Form 497 GOLDMAN SACHS TRUST

December 14, 2020 5:26 PM

PART B

STATEMENT OF ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

DATED APRIL 29, 2020, AS SUPPLEMENTED DECEMBER 14, 2020

 

     CLASS A    CLASS C    INSTITUTIONAL    INVESTOR    CLASS R    CLASS R6    SERVICE    CLASS P

FUND

   SHARES    SHARES    SHARES    SHARES    SHARES    SHARES    SHARES    SHARES

GOLDMAN SACHS ABSOLUTE RETURN TRACKER FUND

   GARTX    GCRTX    GJRTX    GSRTX    GRRTX    GARUX       GSGPX

GOLDMAN SACHS COMMODITY STRATEGY FUND

   GSCAX    GSCCX    GCCIX    GCCTX    GCCRX    GCCUX       GGRPX

GOLDMAN SACHS ALTERNATIVE PREMIA FUND

   GDAFX    GDCFX    GDIFX    GDHFX    GDRFX    GDHUX       GSSPX

GOLDMAN SACHS MANAGED FUTURES STRATEGY FUND

   GMSAX    GMSCX    GMSSX    GFIRX    GFFRX    GMSWX       GMQPX

GOLDMAN SACHS REAL ESTATE SECURITIES FUND

   GREAX    GRECX    GREIX    GRETX    GRERX    GREUX    GRESX    GMJPX

GOLDMAN SACHS INTERNATIONAL REAL ESTATE SECURITIES FUND

   GIRAX    GIRCX    GIRIX    GIRTX       GIRUX       GGEPX

GOLDMAN SACHS GLOBAL REAL ESTATE SECURITIES FUND

   GARGX    GARKX    GARSX    GARJX    GARHX    GARVX       GGUPX

GOLDMAN SACHS GLOBAL INFRASTRUCTURE FUND

   GGIAX    GGICX    GGIDX    GGINX    GGIEX    GGIJX       GGWPX

GOLDMAN SACHS U.S. EQUITY DIVIDEND AND PREMIUM FUND

   GSPAX    GSPQX    GSPKX    GVIRX       GIDWX       GSFPX

GOLDMAN SACHS INTERNATIONAL EQUITY DIVIDEND AND PREMIUM FUND

   GIDAX    GIDCX    GIDHX    GIRVX       GIDUX       GGHPX

GOLDMAN SACHS U.S. TAX-MANAGED EQUITY FUND

   GCTAX    GCTCX    GCTIX    GQIRX       GCTRX    GCTSX    GSDPX

GOLDMAN SACHS INTERNATIONAL TAX- MANAGED EQUITY FUND

   GATMX    GCTMX    GHTMX    GITRX       GHTRX       GGCPX

(Alternative, Real Estate Securities and Tax-Advantaged Equity Funds of Goldman Sachs Trust)

71 South Wacker Drive

Chicago, Illinois 60606

This Statement of Additional Information (the “SAI”) is not a prospectus. This SAI should be read in conjunction with the prospectuses for the Goldman Sachs Absolute Return Tracker Fund, Goldman Sachs Commodity Strategy Fund, Goldman Sachs Alternative Premia Fund, Goldman Sachs Managed Futures Strategy Fund, Goldman Sachs Real Estate Securities Fund, Goldman Sachs International Real Estate Securities Fund, Goldman Sachs Global Real Estate Securities Fund, Goldman Sachs Global Infrastructure Fund, Goldman Sachs U.S. Equity Dividend and Premium Fund, Goldman Sachs International Equity Dividend and Premium Fund, Goldman Sachs U.S. Tax-Managed Equity Fund, and Goldman Sachs International Tax-Managed Equity Fund, each dated April 29, 2020, as they may be further amended and/or supplemented from time to time (the “Prospectuses”), and which may be obtained without charge from Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC by calling the applicable telephone number, or writing to one of the addresses, listed below or from institutions (“Intermediaries”) acting on behalf of their customers.


The audited financial statements and related report of PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, independent registered public accounting firm for each Fund, contained in each Fund’s 2019 Annual Report, are incorporated herein by reference in the section “FINANCIAL STATEMENTS.” No other portions of each Fund’s Annual Report are incorporated by reference herein. A Fund’s Annual Report may be obtained upon request and without charge by calling Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC toll-free at 1-800-526-7384 (for Class A, Class C, Investor and Class R Shareholders) or 1-800-621-2550 (for Class R6, Institutional, Service and Class P Shareholders). GSAM® is a registered service mark of Goldman Sachs & Co LLC.

 


TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

INTRODUCTION

     B-1  

INVESTMENT OBJECTIVES AND POLICIES

     B-1  

DESCRIPTION OF INVESTMENT SECURITIES AND PRACTICES

     B-9  

INVESTMENT RESTRICTIONS

     B-54  

TRUSTEES AND OFFICERS

     B-62  

MANAGEMENT SERVICES

     B-75  

POTENTIAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST

     B-92  

PORTFOLIO TRANSACTIONS AND BROKERAGE

     B-105  

NET ASSET VALUE

     B-109  

SHARES OF THE TRUST

     B-111  

TAXATION

     B-115  

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

     B-122  

PROXY VOTING

     B-123  

PAYMENTS TO INTERMEDIARIES

     B-124  

OTHER INFORMATION

     B-129  

DISTRIBUTION AND SERVICE PLANS

     B-133  

OTHER INFORMATION REGARDING MAXIMUM SALES CHARGE, PURCHASES, REDEMPTIONS, EXCHANGES AND DIVIDENDS

     B-136  

SERVICE PLAN AND SHAREHOLDER ADMINISTRATION PLAN

     B-140  

CONTROL PERSONS AND PRINCIPAL HOLDERS OF SECURITIES

     B-141  

APPENDIX A DESCRIPTION OF SECURITIES RATINGS

     1-A  

APPENDIX B GSAM PROXY VOTING GUIDELINES SUMMARY

     1-B  

APPENDIX C STATEMENT OF INTENTION

     1-C  

 

i


GOLDMAN SACHS ASSET MANAGEMENT, L.P.

Investment Adviser

200 West Street

New York, New York 10282

GOLDMAN SACHS & CO. LLC

Distributor

200 West Street

New York, New York 10282

GOLDMAN SACHS & CO. LLC

Transfer Agent

71 South Wacker Drive

Chicago, Illinois 60606

Toll-free (in U.S.) 800-526-7384 (for Class A, Class C, Investor and Class R Shareholders) or 800-621-2550 (for Class R6, Institutional, Service and Class P Shareholders).

 

 

ii


INTRODUCTION

Goldman Sachs Trust (the “Trust”) is an open-end management investment company. The Trust is organized as a Delaware statutory trust and was established by a Declaration of Trust dated January 28, 1997. The Trust is a successor to a Massachusetts business trust that was combined with the Trust on April 30, 1997. The following series of the Trust are described in this SAI: Goldman Sachs Absolute Return Tracker Fund (“Absolute Return Tracker Fund”), Goldman Sachs Commodity Strategy Fund (“Commodity Strategy Fund”), Goldman Sachs Alternative Premia Fund (prior to October 30, 2017, Goldman Sachs Dynamic Allocation Fund) (“Alternative Premia Fund”), Goldman Sachs Managed Futures Strategy Fund (“Managed Futures Strategy Fund”), Goldman Sachs Real Estate Securities Fund (“Real Estate Securities Fund”), Goldman Sachs International Real Estate Securities Fund (“International Real Estate Securities Fund”), Goldman Sachs Global Real Estate Securities Fund (“Global Real Estate Securities Fund”), Goldman Sachs Global Infrastructure Fund (“Global Infrastructure Fund”), Goldman Sachs U.S. Equity Dividend and Premium Fund (“U.S. Equity Dividend and Premium Fund”), Goldman Sachs International Equity Dividend and Premium Fund (“International Equity Dividend and Premium Fund”), Goldman Sachs U.S. Tax-Managed Equity Fund (prior to April 30, 2014, the Goldman Sachs Structured Tax-Managed Equity Fund) (“U.S. Tax-Managed Equity Fund”), and Goldman Sachs International Tax-Managed Equity Fund (prior to April 30, 2014, the Goldman Sachs Structured International Tax-Managed Equity Fund) (“International Tax-Managed Equity Fund”) (collectively referred to herein as the “Funds”).

The Trustees of the Trust have authority under the Declaration of Trust to create and classify shares into separate series and to classify and reclassify any series or portfolio of shares into one or more classes without further action by shareholders, and have created the Funds and other series pursuant thereto. Additional series may be added in the future from time to time. The Real Estate Securities Fund currently offers eight classes of shares: Class A Shares, Class C Shares, Class R Shares, Investor Shares, Class R6 Shares, Institutional Shares, Service Shares and Class P Shares. The Absolute Return Tracker Fund, Commodity Strategy Fund, Alternative Premia Fund, Global Infrastructure Fund, Global Real Estate Securities Fund and Managed Futures Strategy Fund currently offer seven classes of shares: Class A Shares, Class C Shares, Class R Shares, Investor Shares, Class R6 Shares, Institutional Shares and Class P Shares. The U.S. Tax-Managed Equity Fund currently offers seven classes of shares: Class A Shares, Class C Shares, Investor Shares, Class R6 Shares, Institutional Shares, Service Shares and Class P Shares. The International Real Estate Securities Fund, U.S. Equity Dividend and Premium Fund, International Equity Dividend and Premium Fund and International Tax-Managed Equity Fund currently offer six classes of shares: Class A Shares, Class C Shares, Investor Shares, Class R6 Shares, Institutional Shares and Class P Shares. See “SHARES OF THE TRUST.” Prior to August 15, 2017, Investor Shares were named Class IR Shares.

Goldman Sachs Asset Management, L.P. (“GSAM” or the “Investment Adviser”), an affiliate of Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC (“Goldman Sachs”), serves as the investment adviser to the Funds. In addition, Goldman Sachs serves as each Fund’s distributor (the “Distributor”) and transfer agent (the “Transfer Agent”). JPMorgan Chase Bank, N.A. (“JPMorgan Chase”) serves as custodian to each Fund except for the Global Infrastructure Fund. The Global Infrastructure Fund’s custodian is The Bank of New York Mellon (“BNYM”).

The following information relates to and supplements the description of each Fund’s investment policies contained in the Prospectuses. See the Prospectuses for a more complete description of the Funds’ investment objectives and policies. Investing in the Funds entails certain risks and there is no assurance that a Fund will achieve its objective. Capitalized terms used but not defined herein have the same meaning as in the Prospectuses.

