agency cross transactions). There are potential conflicts of interest, regulatory issues or restrictions contained in the Investment Adviser’s internal policies relating to these transactions which could limit the Investment Adviser’s determination to engage in these transactions for Accounts (including the Funds). In certain circumstances such as when Goldman Sachs is the only or one of a few participants in a particular market or is one of the largest such participants, such limitations may eliminate or reduce the availability of certain investment opportunities to Accounts (including the Funds) or impact the price or terms on which transactions relating to such investment opportunities may be effected.

Goldman Sachs will have a potentially conflicting division of loyalties and responsibilities to the parties in such transactions. The Investment Adviser has developed policies and procedures in relation to such transactions and conflicts. Cross transactions may disproportionately benefit some Accounts relative to other Accounts, including the Funds, due to the relative amount of market savings obtained by the Accounts, and cross transactions may be effected at different prices for different Accounts due to differing legal and/or regulatory requirements applicable to such Accounts. Principal, cross or agency cross transactions will be effected in accordance with fiduciary requirements and applicable law (which may include disclosure and consent).

 

 

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Goldman Sachs Acting in Multiple Commercial Capacities

To the extent permitted by applicable law, an issuer in which a Fund has an interest may hire Goldman Sachs to provide underwriting, merger advisory, other financial advisory, placement agency, foreign currency hedging, research, asset management services, brokerage services or other services to the issuer. Furthermore, Goldman Sachs may sponsor, manage, advise or provide services to affiliated Underlying Funds (or their personnel) in which the Funds invest. Goldman Sachs may be entitled to compensation in connection with the provision of such services, and the Funds will not be entitled to any such compensation. Goldman Sachs will have an interest in obtaining fees and other compensation in connection with such services that are favorable to Goldman Sachs, and in connection with providing such services takes commercial steps in its own interest, or advises the parties to which it is providing services, or takes other actions. Such actions may benefit Goldman Sachs. For example, Goldman Sachs may require repayment of all or part of a loan from a company in which an Account (including a Fund) holds an interest, which could cause the company to default or be required to liquidate its assets more rapidly, which could adversely affect the value of the company and the value of the Funds invested therein. Goldman Sachs may also advise such a company to make changes to its capital structure the result of which would be a reduction in the value or priority of a security held (directly or indirectly) by one or more Funds. In addition, underwriters, placement agents or managers of initial public offerings, including Goldman Sachs, may require the Funds who hold privately placed securities of a company to execute a lock-up agreement prior to such company’s initial public offering restricting the resale of the securities for a period of time before and following the IPO. As a result, the Investment Adviser may be restricted from selling the securities in such Funds at a more favorable price. Actions taken or advised to be taken by Goldman Sachs in connection with other types of transactions may also result in adverse consequences for the Funds. Goldman Sachs faces conflicts of interest in providing and selecting services for the Funds because Goldman Sachs provides many services and has many commercial relationships with companies and affiliated and unaffiliated Underlying Funds (or their applicable personnel). Providing services to the Funds and companies (or their personnel) in which the Funds invest enhances Goldman Sachs’ relationships with various parties, facilitates additional business development and enables Goldman Sachs to obtain additional business and/or generate additional revenue. The Funds will not be entitled to compensation related to any such benefit to businesses of Goldman Sachs. In addition, such relationships may adversely impact the Funds, including, for example, by restricting potential investment opportunities, as described below, incentivizing the Investment Adviser to take or refrain from taking certain actions on behalf of the Funds when doing so would be adverse to such business relationships, and/or influencing the Investment Adviser’s selection or recommendation of certain investment products and/or strategies over others.

Goldman Sachs’ activities on behalf of its clients may also restrict investment opportunities generally that may be available to the Funds. For example, Goldman Sachs is often engaged by companies as a financial advisor, or to provide financing or other services, in connection with commercial transactions that may be potential investment opportunities for the Funds. There may be circumstances in which the Funds are precluded from participating in such transactions as a result of Goldman Sachs’ engagement by such companies. Goldman Sachs reserves the right to act for these companies in such circumstances, notwithstanding the potential adverse effect on the Funds. Goldman Sachs (including the Investment Adviser) also represents creditor or debtor companies in proceedings under Chapter 11 of the U.S. Bankruptcy Code (and equivalent non-U.S. bankruptcy laws) or prior to these filings. From time to time, Goldman Sachs (including the Investment Adviser) serves on creditor or equity committees. These actions, for which Goldman Sachs may be compensated, may limit or preclude the flexibility that the Funds may otherwise have to buy or sell securities issued by those companies, as well as certain other assets. Please also see “—Management of the Funds by the Investment Adviser—Considerations Relating to Information Held by Goldman Sachs” above and “—Potential Limitations and Restrictions on Investment Opportunities and Activities of Goldman Sachs and the Funds” below.

Subject to applicable law, the Investment Adviser may cause the Funds to invest in securities, bank loans or other obligations of companies affiliated with or advised by Goldman Sachs or in which Goldman Sachs or Accounts have an equity, debt or other interest, or to engage in investment transactions that may result in Goldman Sachs or other Accounts being relieved of obligations or otherwise divested of investments. For example, subject to applicable law a Fund may acquire securities or indebtedness of a company affiliated with Goldman Sachs directly or indirectly through syndicate or secondary market purchases, or may make a loan to, or purchase securities from, a company that uses the proceeds to repay loans made by Goldman Sachs. These activities by a Fund may enhance the profitability of Goldman Sachs or other Accounts with respect to their investment in and activities relating to such companies. The Fund will not be entitled to compensation as a result of this enhanced profitability.

To the extent permitted by applicable law, Goldman Sachs (including the Investment Adviser) creates, writes, sells, issues, invests in or acts as placement agent or distributor of derivative instruments related to the Funds, or with respect to underlying securities or assets of the Funds, or which may be otherwise based on or seek to replicate or hedge the performance of the Funds. Such derivative transactions, and any associated hedging activity, may differ from and be adverse to the interests of the Funds.

 

 

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Goldman Sachs may make loans to, or enter into margin, asset-based or other credit facilities or similar transactions with, clients, companies or individuals that may (or may not) be secured by publicly or privately held securities or other assets, including a client’s Fund shares as described above. Some of these borrowers are public or private companies, or founders, officers or shareholders in companies in which the Funds (directly or indirectly) invest, and such loans may be secured by securities of such companies, which may be the same as, pari passu with, or more senior or junior to, interests held (directly or indirectly) by the Funds. In connection with its rights as lender, Goldman Sachs may act to protect its own commercial interest and may take actions that adversely affect the borrower, including by liquidating or causing the liquidation of securities on behalf of a borrower or foreclosing and liquidating such securities in Goldman Sachs’ own name. Such actions may adversely affect the Funds (e.g., if a large position in a security is liquidated, among the other potential adverse consequences, the value of such security may decline rapidly and the Funds may in turn decline in value or may be unable to liquidate their positions in such security at an advantageous price or at all). In addition, Goldman Sachs may make loans to shareholders or enter into similar transactions that are secured by a pledge of, or mortgage over, a shareholder’s Fund shares, which would provide Goldman Sachs with the right to redeem such Fund shares in the event that such shareholder defaults on its obligations. These transactions and related redemptions may be significant and may be made without notice to the shareholders.

Code of Ethics and Personal Trading

Each of the Funds and Goldman Sachs, as each Fund’s Investment Adviser and Distributor, has adopted a Code of Ethics (the “Code of Ethics”) in compliance with Section 17(j) of the Act designed to provide that personnel of the Investment Adviser, and certain additional Goldman Sachs personnel who support the Investment Adviser, comply with applicable federal securities laws and place the interests of clients first in conducting personal securities transactions. The Code of Ethics imposes certain restrictions on securities transactions in the personal accounts of covered persons to help avoid conflicts of interest. Subject to the limitations of the Code of Ethics, covered persons may buy and sell securities or other investments for their personal accounts, including investments in the Funds, and may also take positions that are the same as, different from, or made at different times than, positions taken (directly or indirectly) by the Funds. The Codes of Ethics are available on the EDGAR Database on the SEC’s Internet site at http://www.sec.gov. Copies may also be obtained after paying a duplicating fee by electronic request to publicinfo@sec.gov. Additionally, all Goldman Sachs personnel, including personnel of the Investment Adviser, are subject to firm-wide policies and procedures regarding confidential and proprietary information, information barriers, private investments, outside business activities and personal trading.

Proxy Voting by the Investment Adviser

The Investment Adviser has implemented processes designed to prevent conflicts of interest from influencing proxy voting decisions that it makes on behalf of advisory clients, including the Funds, and to help ensure that such decisions are made in accordance with its fiduciary obligations to its clients. Notwithstanding such proxy voting processes, proxy voting decisions made by the Investment Adviser in respect of securities held by the Funds may benefit the interests of Goldman Sachs and/or Accounts other than the Funds. For a more detailed discussion of these policies and procedures, see the section of this SAI entitled “PROXY VOTING.”

Potential Limitations and Restrictions on Investment Opportunities and Activities of Goldman Sachs and the Funds

The Investment Adviser may restrict its investment decisions and activities on behalf of the Funds in various circumstances, including as a result of applicable regulatory requirements, information held by the Investment Adviser or Goldman Sachs, Goldman Sachs’ roles in connection with other clients and in the capital markets (including in connection with advice it may give to such clients or commercial arrangements or transactions that may be undertaken by such clients or by Goldman Sachs), Goldman Sachs’ internal policies and/or potential reputational risk in connection with Accounts (including the Funds). The Investment Adviser might not engage in transactions or other activities for, or enforce certain rights in favor of, one or more Funds due to Goldman Sachs’ activities outside the Funds (e.g., the Investment Adviser may refrain from making investments for the Funds that would cause Goldman Sachs to exceed position limits or cause Goldman Sachs to have additional disclosure obligations and may limit purchases or sales of securities in respect of which Goldman Sachs is engaged in an underwriting or other distribution) and regulatory requirements, policies and reputational risk assessments.

In addition, in certain circumstances, the Investment Adviser restricts, limits or reduces the amount of a Fund’s investment, or restricts the type of governance or voting rights it acquires or exercises, where the Fund (potentially together with Goldman Sachs and other Accounts) exceeds a certain ownership interest, or possesses certain degrees of voting or control or has other interests. For example, such limitations may exist if a position or transaction could require a filing or license or other regulatory or corporate consent, which could, among other things, result in additional costs and disclosure obligations for, or impose regulatory restrictions on, Goldman Sachs, including the Investment Adviser, or on other Accounts, or where exceeding a threshold is prohibited or may result in regulatory or other restrictions. In certain cases, restrictions and limitations will be applied to avoid approaching such threshold. Circumstances in which such restrictions or limitations may arise include, without limitation: (i) a prohibition against owning more than a certain percentage of an issuer’s securities; (ii) a “poison pill” that could have a dilutive impact on the holdings of the Fund should a threshold be exceeded; (iii) provisions that would cause Goldman Sachs to be considered an “interested stockholder” of an issuer; (iv) provisions that may cause Goldman Sachs to be considered an “affiliate” or “control person” of the issuer; and (v) the imposition by an issuer (through charter amendment, contract or otherwise) or governmental, regulatory or self-regulatory organization (through law, rule, regulation, interpretation or other guidance) of other restrictions or limitations. In addition, due to regulatory restrictions, certain Accounts are prohibited from, or are subject to certain restrictions when, trading with or through Goldman Sachs, engaging Goldman Sachs as a service provider or purchasing investments issued or managed by Goldman Sachs.

 

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When faced with the foregoing limitations, Goldman Sachs will generally avoid exceeding the threshold because exceeding the threshold could have an adverse impact on the ability of the Investment Adviser or Goldman Sachs to conduct its business activities. The Investment Adviser may also reduce a Fund’s interest in, or restrict a Fund from participating in, an investment opportunity that has limited availability or where Goldman Sachs has determined to cap its aggregate investment in consideration of certain regulatory or other requirements so that other Accounts that pursue similar investment strategies may be able to acquire an interest in the investment opportunity. The Investment Adviser may determine not to engage in certain transactions or activities which may be beneficial to the Funds because engaging in such transactions or activities in compliance with applicable law would result in significant cost to, or administrative burden on, the Investment Adviser or create the potential risk of trade or other errors.

The Investment Adviser generally is not permitted to use material non-public information in effecting purchases and sales in transactions for the Funds that involve public securities. The Investment Adviser may limit an activity or transaction (such as a purchase or sale transaction) which might otherwise be engaged in by the Funds, including as a result of information held by Goldman Sachs (including the Investment Adviser or its personnel). For example, directors, officers and employees of Goldman Sachs may take seats on the boards of directors of, or have board of directors observer rights with respect to, companies in which Goldman Sachs invests on behalf of the Funds. To the extent a director, officer or employee of Goldman Sachs were to take a seat on the board of directors of, or have board of directors observer rights with respect to, a public company, the Investment Adviser (or certain of its investment teams) may be limited and/or restricted in its or their ability to trade in the securities of the company. In addition, any such director, officer or employee of Goldman Sachs that is a member of the board of directors of a portfolio company may have duties in his or her capacity as a director that conflict with the Investment Adviser’s duties to Accounts, and may act in a manner that disadvantages or otherwise harms a Fund and/or Goldman Sachs. In the event the Investment Adviser declines access to, or otherwise does not receive, material non-public information regarding an issuer, the Investment Adviser may base investment decisions with respect to securities of such issuer solely on public information, thereby limiting the amount of information available to the Investment Adviser in connection with such investment decisions.

Different areas of Goldman Sachs may come into possession of material non-public information regarding an issuer of securities held by an Underlying Fund in which an Account invests. In the absence of information barriers between such different areas of Goldman Sachs or under certain other circumstances, the Account may be prohibited, including by internal policies, from trading such security or redeeming from such Underlying Fund during the period such material non-public information is held by such other part of Goldman Sachs, which period may be substantial. As a result, the Account may not be permitted to redeem from an Underlying Fund in whole or in part during periods when it otherwise would have been able to do so, which could adversely affect the Account. Other investors in the Underlying Fund that are not subject to such restrictions may be able to redeem from the Underlying Fund during such periods.

In addition, the Investment Adviser’s clients may partially or fully fund a new Account with in-kind securities in which the Investment Adviser may be restricted. In such circumstances, the Investment Adviser will sell any such securities at the next available trading window, subject to operational and technological limitations (unless such securities are subject to another express arrangement). As a result, such Accounts may be required to dispose of investments at an earlier or later date and/or at a less favorable price than would otherwise have been the case had the Investment Adviser not been so restricted. Accounts will be responsible for all tax liabilities that result from any such sale transactions.

The Investment Adviser operates a program reasonably designed to ensure compliance generally with economic and trade sanctions-related obligations applicable directly to its activities (although such obligations are not necessarily the same obligations that the Funds may be subject to). Such economic and trade sanctions may prohibit, among other things, transactions with and the provision of services to, directly or indirectly, certain countries, territories, entities and individuals. These economic and trade sanctions, and the application by the Investment Adviser of its compliance program in respect thereof, may restrict or limit the Funds’ investment activities.

The Investment Adviser may determine to limit or not engage at all in transactions and activities on behalf of the Funds for reputational or other reasons. Examples of when such determinations may be made include, but are not limited to, where Goldman Sachs is providing (or may provide) advice or services to an entity involved in such activity or transaction, where Goldman Sachs or an Account is or may be engaged in the same or a related activity or transaction to that being considered on behalf of the Funds, where Goldman Sachs or an Account has an interest in an entity involved in such activity or transaction, where there are political, public relations, or other reputational considerations relating to counterparties or other participants in such activity or transaction or where such activity or transaction on behalf of or in respect of the Funds could affect in tangible or intangible ways Goldman Sachs, the Investment Adviser, an Account or their activities.

In order to engage in certain transactions on behalf of a Fund, the Investment Adviser will also be subject to (or cause the Fund to become subject to) the rules, terms and/or conditions of any venues through which it trades securities, derivatives or other instruments. This includes, but is not limited to, where the Investment Adviser and/or the Fund are required to comply with the rules of certain exchanges, execution platforms, trading facilities, clearinghouses and other venues, or are required to consent to the jurisdiction of any such venues. The rules, terms and/or conditions of any such venue may result in the Investment Adviser and/or the Fund being subject to, among other things, margin requirements, additional fees and other charges, disciplinary procedures, reporting and recordkeeping, position limits and other restrictions on trading, settlement risks and other related conditions on trading set out by such venues.

 

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From time to time, a Fund, the Investment Adviser or its affiliates and/or their service providers or agents are required, or may determine that it is advisable, to disclose certain information about the Fund, including, but not limited to, investments held by the Fund, and the names and percentage interest of beneficial owners thereof (and the underlying beneficial owners of such beneficial owners), to third parties, including local governmental authorities, regulatory organizations, taxing authorities, markets, exchanges, clearing facilities, custodians, brokers and trading counterparties of, or service providers to, the Investment Adviser or the Fund. The Investment Adviser generally expects to comply with requests to disclose such information as it so determines including through electronic delivery platforms; however, the Investment Adviser may determine to cause the sale of certain assets for the Fund rather than make certain required disclosures, and such sale may be at a time that is inopportune from a pricing or other standpoint. In addition, the Investment Adviser may provide third parties with aggregated data regarding the activities of, or certain performance or other metrics associated with the Accounts, and the Investment Adviser may receive compensation from such third parties for providing them such information.

Goldman Sachs may become subject to additional restrictions on its business activities that could have an impact on the Funds’ activities. In addition, the Investment Adviser may restrict its investment decisions and activities on behalf of the Funds and not other Accounts, including Accounts sponsored, managed or advised by the Investment Adviser.

Brokerage Transactions

The Investment Adviser often selects U.S. and non-U.S. broker-dealers (including affiliates of the Investment Adviser) that furnish the Investment Adviser, the Funds, Investment Adviser affiliates and other Goldman Sachs personnel with proprietary or third-party brokerage and research services (collectively, “brokerage and research services”) that provide, in the Investment Adviser’s view, appropriate assistance to the Investment Adviser in the investment decision-making process. These brokerage and research services may be bundled with the trade execution, clearing or settlement services provided by a particular broker-dealer and, subject to applicable law, the Investment Adviser may pay for such brokerage and research services with client commissions (or “soft dollars”). There are instances or situations in which such practices are subject to restrictions under applicable law. For example, the EU’s Markets in Financial Instruments Directive II (“MiFID II”) restricts EU domiciled investment advisers from receiving research and other materials that do not qualify as “acceptable minor non-monetary benefits” from broker-dealers unless the research or materials are paid for by the investment advisers from their own resources or from research payment accounts funded by and with the agreement of their clients.

Accounts differ with regard to whether and to what extent they pay for brokerage and research services through commissions and, subject to applicable law, brokerage and research services may be used to service the Funds and any or all other Accounts throughout the Investment Adviser, including Accounts that do not pay commissions to the broker-dealer relating to the brokerage and research service arrangements. As a result, brokerage and research services (including soft dollar benefits) may disproportionately benefit other Accounts relative to the Funds based on the relative amount of commissions paid by the Funds and in particular those Accounts that do not pay for brokerage and research services or do so to a lesser extent, including in connection with the establishment of maximum budgets for research costs (and switching to execution-only pricing when maximums are met). The Investment Adviser does not attempt to allocate soft dollar benefits proportionately among clients or to track the benefits of brokerage and research services to the commissions associated with a particular Account or group of Accounts.

Aggregation of Orders by the Investment Adviser

The Investment Adviser follows policies and procedures pursuant to which it may (but is not required to) combine or aggregate purchase or sale orders for the same security or other instrument for multiple Accounts (including Accounts in which Goldman Sachs or personnel of Goldman Sachs have an interest) (sometimes referred to as “bunching”), so that the orders can be executed at the same time and block trade treatment of any such orders can be elected when available. The Investment Adviser aggregates orders when the Investment Adviser considers doing so to be operationally feasible and appropriate and in the interests of its clients and may elect block trade treatment when available. In addition, under certain circumstances orders for the Funds may be aggregated with orders for Accounts that contain Goldman Sachs assets.

When a bunched order or block trade is completely filled, or if the order is only partially filled, at the end of the day, the Investment Adviser generally will allocate the securities or other instruments purchased or the proceeds of any sale pro rata among the participating Accounts, based on the Funds’ relative sizes. If an order is filled at several different prices, through multiple trades (whether at a particular broker-dealer or among multiple broker-dealers), generally all participating Accounts will receive the average price and pay the average commission, however, this may not always be the case (due to, e.g., odd lots, rounding, market practice or constraints applicable to particular Accounts).

Although it may do so in certain circumstances, the Investment Adviser does not always bunch or aggregate orders for different Funds, elect block trade treatment or net buy and sell orders for the same Fund, if portfolio management decisions relating to the orders are made by different portfolio management teams or if different portfolio management processes are used for different account types, if bunching, aggregating, electing block trade treatment or netting is not appropriate or practicable from the Investment Adviser’s operational or other perspective, or if doing so would not be appropriate in light of applicable regulatory considerations. For example, time zone differences, trading instructions, cash flows, separate trading desks or portfolio management processes may, among other factors, result in separate, non-aggregated, non-netted executions, with orders in the same instrument being entered for different Accounts at different times or, in the case of netting, buy and sell trades for the same instrument being entered for the same Account. The Investment Adviser may be able to negotiate a better price and lower commission rate on aggregated orders than on orders for Funds that are not aggregated, and incur lower transaction costs on netted orders than orders that are not netted. The Investment Adviser is under no obligation or other duty to aggregate or net for particular orders. Where orders for a Fund are not aggregated with other orders, or not netted against orders for the Fund or other Accounts, the Fund will not benefit from a better price and lower commission rate or lower transaction cost that might have been available had the orders been aggregated or netted. Aggregation and netting of orders may disproportionately benefit some Accounts relative to other Accounts, including a Fund, due to the relative amount of market savings obtained by the Accounts.

 

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The Investment Adviser may aggregate orders of Accounts that are subject to MiFID II (“MiFID II Advisory Accounts”) with orders of Accounts not subject to MiFID II, including those that generate soft dollar commissions (including the Funds) and those that restrict the use of soft dollars. All Accounts included in an aggregated order with MiFID II Advisory Accounts pay (or receive) the same average price for the security and the same execution costs (measured by rate). However, MiFID II Advisory Accounts included in an aggregated order may pay commissions at “execution-only” rates below the total commission rates paid by Accounts included in the aggregated order that are not subject to MiFID II.

PORTFOLIO TRANSACTIONS AND BROKERAGE

The Investment Adviser is responsible with respect to the Portfolios (and the particular investment adviser is responsible with respect to the Underlying Funds (together with the Portfolios in this section, the “Funds”) for decisions to buy and sell securities, the selection of brokers and dealers to effect the transactions and the negotiation of brokerage commissions, if any. Purchases and sales of securities may be executed internally by a broker-dealer, effected on an agency basis in a block transaction, or routed to competing market centers for execution. The compensation paid to the broker for providing execution services generally is negotiated and reflected in either a commission or a “net” price. Executions provided on a net price basis, with dealers acting as principal for their own accounts without a stated commission, usually include a profit to the dealer. In underwritten offerings, securities are purchased at a fixed price which includes an amount of compensation to the underwriter, generally referred to as the underwriter’s concession or discount. On occasion, certain money market instruments may be purchased directly from an issuer, in which case no commissions or discounts are paid.