INVESTMENT OBJECTIVES AND POLICIES

Each Fund has a distinct investment objective and policies. There can be no assurance that a Fund’s investment objective will be achieved. Each of the Absolute Return Tracker Fund, Commodity Strategy Fund, Alternative Premia Fund, Managed Futures Strategy Fund, U.S. Equity Dividend and Premium Fund, International Equity Dividend and Premium Fund, U.S. Tax-Managed Equity Fund and International Tax-Managed Equity Fund is a diversified, open-end management investment company as defined in the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “Act” or “1940 Act”). Each of the Global Infrastructure Fund, Real Estate Securities Fund and International Real Estate Securities Fund is a non-diversified, open-end management investment company (as defined in the Act). The investment objective and policies of each Fund, and the associated risks of each Fund, are discussed in the Funds’ Prospectuses, which should be read carefully before an investment is made. All investment objectives and investment policies not specifically designated as fundamental may be changed without shareholder approval. However, shareholders will be provided with sixty (60) days’ notice in the manner prescribed by the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) before any change in each of the Global Infrastructure Fund’s, Real Estate Securities Fund’s, International Real Estate Securities Fund’s, Global Real Estate Securities Fund’s, U.S. Equity Dividend and Premium Fund’s, International Equity Dividend and Premium Fund’s, U.S. Tax-Managed Equity Fund’s or International Tax-Managed Equity Fund’s policy to invest at least 80% of its net assets plus any borrowings for investment purposes (measured at the time of purchase) (“Net Assets”) in the particular type of investment suggested by its name. Additional information about the Funds, their policies, and the investment instruments they may hold, is provided below.

 

B-1


Each Fund’s share price will fluctuate with market, economic and, to the extent applicable, foreign exchange conditions, so that an investment in any of the Funds may be worth more or less when redeemed than when purchased. None of the Funds should be relied upon as a complete investment program.

Each of the Absolute Return Tracker Fund, Commodity Strategy Fund, Alternative Premia Fund and Managed Futures Strategy Fund may pursue its investment objective by investing up to 25% of its total assets in a wholly-owned subsidiary organized under the laws of the Cayman Islands (with respect to the Absolute Return Tracker Fund, the “ART Subsidiary,” with respect to the Commodity Strategy Fund, the “CSF Subsidiary,” with respect to the Alternative Premia Fund, the “AP Subsidiary,” with respect to the Managed Futures Strategy Fund, the “MFS Subsidiary” and together, the “Subsidiaries”). The Subsidiaries are advised by GSAM and are generally subject to the same fundamental, non-fundamental and certain other investment restrictions as the Absolute Return Tracker Fund, Commodity Strategy Fund, Alternative Premia Fund or Managed Futures Strategy Fund, as applicable; however, the Subsidiaries (unlike the Funds) are able to invest without limitation in commodity index-linked securities and other commodity-linked securities and derivative instruments. Each Fund and its respective Subsidiary test for compliance with certain investment restrictions on a consolidated basis, except that with respect to its investments in certain securities that may involve leverage, each Subsidiary complies with requirements to identify cash or liquid assets on its books to the same extent as the Funds. For more information about these practices, see “DESCRIPTION OF INVESTMENT SECURITIES AND PRACTICES—Asset Segregation.” By investing in the Subsidiaries, each Fund is indirectly exposed to the risks associated with its respective Subsidiary’s investments. The derivatives and other investments held by the Subsidiaries are subject to the same risks that would apply to similar investments if held directly by the Funds. See below “DESCRIPTION OF INVESTMENT SECURITIES AND PRACTICES—Investments in the Wholly-Owned Subsidiaries” for a more detailed discussion of the Subsidiaries.

The Trust, on behalf of the Global Infrastructure Fund, U.S. Equity Dividend and Premium Fund, U.S. Tax-Managed Equity Fund and Global Real Estate Securities Fund, has filed a notice of eligibility claiming an exclusion from the definition of the term “commodity pool operator” (“CPO”) under the Commodity Exchange Act (“CEA”) and therefore is not subject to registration or regulation as a CPO under the CEA.

The Investment Adviser is subject to registration and regulation as a CPO under the CEA with respect to its service as investment adviser to the Absolute Return Tracker Fund, Commodity Strategy Fund, Alternative Premia Fund, Managed Futures Strategy Fund and the Subsidiaries. The Investment Adviser is exempt from certain Commodity Futures Trading Commission (“CFTC”) recordkeeping, reporting and disclosure requirements under CFTC Rule 4.7 with respect to the Subsidiaries.

In addition, the Investment Adviser has claimed temporary relief from registration as a CPO under the CEA for the International Real Estate Securities Fund, Real Estate Securities Fund, International Equity Dividend and Premium Fund and International Tax-Managed Equity Fund, and therefore is not subject to registration or regulation as a CPO under the CEA.

The following discussion supplements the information in the Funds’ Prospectuses.

General Information Regarding the Funds (except the Managed Futures Strategy Fund)

The Investment Adviser may purchase for the Funds common stocks, preferred stocks, interests in real estate investment trusts (“REITs”) and, with respect to the Real Estate Securities Fund, International Real Estate Securities Fund and Global Real Estate Securities Fund, other real estate industry companies, including REIT-like entities or real estate operating companies whose products and services are related to the real estate industry, convertible debt obligations, convertible preferred stocks, equity interests in trusts, partnerships, joint ventures, limited liability companies and similar enterprises, shares of other investment companies (including exchange-traded funds (“ETFs”)), warrants and stock purchase rights and synthetic and derivative instruments (such as swaps and futures contracts) that have economic characteristics similar to equity securities (“equity investments”). The Investment Adviser utilizes first-hand fundamental research, including visiting company facilities to assess operations and to meet decision-makers, in choosing a Fund’s securities. The Investment Adviser may also use macro analysis of numerous economic and valuation variables to anticipate changes in company earnings and the overall investment climate. The Investment Adviser is able to draw on the research and market expertise of the Goldman Sachs Global Investment Research Department and other affiliates of the Investment Adviser, as well as information provided by other securities dealers. Equity investments in a Fund’s portfolio will generally be sold when the Investment Adviser believes that the market price fully reflects or exceeds the investments’ fundamental valuation or when other more attractive investments are identified. For the Alternative Premia Fund, U.S. Tax-Managed Equity Fund, and International Tax-Managed Equity Fund, the Investment Adviser utilizes advanced quantitative tools for both stock selection and portfolio construction. For rebalancings, the computer optimizer calculates numerous security combinations and numerous weightings to identify an efficient risk/return given the Fund’s benchmark.

 

B-2


Absolute Return Tracker Fund

The Absolute Return Tracker Fund’s investment objective is to seek to deliver long-term total return consistent with investment results that approximate the return and risk patterns of a diversified universe of hedge funds. The Fund’s Investment Adviser believes that hedge funds derive a large portion of their returns from exposure to sources of market risk (“Market Exposures”) and “Trading Strategies” involving long and/or short positions in Market Exposures and/or individual securities or baskets of securities. In seeking to meet its investment objective, the Fund uses a dynamic investment process to seek to identify the appropriate weights to Market Exposures and Trading Strategies that approximate the return and risk patterns of specific hedge fund sub-strategies. The hedge fund sub-strategies whose returns the Fund seeks to approximate include, but are not limited to, Equity Long Short, Event Driven, Relative Value, and Macro sub-strategies (each a “Hedge Fund Sub-Strategy”). To establish the Market Exposures and Trading Strategies that drive the returns of the Hedge Fund Sub-Strategies the Investment Adviser uses industry analysis of hedge funds, including hedge fund return databases, prime brokerage reports, industry participants and regulatory filings and other public sources. The Investment Adviser then applies a quantitative methodology, in combination with a qualitative overlay, to assess the appropriate weight to each Market Exposure and Trading Strategy. The Fund may seek to establish long and/or short positions in a multitude of Market Exposures, including but not limited to:

 

   

U.S. and non-U.S. (including emerging market) equity indices;

 

   

U.S. and non-U.S. (including emerging market) fixed income indices;

 

   

Credit indices;

 

   

Interest rates;

 

   

Commodity indices;

 

   

Master limited partnership (“MLP”) indices;

 

   

Foreign currency exchange rates;

 

   

Baskets of top positions held by hedge funds;

 

   

Single stocks and single commodities;

 

   

Volatility; and

 

   

Market momentum / trends.

The Fund invests in instruments that the Investment Adviser believes will assist the Fund in gaining exposure to the Market Exposures. The instruments in which the Fund may invest include, but are not limited to:

 

   

Equity securities (including securities that may convert into equity securities);

 

   

U.S. corporate bonds and other fixed income securities (including non-investment grade fixed income securities);

 

   

Futures (including equity index futures, interest rate futures, bond futures and volatility futures);

 

   

Swaps (including total return swaps and credit default swaps on indices);

 

   

Options (including listed equity index put and call options, listed government bond future put and call options and swaptions);

 

   

Structured notes (including commodity linked notes);

 

   

ETFs;

 

   

Forward contracts (including currency forward contracts on developed and emerging markets currencies);

 

   

Wholly-owned subsidiary;

 

   

Asset and mortgage-backed securities and REITs

 

   

U.S. Government Securities (as defined below), including agency debentures, and other high quality debt securities; and

 

   

Cash equivalents.

The Fund seeks to gain exposure to the commodities markets by investing in the ART Subsidiary. The ART Subsidiary is advised by the Investment Adviser and seeks to gain commodities exposure. The Fund may invest up to 25% of its total assets in the ART Subsidiary. The ART Subsidiary primarily obtains its commodity exposure by investing in commodity-linked derivative instruments (which may include total return swaps on commodity indexes, sub-indexes and single commodities, as well as commodity (U.S. or foreign) futures, commodity options and commodity-linked notes). Commodity-linked swaps are derivative instruments whereby the cash flows agreed upon between counterparties are dependent upon the price of the underlying commodity or commodity index over the life of the swap. Commodity futures contracts are standardized, exchange-traded contracts that provide for the sale or purchase of, or economic exposure to the price of, a commodity or a specified basket of commodities at a future time. An option on commodities gives the purchaser the right (and the writer of the option the obligation) to assume a position in a commodity or a specified basket of commodities at a specified exercise price within a specified period of time. The value of these commodity-linked derivatives will rise and fall in response to changes in the underlying commodity or commodity index. Commodity-linked derivatives expose the ART Subsidiary and the Fund economically to movements in commodity prices. Such instruments may be leveraged so that small changes in

 

B-3


the underlying commodity prices would result in disproportionate changes in the value of the instrument. Neither the Fund nor the ART Subsidiary invests directly in physical commodities. The ART Subsidiary may also invest in other instruments, including fixed income securities, either as investments or to serve as margin or collateral for its swap positions, and foreign currency transactions (including forward contracts).

The Fund may from time to time hold foreign currencies. Additionally, as a result of the Fund’s use of derivatives, the Fund may also hold as collateral significant amounts of U.S. Department of the Treasury (“U.S. Treasury”) or short-term investments, including money market funds, repurchase agreements, cash and time deposits. In managing the collateral portion of the Fund’s investment strategy, the Investment Adviser generally seeks capital preservation.