The portfolio transactions for the Underlying Fixed Income Funds are generally effected at a net price without a broker’s commission (i.e., a dealer is dealing with an Underlying Fund as principal and receives compensation equal to the spread between the dealer’s cost for a given security and the resale price of such security). In certain foreign countries, debt securities are traded on exchanges at fixed commission rates.

In placing orders for portfolio securities or other financial instruments, the Investment Adviser is generally required to give primary consideration to obtaining the most favorable execution and net price available. This means that the Investment Adviser will seek to execute each transaction at a price and commission, if any, which provides the most favorable total cost or proceeds reasonably attainable in the circumstances. As permitted by Section 28(e) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (“Section 28(e)”), a Fund may pay a broker that provides brokerage and research services an amount of disclosed commission in excess of the commission which another broker would have charged for effecting that transaction. Such practice is subject to a good faith determination by the Trustees that such commission is reasonable in light of the services provided and to such policies as the Trustees may adopt from time to time. While the Funds’ Investment Adviser generally seek reasonably competitive spreads or commissions, a Fund will not necessarily be paying the lowest spread or commission available. Within the framework of this policy, the Investment Adviser will consider research and investment services provided by brokers or dealers who effect or are parties to portfolio transactions of a Fund, the Investment Adviser and its affiliates, or their other clients. Such research and investment services are those which brokerage houses customarily provide to institutional investors and include research reports on particular industries and companies; economic surveys and analyses; recommendations as to specific securities; research products, including quotation equipment and computer related programs; research and advice concerning the value of securities, the advisability of investing in, purchasing or selling securities, and the availability of securities or the purchasers or sellers of securities; analyses and reports concerning issuers, industries, securities, economic factors and trends, portfolio strategy and performance of accounts; services relating to effecting securities transactions and functions incidental thereto (such as clearance and settlement); and other lawful and appropriate assistance to the Investment Adviser in the performance of its decision-making responsibilities.

Such services are used by the Investment Adviser (and the particular investment adviser responsible with respect to the Underlying Funds) in connection with all of its investment activities, and some of such services obtained in connection with the execution of transactions for a Fund may be used in managing other investment accounts. Conversely, brokers furnishing such services may be selected for the execution of transactions of such other accounts, whose aggregate assets may be far larger than those of a Fund, and the services furnished by such brokers may be used by the Investment Adviser in providing management services for the Trust. The Investment Adviser may also participate in so called “commission sharing arrangements” and “client commission arrangements” under which an Investment Adviser may execute transactions through a broker-dealer and request that the broker-dealer allocate a portion of the commissions or commission credits to another firm that provides research to the Investment Adviser. The Investment Adviser excludes from use under these arrangements those products and services that are not fully eligible under applicable law and regulatory interpretations- even as to the portion that would be eligible if accounted for separately.

 

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The research services received as part of commission sharing and client commission arrangements will comply with Section 28(e) and may be subject to different legal requirements in the jurisdictions in which the Investment Adviser does business. Participating in commission sharing and client commission arrangements may enable the Investment Adviser to consolidate payments for research through one or more channels using accumulated client commissions or credits from transactions executed through a particular broker-dealer to obtain research provided by other firms. Such arrangements also help to ensure the continued receipt of research services while facilitating best execution in the trading process. The Investment Adviser believes such research services are useful in its investment decision-making process by, among other things, ensuring access to a variety of high quality research, access to individual analysts and availability of resources that the Investment Adviser might not be provided access to absent such arrangements.

On occasions when a Fund’s Investment Adviser deems the purchase or sale of a security or other financial instruments to be in the best interest of a Fund as well as its other customers (including any other fund or other investment company or advisory account for which the Investment Adviser acts as investment adviser or sub-investment adviser), the Investment Adviser, to the extent permitted by applicable laws and regulations, may aggregate the securities to be sold or purchased for the Fund with those to be sold or purchased for such other customers in order to obtain the best net price and most favorable execution under the circumstances. In such event, allocation of the securities so purchased or sold, as well as the expenses incurred in the transaction, will be made by the Investment Adviser in the manner it considers to be equitable and consistent with its fiduciary obligations to the Fund and such other customers. In some instances, this procedure may adversely affect the price and size of the position obtainable for a Fund.

Commission rates in the U.S. are established pursuant to negotiations with the broker based on the quality and quantity of execution services provided by the broker in the light of generally prevailing rates. The allocation of orders among brokers and the commission rates paid are reviewed periodically by the Trustees.

Certain Funds may participate in a commission recapture program. Under the program, participating broker-dealers rebate a percentage of commissions earned on Fund portfolio transactions to the particular Fund from which the commissions were generated. The rebated commissions are expected to be treated as realized capital gains of the Funds.

Subject to the above considerations, the Funds’ Investment Adviser may use Goldman Sachs or an affiliate as a broker for a Fund. In order for Goldman Sachs or an affiliate, acting as agent, to effect any portfolio transactions for a Fund, the commissions, fees or other remuneration received by Goldman Sachs or an affiliate must be reasonable and fair compared to the commissions, fees or other remuneration received by other brokers in connection with comparable transactions involving similar securities or futures contracts. Furthermore, the Trustees, including a majority of the Independent Trustees, have adopted procedures which are reasonably designed to provide that any commissions, fees or other remuneration paid to Goldman Sachs are consistent with the foregoing standard. Brokerage transactions with Goldman Sachs are also subject to such fiduciary standards as may be imposed upon Goldman Sachs by applicable law.

The amount of brokerage commissions paid by a Portfolio may vary substantially from year to year because of differences in shareholder purchase and redemption activity, portfolio turnover rates and other factors. For the fiscal years ended August 31, 2019, August 31, 2018 and August 31, 2017, each Portfolio paid brokerage commissions as follows:

 

Fiscal Year Ended August 31, 2019

   Total Brokerage
Commissions
Paid
     Total Brokerage
Commissions Paid
to Goldman Sachs1
     Total Amount of
Transactions on

which Commissions
Paid
     Amount of
Transactions
Effected through
Brokers  Providing
Proprietary
Research2
     Total Brokerage
Commissions
Paid for
Proprietary
Research2
 

Tax-Advantaged Global Equity Portfolio

   $ 3,095      $ 0      $ 283,778,177      $ 0      $ 0  

Enhanced Dividend Global Equity Portfolio

   $ 231      $ 0      $ 53,654,116      $ 0      $ 0  

 

Fiscal Year Ended August 31, 2018

   Total Brokerage
Commissions
Paid
     Total Brokerage
Commissions Paid
to Goldman Sachs1
     Total Amount of
Transactions on
which Commissions
Paid
     Amount of
Transactions
Effected through
Brokers  Providing
Proprietary
Research2
     Total Brokerage
Commissions
Paid for
Proprietary
Research2
 

Tax-Advantaged Global Equity Portfolio

   $ 14,335      $ 0      $ 336,511,755      $ 0      $ 0  

Enhanced Dividend Global Equity Portfolio

   $ 245      $ 0      $ 54,655,298      $ 0      $ 0  

 

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Fiscal Year Ended August 31, 2017

   Total Brokerage
Commissions
Paid
     Total Brokerage
Commissions Paid
to Goldman Sachs1
     Total Amount of
Transactions on
which Commissions
Paid
     Amount of
Transactions
Effected through
Brokers  Providing
Proprietary
Research2
     Total Brokerage
Commissions
Paid for
Proprietary
Research2
 

Tax-Advantaged Global Equity Portfolio

   $ 811      $ 0      $ 155,277,507      $ 0      $ 0  

Enhanced Dividend Global Equity Portfolio

   $ 236      $ 0      $ 45,187,930      $ 0      $ 0  

 

1 

The figures in the table report brokerage commissions from portfolio transactions, including futures transactions.

2 

The information above reflects the full commission amounts paid to the brokers that provide proprietary research to the Investment Adviser. Only a portion of such commissions pays for research and the remainder of such commissions is to compensate the broker for execution services, commitment of capital and other services related to the execution of brokerage transactions.

Portfolios’ Investments in Regular Broker-Dealers

During the fiscal year ended August 31, 2019, the Trust’s regular “broker-dealers”, as defined in Rule 10b-1 under the Act, were: Barclays Capital Inc., BMO Capital Markets Corp., Cowen and Company, LLC, International Strategy & Investment Group LLC, J.P. Morgan Securities LLC, Jefferies LLC, Liquidnet, Inc., Morgan Stanley & Co. LLC, National Financial Services LLC, Sanford C. Bernstein & Co., LLC. The Portfolios did not own any securities issued by their regular broker-dealers (as defined in Rule 10b-1 under the Act) or the parent entities of such broker-dealers as of August 31, 2019.

NET ASSET VALUE

In accordance with procedures adopted by the Trustees, the NAV per share of each class of each Portfolio is calculated by determining the value of the net assets attributed to each class of that Portfolio and dividing by the number of outstanding shares of that class. All securities are generally valued on each Business Day as of the close of regular trading on the New York Stock Exchange (normally, but not always, 4:00 p.m. Eastern time) or such other time as the New York Stock Exchange or National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotations System (“NASDAQ”) market may officially close. The term “Business Day” means any day the New York Stock Exchange is open for trading, which is Monday through Friday except for holidays. The New York Stock Exchange is closed on the following observed holidays: New Year’s Day, Martin Luther King, Jr. Day, Washington’s Birthday), Good Friday, Memorial Day, Independence Day, Labor Day, Thanksgiving Day and Christmas.

The time at which transactions and shares are priced and the time by which orders must be received may be changed in case of an emergency or if regular trading on the New York Stock Exchange is stopped at a time other than its regularly scheduled closing time. The Trust reserves the right to reprocess purchase (including dividend reinvestments), redemption and exchange transactions that were processed at a NAV that is subsequently adjusted, and to recover amounts from (or distribute amounts to) shareholders accordingly based on the official closing NAV, as adjusted. The Trust reserves the right to advance the time by which purchase and redemption orders must be received for same business day credit as otherwise permitted by the SEC. In addition, each Portfolio may compute its NAV as of any time permitted pursuant to any exemption, order or statement of the SEC or its staff.

For the purpose of calculating the NAV per share of the Portfolios, investments are valued under valuation procedures established by the Trustees. Portfolio securities of a Portfolio for which accurate market quotations are readily available are generally valued as follows: (i) equity securities listed on any U.S. or foreign stock exchange or on the NASDAQ will be valued at the last sale price or the official closing price on the exchange or system in which they are principally traded on the valuation date. If there is no sale or official closing price on the valuation date, equity securities may be valued at the closing bid price for long positions or the closing ask price for short positions at the time closest to, but no later than, the NAV calculation time. If the relevant exchange or system has not closed by the above-mentioned time for determining a Fund’s NAV, the securities will be valued at the last sale price or official closing price, or if not available at the bid price at the time the NAV is determined; (ii) over-the-counter equity securities not quoted on NASDAQ will be valued at the last sale price on the valuation day or, if no sale occurs, at the last bid price for long positions or the last ask price for short positions, at the time closest to, but no later than, the NAV calculation time; (iii) equity securities for which no prices are obtained under sections (i) or (ii) , including those for which a pricing service supplies no exchange quotation or a quotation that is believed by the Investment Adviser to not represent fair value, will be valued through the use of broker quotes, if possible; (iv) fixed income securities will be valued via electronic feeds from independent pricing services to the administrator using evaluated prices provided by a recognized pricing service and dealer-supplied quotations. Fixed income securities for which a pricing service either does not supply a quotation or supplies a quotation that is believed by the Investment Adviser to not represent fair value, will be valued through the use of broker quotes, if possible; (v) fixed income securities for which accurate market quotations are not readily available will be valued by the Investment Adviser based on Board-approved fair valuation policies that incorporate matrix pricing or valuation models, which utilize certain inputs and assumptions, including, but not limited to, yield or price with respect to comparable fixed income securities and

 