The weighting of a Market Exposure or Trading Strategy within the Fund may be positive or negative. A negative weighting will result from establishing a short position with respect to a Market Exposure or Trading Strategy. As a result of the Fund’s negative weightings in various Market Exposures from time to time, the Fund’s net asset value (“NAV”) per share may decline during certain periods, even if the value of any or all of the Market Exposures or Trading Strategies increases during that time. Additionally, the sum of the Fund’s target weightings to each Market Exposure or Trading Strategy may not equal 100%.

The Fund does not invest in hedge funds.

From time to time, the Investment Adviser will monitor, and may make changes to, the selection or weight of individual or groups of securities, currencies or markets in the Fund. Such changes (which may be the result of changes in the Fund’s quantitative methodology, the manner of applying the Fund’s quantitative methodology or the judgment of the Investment Adviser) may include: (i) evolutionary changes to the structure of Fund’s quantitative methodology (e.g., changing the methodology, adding or removing asset classes); (ii) changes in trading procedures (e.g., trading frequency or the manner in which the Fund uses futures); or (iii) changes to the weight of individual or groups of securities, currencies or markets in the Fund based on the Investment Adviser’s judgment. Any such changes will preserve the Fund’s basic investment philosophy of combining qualitative and quantitative methods of selecting investments using a disciplined investment process.

Commodity Strategy Fund

The Commodity Strategy Fund’s investment objective is to seek long-term total return. The Fund primarily gains exposure to the commodities markets by investing in the CSF Subsidiary. The CSF Subsidiary primarily obtains its commodity exposure by investing in commodity-linked derivative instruments (which may include total return swaps), which expose the CSF Subsidiary and the Fund economically to movements in commodity prices.

The Commodity Strategy Fund seeks to provide exposure to the commodities markets by investing, through the CSF Subsidiary, in commodity-linked investments whose returns seek to correspond to the performance of commodities indices, including the S&P GSCI Total Return Index (Gross, USD, Unhedged) (“S&P GSCI”), or components of these indices. The S&P GSCI is a composite index of commodity sector returns, representing an unleveraged, long-only investment in commodity futures that is diversified across the spectrum of commodities. The returns are calculated on a fully-collateralized basis with full reinvestment. The combination of these attributes provides investors with a representative and realistic picture of realizable returns attainable in the commodity markets. Individual components qualify for inclusion in the S&P GSCI on the basis of liquidity and are weighted by their respective world production quantities. The principles behind the construction of the index are public and designed to allow easy and cost-efficient investment implementation. Possible means of implementation include the purchase of S&P GSCI-related instruments, such as the S&P GSCI futures contract traded on the Chicago Mercantile Exchange (CME) or over-the-counter derivatives, or the direct purchase of the underlying futures contracts. In pursuing its objective, the Commodity Strategy Fund attempts to provide long and/or short exposure to the returns of real assets that trade in the commodity markets without direct investment in physical commodities. The Fund uses the S&P GSCI as its performance benchmark, but the Fund is actively managed and will not attempt to replicate the index. The Commodity Strategy Fund may, therefore, invest in securities that are not included in the S&P GSCI or seek to hedge the exposure of components of the S&P GSCI. The weights for the 2019 S&P GSCI are as follows:

Energy: 61.20%

Industrial Metals: 10.04%

Precious Metals: 5.03%

Agriculture: 16.50%

Livestock: 7.30%

The Fund also attempts to enhance returns by investing in fixed income securities. The Fund may invest in U.S. Government Securities, corporate debt securities, privately issued mortgage-backed securities, asset-backed securities and structured notes based on the performance of a broad-based commodities index and other commodity-linked derivative securities.

 

B-4


Alternative Premia Fund

The Alternative Premia Fund seeks to provide exposure to Alternative Risk Premia using both long and short positions within a variety of asset classes. Alternative Risk Premia are multi-asset, quantitatively-driven investment strategies that seek to capture diversified sources of returns. The Fund also seeks to maintain a consistent level of volatility over the long term.

The Investment Adviser’s Quantitative Investment Strategies Team (“QIS Team”) uses a disciplined, rigorous and quantitative approach, in combination with a qualitative overlay, in allocating to, and within, the Alternative Risk Premia in which the Fund invests.

The Investment Adviser may, in its discretion, make changes to the quantitative methodology used by the Fund, and the Fund may use other proprietary methodologies based on the Investment Adviser’s proprietary research. Additionally, the Investment Adviser may add new and remove existing Alternative Risk Premia from time to time in its sole discretion.

The Fund may gain exposure to the commodities markets by investing in the AP Subsidiary. The AP Subsidiary is advised by the Investment Adviser and seeks to gain commodities exposure. The Fund may invest up to 25% of its total assets in the AP Subsidiary. The AP Subsidiary primarily obtains its commodity exposure by investing in commodity-linked derivative instruments, which may include but are not limited to total return swaps, commodity (U.S. or foreign) futures and commodity-linked notes. Commodity-linked swaps are derivative instruments whereby the cash flows agreed upon between counterparties are dependent upon the price of the underlying commodity or commodity index over the life of the swap. Commodity futures contracts are standardized, exchange-traded contracts that provide for the sale or purchase of, or economic exposure to the price of, a commodity or a specified basket of commodities at a future time. The value of these commodity-linked derivatives will rise and fall in response to changes in the underlying commodity or commodity index. Commodity-linked derivatives expose the AP Subsidiary and the Fund economically to movements in commodity prices. Such instruments may be leveraged so that small changes in the underlying commodity prices would result in disproportionate changes in the value of the instrument. Neither the Fund nor the AP Subsidiary invests directly in physical commodities. The AP Subsidiary may also invest in other instruments, including fixed income securities, either as investments or to serve as margin or collateral for its swap positions, and foreign currency transactions (including forward contracts).

From time to time, the Investment Adviser will monitor, and may make changes to, the selection or weight of individual or groups of securities, currencies or markets in the Fund. Such changes (which may be the result of changes in the Investment Adviser’s Alternative Risk Premia, the method of applying the Alternative Risk Premia or the judgment of the Investment Adviser) may include: (i) evolutionary changes to the structure of the Alternative Risk Premia (e.g., the addition of new factors or a new means of weighting the factors); (ii) changes in trading procedures (e.g., trading frequency or the manner in which the Fund uses futures); or (iii) changes to the weight of individual or groups of securities, currencies or markets in the Fund based on the Investment Adviser’s judgment.

Global Infrastructure Fund

The Global Infrastructure Fund’s investment objective is to seek total return comprised of long-term growth of capital and income.

The Fund will invest primarily in the common stock of issuers that are engaged in or related to the infrastructure group or industries (“infrastructure companies”). An issuer is engaged in or related to the infrastructure group of industries if it is involved in the ownership, development, construction, renovation, financing, management, sale or operation of infrastructure assets, or that provide the services and raw materials necessary for the construction and maintenance of infrastructure assets. Infrastructure assets include, but are not limited to, utilities, energy, transportation, real estate, media, telecommunications and capital goods.

The Fund will invest in the securities of infrastructure companies that are economically tied to at least three countries, including the United States. Although the Fund will invest, under normal circumstances, primarily in the securities of infrastructure companies that are economically tied to developed countries (namely developed countries in North America and Europe), the Fund may also invest in the securities of infrastructure companies that are economically tied to emerging countries.

Real Estate Securities, International Real Estate Securities and Global Real Estate Securities Funds

The investment objective of each of the Real Estate Securities Fund, International Real Estate Securities Fund and Global Real Estate Securities Fund is to seek total return comprised of long-term growth of capital and dividend income.

The investment strategy of each Fund is based on the premise that property market fundamentals are the primary determinant of growth which underlies the success of companies in the real estate industry. Each Fund’s research and investment process focuses on companies that can achieve sustainable growth in cash flow and dividend paying capability over time. This process is comprised of real estate market research and securities analysis. The Investment Adviser will take into account fundamental trends in underlying property markets as determined by proprietary models, research of local real estate market, earnings, cash flow growth and stability, the relationship between asset values and market prices of the securities and dividend payment history. The Investment Adviser will attempt to purchase securities so that its underlying portfolio will be varied geographically and by property type.

 

B-5


U.S. Equity Dividend and Premium and International Equity Dividend and Premium Funds

The U.S. Equity Dividend and Premium Fund’s investment objective is to seek to maximize income and total return. The International Equity Dividend and Premium Fund’s investment objective is to seek to maximize total return with an emphasis on income.

Stock Selection and Portfolio Construction. The U.S. Equity Dividend and Premium Fund seeks to maintain an equity portfolio that will produce a gross return similar to that of its equity benchmark, the S&P 500® Index. The International Equity Dividend and Premium Fund seeks to maintain an equity portfolio that will produce a gross return similar to that of its equity benchmark, the Morgan Stanley Capital International (MSCI) Europe, Australasia, Far East (EAFE) Index (Net, USD, Unhedged). However, because of the impact of call options written by each Fund, the return of each Fund is not expected to closely track its benchmark, even if the return of the portfolio securities held by each Fund resembles the return of the benchmark. In addition, the return of each Fund may trail the return of its benchmark for short or extended periods of time.

Generally, each Fund will seek to hold certain of the higher dividend paying stocks within each industry and sector while still maintaining industry and sector weights that are similar to those of its benchmark. The Investment Adviser will consider annualized dividend yields, scheduled dividend record dates and any extraordinary dividends when evaluating securities. The Investment Adviser will generally not seek to outperform the benchmark through active security selection.

The Investment Adviser will use proprietary quantitative techniques, including optimization tools, a risk model, and a transactions cost model, in combination with a qualitative overlay, in identifying a portfolio of stocks that it believes may enhance expected dividend yield while limiting deviations when compared to the benchmark. As a result of the qualitative overlay, a Fund’s investments may not correspond to those generated by the Investment Adviser’s proprietary models for a number of reasons including, but not limited to, corporate actions (e.g., reorganizations, mergers and buy-outs), industry events and/or trading liquidity. Each Fund may invest in stocks other than those generated by the Investment Adviser’s proprietary models, at the discretion of the Investment Adviser. In addition, the Investment Adviser may, in its discretion, make changes to its quantitative techniques, or use other quantitative techniques that are based on the Investment Adviser’s proprietary research. Deviations are constrained with regards to position sizes, industry weights, sector weights, volatility as compared to the market (i.e., Beta) and estimated tracking error.

From time to time, the Investment Adviser will monitor, and may make changes to, the selection or weight of individual or groups of securities, currencies or markets in a Fund. Such changes (which may be the result of changes in the quantitative techniques, the manner of applying these quantitative techniques or the judgment of the Investment Adviser) may include: (i) evolutionary changes to the structure of these quantitative techniques (e.g., changing the calculation of the algorithm); (ii) changes in trading procedures (e.g., trading frequency or the manner in which a Fund uses options); or (iii) changes to the weight of individual or groups of securities, currencies or markets in a Fund based on the Investment Adviser’s judgment. Any such changes will preserve a Fund’s basic investment philosophy of combining qualitative and quantitative methods of selecting investments using a disciplined investment process.