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various other factors; (vi) investments in open-end registered investment companies (excluding investments in ETFs) and investments in private funds are valued based on the NAV of those registered investment companies or private funds (which may use fair value pricing as discussed in their prospectus or offering memorandum); (vii) spot foreign exchange rates will be valued using a pricing service at the time closest to, but no later than, the NAV calculation time, and forward foreign currency contracts will be valued by adding forward points provided by an independent pricing service to the spot foreign exchange rates and interpolating based upon maturity dates of each contract or by using outright forward rates, where available (if quotations are unavailable from a pricing service or, if the quotations by the Investment Adviser are believed to be inaccurate, the contracts will be valued by calculating the mean between the last bid and ask quotations supplied by at least one dealer in such contracts); (viii) exchange-traded futures contracts will be valued at the last published settlement price on the exchange where they are principally traded (or, if a sale occurs after the last published settlement price but before the NAV calculation time, at the last sale price at the time closest to, but no later than, the NAV calculation time); (ix) exchange-traded options contracts with settlement prices will be valued at the last published settlement price on the exchange where they are principally traded (or, if a sale occurs after the last published settlement price but before the NAV calculation time, at the last sale price at the time closest to, but no later than, the NAV calculation time); (x) exchange-traded options contracts without settlement prices will be valued at the midpoint of the bid and ask prices on the exchange where they are principally traded (or, in the absence of two-way trading, at the last bid price for long positions and the last ask price for short positions at the time closest to, but no later than, the NAV calculation time); (xi) over-the-counter derivatives, including, but not limited to, interest rate swaps, credit default swaps, total return index swaps, put/call option combos, total return basket swaps, index volatility and FX variance swaps, will be valued at their fair market value as determined using counterparty supplied valuations, an independent pricing service or valuation models which use market data inputs supplied by an independent pricing service; and (xii) all other instruments, including those for which a pricing service supplies no exchange quotation/price or a quotation that is believed by the Investment Adviser to be inaccurate, will be valued in accordance with the valuation procedures approved by the Board of Trustees. Securities may also be valued at fair value in accordance with procedures approved by the Board of Trustees where the Portfolios’ fund accounting agent is unable for other reasons to facilitate pricing of individual securities or calculate the Portfolios’ NAV, or if the Investment Adviser believes that such quotations do not accurately reflect fair value. Fair values determined in accordance with the valuation procedures approved by the Board of Trustees may be based on subjective judgments and it is possible that the prices resulting from such valuation procedures may differ materially from the value realized on a sale.

The value of all assets and liabilities expressed in foreign currencies will be converted into U.S. dollar values at current exchange rates of such currencies against U.S. dollars as of the close of regular trading on the New York Stock Exchange (normally, but not always, 4:00 p.m. Eastern time). If such quotations are not available, the rate of exchange will be determined in good faith under procedures established by the Board of Trustees.

Generally, trading in securities on European, Asian and Far Eastern securities exchanges and on over-the-counter markets in these regions is substantially completed at various times prior to the close of business on each Business Day in New York (i.e., a day on which the New York Stock Exchange is open for trading). In addition, European, Asian or Far Eastern securities trading generally or in a particular country or countries may not take place on all Business Days in New York. Furthermore, trading takes place in various foreign markets on days which are not Business Days in New York and days on which the Portfolios’ NAVs are not calculated. Such calculation does not take place contemporaneously with the determination of the prices of the majority of the portfolio securities used in such calculation. For investments in foreign equity securities, “fair value” prices will be provided by an independent third-party pricing (fair value) service (if available), in accordance with fair value procedures approved by the Trustees. Fair value prices are used because many foreign markets operate at times that do not coincide with those of the major U.S. markets. Events that could affect the values of foreign portfolio holdings may occur between the close of the foreign market and the time of determining the NAV, and would not otherwise be reflected in the NAV. If the independent third-party pricing (fair value) service does not provide a fair value for a particular security or if the value does not meet the established criteria for the Portfolios, the most recent closing price for such a security on its principal exchange will generally be its fair value on such date.

The Investment Adviser, consistent with its procedures and applicable regulatory guidance, may (but need not) determine to make an adjustment to the previous closing prices of either domestic or foreign securities in light of significant events, to reflect what it believes to be the fair value of the securities at the time of determining a Portfolio’s NAV. Significant events that could affect a large number of securities in a particular market may include, but are not limited to: situations relating to one or more single issuers in a market sector; significant fluctuations in U.S. or foreign markets; market dislocations; market disruptions or unscheduled market closings; equipment failures; natural or manmade disasters or acts of God; armed conflicts; governmental actions or other developments; as well as the same or similar events which may affect specific issuers or the securities markets even though not tied directly to the securities markets. Other significant events that could relate to a single issuer may include, but are not limited to: corporate actions such as reorganizations, mergers and buy-outs; corporate announcements, including those relating to earnings, products and regulatory news; significant litigation; ratings downgrades; bankruptcies; and trading limits or suspensions.

In general, fair value represents a good faith approximation of the current value of an asset and may be used when there is no public market or possibly no market at all for an asset. A security that is fair valued may be valued at a price higher or lower than actual market quotations or the value determined by other funds using their own fair valuation procedures or by other investors. The fair value of an asset may not be the price at which that asset is ultimately sold.

 

B-110


The proceeds received by each Portfolio and each other series of the Trust from the issue or sale of its shares, and all net investment income, realized and unrealized gain and proceeds thereof, subject only to the rights of creditors, will be specifically allocated to such Portfolio or particular series and constitute the underlying assets of that Portfolio or series. The underlying assets of each Portfolio will be segregated on the books of account, and will be charged with the liabilities in respect of such Portfolio and with a share of the general liabilities of the Trust. Expenses of the Trust with respect to the Portfolios and the other series of the Trust are generally allocated in proportion to the NAVs of the respective Portfolios or series except where allocations of expenses can otherwise be fairly made.

Each Portfolio relies on various sources to calculate its NAV. The ability of the Portfolios’ fund accounting agent to calculate the NAV per share of each share class of the Portfolios is subject to operational risks associated with processing or human errors, systems or technology failures, cyberattacks and errors caused by third party service providers, data sources, or trading counterparties. Such failures may result in delays in the calculation of a Portfolio’s NAV and/or the inability to calculate NAV over extended time periods. The Portfolios may be unable to recover any losses associated with such failures. In addition, if the third party service providers and/or data sources upon which a Portfolio directly or indirectly relies to calculate its NAV or price individual securities are unavailable or otherwise unable to calculate the NAV correctly, it may be necessary for alternative procedures to be utilized to price the securities at the time of determining the Portfolio’s NAV.

Errors and Corrective Actions

The Investment Adviser will report to the Board of Trustees any material breaches of investment objective, policies or restrictions and any material errors in the calculation of the NAV of a Portfolio or an Underlying Fund or the processing of purchases and redemptions. Depending on the nature and size of an error, corrective action may or may not be required. Corrective action may involve a prospective correction of the NAV only, correction of any erroneous NAV and compensation to a Portfolio or Underlying Fund, or correction of any erroneous NAV, compensation to a Portfolio or Underlying Fund and reprocessing of individual shareholder transactions. The Trust’s policies on errors and corrective action limit or restrict when corrective action will be taken or when compensation to a Portfolio or Underlying Fund or its shareholders will be paid, and not all mistakes will result in compensable errors. As a result, neither a Portfolio or Underlying Fund nor its shareholders who purchase or redeem shares during periods in which errors accrue or occur may be compensated in connection with the resolution of an error. Shareholders will generally not be notified of the occurrence of a compensable error or the resolution thereof absent unusual circumstances. As discussed in more detail under “NET ASSET VALUE,” a Fund’s portfolio securities may be priced based on quotations for those securities provided by pricing services. There can be no guarantee that a quotation provided by a pricing service will be accurate.

SHARES OF THE TRUST

Each Portfolio is a series of Goldman Sachs Trust, a Delaware statutory trust established by an Agreement and Declaration of Trust dated January 28, 1997. The fiscal year end for each Portfolio is August 31. The Trustees have authority under the Trust’s Declaration of Trust to create and classify shares of beneficial interest in separate series, without further action by shareholders. The Trustees also have authority to classify and reclassify the shares of the Portfolios into one or more classes of shares. As of December 28, 2018, the Trustees have authorized the issuance of four classes of shares in the Portfolios: Class A Shares, Institutional Shares, Class R6 Shares and Class P Shares. Additional series and classes may be added in the future.

Each Class A Share, Institutional Share, Class R6 Share and Class P Share of a Portfolio represents a proportionate interest in the assets belonging to the applicable class of the Portfolio. All expenses of a Portfolio are borne at the same rate by each class of shares, except that fees under the Distribution and Service Plan are borne exclusively by Class A Shares, and transfer agency fees and expenses may be borne at different rates by different share classes. The Trustees may determine in the future that it is appropriate to allocate other expenses differently among classes of shares and may do so to the extent consistent with the rules of the SEC and positions of the IRS. Each class of shares may have different minimum investment requirements and be entitled to different shareholder services. With limited exceptions, shares of a class may only be exchanged for shares of the same or an equivalent class of another series. See “Shareholder Guide” in the Prospectuses and “OTHER INFORMATION REGARDING MAXIMUM SALES CHARGE, PURCHASES, REDEMPTIONS, EXCHANGES AND DIVIDENDS” below. In addition, the fees and expenses set forth below for each class may be subject to voluntary fee waivers or reimbursements, as discussed in the Portfolios’ Prospectuses.

Institutional Shares may be purchased at net asset value without a sales charge for accounts in the name of an investor or institution that is not compensated by the Portfolios under a Plan for services provided to the institution’s customers.

Class R6 Shares are sold at NAV without a sales charge. Class R6 Shares are generally available to the following investors who purchase shares of the Funds through certain Intermediaries that have a contractual relationship with Goldman Sachs, including banks, trust companies, brokers, registered investment advisers and other financial institutions, using a plan level or omnibus account, unless otherwise noted below.

 

B-111


   

Investors who purchase Class R6 Shares through asset-based fee programs of certain Intermediaries that have entered into a contractual relationship with the Distributor to offer Class R6 Shares through such programs;

 

   

Section 401(k), 403(b), 457, profit sharing, money purchase pension, tax-sheltered annuity, defined benefit pension, non-qualified deferred compensation plans and non-qualified pension plans or other employee benefit plans (including health savings accounts) or SIMPLE plans that are sponsored by one or more employers (including governmental or church employers) or employee organizations;

 

   

Registered investment companies or bank collective trusts investing directly with the Transfer Agent;

 

   

Institutional investors, including companies, foundations, endowments, municipalities, trusts and other entities, investing at least $5,000,000 directly with the Transfer Agent; and

 

   

Other investors at the discretion of the Trust’s officers.

Class R6 Shares may not be available through certain Intermediaries. For the purposes of Class R6 Shares eligibility, the term “Intermediary” does not include Goldman Sachs or its affiliates and Class R6 Shares will not be available to clients of Goldman Sachs Private Wealth Management, The Goldman Sachs Trust Company, N.A., The Goldman Sachs Trust Company of Delaware or The Ayco Company, L.P.

Class P Shares are sold at NAV without a sales charge. Class P Shares of the Portfolios are offered exclusively to clients of the Goldman Sachs Private Wealth Management business unit that custody their positions at Goldman Sachs; clients of The Goldman Sachs Trust Company, N.A. or The Goldman Sachs Trust Company of Delaware that custody their positions at Goldman Sachs; or clients of The Ayco Company, L.P. that either custody their positions at Goldman Sachs or with certain intermediaries that are authorized to offer Class P Shares; or other investors at the discretion of the Trust’s officers.

Participants in an Employee Benefit Plan should contact their Employee Benefit Plan service provider for information regarding purchases, sales and exchanges of Class R6 Shares.

Class A Shares are sold with an initial sales charge of up to 5.5% through brokers and dealers who are members of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (“FINRA”) and certain other financial service firms that have sales agreements with Goldman Sachs. Class A Shares of the Portfolios bear the cost of distribution (Rule 12b-1) fees at the aggregate rate of up to 0.25% of the average daily net assets of such Class A Shares. With respect to Class A Shares, the Distributor at its discretion may use compensation for distribution services paid under the Distribution and Service Plan for personal and account maintenance services and expenses so long as such total compensation under the Plan does not exceed the maximum cap on “service fees” imposed by FINRA.

It is possible that an institution or its affiliate may offer different classes of shares (i.e., Class A, Institutional, Class R6 or Class P Shares) to its customers and thus receive different compensation with respect to different classes of shares of each Portfolio. Dividends paid by each Portfolio, if any, with respect to each class of shares will be calculated in the same manner, at the same time on the same day and will be in the same amount, except for differences caused by the fact that the respective transfer agency and Distribution and Service Plan fees relating to a particular class will be borne exclusively by that class. Similarly, the net asset value per share may differ depending upon the class of shares purchased.

Certain aspects of the shares may be altered after advance notice to shareholders if it is deemed necessary in order to satisfy certain tax regulatory requirements.

When issued for the consideration described in the Portfolios’ Prospectuses, shares are fully paid and non-assessable. The Trustees may, however, cause shareholders, or shareholders of a particular series or class, to pay certain custodian, transfer agency, servicing or similar charges by setting off the same against declared but unpaid dividends or by reducing share ownership (or by both means). In the event of liquidation, shareholders are entitled to share pro rata in the net assets of the applicable class of the relevant Portfolio available for distribution to such shareholders. All shares are freely transferable and have no preemptive, subscription or conversion rights. The Trustees may require Shareholders to redeem Shares for any reason under terms set by the Trustees.

In the interest of economy and convenience, the Trust does not issue certificates representing a Portfolio’s shares. Instead, the Transfer Agent maintains a record of each shareholder’s ownership. Each shareholder receives confirmation of purchase and redemption orders from the Transfer Agent. Portfolio shares and any distributions paid by a Portfolio are reflected in account statements from the Transfer Agent.

The Act requires that where more than one series of shares exists, each series must be preferred over all other series in respect of assets specifically allocated to such series. In addition, Rule 18f-2 under the Act provides that any matter required to be submitted by the provisions of the Act or applicable state law, or otherwise, to the holders of the outstanding voting securities of an investment company such as the Trust shall not be deemed to have been effectively acted upon unless approved by the holders of a majority of the outstanding shares of each series affected by such matter. Rule 18f-2 further provides that a series shall be deemed to be affected by a matter unless the interests of each series in the matter are substantially identical or the matter does not affect any interest of such series. However, Rule 18f-2 exempts the selection of independent public accountants, the approval of principal distribution contracts and the election of trustees from the separate voting requirements of Rule 18f-2.

 

B-112


The Trust is not required to hold annual meetings of shareholders and does not intend to hold such meetings. In the event that a meeting of shareholders is held, each share of the Trust will be entitled, as determined by the Trustees without the vote or consent of the shareholders, either to one vote for each share or to one vote for each dollar of net asset value represented by such share on all matters presented to shareholders including the election of Trustees (this method of voting being referred to as “dollar based voting”). However, to the extent required by the Act or otherwise determined by the Trustees, series and classes of the Trust will vote separately from each other. Shareholders of the Trust do not have cumulative voting rights in the election of Trustees. Meetings of shareholders of the Trust, or any series or class thereof, may be called by the Trustees, certain officers or upon the written request of holders of 10% or more of the shares entitled to vote at such meetings. The Trustees will call a special meeting of shareholders for the purpose of electing Trustees if, at any time, less than a majority of Trustees holding office at the time were elected by shareholders. The shareholders of the Trust will have voting rights only with respect to the limited number of matters specified in the Declaration of Trust and such other matters as the Trustees may determine or may be required by law.

The Declaration of Trust provides for indemnification of Trustees, officers, employees and agents of the Trust unless the recipient is adjudicated (i) to be liable by reason of willful misfeasance, bad faith, gross negligence or reckless disregard of the duties involved in the conduct of such person’s office or (ii) not to have acted in good faith in the reasonable belief that such person’s actions were in the best interest of the Trust. The Declaration of Trust provides that, if any shareholder or former shareholder of any series is held personally liable solely by reason of being or having been a shareholder and not because of the shareholder’s acts or omissions or for some other reason, the shareholder or former shareholder (or the shareholder’s heirs, executors, administrators, legal representatives or general successors) shall be held harmless from and indemnified against all loss and expense arising from such liability. The Trust, acting on behalf of any affected series, must, upon request by such shareholder, assume the defense of any claim made against such shareholder for any act or obligation of the series and satisfy any judgment thereon from the assets of the series.

The Declaration of Trust permits the termination of the Trust or of any series or class of the Trust (i) by a majority of the affected shareholders at a meeting of shareholders of the Trust, series or class; or (ii) by a majority of the Trustees without shareholder approval if the Trustees determine, in their sole discretion, that such action is in the best interest of the Trust, such series, such class or their respective shareholders. The Trustees may consider such factors as they, in their sole discretion, deem appropriate in making such determination, including (i) the inability of the Trust or any series or class to maintain its assets at an appropriate size; (ii) changes in laws or regulations governing the Trust, series or class or affecting assets of the type in which it invests; or (iii) economic developments or trends having a significant adverse impact on the business or operations of the Trust or series.

The Declaration of Trust authorizes the Trustees, without shareholder approval, to cause the Trust, or any series thereof, to merge or consolidate with any corporation, association, trust or other organization or sell or exchange all or substantially all of the property belonging to the Trust or any series thereof. In addition, the Trustees, without shareholder approval, may adopt a master-feeder structure by investing all or a portion of the assets of a series of the Trust in the securities of another open-end investment company with substantially the same investment objective, restrictions and policies.

The Declaration of Trust permits the Trustees to amend the Declaration of Trust without a shareholder vote. However, shareholders of the Trust have the right to vote on any amendment (i) that would adversely affect the voting rights of shareholders; (ii) that is required by law to be approved by shareholders; (iii) that would amend the provisions of the Declaration of Trust regarding amendments and supplements thereto; or (iv) that the Trustees determine to submit to shareholders.

The Trustees may appoint separate Trustees with respect to one or more series or classes of the Trust’s shares (the “Series Trustees”). Series Trustees may, but are not required to, serve as Trustees of the Trust or any other series or class of the Trust. To the extent provided by the Trustees in the appointment of Series Trustees, the Series Trustees may have, to the exclusion of any other Trustees of the Trust, all the powers and authorities of Trustees under the Declaration of Trust with respect to such series or class, but may have no power or authority with respect to any other series or class.

Shareholder and Trustee Liability

Under Delaware law, the shareholders of the Portfolios are not generally subject to liability for the debts or obligations of the Trust. Similarly, Delaware law provides that a series of the Trust will not be liable for the debts or obligations of any other series of the Trust. However, no similar statutory or other authority limiting statutory trust shareholder liability exists in other states. As a result, to the extent that a Delaware statutory trust or a shareholder is subject to the jurisdiction of courts of such other states, the courts may not apply Delaware law and may thereby subject the Delaware statutory trust shareholders to liability. To guard against this risk, the Declaration of Trust contains an express disclaimer of shareholder liability for acts or obligations of a series. Notice of such disclaimer will normally be given in each agreement, obligation or instrument entered into or executed by a series of the Trust. The Declaration of Trust provides for indemnification by the relevant series for all loss suffered by a shareholder as a result of an obligation of the series. The Declaration of Trust also provides that a series shall, upon request, assume the defense of any claim made against any shareholder for any act or obligation of the series and satisfy any judgment thereon. In view of the above, the risk of personal liability of shareholders of a Delaware statutory trust is remote.

 

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In addition to the requirements under Delaware law, the Declaration of Trust provides that shareholders of a series may bring a derivative action on behalf of the series only if the following conditions are met: (i) shareholders eligible to bring such derivative action under Delaware law who hold at least 10% of the outstanding shares of the series, or 10% of the outstanding shares of the class to which such action relates, shall join in the request for the Trustees to commence such action; and (ii) the Trustees must be afforded a reasonable amount of time to consider such shareholder request and to investigate the basis of such claim. The Trustees will be entitled to retain counsel or other advisers in considering the merits of the request and may require an undertaking by the shareholders making such request to reimburse the Portfolios for the expense of any such advisers in the event that the Trustees determine not to bring such action.

The Declaration of Trust further provides that the Trustees will not be liable for errors of judgment or mistakes of fact or law, but nothing in the Declaration of Trust protects a Trustee against liability to which he or she would otherwise be subject by reason of willful misfeasance, bad faith, gross negligence, or reckless disregard of the duties involved in the conduct of his or her office.

TAXATION

The following is a summary of certain additional U.S. federal income tax considerations generally affecting the Portfolios, the Underlying Funds and the purchase, ownership and disposition of shares that are not described in the Prospectuses. The discussions below and in the Prospectuses are not intended as substitutes for careful tax planning. This summary does not address special tax rules applicable to certain classes of investors, such as tax-exempt entities, insurance companies and financial institutions. Each prospective shareholder is urged to consult his or her own tax adviser with respect to the specific federal, state, local and foreign tax consequences of investing in the Portfolios. The summary is based on the laws in effect as of December 27, 2019, which are subject to change. Future changes in tax laws may adversely impact the Portfolios and their shareholders.

Fund Taxation

Each Portfolio and each Underlying Fund is a separate taxable entity. Each Portfolio and each of the Underlying Funds has elected to be treated and intend to qualify for each taxable year as a regulated investment company under Subchapter M of Subtitle A, Chapter 1 of the Code.

There are certain tax requirements that each Portfolio and each Underlying Fund must follow if it is to avoid federal taxation. In their efforts to adhere to these requirements, the Underlying Funds may have to limit their investment activities in some types of instruments. Qualification as a regulated investment company under the Code requires, among other things, that each Portfolio and each Underlying Fund (i) derive at least 90% of its gross income for each taxable year from dividends, interest, payments with respect to securities loans, gains from the sale or other disposition of stocks or securities or foreign currencies, net income from qualified publicly traded partnerships, or other income (including but not limited to gains from options, futures, and forward contracts) derived with respect to the Portfolio and Underlying Fund’s business of investing in stocks, securities or currencies (the “90% gross income test”); and (ii) diversify its holdings so that in general, at the close of each quarter of its taxable year, (a) at least 50% of the fair market value of the Portfolio and Underlying Fund’s total (gross) assets is comprised of cash, cash items, U.S. Government securities, securities of other regulated investment companies and other securities limited in respect of any one issuer to an amount not greater in value than 5% of the value of such Portfolio and Underlying Fund’s total assets and to not more than 10% of the outstanding voting securities of such issuer, and (b) not more than 25% of the value of its total (gross) assets is invested in the securities of any one issuer (other than U.S. Government Securities and securities of other regulated investment companies), two or more issuers controlled by the Portfolio and Underlying Fund and engaged in the same, similar or related trades or businesses, or certain publicly traded partnerships.

For purposes of the 90% gross income test, income that a Portfolio or an Underlying Fund earns from equity interests in certain entities that are not treated as corporations or as qualified publicly traded partnerships for U.S. federal income tax purposes (e.g., partnerships or trusts) will generally have the same character for the Portfolio or Underlying Fund as in the hands of such an entity; consequently, a Portfolio or Underlying Fund may be required to limit its equity investments in any such entities that earn fee income, rental income, or other nonqualifying income. In addition, future Treasury regulations could provide that qualifying income under the 90% gross income test will not include gains from foreign currency transactions that are not directly related to a Portfolio’s or Underlying Fund’s principal business of investing in stock or securities or options and futures with respect to stock or securities. Using foreign currency positions or entering into foreign currency options, futures and forward or swap contracts for purposes other than hedging currency risk with respect to securities held or anticipated to be acquired by a Portfolio or Underlying Fund may not qualify as “directly-related” under these tests.