Call Writing. Each Fund will regularly write call options in order to generate additional cash flow. It is anticipated that the calls will typically be written against the relevant Fund’s benchmark or against ETFs linked to the relevant benchmark or against other national or regional indices. The goal of each Fund’s call writing is to generate an amount of premium that, when annualized and added to each Fund’s expected dividend yield, provides an attractive level of cash flow. Call writing, however, entails certain risks.

The Investment Adviser anticipates generally writing index call options, or call options on ETFs, with expirations of three months or less. Outstanding call options will be rolled forward upon expiration, so that there will generally be some options outstanding.

U.S. Tax-Managed Equity and International Tax-Managed Equity Funds

The U.S. Tax-Managed Equity Fund’s investment objective is to seek to provide long-term after-tax growth of capital through tax-sensitive participation in a broadly diversified portfolio of U.S. equity securities. The International Tax-Managed Equity Fund’s investment objective is to seek to provide long-term after-tax growth of capital through tax-sensitive participation in a broadly diversified portfolio of international equity securities.

Quantitative Style. The U.S. Tax-Managed Equity and International Tax-Managed Equity Funds are managed using both quantitative and fundamental techniques, and, from time to time in the Investment Adviser’s discretion, in combination with a qualitative overlay. The Funds’ investment process and the proprietary multifactor models used to implement it are discussed below.

Investment Process. The Investment Adviser begins with a broad universe of U.S. equity investments for the U.S. Tax-Managed Equity Fund, and international equity investments for the International Tax-Managed Equity Fund. As described more fully below, the Investment Adviser uses proprietary multifactor models (the “Multifactor Models”) to forecast the returns of individual securities.

 

B-6


The Multifactor Models rely on some or all of the following investment pillars and themes to forecast the returns of individual securities (although additional pillars or themes may be added in the future without prior notice):

 

   

Fundamental Mispricings

 

   

Valuation: The Valuation theme attempts to capture potential mispricings of securities, typically by comparing a measure of the company’s intrinsic value to its market value.

 

   

High Quality Business Models

 

   

Profitability: The Profitability theme seeks to assess whether a company is earning more than its cost of capital.

 

   

Quality: The Quality theme assesses both firm and management quality.

 

   

Management: The Management theme assesses the characteristics, policies and strategic decisions of company management.

 

   

Market Themes and Trends

 

   

Momentum: The Momentum theme seeks to predict drifts in stock prices caused by delayed investor reaction to company-specific information and information about related companies.

 

   

Sentiment Analysis

 

   

Sentiment: The Sentiment theme reflects selected investment views and decisions of individuals and financial intermediaries.

In building a diversified portfolio for the U.S. Tax-Managed Equity and International Tax-Managed Equity Funds, the Investment Adviser utilizes optimization techniques to seek to construct the most efficient risk/return portfolio given each Fund’s benchmark. Each Fund’s portfolio is primarily composed of securities that the Investment Adviser believes maximizes the portfolio’s risk/return tradeoff and has risk characteristics and industry weightings similar to that of the Russell 3000® Index for the U.S. Tax-Managed Equity Fund, and the MSCI EAFE Index for the International Tax-Managed Equity Fund.

Multifactor Models. The Multifactor Models are systematic rating systems that seek to forecast the returns of different equity markets, currencies and individual equity investments according to fundamental and other investment characteristics. Each Fund uses one or more Multifactor Models (and, from time to time in the Investment Adviser’s discretion, in combination with a qualitative overlay) that seek to forecast the returns of securities in its portfolio. Each Multifactor Model may incorporate common variables including, but not limited to, measures of value, price, momentum, profitability, quality, management and sentiment. The Investment Adviser believes that all of the factors used in the Multifactor Models impact the performance of the securities, currencies and markets in the forecast universe. As a result of the qualitative overlay, the Funds’ investments may not correspond to, and the Funds may invest in securities, currencies and markets other than, those generated by the Multifactor Models.

The weightings assigned to the factors in the Multifactor Models can be but are not necessarily derived using a statistical formulation that considers each factor’s historical performance, volatility and stability of ranking in different market environments, and judgment. Because they include many disparate factors, the Investment Adviser believes that all the Multifactor Models are broader in scope and provide a more thorough evaluation than traditional investment processes. Securities and markets ranked highest by the relevant Multifactor Model do not have one dominant investment characteristic; rather, they possess an attractive combination of investment characteristics. By using a variety of relevant factors to select securities, currencies or markets, the Investment Adviser believes that each Fund will be better balanced and have more consistent performance than an investment portfolio that uses only one or two factors to select such investments.

From time to time, the Investment Adviser will monitor, and may make changes to, the selection or weight of individual or groups of securities, currencies or markets in a Fund. Such changes (which may be the result of changes in the Multifactor Models, the method of applying the Multifactor Models, or the judgment of the Investment Adviser) may include: (i) evolutionary changes to the structure of the Multifactor Models (e.g., the addition of new factors or a new means of weighting the factors); (ii) changes in trading

 

B-7


procedures (e.g., trading frequency or the manner in which a Fund uses futures); or (iii) changes to the weight of individual or groups of securities, currencies or markets in a Fund based on the Investment Adviser’s judgment. Any such changes will preserve a Fund’s basic investment philosophy of selecting investments using a disciplined investment process combining quantitative methods with a qualitative overlay when determined appropriate in the Investment Adviser’s discretion.

Other Information. Because normal settlement for equity securities is three trading days (for certain international markets settlement may be longer), the Funds will need to hold cash balances to satisfy shareholder redemption requests. Such cash balances will normally range from 2% to 5% of a Fund’s net assets. Additionally, the Funds may purchase futures contracts to manage their cash position. For example, if cash balances are equal to 5% of the net assets, a Fund may enter into long futures contracts covering an amount equal to 5% of the Fund’s net assets. As cash balances fluctuate based on new contributions or withdrawals, a Fund may enter into additional contracts or close out existing positions.

General Information Regarding the Managed Futures Strategy Fund

The Managed Futures Strategy Fund’s investment objective is to seek to generate long-term absolute return. The Fund implements a trend-following strategy that takes long and/or short positions in a wide range of asset classes, including equities, fixed income, commodities and currencies, among others, to seek long-term absolute return. The Fund seeks to achieve its investment objective by investing primarily in a portfolio of equities, equity index futures, bonds, bond futures, equity swaps, interest rate swaps, currency forwards and non-deliverable forwards, options, ETFs, and structured securities. As a result of the Fund’s use of derivatives, the Fund may also hold significant amounts of U.S. Treasuries or short-term investments, including money market funds, repurchase agreements, cash and time deposits. The Fund’s investments will be made without restriction as to issuer capitalization, country, currency, maturity, or credit rating.

The Investment Adviser seeks to identify price trends in various asset classes over short-, medium-, and long-term horizons via a proprietary investment model, in combination with a qualitative overlay. Upon identifying a trend in a given instrument or asset, the Fund will take a long or short position in the instrument or asset. Long positions benefit from an increase in price of the underlying instrument or asset, while short positions benefit from a decrease in price of the underlying instrument or asset. The size of the Fund’s position in an instrument or asset will primarily be related to the strength of the overall trend identified by the investment model.

The Fund may implement short positions and may do so by using swaps or futures, or through short sales of any instrument that the Fund may purchase for investment. For example, the Fund may enter into a futures contract pursuant to which it agrees to sell an asset (that it does not currently own) at a specified price at a specified point in the future. This gives the Fund a short position with respect to that asset. The Fund may use leverage (e.g., by borrowing or through derivatives). As a result, the sum of the Fund’s investment exposures may at times exceed the amount of assets invested in the Fund, although these exposures may vary over time.

The Fund may seek exposure to the commodities markets by investing in commodity index-linked structured notes. The Fund may also take long and/or short positions in commodities by investing in other investment companies, ETFs or other pooled investment vehicles. Although it does not currently intend to do so, the Fund may also invest through a wholly-owned subsidiary, which would be advised by the Investment Adviser and would seek to gain commodities exposure. Such investments would be made only to the extent permissible under applicable law then in effect, or in reliance upon a private letter ruling from the IRS or an opinion of counsel, or other applicable guidance or relief provided by the IRS or other agencies.

From time to time, the Investment Adviser will monitor, and may make changes to, the selection or weight of individual or groups of securities, currencies or markets in the Fund. Such changes (which may be the result of changes in the proprietary investment model, the method of applying the model or the judgment of the Investment Adviser) may include: (i) evolutionary changes to the structure of the model (e.g., the addition of new factors or a new means of weighting the factors); (ii) changes in trading procedures (e.g., trading frequency or the manner in which the Fund uses futures); or (iii) changes to the weight of individual or groups of securities, currencies or markets in the Fund based on the Investment Adviser’s judgment. Any such changes will preserve the Fund’s basic investment philosophy of combining qualitative and quantitative methods of selecting investments using a disciplined investment process.

 

B-8


DESCRIPTION OF INVESTMENT SECURITIES AND PRACTICES

The investment securities and practices and related risks applicable to each Fund are presented below in alphabetical order, and not in the order of importance or potential exposure.

Asset Segregation

As investment companies registered with the SEC, the Funds must identify on their books (often referred to as “asset segregation”) liquid assets, or engage in other SEC- or SEC staff-approved or other appropriate measures, to “cover” open positions with respect to certain kinds of derivative instruments. In the case of swaps, futures contracts, options, forward contracts and other derivative instruments that do not cash settle, for example, a Fund must identify on its books liquid assets equal to the full notional amount of the instrument while the positions are open, to the extent there is not a permissible offsetting position or a contractual “netting” agreement with respect to swaps (other than credit default swaps where the Fund is the protection seller). However, with respect to certain swaps, futures contracts, options, forward contracts and other derivative instruments that are required to cash settle, a Fund may identify liquid assets in an amount equal to the Fund’s daily marked-to-market net obligations (i.e., the Fund’s daily net liability) under the instrument, if any, rather than its full notional amount. Forwards and futures contracts that do not cash settle may be treated as cash settled for asset segregation purposes when the Funds have entered into a contractual arrangement with a third party futures commission merchant (“FCM”) or other counterparty to off-set the Funds’ exposure under the contract and, failing that, to assign their delivery obligation under the contract to the counterparty. The Funds reserve the right to modify their asset segregation policies in the future in their discretion, consistent with the 1940 Act and SEC or SEC staff guidance. By identifying assets equal to only its net obligations under certain instruments, a Fund will have the ability to employ leverage to a greater extent than if the Fund were required to identify assets equal to the full notional amount of the instrument.

In November 2019, the SEC published a proposed rulemaking related to the use of derivatives and certain other transactions by registered investment companies that would, if adopted, for the most part rescind the guidance of the SEC and its staff regarding asset segregation and cover transactions. Instead of complying with current guidance, a Fund would need to trade derivatives and other transactions that create future payment or delivery obligations (except reverse repurchase agreements and similar financing transactions) subject to a value-at-risk (“VaR”) leverage limit, certain other derivatives risk management program and testing requirements and requirements related to board and SEC reporting. These new requirements would apply unless a Fund qualified as a “limited derivatives user,” as defined in the SEC’s proposal. If a Fund trades reverse repurchase agreements or similar financing transactions, it would need to aggregate the amount of indebtedness associated with the reverse repurchase agreements or similar financing transactions with the aggregate amount of any other senior securities representing indebtedness when calculating the Fund’s asset coverage ratio. Reverse repurchase agreements or similar financing transactions would not be included in the calculation of whether a Fund is a limited derivatives user. Any new requirements, if adopted, may increase the cost of a Fund’s investments and cost of doing business, which could adversely affect investors.

Asset-Backed Securities

Asset-backed securities represent participations in, or are secured by and payable from, assets such as motor vehicle installment sales, installment loan contracts, leases of various types of real and personal property, receivables from revolving credit (credit card) agreements and other categories of receivables. Such assets are securitized through the use of trusts and special purpose corporations. Payments or distributions of principal and interest may be guaranteed up to certain amounts and for a certain time period by a letter of credit or a pool insurance policy issued by a financial institution unaffiliated with the trust or corporation, or other credit enhancements may be present.

The Real Estate Securities Fund, International Real Estate Securities Fund, Global Real Estate Securities Fund, Absolute Return Tracker Fund, Commodity Strategy Fund, Alternative Premia Fund, Global Infrastructure Fund and Managed Futures Strategy Fund may invest in asset-backed securities. Such securities are often subject to more rapid repayment than their stated maturity date would indicate as a result of the pass-through of prepayments of principal on the underlying loans. During periods of declining interest rates, prepayment of loans underlying asset-backed securities can be expected to accelerate. Accordingly, a Fund’s ability to maintain positions in such securities will be affected by reductions in the principal amount of such securities resulting from prepayments, and its ability to reinvest the returns of principal at comparable yields is subject to generally prevailing interest rates at that time. To the extent that a Fund invests in asset-backed securities, the values of the Fund’s portfolio securities will vary with changes in market interest rates generally and the differentials in yields among various kinds of asset-backed securities.

Asset-backed securities present certain additional risks because asset-backed securities generally do not have the benefit of a security interest in collateral that is comparable to mortgage assets. Credit card receivables are generally unsecured and the debtors on such receivables are entitled to the protection of a number of state and federal consumer credit laws, many of which give such debtors the right to set-off certain amounts owed on the credit cards, thereby reducing the balance due. Automobile receivables generally are secured, but by automobiles rather than residential real property. Most issuers of automobile receivables permit the loan servicers to

 

B-9


retain possession of the underlying obligations. If the servicer were to sell these obligations to another party, there is a risk that the purchaser would acquire an interest superior to that of the holders of the asset-backed securities. In addition, because of the large number of vehicles involved in a typical issuance and technical requirements under state laws, the trustee for the holders of the automobile receivables may not have a proper security interest in the underlying automobiles. Therefore, if the issuer of an asset-backed security defaults on its payment obligations, there is the possibility that, in some cases, a Fund will be unable to possess and sell the underlying collateral and that the Fund’s recoveries on repossessed collateral may not be available to support payments on these securities.

Bank Obligations

Each Fund may invest in obligations issued or guaranteed by U.S. or foreign banks. Bank obligations, including without limitation, time deposits, bankers’ acceptances and certificates of deposit, may be general obligations of the parent bank or may be limited to the issuing branch by the terms of the specific obligations or by government regulation. Banks are subject to extensive but different governmental regulations which may limit both the amount and types of loans which may be made and interest rates which may be charged. In addition, the profitability of the banking industry is largely dependent upon the availability and cost of funds for the purpose of financing lending operations under prevailing money market conditions. General economic conditions as well as exposure to credit losses arising from possible financial difficulties of borrowers play an important part in the operation of this industry.

Certificates of deposit are certificates evidencing the obligation of a bank to repay funds deposited with it for a specified period of time at a specified rate. Certificates of deposit are negotiable instruments and are similar to saving deposits but have a definite maturity and are evidenced by a certificate instead of a passbook entry. Banks are required to keep reserves against all certificates of deposit. Fixed time deposits are bank obligations payable at a stated maturity date and bearing interest at a fixed rate. Fixed time deposits may be withdrawn on demand by the investor, but may be subject to early withdrawal penalties which vary depending upon market conditions and the remaining maturity of the obligation. The Funds may invest in deposits in U.S. and European banks satisfying the standards set forth above.

Collateralized Loan Obligations and Other Collateralized Debt Obligations

The Commodity Strategy Fund may invest in collateralized loan obligations (“CLOs”)and other similarly structured investments. A CLOs is an asset-backed securitiy whose underlying collateral is a pool of loans, which may include, among others, domestic and foreign floating rate and fixed rate senior secured loans, senior unsecured loans, and subordinate corporate loans, including loans that may be rated below investment grade or equivalent unrated loans. In addition to the normal risks associated with loan- and credit-related securities discussed elsewhere in the Prospectus (e.g., loan-related investments risk, interest rate risk and default risk), investments in CLOs carry additional risks including, but not limited to, the risk that: (i) distributions from the collateral may not be adequate to make interest or other payments; (ii) the quality of the collateral may decline in value or default; (iii) the Funds may invest in tranches of CLOs that are subordinate to other tranches; (iv) the structure and complexity of the transaction and the legal documents could lead to disputes among investors regarding the characterization of proceeds; and (v) the CLO’s manager may perform poorly. CLOs may charge management and other administrative fees, which are in addition to those of a Fund.

CLOs issue classes or “tranches” that offer various maturity, risk and yield characteristics. Losses caused by defaults on underlying assets are borne first by the holders of subordinate tranches. Tranches are categorized as senior, mezzanine and subordinated/equity, according to their degree of risk. If there are defaults or the CLO’s collateral otherwise underperforms, scheduled payments to senior tranches take precedence over those of mezzanine tranches, and scheduled payments to mezzanine tranches take precedence over those of subordinated/equity tranches. The riskiest portion is the “equity” tranche which bears the bulk of defaults from the collateral and serves to protect the other, more senior tranches from default in all but the most severe circumstances. Because it is partially protected from defaults, a senior tranche from a CLO trust typically has higher ratings and lower yields than its underlying collateral, and may be rated investment grade. Despite the protection from the equity and mezzanine tranches, more senior tranches of CLOs can experience losses due to actual defaults, increased sensitivity to defaults due to collateral default and disappearance of more subordinatetranches, market anticipation of defaults, as well as aversion to CLO securities as a class. The Funds’ investments in CLOs principally consist of senior tranches and, to a lesser extent, mezzanine tranches.

Typically, CLOs are privately offered and sold, and thus, are not registered under the securities laws. As a result, investments in CLOs may have limited pricing transparency. However, an active dealer market may exist for CLOs allowing a CDO to qualify under the Rule 144A “safe harbor” from the registration requirements of the Securities Act of 1933 (the “1933 Act”) for resales of certain securities to qualified institutional buyers. These and other factors discussed in the section below, entitled “Illiquid Investments,” may impact the liquidity of investments in CLOs.

The Funds may also invest in collateralized debt obligations (“CDOs”), which are structured similarly to CLOs, but are backed by pools of assets that are debt securities (rather than being limited only to loans), typically including bonds, other structured finance securities (including other asset-backed securities and other CDOs) and/or synthetic instruments. Like CLOs, the risks of an investment in a CDO depend largely on the type and quality of the collateral securities and the tranche of the CDO in which a Fund invests. CDOs collateralized by pools of asset-backed securities carry the same risks as investments in asset-backed securities directly, including losses with respect to the collateral underlying those asset-backed securities. In addition, certain CDOs may not hold their underlying collateral directly, but rather, use derivatives such as swaps to create “synthetic” exposure to the collateral pool. Such CDOs entail the risks associated with derivative instruments.

 

B-10


Commercial Paper and Other Short-Term Corporate Obligations

The Funds may invest in commercial paper and other short-term obligations issued or guaranteed by U.S. corporations, non-U.S. corporations or other entities. Commercial paper represents short-term unsecured promissory notes issued in bearer form by banks or bank holding companies, corporations and finance companies.

Commodity-Linked Investments

The Absolute Return Tracker Fund, Commodity Strategy Fund, Alternative Premia Fund and Managed Futures Strategy Fund may seek to provide exposure to the investment returns of real assets that trade in the commodity markets through investments in commodity-linked derivative securities, such as structured notes, discussed below, which are designed to provide this exposure without direct investment in physical commodities or commodities futures contracts. The Absolute Return Tracker Fund, Commodity Strategy Fund and Alternative Premia Fund may also seek to provide exposure to the investment returns of real assets that trade in the commodity markets through investments in the Subsidiaries. Real assets are assets such as oil, gas, industrial and precious metals, livestock, and agricultural or meat products, or other items that have tangible properties, as compared to stocks or bonds, which are financial instruments. In choosing investments, the Investment Adviser seeks to provide exposure to various commodities and commodity sectors. The value of commodity-linked derivative securities held by a Fund and/or a Subsidiary may be affected by a variety of factors, including, but not limited to, overall market movements and other factors affecting the value of particular industries or commodities, such as weather, disease, embargoes, acts of war or terrorism, or political and regulatory developments.

The prices of commodity-linked derivative securities may move in different directions than investments in traditional equity and debt securities when the value of those traditional securities is declining due to adverse economic conditions. As an example, during periods of rising inflation, debt securities have historically tended to decline in value due to the general increase in prevailing interest rates. Conversely, during those same periods of rising inflation, the prices of certain commodities, such as oil and metals, have historically tended to increase. Of course, there cannot be any guarantee that these investments will perform in that manner in the future, and at certain times the price movements of commodity-linked instruments have been parallel to those of debt and equity securities. Commodities have historically tended to increase and decrease in value during different parts of the business cycle than financial assets. Nevertheless, at various times, commodities prices may move in tandem with the prices of financial assets and thus may not provide overall portfolio diversification benefits. Under favorable economic conditions, the Funds’ investments may be expected to underperform an investment in traditional securities. Over the long term, the returns on the Funds’ investments are expected to exhibit low or negative correlation with stocks and bonds.

Because commodity-linked investments are available from a relatively small number of issuers, a Fund’s investments will be particularly subject to counterparty risk, which is the risk that the issuer of the commodity-linked derivative (which issuer may also serve as counterparty to a substantial number of the Fund’s commodity-linked and other derivative investments) will not fulfill its contractual obligations.

For the Commodity Strategy Fund, the Investment Adviser generally intends to invest in commodity-linked investments whose returns are linked to the S&P GSCI. However, the Commodity Strategy Fund is not an index fund and the Investment Adviser may make allocations that differ from the weightings in the S&P GSCI or seek to hedge the exposure of components of the S&P GSCI.