If a Portfolio or Underlying Fund complies with the foregoing provisions, then in any taxable year in which the Portfolio or such Underlying Fund distributes, in compliance with the Code’s timing and other requirements, an amount at least equal to the sum of 90% of its “investment company taxable income” (which includes dividends, taxable interest, taxable accrued original issue discount and market discount income, income from securities lending, any net short-term capital gain in excess of net long-term capital loss, certain

 

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net realized foreign exchange gains and any other taxable income other than “net capital gain,” as defined below, and is reduced by deductible expenses), plus 90% of the excess of its gross tax-exempt interest income (if any) over certain disallowed deductions, the Portfolio or such Underlying Fund (but not its shareholders) will be relieved of U.S. federal income tax on any income of the Portfolio or Underlying Fund, including long-term capital gains, distributed to shareholders. If, instead, a Portfolio or Underlying Fund retains any investment company taxable income or “net capital gain” (the excess of net long-term capital gain over net short-term capital loss), it will be subject to a tax at regular corporate rates on the amount retained. Because there are some uncertainties regarding the computation of the amounts deemed distributed to shareholders for these purposes – including, in particular, uncertainties regarding the portion, if any, of amounts paid in redemption of shares that should be treated as such distributions – there can be no assurance that each Portfolio and each Underlying Fund will avoid corporate-level tax in each year.

If a Portfolio or Underlying Fund retains any net capital gain, the Portfolio or Underlying Fund may designate the retained amount as undistributed capital gains in a notice to its shareholders who, if subject to U.S. federal income tax on long-term capital gains, (i) will be required to include in income for federal income tax purposes, as long-term capital gain, their shares of that undistributed amount, and (ii) will be entitled to credit their proportionate shares of the tax paid by the Portfolio or Underlying Fund against their U.S. federal income tax liabilities, if any, and to claim refunds to the extent the credit exceeds those liabilities. For U.S. federal income tax purposes, the tax basis of shares owned by a shareholder of the Portfolio or Underlying Fund will be increased by the amount of any such undistributed net capital gain included in the shareholder’s gross income and decreased by the federal income tax paid by the Portfolio or Underlying Fund (as applicable) on that amount of net capital gain.

Each Portfolio and each Underlying Fund intends to distribute for each taxable year to its shareholders all or substantially all of its investment company taxable income, net capital gain and any net tax-exempt interest. Exchange control or other foreign laws, regulations or practices may restrict repatriation of investment income, capital or the proceeds of securities sales by foreign investors such as certain of the Underlying Funds and may therefore make it more difficult for such an Underlying Fund to satisfy the distribution requirements described above, as well as the excise tax distribution requirements described below. However, each Portfolio and each Underlying Fund generally expects to be able to obtain sufficient cash to satisfy such requirements from new investors, the sale of securities or other sources. If for any taxable year a Portfolio or Underlying Fund does not qualify as a regulated investment company, it will be taxed on all of its investment company taxable income and net capital gain at corporate rates without any deduction for dividends paid, and its distributions to shareholders will generally be taxable as ordinary dividends to the extent of its current and accumulated earnings and profits.

In order to avoid a 4% federal excise tax, each Portfolio and each Underlying Fund must distribute (or be deemed to have distributed) by December 31 of each calendar year at least 98% of its taxable ordinary income (taking into account certain deferrals and elections) for such year, at least 98.2% of the excess of its capital gains over its capital losses (generally computed on the basis of the one-year period ending on October 31 of such year), and all taxable ordinary income and the excess of capital gains over capital losses for all previous years that were not distributed for those years and on which the Portfolio or Underlying Fund paid no federal income tax. Each Portfolio and each Underlying Fund anticipates that it will generally make timely distributions of income and capital gains in compliance with these requirements so that it will generally not be required to pay the excise tax.

For federal income tax purposes, each Portfolio and each Underlying Fund is permitted to carry forward a net capital loss in any year to offset its own capital gains, if any. These amounts are available to be carried forward to offset future capital gains to the extent permitted by the Code and applicable tax regulations.

As of August 31, 2019, the Portfolios did not have any capital loss carryforwards.

Gains and losses on the sale, lapse, or other termination of options and futures contracts, options thereon and certain forward contracts (except certain foreign currency options, forward contracts and futures contracts) will generally be treated as capital gains and losses. Certain of the futures contracts, forward contracts and options held by an Underlying Fund will be required to be “marked-to-market” for federal income tax purposes, that is, treated as having been sold at their fair market value on the last day of the Underlying Fund’s taxable year (or, for excise tax purposes, on the last day of the relevant period). These provisions may require an Underlying Fund to recognize income or gains without a concurrent receipt of cash. Any gain or loss recognized on actual or deemed sales of these futures contracts, forward contracts, or options will (except for certain foreign currency options, forward contracts, and futures contracts) be treated as 60% long-term capital gain or loss and 40% short-term capital gain or loss. As a result of certain hedging transactions entered into by an Underlying Fund, the Underlying Fund may be required to defer the recognition of losses on futures contracts, forward contracts, and options or underlying securities or foreign currencies to the extent of any unrecognized gains on related positions held by such Underlying Fund and the characterization of gains or losses as long-term or short-term may be changed. The tax provisions described in this paragraph may affect the amount, timing and character of an Underlying Fund’s distributions to shareholders. Application of certain requirements for qualification as a regulated investment company and/or these tax rules to certain investment practices, such as dollar rolls, or certain derivatives such as interest rate swaps, floors, caps and collars and currency, total return, mortgage or index swaps and options on swaps may be unclear in some respects, and an Underlying Fund may therefore be required to limit its participation in those kinds of transactions. Certain tax elections may be available to an Underlying Fund to mitigate some of the unfavorable consequences described in this paragraph.

 

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Section 988 of the Code contains special tax rules applicable to certain foreign currency transactions and instruments that may affect the amount, timing and character of income, gain or loss recognized by an Underlying Fund. Under these rules, foreign exchange gain or loss realized with respect to foreign currencies and certain futures and options thereon, foreign currency-denominated debt instruments, foreign currency forward contracts, and foreign currency-denominated payables and receivables will generally be treated as ordinary income or loss, although in some cases elections may be available that would alter this treatment. If a net foreign exchange loss treated as ordinary loss under Section 988 of the Code were to exceed an Underlying Fund’s investment company taxable income (computed without regard to such loss) for a taxable year, the resulting loss would not be deductible by the Underlying Fund or its shareholders in future years. Net loss, if any, from certain foreign currency transactions or instruments could exceed net investment income otherwise calculated for accounting purposes with the result being either no dividends being paid or a portion of an Underlying Fund’s dividends being treated as a return of capital for tax purposes, nontaxable to the extent of a shareholder’s tax basis in his shares and, once such basis is exhausted, generally giving rise to capital gains.

An Underlying Fund’s investment in zero coupon securities, deferred interest securities, certain structured securities or other securities bearing original issue discount or, if an Underlying Fund elects to include market discount in income currently, market discount, as well as any “marked-to-market” gain from certain options, futures or forward contracts, as described above, will in many cases cause it to realize income or gain before the receipt of cash payments with respect to these securities or contracts. In order to obtain cash to enable it to distribute this income or gain, to maintain its qualification as a regulated investment company and to avoid federal income or excise taxes, the Underlying Fund may be required to liquidate portfolio investments sooner than it might otherwise have done.

Investments in lower-rated securities may present special tax issues for an Underlying Fund to the extent actual or anticipated defaults may be more likely with respect to such securities. Tax rules are not entirely clear about issues such as when an Underlying Fund may cease to accrue interest, original issue discount, or market discount; when and to what extent deductions may be taken for bad debts or worthless securities; how payments received on obligations in default should be allocated between principal and income; and whether exchanges of debt obligations in a workout context are taxable. These and other issues will generally need to be addressed by an Underlying Fund, in the event it invests in such securities, so as to seek to eliminate or minimize any adverse tax consequences.

If an Underlying Fund acquires stock (including, under proposed regulations, an option to acquire stock such as is inherent in a convertible bond) in certain foreign corporations that receive at least 75% of their annual gross income from passive sources (such as interest, dividends, rents, royalties or capital gain) or hold at least 50% of their assets in investments producing such passive income (“passive foreign investment companies”), the Underlying Fund could be subject to federal income tax and additional interest charges on “excess distributions” received from such companies or gain from the sale of stock in such companies, even if all income or gain actually received by the Underlying Fund is timely distributed to its shareholders. The Underlying Fund would not be able to pass through to its shareholders any credit or deduction for such a tax. In some cases, elections may be available that would ameliorate these adverse tax consequences, but such elections would require the Underlying Fund to include each year certain amounts as income or gain (subject to the distribution requirements described above) without a concurrent receipt of cash. Each Underlying Fund may attempt to limit and/or to manage its holdings in passive foreign investment companies to minimize its tax liability or maximize its return from these investments.

Foreign Taxes

If, as may occur for certain of the Underlying Funds, more than 50% of an Underlying Fund’s total assets at the close of any taxable year consists of stock or securities of foreign corporations, the Underlying Fund may file an election with the IRS pursuant to which shareholders of the Underlying Fund would be required to (i) include in ordinary gross income (in addition to taxable dividends actually received) their pro rata shares of foreign income taxes paid by the Underlying Fund that are treated as income taxes under U.S. tax regulations (which excludes, for example, stamp taxes, securities transaction taxes, and similar taxes) even though not actually received by such shareholders, and (ii) treat such respective pro rata portions as foreign income taxes paid by them.

If an Underlying Fund makes this election, its shareholders (including the Portfolios) may then deduct such pro rata portions of qualified foreign taxes in computing their taxable incomes, or, alternatively, use them as foreign tax credits, subject to holding period and other applicable limitations, against their U.S. federal income taxes. Shareholders who do not itemize deductions for federal income tax purposes will not, however, be able to deduct their pro rata portion of foreign taxes paid by an Underlying Fund, although such shareholders will be required to include their shares of such taxes in gross income if the election is made.

While a Portfolio will be able to deduct the foreign taxes that it will be treated as receiving from an Underlying Fund if the election is made, if at least 50% of the value of a Portfolio’s total assets at the close of each quarter of its taxable year is represented by interests in other regulated investment companies, the Portfolio will itself be able to elect to treat its foreign taxes as paid by its shareholders. If the Portfolio makes this election, the shareholders of the Portfolio will have an option of claiming a foreign tax credit for foreign taxes paid by the Underlying Funds.

 

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If a shareholder chooses to take credit for the foreign taxes deemed paid by such shareholder as a result of any such election by a Portfolio, the amount of the credit that may be claimed in any year may not exceed the same proportion of the U.S. tax against which such credit is taken which the shareholder’s taxable income from foreign sources (but not in excess of the shareholder’s entire taxable income) bears to his entire taxable income. For this purpose, distributions from long-term and short-term capital gains or foreign currency gains by a Portfolio will generally not be treated as income from foreign sources. This foreign tax credit limitation may also be applied separately to certain specific categories of foreign-source income and the related foreign taxes. As a result of these rules, which have different effects depending upon each shareholder’s particular tax situation, certain shareholders of a Portfolio may not be able to claim a credit for the full amount of their proportionate share of the foreign taxes paid by the Fund even if the election is made by the Portfolio.

Shareholders who are not liable for U.S. federal income taxes, including retirement plans, other tax-exempt shareholders and non-U.S. shareholders, will ordinarily not benefit from the foregoing Portfolio election with respect to foreign taxes. Each year, if any, that a Portfolio files the election described above, shareholders will be notified of the amount of (1) each shareholder’s pro rata share of qualified foreign taxes paid by the Portfolio and (2) the portion of Portfolio dividends that represents income from foreign sources.