Convertible Securities

Each Fund (other than the Alternative Premia Fund and Managed Futures Strategy Fund) may invest in convertible securities. Convertible securities are bonds, debentures, notes, preferred stocks or other securities that may be converted into or exchanged for a specified amount of common stock of the same or different issuer within a particular period of time at a specified price or formula. A convertible security entitles the holder to receive interest that is generally paid or accrued on debt or a dividend that is paid or accrued on preferred stock until the convertible security matures or is redeemed, converted or exchanged. Convertible securities have unique investment characteristics, in that they generally (i) have higher yields than common stocks, but lower yields than comparable non-convertible securities, (ii) are less subject to fluctuation in value than the underlying common stock due to their fixed-income characteristics and (iii) provide the potential for capital appreciation if the market price of the underlying common stock increases.

The value of a convertible security is a function of its “investment value” (determined by its yield in comparison with the yields of other securities of comparable maturity and quality that do not have a conversion privilege) and its “conversion value” (the security’s worth, at market value, if converted into the underlying common stock). The investment value of a convertible security is influenced by changes in interest rates, with investment value normally declining as interest rates increase and increasing as interest rates decline.

 

B-11


The credit standing of the issuer and other factors may also have an effect on the convertible security’s investment value. The conversion value of a convertible security is determined by the market price of the underlying common stock. If the conversion value is low relative to the investment value, the price of the convertible security is governed principally by its investment value. To the extent the market price of the underlying common stock approaches or exceeds the conversion price, the price of the convertible security will be increasingly influenced by its conversion value. A convertible security generally will sell at a premium over its conversion value by the extent to which investors place value on the right to acquire the underlying common stock while holding a fixed-income security.

A convertible security may be subject to redemption at the option of the issuer at a price established in the convertible security’s governing instrument. If a convertible security held by a Fund is called for redemption, the Fund will be required to convert the security into the underlying common stock, sell it to a third party, or permit the issuer to redeem the security. Any of these actions could have an adverse effect on a Fund’s ability to achieve its investment objective, which, in turn, could result in losses to the Fund.

In evaluating a convertible security, the Investment Adviser will give primary emphasis to the attractiveness of the underlying common stock. Convertible debt securities are equity investments for purposes of each Fund’s investment policies.

Corporate Debt Obligations

Each Fund may, under normal market conditions, invest in corporate debt obligations, including obligations of industrial, utility and financial issuers. Corporate debt obligations include bonds, notes, debentures and other obligations of corporations to pay interest and repay principal. The U.S. Equity Dividend and Premium Fund, International Equity Dividend and Premium Fund, U.S. Tax-Managed Equity Fund and International Tax-Managed Equity Fund may only invest in debt securities that are cash equivalents. Corporate debt obligations are subject to the risk of an issuer’s inability to meet principal and interest payments on the obligations and may also be subject to price volatility due to such factors as market interest rates, market perception of the creditworthiness of the issuer and general market liquidity.

Corporate debt obligations rated BBB or Baa are considered medium grade obligations with speculative characteristics, and adverse economic conditions or changing circumstances may weaken their issuers’ capacity to pay interest and repay principal. Medium to lower rated and comparable non-rated securities tend to offer higher yields than higher rated securities with the same maturities because the historical financial condition of the issuers of such securities may not have been as strong as that of other issuers. The price of corporate debt obligations will generally fluctuate in response to fluctuations in supply and demand for similarly rated securities. In addition, the price of corporate debt obligations will generally fluctuate in response to interest rate levels. Fluctuations in the prices of portfolio securities subsequent to their acquisition will not affect cash income from such securities but will be reflected in a Fund’s NAV.

Because medium to lower rated securities generally involve greater risks of loss of income and principal than higher rated securities, investors should consider carefully the relative risks associated with investment in securities which carry medium to lower ratings and in comparable unrated securities. In addition to the risk of default, there are the related costs of recovery on defaulted issues. The Investment Adviser will attempt to reduce these risks through portfolio diversification and by analysis of each issuer and its ability to make timely payments of income and principal, as well as broad economic trends and corporate developments.

The Investment Adviser employs its own credit research and analysis, which includes a study of an issuer’s existing debt, capital structure, ability to service debt and pay dividends, sensitivity to economic conditions, operating history and current earnings trend. The Investment Adviser continually monitors the investments in a Fund’s portfolio and evaluates whether to dispose of or to retain corporate debt obligations whose credit ratings or credit quality may have changed. If after its purchase, a portfolio security is assigned a lower rating or ceases to be rated, a Fund may continue to hold the security if the Investment Adviser believes it is in the best interest of the Fund and its shareholders.

Currency Swaps, Mortgage Swaps, Credit Swaps, Total Return Swaps, Equity Swaps, Options on Swaps, Index Swaps, Interest Rate Swaps and Interest Rate Caps, Floors and Collars

The Real Estate Securities Fund, International Real Estate Securities Fund, Global Real Estate Securities Fund, Commodity Strategy Fund, Alternative Premia Fund, Global Infrastructure Fund, International Equity Dividend and Premium Fund and International Tax-Managed Equity Fund may enter into mortgage, credit, total return, index, equity and interest rate swaps for hedging purposes or to seek to increase total return. The Real Estate Securities Fund, International Real Estate Securities Fund, Global Real Estate Securities Fund, Commodity Strategy Fund, Global Infrastructure Fund, International Equity Dividend and Premium Fund and International Tax-Managed Equity Fund may also enter into currency swaps for both hedging purposes and to seek to increase total return. The Real Estate Securities Fund, International Real Estate Securities Fund, Global Real Estate Securities Fund, Commodity Strategy Fund, Alternative Premia Fund, Global Infrastructure Fund and U.S. Tax-Managed Equity Fund may enter into other interest rate swap arrangements such as rate caps, floors and collars, for hedging purposes or to seek to increase total return. The Absolute Return Tracker Fund may enter into currency, mortgage, credit, total return, index, equity and interest rate swaps and other interest rate swap arrangements such as rate

 

B-12


caps, floors and collars in an attempt to match the returns of the Market Exposures. The Managed Futures Strategy Fund may enter into index, interest rate, mortgage, credit, currency, equity and total return swaps for both hedging purposes and to seek to increase total return. The Real Estate Securities Fund, International Real Estate Securities Fund, Global Real Estate Securities Fund, Commodity Strategy Fund, Alternative Premia Fund, Global Infrastructure Fund and U.S. Tax-Managed Equity Fund may also purchase and write (sell) options on swaps, commonly referred to as swaptions.

In a standard “swap” transaction, two parties agree to exchange the returns, differentials in rates of return or some other amount earned or realized on particular predetermined investments or instruments, which may be adjusted for an interest factor. The gross returns to be exchanged or “swapped” between the parties are generally calculated with respect to a “notional amount,” i.e., the return on or increase in value of a particular dollar amount invested at a particular interest rate, in a particular foreign currency or security, or in a “basket” of securities representing a particular index. Bilateral swap agreements are two party contracts entered into primarily by institutional investors. Cleared swaps are transacted through FCMs that are members of central clearinghouses with the clearinghouse serving as a central counterparty similar to transactions in futures contracts. Funds post initial and variation margin by making payments to their clearing member FCMs.

Currency swaps involve the exchange by a Fund with another party of their respective rights to make or receive payments in specified currencies. Mortgage swaps are similar to interest rate swaps in that they represent commitments to pay and receive interest. The notional principal amount, however, is tied to a reference pool or pools of mortgages. Index swaps involve the exchange by a Fund with another party of payments based on a notional principal amount of a specified index or indices. Credit swaps (also referred to as credit default swaps) involve the exchange of a floating or fixed rate payment in return for assuming potential credit losses of an underlying security, or pool of securities. Total return swaps are contracts that obligate a party to pay or receive interest in exchange for the payment by the other party of the total return generated by a security, a basket of securities, an index or an index component. Equity swap contracts may be structured in different ways. For example, as a total return swap where a counterparty may agree to pay a Fund the amount, if any, by which the notional amount of the equity swap contract would have increased in value had it been invested in the particular stocks (or a group of stocks), plus the dividends that would have been received on those stocks. In other cases, the counterparty and a Fund may each agree to pay the difference between the relative investment performances that would have been achieved if the notional amount of the equity swap contract had been invested in different stocks (or a group of stocks). Interest rate swaps involve the exchange by a Fund with another party of commitments to pay or receive payments for floating rate payments based on interest rates at specified intervals in the future. Two types of interest rate swaps include “fixed-for-floating rate swaps” and “basis swaps.” Fixed-for-floating rate swaps involve the exchange of payments based on a fixed interest rate for payments based on a floating interest rate index. By contrast, basis swaps involve the exchange of payments based on two different floating interest rate indices.

A swaption is an option to enter into a swap agreement. Like other types of options, the buyer of a swaption pays a non-refundable premium for the option and obtains the right, but not the obligation, to enter into or modify an underlying swap or to modify the terms of an existing swap on agreed-upon terms. The seller of a swaption, in exchange for the premium, becomes obligated (if the option is exercised) to enter into or modify an underlying swap on agreed-upon terms, which generally entails a greater risk of loss than incurred in buying a swaption. The purchase of an interest rate cap entitles the purchaser, to the extent that a specified index exceeds a predetermined interest rate, to receive payment of interest on a notional principal amount from the party selling such interest rate cap. The purchase of an interest rate floor entitles the purchaser, to the extent that a specified index falls below a predetermined interest rate, to receive payments of interest on a notional principal amount from the party selling the interest rate floor. An interest rate collar is the combination of a cap and a floor that preserves a certain return within a predetermined range of interest rates. Because interest rate, mortgage swaps and interest rate caps, floors and collars are individually negotiated, a Fund expects to achieve an acceptable degree of correlation between its portfolio investments and its swap, cap, floor and collar positions.

A great deal of flexibility may be possible in the way swap transactions are structured. However, generally a Fund will enter into interest rate, total return, credit, mortgage, equity and index swaps on a net basis, which means that the two payment streams are netted out, with the Fund receiving or paying, as the case may be, only the net amount of the two payments. Interest rate, total return, credit, index, equity and mortgage swaps do not normally involve the delivery of securities, other underlying assets or principal. Accordingly, the risk of loss with respect to interest rate, total return, credit, index, equity and mortgage swaps is normally limited to the net amount of interest payments that the Fund is contractually obligated to make. If the other party to an interest rate, total return, credit, index, equity or mortgage swap defaults, the Fund’s risk of loss consists of the net amount of interest payments that the Fund is contractually entitled to receive, if any. In contrast, currency swaps usually involve the delivery of a gross payment stream in one designated currency in exchange for the gross payment stream in another designated currency. Therefore, the entire payment stream under a currency swap is subject to the risk that the other party to the swap will default on its contractual delivery obligations.

As a result of recent regulatory developments, certain standardized swaps are currently subject to mandatory central clearing and some of these cleared swaps must be traded on an exchange or swap execution facility (“SEF”). A SEF is a trading platform in which multiple market participants can execute swap transactions by accepting bids and offers made by multiple other participants on the platform. Transactions executed on a SEF may increase market transparency and liquidity but may cause a Fund to incur increased expenses to execute swaps. Central clearing should decrease counterparty risk and increase liquidity compared to bilateral swaps because

 

B-13


central clearing interposes the central clearinghouse as the counterparty to each participant’s swap. However, central clearing does not eliminate counterparty risk or liquidity risk entirely. In addition, depending on the size of a Fund and other factors, the margin required under the rules of a clearinghouse and by a clearing member may be in excess of the collateral required to be posted by the Fund to support its obligations under a similar bilateral swap. However, the CFTC and other applicable regulators have adopted rules imposing certain margin requirements, including minimums, on uncleared swaps, which may result in the Fund and its counterparties posting higher margin amounts for uncleared swaps. Requiring margin on uncleared swaps may reduce, but not eliminate, counterparty credit risk.

A credit swap may have as reference obligations one or more securities that may, or may not, be currently held by a Fund. The protection “buyer” in a credit swap is generally obligated to pay the protection “seller” an upfront or a periodic stream of payments over the term of the swap provided that no credit event, such as a default, on a reference obligation has occurred. If a credit event occurs, the seller generally must pay the buyer the “par value” (full notional value) of the swap in exchange for an equal face amount of deliverable obligations of the reference entity described in the swap, or the seller may be required to deliver the related net cash amount, if the swap is cash settled. A Fund may be either the protection buyer or seller in the transaction. If the Fund is a buyer and no credit event occurs, the Fund may recover nothing if the swap is held through its termination date. However, if a credit event occurs, the buyer generally may elect to receive the full notional value of the swap in exchange for an equal face amount of deliverable obligations of the reference entity whose value may have significantly decreased. As a seller, a Fund generally receives an upfront payment or a rate of income throughout the term of the swap provided that there is no credit event. As the seller, a Fund would effectively add leverage to its portfolio because, in addition to its total net assets, a Fund would be subject to investment exposure on the notional amount of the swap. If a credit event occurs, the value of any deliverable obligation received by the Fund as seller, coupled with the upfront or periodic payments previously received, may be less than the full notional value it pays to the buyer, resulting in a loss of value to the Fund.

The use of swaps, swaptions and interest rate caps, floors and collars, is a highly specialized activity which involves investment techniques and risks different from those associated with ordinary portfolio securities transactions. The use of a swap requires an understanding not only of the referenced asset, reference rate, or index but also of the swap itself, without the benefit of observing the performance of the swap under all possible market conditions. If the Investment Adviser is incorrect in its forecasts of market values, credit quality, interest rates and currency exchange rates, the investment performance of a Fund would be less favorable than it would have been if this investment technique were not used.

In addition, these transactions can involve greater risks than if a Fund had invested in the reference obligation directly because, in addition to general market risks, swaps are subject to liquidity risk, counterparty risk, credit risk and pricing risk. Regulators also may impose limits on an entity’s or group of entities’ positions in certain swaps. However, certain risks are reduced (but not eliminated) if a Fund invests in cleared swaps. Bilateral swap agreements are two party contracts that may have terms of greater than seven days. Moreover, a Fund bears the risk of loss of the amount expected to be received under a swap agreement in the event of the default or bankruptcy of a swap counterparty. Many swaps are complex and often valued subjectively. Swaps and other derivatives may also be subject to pricing or “basis” risk, which exists when the price of a particular derivative diverges from the price of corresponding cash market instruments. Under certain market conditions it may not be economically feasible to imitate a transaction or liquidate a position in time to avoid a loss or take advantage of an opportunity. If a swap transaction is particularly large or if the relevant market is illiquid, it may not be possible to initiate a transaction or liquidate a position at an advantageous time or price, which may result in significant losses.

Certain rules also require centralized reporting of detailed information about many types of cleared and uncleared swaps. This information is available to regulators and, to a more limited extent and on an anonymous basis, to the public. Reporting of swap data may result in greater market transparency, which may be beneficial to funds that use swaps to implement trading strategies. However, these rules place potential additional administrative obligations on these funds, and the safeguards established to protect anonymity may not function as expected.

The swap market has grown substantially in recent years with a large number of banks and investment banking firms acting both as principals and as agents utilizing standardized swap documentation. As a result, the swap market has become relatively liquid in comparison with the markets for other similar instruments which are traded in the interbank market. These and other factors discussed in the section below, entitled “Illiquid Investments,” may impact the liquidity of investments in swaps.

Custodial Receipts and Trust Certificates

Each Fund (except the Managed Futures Strategy Fund) may invest in custodial receipts and trust certificates, which may be underwritten by securities dealers or banks, representing interests in securities held by a custodian or trustee. The securities so held may include obligations issued or guaranteed by the U.S. Government, its agencies, instrumentalities or sponsored enterprises (“U.S. Government Securities”), municipal securities or other types of securities in which a Fund may invest. The custodial receipts or trust certificates are underwritten by securities dealers or banks and may evidence ownership of future interest payments, principal payments or both on the underlying securities, or, in some cases, the payment obligation of a third party that has entered into an interest rate swap or other arrangement with the custodian or trustee. For certain securities laws purposes, custodial receipts and trust certificates may not

 

B-14


be considered obligations of the U.S. Government or other issuer of the securities held by the custodian or trustee. As a holder of custodial receipts and trust certificates, a Fund will bear its proportionate share of the fees and expenses charged to the custodial account or trust. Each Fund may also invest in separately issued interests in custodial receipts and trust certificates.

Although under the terms of a custodial receipt or trust certificate a Fund would typically be authorized to assert its rights directly against the issuer of the underlying obligation, a Fund could be required to assert through the custodian bank or trustee those rights as may exist against the underlying issuers. Thus, in the event an underlying issuer fails to pay principal and/or interest when due, a Fund may be subject to delays, expenses and risks that are greater than those that would have been involved if a Fund had purchased a direct obligation of the issuer. In addition, in the event that the trust or custodial account in which the underlying securities have been deposited is determined to be an association taxable as a corporation, instead of a non-taxable entity, the yield on the underlying securities would be reduced in recognition of any taxes paid.

Certain custodial receipts and trust certificates may be synthetic or derivative instruments that have interest rates that reset inversely to changing short-term rates and/or have embedded interest rate floors and caps that require the issuer to pay an adjusted interest rate if market rates fall below or rise above a specified rate. Because some of these instruments represent relatively recent innovations, and the trading market for these instruments is less developed than the markets for traditional types of instruments, it is uncertain how these instruments will perform under different economic and interest-rate scenarios. Also, because these instruments may be leveraged, their market values may be more volatile than other types of fixed income instruments and may present greater potential for capital gain or loss. The possibility of default by an issuer or the issuer’s credit provider may be greater for these derivative instruments than for other types of instruments. In some cases, it may be difficult to determine the fair value of a derivative instrument because of a lack of reliable objective information and an established secondary market for some instruments may not exist. In many cases, the Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”) has not ruled on the tax treatment of the interest or payments received on the derivative instruments and, accordingly, purchases of such instruments are based on the opinion of counsel to the sponsors of the instruments.

Deferred Interest, Pay-In-Kind and Capital Appreciation Bonds

The Commodity Strategy Fund’s investments in fixed income securities may include deferred interest, pay-in-kind (“PIK”) and capital appreciation bonds. Deferred interest and capital appreciation bonds are debt securities issued or sold at a discount from their face value and which do not entitle the holder to any periodic payment of interest prior to maturity or a specified date. The original issue discount varies depending on the time remaining until maturity or cash payment date, prevailing interest rates, the liquidity of the security and the perceived credit quality of the issuer. These securities also may take the form of debt securities that have been stripped of their unmatured interest coupons, the coupons themselves or receipts or certificates representing interests in such stripped debt obligations or coupons.

PIK securities may be debt obligations or preferred shares that provide the issuer with the option of paying interest or dividends on such obligations in cash or in the form of additional securities rather than cash. Similar to deferred interest bonds, PIK securities are designed to give an issuer flexibility in managing cash flow. PIK securities that are debt securities can be either senior or subordinated debt and generally trade flat (i.e., without accrued interest). The trading price of PIK debt securities generally reflects the market value of the underlying debt plus an amount representing accrued interest since the last interest payment.

The market prices of deferred interest, capital appreciation bonds and PIK securities generally are more volatile than the market prices of interest bearing securities and are likely to respond to a greater degree to changes in interest rates than interest bearing securities having similar maturities and credit quality. Moreover, deferred interest, capital appreciation and PIK securities involve the additional risk that, unlike securities that periodically pay interest to maturity, a Fund will realize no cash until a specified future payment date unless a portion of such securities is sold and, if the issuer of such securities defaults, a Fund may obtain no return at all on its investment. The valuation of such investments requires judgment regarding the collection of future payments. In addition, even though such securities do not provide for the payment of current interest in cash, a Fund is nonetheless required to accrue income on such investments for each taxable year and generally is required to distribute such accrued amounts (net of deductible expenses, if any) to avoid being subject to tax. Because no cash is generally received at the time of the accrual, a Fund may be required to liquidate other portfolio securities to obtain sufficient cash to satisfy federal tax distribution requirements applicable to the Fund. A portion of the discount with respect to stripped tax-exempt securities or their coupons may be taxable. See “TAXATION.”

Dividend-Paying Investments

A Fund’s investments in dividend-paying securities could cause the Fund to underperform other funds that invest in similar asset classes but employ a different investment style. Securities that pay dividends, as a group, can fall out of favor with the market, causing such securities to underperform securities that do not pay dividends. Depending upon market conditions and political and legislative responses to such conditions, dividend-paying securities that meet a Fund’s investment criteria may not be widely available and/or may be highly concentrated in only a few market sectors. For example, in response to the outbreak of a novel strain of coronavirus

 

B-15


(known as COVID-19), the U.S. Government passed the Coronavirus Aid, Relief and Economic Security Act in March 2020, which established loan programs for certain issuers impacted by COVID-19. Among other conditions, borrowers under these loan programs are generally restricted from paying dividends. The adoption of new legislation could further limit or restrict the ability of issuers to pay dividends. To the extent that dividend-paying securities are concentrated in only a few market sectors, a Fund may be subject to the risks of volatile economic cycles and/or conditions or developments that may be particular to a sector to a greater extent than if its investments were diversified across different sectors. In addition, issuers that have paid regular dividends or distributions to shareholders may not continue to do so at the same level or at all in the future. A sharp rise in interest rates or an economic downturn could cause an issuer to abruptly reduce or eliminate its dividend. This may limit the ability of the Fund to produce current income.