Taxable U.S. Shareholders – Distributions

For U.S. federal income tax purposes, distributions by a Portfolio, whether reinvested in additional shares or paid in cash, generally will be taxable to shareholders who are subject to tax. Shareholders receiving a distribution in the form of newly issued shares will be treated for U.S. federal income tax purposes as receiving a distribution in an amount equal to the amount of cash they would have received had they elected to receive cash and will have a cost basis in each share received equal to such amount divided by the number of shares received.

In general, distributions from investment company taxable income for the year will be taxable as ordinary income. However, distributions to noncorporate shareholders attributable to dividends received by the Portfolios or the Underlying Funds from U.S. and certain foreign corporations will generally be taxed at the long-term capital gain rate (described below), as long as certain other requirements are met. For these lower rates to apply, the noncorporate shareholders must have owned their Portfolio or Underlying Fund shares for at least 61 days during the 121-day period beginning 60 days before the Portfolio’s or Underlying Fund’s ex-dividend date and the Portfolio or Underlying Fund must also have owned the underlying stock for this same period beginning 60 days before the ex-dividend date for the stock. The amount of a Portfolio’s or Underlying Fund’s distributions that otherwise qualify for these lower rates may be reduced as a result of a Portfolio’s securities lending activities or a high portfolio turnover rate.

Distributions reported to shareholders as derived from a Portfolio’s or Underlying Fund’s dividend income, if any, that would be eligible for the dividends received deduction if such Portfolio or Underlying Fund were not a regulated investment company may be eligible for the dividends received deduction for corporate shareholders. The dividends received deduction, if available, is reduced to the extent the shares with respect to which the dividends are received are treated as debt-financed under federal income tax law and is eliminated if the shares are deemed to have been held for less than a minimum period, generally 46 days. The dividends received deduction also may be reduced as a result of a Portfolio’s or Underlying Fund’s securities lending activities or a high portfolio turnover rate. The dividend may, if it is treated as an “extraordinary dividend” under the Code, reduce a shareholder’s tax basis in its shares of a Portfolio or Underlying Fund. Capital gain dividends (i.e., dividends from net capital gain), if reported as such to shareholders, will be taxed to shareholders as long-term capital gain regardless of how long shares have been held by shareholders, but are not eligible for the dividends received deduction for corporations. The maximum individual rate applicable to long-term capital gains is generally either 15% or 20%, depending on whether the individual’s income exceeds certain threshold amounts. Distributions, if any, that are in excess of a Portfolio’s or Underlying Fund’s current and accumulated earnings and profits will first reduce a shareholder’s tax basis in his shares and, after such basis is reduced to zero, will generally constitute capital gains to a shareholder who holds his shares as capital assets.

If a Portfolio receives dividends from an Underlying Fund that qualifies as a regulated investment company, and the Underlying Fund designates such dividends as qualified dividend income or as eligible for the dividends received deduction, then the Portfolio is permitted in turn to designate a portion of its distributions as qualified dividend income and/or as eligible for the dividends received deduction, provided the Portfolio meets holding period and other requirements with respect to shares of the Underlying Fund.

Under recent tax legislation, individuals and certain other noncorporate entities are generally eligible for a 20% deduction with respect to ordinary dividends received from REITs (“qualified REIT dividends”) and certain taxable income from publicly traded partnerships. The IRS has recently issued proposed regulations permitting a RIC to pass through to its shareholders qualified REIT dividends eligible for the 20% deduction. However, the proposed regulations do not provide a mechanism for a RIC to pass through to its shareholders income from publicly traded partnerships that would be eligible for such deduction.

Different tax treatment, including penalties on certain excess contributions and deferrals, certain pre-retirement and post-retirement distributions and certain prohibited transactions, is accorded to accounts maintained as qualified retirement plans. Shareholders should consult their tax advisers for more information.

 

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Taxable U.S. Shareholders - Sale of Shares

When a shareholder’s shares are sold, redeemed or otherwise disposed of in a transaction that is treated as a sale for tax purposes, the shareholder will generally recognize gain or loss equal to the difference between the shareholder’s adjusted tax basis in the shares and the cash, or fair market value of any property, received. (To aid in computing that tax basis, a shareholder should generally retain its account statements for the period that it holds shares.) If the shareholder holds the shares as a capital asset at the time of sale, the character of the gain or loss should be capital, and treated as long-term if the shareholder’s holding period is more than one year and short-term otherwise, subject to the rules below. Shareholders should consult their own tax advisers with reference to their particular circumstances to determine whether a redemption (including an exchange) or other disposition of Portfolio shares is properly treated as a sale for tax purposes, as is assumed in this discussion.

Certain special tax rules may apply to a shareholder’s capital gains or losses on Portfolio shares. If a shareholder receives a capital gain dividend with respect to shares and such shares have a tax holding period of six months or less at the time of a sale or redemption of such shares, then any loss the shareholder realizes on the sale or redemption will be treated as a long-term capital loss to the extent of such capital gain dividend. All or a portion of any sales load paid upon the purchase of shares of a Portfolio will generally not be taken into account in determining gain or loss on the redemption or exchange of such shares within 90 days after their purchase to the extent the redemption proceeds are reinvested, or the exchange is effected, in new shares on or before January 31st of the calendar year following the calendar year in which the original shares are disposed of without payment of an additional sales load pursuant to the reinvestment or exchange privilege. The load not taken into account will be added to the tax basis of the newly acquired shares. Additionally, any loss realized on a sale or redemption of shares of a Portfolio may be disallowed under “wash sale” rules to the extent the shares disposed of are replaced with other shares of the same Portfolio within a period of 61 days beginning 30 days before and ending 30 days after the shares are disposed of, such as pursuant to a dividend reinvestment in shares of such Portfolio. If disallowed, the loss will be reflected in an adjustment to the basis of the shares acquired.

Medicare Tax

An additional 3.8% Medicare tax is imposed on certain net investment income (including ordinary dividends and capital gain distributions received from a Portfolio and net gains from redemptions or other taxable dispositions of Portfolio shares) of U.S. individuals, estates and trusts to the extent that such person’s “modified adjusted gross income” (in the case of an individual) or “adjusted gross income” (in the case of an estate or trust) exceeds certain threshold amounts.

Backup Withholding

Each Portfolio may be required to withhold, as “backup withholding,” federal income tax, currently at a 24% rate, from dividends (including capital gain dividends) and share redemption and exchange proceeds to individuals and other non exempt shareholders who fail to furnish the Fund with a correct taxpayer identification number (“TIN”) certified under penalties of perjury, or if the IRS or a broker notifies the Portfolio that the payee is subject to backup withholding as a result of failing properly to report interest or dividend income to the IRS or that the TIN furnished by the payee to the Portfolio is incorrect, or if (when required to do so) the payee fails to certify under penalties of perjury that it is not subject to backup withholding. A Portfolio may refuse to accept an application that does not contain any required TIN or certification that the TIN provided is correct. If the backup withholding provisions are applicable, any such dividends and proceeds, whether paid in cash or reinvested in additional shares, will be reduced by the amounts required to be withheld. Any amounts withheld may be credited against a shareholder’s U.S. federal income tax liability. If a shareholder does not have a TIN, it should apply for one immediately by contacting the local office of the Social Security Administration or the IRS. Backup withholding could apply to payments relating to a shareholder’s account while the shareholder is awaiting receipt of a TIN. Special rules apply for certain entities. For example, for an account established under a Uniform Gifts or Transfer to Minors Act, the TIN of the minor should be furnished.

Non-U.S. Shareholders

The discussion above relates solely to U.S. federal income tax law as it applies to “U.S. persons” subject to tax under such law.

Except as discussed below, distributions to shareholders who, as to the United States, are not “U.S. persons,” (i.e., are nonresident aliens, foreign corporations, fiduciaries of foreign trusts or estates, foreign partnerships or other non-U.S. investors) generally will be subject to U.S. federal withholding tax at the rate of 30% on distributions treated as ordinary income unless the tax is reduced or eliminated pursuant to a tax treaty or the distributions are effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business of the shareholder; but distributions of net capital gain (the excess of any net long-term capital gains over any net short-term capital losses) including amounts retained by a Portfolio which are designated as undistributed capital gains, to such a non-U.S. shareholder will not be subject to U.S. federal income or withholding tax unless the distributions are effectively connected with the shareholder’s trade or business in the United States or, in the case of a shareholder who is a nonresident alien individual, the shareholder is present in the United States for 183 days or more during the taxable year and certain other conditions are met.

 

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Non-U.S. shareholders generally are not subject to U.S. federal income tax withholding on certain distributions of interest income and/or short-term capital gains that are designated by a Portfolio. It is expected that the Underlying Funds and the Portfolios will generally make designations of short-term gains, to the extent permitted, but the Portfolios do not intend to make designations of any distributions attributable to interest income. Therefore, all distributions of interest income will be subject to withholding when paid to non-U.S. investors.

Any capital gain realized by a non-U.S. shareholder upon a sale or redemption of shares of a Portfolio will not be subject to U.S. federal income or withholding tax unless the gain is effectively connected with the shareholder’s trade or business in the U.S., or in the case of a shareholder who is a nonresident alien individual, the shareholder is present in the U.S. for 183 days or more during the taxable year and certain other conditions are met.

Non-U.S. persons who fail to furnish a Portfolio with the proper IRS Form W-8 (i.e., W-8BEN, W-8BEN-E, W-8ECI, W-8IMY or W-8EXP), or an acceptable substitute, may be subject to backup withholding at a 24% rate on dividends (including capital gain dividends) and on the proceeds of redemptions and exchanges.

Also, non-U.S. shareholders may be subject to U.S. estate tax with respect to their Portfolio shares.

The Portfolios are required to withhold U.S. tax (at a 30% rate) on payments of dividends made to certain non-U.S. entities that fail to comply (or be deemed compliant) with extensive new reporting and withholding requirements designed to inform the U.S. Department of the Treasury of U.S.-owned foreign investment accounts. Shareholders may be requested to provide additional information to a Portfolio to enable the Portfolio to determine whether withholding is required.

Each shareholder who is not a U.S. person should consult his or her tax adviser regarding the U.S. and non-U.S. tax consequences of ownership of shares of, and receipt of distributions from, a Portfolio.

State and Local Taxes

Each Portfolio and each Underlying Fund may be subject to state or local taxes in jurisdictions in which the Underlying Fund is deemed to be doing business. In addition, in those states or localities that impose income taxes, the treatment of such a Portfolio or such an Underlying Fund and its shareholders under those jurisdictions’ tax laws may differ from the treatment under federal income tax laws, and investment in a Portfolio or Underlying Fund may have tax consequences for shareholders that are different from those of a direct investment in the securities held by the Portfolio or Underlying Fund. Shareholders should consult their own tax advisers concerning state and local tax matters.

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

The audited financial statements and related reports of PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, independent registered public accounting firm for the Portfolios, contained in the Portfolios’ 2019 Annual Report are hereby incorporated by reference. The audited financial statements in the Portfolios’ Annual Report have been incorporated herein by reference in reliance upon such report given upon the authority of such firm as experts in accounting and auditing. No other parts of any Annual Report are incorporated by reference herein. A copy of the Portfolios’ Annual Report may be obtained upon request and without charge by writing Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC, P.O. Box 06050, Chicago, Illinois 60606 or by calling Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC, at the telephone number on the back cover of the Portfolios’ Prospectuses.

PROXY VOTING

The Trust, on behalf of the Portfolios, has delegated the voting of portfolio securities to the Investment Adviser. For client accounts for which the Investment Adviser has voting discretion, the Investment Adviser has adopted policies and procedures (the “Proxy Voting Policy”) for the voting of proxies. Under the Proxy Voting Policy, the Investment Adviser’s guiding principles in performing proxy voting are to make decisions that favor proposals that in the Investment Adviser’s view tend to maximize a company’s shareholder value and are not influenced by conflicts of interest. To implement these guiding principles for investments in publicly-traded equities, the Investment Adviser has developed customized proxy voting guidelines (the “Guidelines”) that it generally applies when voting on behalf of client accounts. Attached as Appendix B is a summary of the Guidelines. These Guidelines address a wide variety of individual topics, including, among other matters, shareholder voting rights, anti-takeover defenses, board structures, the election of directors, executive and director compensation, reorganizations, mergers, issues of corporate social responsibility and various shareholder proposals. The Guidelines embody the positions and factors the Investment Adviser generally considers important in casting proxy votes.

The Proxy Voting Policy, including the Guidelines, is reviewed periodically to ensure that it continues to be consistent with the Investment Adviser’s guiding principles.

 

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The Investment Adviser has retained a third-party proxy voting service (“Proxy Service”), currently Institutional Shareholder Services, to assist in the implementation and administration of certain proxy voting-related functions including, without limitation, operational, recordkeeping and reporting services. The Proxy Service also prepares a written analysis and recommendation (a “Recommendation”) of each proxy vote that reflects the Proxy Service’s application of the Guidelines to particular proxy issues. While it is the Investment Adviser’s policy generally to follow the Guidelines and Recommendations from the Proxy Service, the Investment Adviser’s portfolio management teams (“Portfolio Management Teams”) may on certain proxy votes seek approval to diverge from the Guidelines or a Recommendation by following an “override” process. Such decisions are subject to a review and approval process, including a determination that the decision is not influenced by any conflict of interest. A Portfolio Management Team that receives approval through the override process to cast a proxy vote that diverges from the Guidelines and/or a Recommendation may vote differently than other Portfolio Management Teams that did not seek to override that vote. In forming their views on particular matters, the Portfolio Management Teams are also permitted to consider applicable regional rules and practices, including codes of conduct and other guides, regarding proxy voting, in addition to the Guidelines and Recommendations. The Investment Adviser may hire other service providers to replace or supplement the Proxy Service with respect to any of the services the Investment Adviser currently receives from the Proxy Service.

GSAM conducts periodic due diligence meetings with the Proxy Service which include, but are not limited to, a review of the Proxy Service’s general organizational structure, new developments with respect to research and technology, work flow improvements and internal due diligence with respect to conflicts of interest.

From time to time, the Investment Adviser may face regulatory, compliance, legal or logistical limits with respect to voting securities that it may purchase or hold for client accounts, which can affect the Investment Adviser’s ability to vote such proxies, as well as the desirability of voting such proxies. Among other limits, federal, state and foreign regulatory restrictions or company specific ownership limits, as well as legal matters related to consolidated groups, may restrict the total percentage of an issuer’s voting securities that the Investment Adviser can hold for clients and the nature of the Investment Adviser’s voting in such securities. The Investment Adviser’s ability to vote proxies may also be affected by, among other things: (i) late receipt of meeting notices; (ii) requirements to vote proxies in person: (iii) restrictions on a foreigner’s ability to exercise votes; (iv) potential difficulties in translating the proxy; (v) requirements to provide local agents with unrestricted powers of attorney to facilitate voting instructions; and (vi) requirements that investors who exercise their voting rights surrender the right to dispose of their holdings for some specified period in proximity to the shareholder meeting.

The Investment Adviser has adopted policies and procedures designed to prevent conflicts of interest from influencing its proxy voting decisions that the Investment Adviser makes on behalf of a client account. These policies and procedures include the Investment Adviser’s use of the Guidelines and Recommendations from the Proxy Service, the override approval process previously discussed, and the establishment of information barriers between the Investment Adviser and other businesses within The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. Notwithstanding such proxy voting policies and procedures, actual proxy voting decisions of the Investment Adviser may have the effect of benefitting the interests of other clients or businesses of other divisions or units of Goldman Sachs and/or its affiliates.

Voting decisions with respect to fixed income securities and the securities of privately held issuers generally will be made by an Underlying Fund’s managers based on their assessment of the particular transactions or other matters at issue.

Information regarding how the Portfolios and/or the Underlying Funds voted proxies relating to portfolio securities during the most recent 12-month period ended June 30 is available on or through the Portfolios’ and Underlying Funds’ website at www.gsam.com/content/gsam/us/en/advisors/resources/client-service/proxy-voting.html without charge and on the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov.

PAYMENTS TO OTHERS (INCLUDING INTERMEDIARIES)

The Investment Adviser, Distributor and/or their affiliates may make payments to Intermediaries from time to time to promote the sale, distribution and/or servicing of shares of a Fund, except that the Investment Adviser, Distributor and its affiliates do not make such payments on behalf of Class R6 Shares. These payments (“Additional Payments”) are made out of the Investment Adviser’s, Distributor’s and/or their affiliates’ own assets (which may come directly or indirectly from fees paid by a Fund), are not an additional charge to a Fund or its shareholders, and do not change the price paid by investors for the purchase of a Fund’s shares or the amount a Fund receives as proceeds from such purchases. Although paid by the Investment Adviser, Distributor, and/or their affiliates, the Additional Payments are in addition to the distribution and service fees paid by a Fund to the Intermediaries as described in a Fund’s Prospectus and this SAI, and are also in addition to the sales commissions payable to Intermediaries as set forth in the Prospectus. For purposes of this “Payments to Others (Including Intermediaries)” section, “Funds” shall mean, collectively, a Fund and any of the other Goldman Sachs Funds.

 

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The Additional Payments are intended to compensate Intermediaries for, among other things: marketing shares of a Fund, which may consist of payments relating to funds included on preferred or recommended fund lists or in certain sales programs from time to time sponsored by the Intermediaries; “due diligence” examination and/or review of the Funds from time to time; access to the Intermediaries’ registered representatives or salespersons, including at conferences and other meetings; assistance in training and education of personnel; “finders” or “referral fees” for directing investors to a Fund; marketing support fees for providing assistance in promoting the sale of Fund shares (which may include promotions in communications with the Intermediaries’ customers, registered representatives and salespersons); the support or purchase of technology platforms/software offered by the Investment Adviser, Distributor and/or their affiliates or third parties (which may be used by Intermediaries to provide advisory and/or brokerage services to their customers); provision of analytical or other data to the Investment Adviser or its affiliates relating to sales of shares of the Funds; and/or other specified services intended to assist in the distribution and marketing of a Fund, including provision of consultative services to the Investment Adviser or its affiliates relating to marketing of the Funds and/or sale of shares of the Funds. In addition, the Investment Adviser, Distributor and/or their affiliates may make Additional Payments (including through sub-transfer agency and networking agreements) for subaccounting, administrative and/or shareholder processing services that are in addition to the transfer agent, shareholder administration, servicing and processing fees paid by the Funds. These Additional Payments may exceed amounts earned on these assets by the Investment Adviser, Distributor and/or their affiliates for the performance of these or similar services. The Additional Payments may be a fixed dollar amount; may be based on the number of customer accounts maintained by an Intermediary; may be based on a percentage of the value of shares sold to, or held by, customers of the Intermediary involved; or may be calculated on another basis. The Additional Payments are negotiated with each Intermediary based on a range of factors, including but not limited to the Intermediary’s ability to attract and retain assets (including particular classes of Fund shares), target markets, customer relationships, quality of service and industry reputation. Although the individual components may be higher or lower and the total amount of Additional Payments made to any Intermediary in any given year will vary, the amount of these Additional Payments (excluding payments made through sub-transfer agency and networking agreements), on average, is normally not expected to exceed 0.50% (annualized) of the amount sold or invested through an Intermediary.

These Additional Payments may be significant to certain Intermediaries, and may be an important factor in an Intermediary’s willingness to support the sale of the Funds through its distribution system.

The Investment Adviser, Distributor and/or their affiliates may be motivated to make Additional Payments since they promote the sale of Fund shares to clients of Intermediaries and the retention of those investments by those clients. To the extent Intermediaries sell more shares of a Fund or retain shares of a Fund in their clients’ accounts, the Investment Adviser and Distributor benefit from the incremental management and other fees paid by a Fund with respect to those assets.

In addition, certain Intermediaries may have access to certain research and investment services from the Investment Adviser, Distributor and/or their affiliates. Such research and investment services (“Additional Services”) may include research reports; economic analysis; portfolio analysis, portfolio construction and similar tools and software; business planning services; certain marketing and investor education materials; and strategic asset allocation modeling. The Intermediary may not pay for these products or services or may only pay for a portion of the total cost of these products or services. The cost of the Additional Services and the particular services provided may vary from Intermediary to Intermediary.

The Additional Payments made by the Investment Adviser, Distributor and/or their affiliates or the Additional Services received by an Intermediary may vary with respect to the type of fund (e.g., equity, fund, fixed income fund, specialty fund, asset allocation portfolio or money market fund) sold by the Intermediary. In addition, the Additional Payment arrangements may include breakpoints in compensation which provide that the percentage rate of compensation varies as the dollar value of the amount sold or invested through an Intermediary increases.

The presence of these Additional Payments or Additional Services, the varying fee structure and the basis on which an Intermediary compensates its registered representatives or salespersons may create an incentive for a particular Intermediary, registered representative or salesperson to highlight, feature or recommend funds, including a Fund, or other investments based, at least in part, on the level of compensation paid. Additionally, if one mutual fund sponsor makes greater distribution payments than another, an Intermediary may have an incentive to recommend one fund complex over another. Similarly, if an Intermediary receives more distribution assistance for one share class versus another, that Intermediary may have an incentive to recommend that share class. Because Intermediaries may be paid varying amounts per class for sub-transfer agency and related recordkeeping services, the service requirements of which also may vary by class, this may create an additional incentive for financial firms and their financial advisors to favor one fund complex over another, or one fund class over another. You should consider whether such incentives exist when evaluating any recommendations from an Intermediary to purchase or sell Shares of a Fund and when considering which share class is most appropriate for you.

For the year ended December 31, 2018, the Investment Adviser, Distributor and their affiliates made Additional Payments out of their own assets to approximately 189 Intermediaries, totaling approximately $174.3 million (excluding payments made through sub-transfer agency and networking agreements and certain other types of payments described below), with respect to a Fund, Goldman Sachs Trust, all of the funds in an affiliated investment company, Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust, and Goldman Sachs Trust II. During the year ended December 31, 2018, the Investment Adviser, Distributor and/or their affiliates had contractual arrangements to make Additional Payments to the Intermediaries listed below (or their affiliates or successors), among others. This list will change over time, and any additions, modifications or deletions thereto that have occurred since December 31, 2018 are not reflected. Additional Intermediaries may receive payments in 2019 and in future years. Certain arrangements are still being negotiated, and there is a possibility that payments will be made retroactively to Intermediaries not listed below.

 

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ADP Broker-Dealer, Inc.

ADP LLC

ADP, Inc.

Alight Solutions LLC (f/k/a Hewitt Associates LLC)

Allstate Life Insurance Company

Allstate Life Insurance Company of New York

Amalgamated Bank of Chicago

American Enterprise Investment Services, Inc. (AEIS)

American National Trust and Investment Management Company dba Old National Trust Company (Oltrust & Co.)

American United Life Insurance Company

Ascensus, LLC.

Associated Trust Company, N.A.

AXA Equitable Life Insurance Company

Banc of America Securities LLC

BancorpSouth

Bank of New York

Bankers Trust Company

BB&T Capital Markets

BMO Harris Bank N.A.

BMO Nesbitt Burns

BNP Paribas, Acting Through its NY Branch

BNY Mellon National Association

BOSC, Inc.

Branch Banking and Trust Company

Brighthouse Life Insurance Company

Brown Brothers Harriman & Co.

C.M. Life Insurance Company

California Department of Human Resources

Cetera Financial Group