Events Relating to the Mortgage- and Asset-Backed Securities Markets and the Overall Economy

The unprecedented disruption in the residential mortgage-backed securities market (and in particular, the “subprime” residential mortgage market), the broader mortgage-backed securities market and the asset-backed securities market in 2008 and 2009 resulted in downward price pressures and increasing foreclosures and defaults in residential and commercial real estate. Concerns over inflation, energy costs, geopolitical issues, the availability and cost of credit, the mortgage market and a depressed real estate market contributed to increased volatility and diminished expectations for the economy and markets going forward, and contributed to dramatic declines in the housing market, with falling home prices and increasing foreclosures and unemployment, and significant asset write-downs by financial institutions. These conditions prompted a number of financial institutions to seek additional capital, to merge with other institutions and, in some cases, to fail or seek bankruptcy protection. Between 2008 and 2009, the market for Mortgage-Backed Securities (as well as other asset-backed securities) was particularly adversely impacted by, among other factors, the failure and subsequent sale of Bear, Stearns & Co. Inc. to J.P. Morgan Chase, the merger of Bank of America Corporation and Merrill Lynch & Co., the insolvency of Washington Mutual Inc., the failure and subsequent bankruptcy of Lehman Brothers Holdings, Inc., the extension of approximately $152 billion in emergency credit by the U.S. Treasury to American International Group Inc., and, as described above, the conservatorship and the control by the U.S. Government of the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (“Freddie Mac”) and the Federal National Mortgage Association (“Fannie Mae”). The global markets also saw an increase in volatility due to uncertainty surrounding the level and sustainability of sovereign debt of certain countries that are part of the European Union (the “EU”), including Greece, Spain, Portugal, Ireland and Italy, as well as the sustainability of the EU itself. Concerns over the level and sustainability of the sovereign debt of the United States have aggravated this volatility. No assurance can be made that this uncertainty will not lead to further disruption of the credit markets in the United States or around the globe. These events, coupled with the general global economic downturn, have resulted in a substantial level of uncertainty in the financial markets, particularly with respect to mortgage-related investments.

These events may lead to further declines in income from, or the value of, real estate, including the real estate which secures the Mortgage-Backed Securities which may be held by certain of the Funds. Additionally, a lack of credit liquidity, adjustments of mortgages to higher rates and decreases in the value of real property have occurred and may reoccur, and potentially prevent borrowers from refinancing their mortgages, which may increase the likelihood of default on their mortgage loans. These economic conditions, coupled with high levels of real estate inventory and elevated incidence of underwater mortgages, may also adversely affect the amount of proceeds the holder of a mortgage loan or mortgage-backed securities (including the Mortgaged-Backed Securities in which certain of the Funds may invest) would realize in the event of a foreclosure or other exercise of remedies. Moreover, even if such Mortgage-Backed Securities are performing as anticipated, the value of such securities in the secondary market may nevertheless fall or continue to fall as a result of deterioration in general market conditions for such Mortgage-Backed Securities or other asset-backed or structured products. Trading activity associated with market indices may also drive spreads on those indices wider than spreads on Mortgage-Backed Securities, thereby resulting in a decrease in value of such Mortgage-Backed Securities, including the Mortgage-Backed Securities owned by a Fund.

The U.S. Government, the Federal Reserve, the U.S. Treasury, the SEC, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (the “FDIC”) and other governmental and regulatory bodies have taken or are considering taking actions to address the financial crisis. These actions include, but are not limited to, the enactment by the U.S. Congress of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (“Dodd-Frank Act”), which was signed into law on July 21, 2010 and imposes a new regulatory framework over the U.S. financial services industry and the consumer credit markets in general, and the promulgation of additional regulations in this area could affect these securities. Given the broad scope, sweeping nature, and relatively recent enactment of some of these regulatory measures, the potential impact they could have on any of the asset-backed or Mortgage-Backed Securities which may be held by a Fund is unknown. There can be no assurance that these measures will not have an adverse effect on the value or marketability of any asset-backed or Mortgage-Backed Securities which may be held by a Fund. Furthermore, no assurance can be made that the U.S. Government or any U.S. regulatory body (or other authority or regulatory body) will not continue to take further legislative or regulatory action in response to the economic crisis or otherwise, and the effect of such actions, if taken, cannot be known.

Among its other provisions, the Dodd-Frank Act creates a liquidation framework under which the FDIC may be appointed as receiver following a “systemic risk determination” by the Secretary of Treasury (in consultation with the President) for the resolution of certain nonbank financial companies and other entities, defined as “covered financial companies”, and commonly referred to as

 

B-16


“systemically important entities”, in the event such a company is in default or in danger of default and the resolution of such a company under other applicable law would have serious adverse effects on financial stability in the United States, and also for the resolution of certain of their subsidiaries. No assurances can be given that this new liquidation framework would not apply to the originators of asset-backed securities, including Mortgage-Backed Securities, or their respective subsidiaries, including the issuers and depositors of such securities, although the expectation embedded in the Dodd-Frank Act is that the framework will be invoked only very rarely. Guidance from the FDIC indicates that such new framework will largely be exercised in a manner consistent with the existing bankruptcy laws, which is the insolvency regime that would otherwise apply to the sponsors, depositors and issuing entities with respect to asset-backed securities, including Mortgage-Backed Securities. The application of such liquidation framework to such entities could result in decreases or delays in amounts paid on, and hence the market value of, the Mortgage-Backed or asset-backed securities that are owned by a Fund.

Delinquencies, defaults and losses on residential mortgage loans may increase substantially over certain periods, which may affect the performance of the Mortgage-Backed Securities in which certain of the Funds may invest. Mortgage loans backing non-agency Mortgage-Backed Securities are more sensitive to economic factors that could affect the ability of borrowers to pay their obligations under the mortgage loans backing these securities. In addition, housing prices and appraisal values in many states and localities over certain periods have declined or stopped appreciating. A continued decline or an extended flattening of those values may result in additional increases in delinquencies and losses on Mortgage-Backed Securities generally (including the Mortgaged-Backed Securities that a Fund may invest in as described above).

The foregoing adverse changes in market conditions and regulatory climate may reduce the cash flow which a Fund, to the extent it invests in Mortgage-Backed Securities or other asset-backed securities, receives from such securities and increase the incidence and severity of credit events and losses in respect of such securities. In addition, interest rate spreads for Mortgage-Backed Securities and other asset-backed securities are subject to widening and increased volatility due to these adverse changes in market conditions. In the event that interest rate spreads for Mortgage-Backed Securities and other asset-backed securities widen following the purchase of such assets by a Fund, the market value of such securities is likely to decline and, in the case of a substantial spread widening, could decline by a substantial amount. Furthermore, adverse changes in market conditions may result in reduced liquidity in the market for Mortgage-Backed Securities and other asset-backed securities (including the Mortgaged-Backed Securities and other asset-backed securities in which certain of the Funds may invest) and increased unwillingness by banks, financial institutions and investors to extend credit to servicers, originators and other participants in the market for Mortgage-Backed and other asset-backed securities. As a result, the liquidity and/or the market value of any Mortgage-Backed or asset-backed securities that are owned by a Fund may experience further declines after they are purchased by a Fund.

Foreign Investments

The Real Estate Securities Fund, Global Real Estate Securities Fund, Managed Futures Strategy Fund and Global Infrastructure Fund may invest a portion of their assets, and each of the International Real Estate Securities Fund, Commodity Strategy Fund, Alternative Premia Fund, International Tax-Managed Equity Fund and International Equity Dividend and Premium Fund may invest a substantial portion of their assets, in foreign securities. Under normal circumstances, the Absolute Return Tracker Fund will invest in foreign securities as may be necessary to achieve exposure to the Market Exposures, as discussed in “Investment Objectives and Policies—Absolute Return Tracker Fund” above. Each of the U.S. Tax-Managed Equity Fund and U.S. Equity Dividend and Premium Fund may invest in equity securities of foreign issuers which are traded in the United States.

Investments in foreign securities may offer potential benefits not available from investments solely in U.S. dollar-denominated or quoted securities of domestic issuers. Such benefits may include the opportunity to invest in foreign issuers that appear, in the opinion of the Investment Adviser, to offer the potential for better long term growth of capital and income than investments in U.S. securities, the opportunity to invest in foreign countries with economic policies or business cycles different from those of the United States and the opportunity to reduce fluctuations in portfolio value by taking advantage of foreign securities markets that do not necessarily move in a manner parallel to U.S. markets. Investing in the securities of foreign issuers also involves, however, certain special risks, including those discussed in the Funds’ Prospectuses and those set forth below, which are not typically associated with investing in U.S. dollar-denominated securities or quoted securities of U.S. issuers. Many of these risks are more pronounced for investments in emerging countries.

With respect to investments in certain foreign countries, there exist certain economic, political and social risks, including the risk of adverse political developments, nationalization, military unrest, social instability, war and terrorism, confiscation without fair compensation, expropriation or confiscatory taxation, limitations on the movement of funds and other assets between different countries, or diplomatic developments, any of which could adversely affect a Fund’s investments in those countries. Governments in certain foreign countries continue to participate to a significant degree, through ownership interest or regulation, in their respective economies. Action by these governments could have a significant effect on market prices of securities and dividend payments.

 

B-17


Many countries throughout the world are dependent on a healthy U.S. economy and are adversely affected when the U.S. economy weakens or its markets decline. Additionally, many foreign country economies are heavily dependent on international trade and are adversely affected by protective trade barriers and economic conditions of their trading partners. Protectionist trade legislation enacted by those trading partners could have a significant adverse effect on the securities markets of those countries. Individual foreign economies may differ favorably or unfavorably from the U.S. economy in such respects as growth of gross national product, rate of inflation, capital reinvestment, resource self-sufficiency and balance of payments position.

Investments in foreign securities often involve currencies of foreign countries. Accordingly, a Fund that invests in foreign securities may be affected favorably or unfavorably by changes in currency rates and in exchange control regulations and may incur costs in connection with conversions between various currencies. The Funds may be subject to currency exposure independent of their securities positions. To the extent that a Fund is fully invested in foreign securities while also maintaining net currency positions, it may be exposed to greater combined risk. Currency exchange rates may fluctuate significantly over short periods of time. They generally are determined by the forces of supply and demand in the foreign exchange markets and the relative merits of investments in different countries, actual or anticipated changes in interest rates and other complex factors, as seen from an international perspective. Currency exchange rates also can be affected unpredictably by intervention (or failure to intervene) by U.S. or foreign governments or central banks or by currency controls or political developments in the United States or abroad. To the extent that a portion of a Fund’s total assets, adjusted to reflect the Fund’s net position after giving effect to currency transactions, is denominated or quoted in the currencies of foreign countries, the Fund will be more susceptible to the risk of adverse economic and political developments within those countries. A Fund’s net currency positions may expose it to risks independent of its securities positions.

Because foreign issuers generally are not subject to uniform accounting, auditing and financial reporting standards, practices and requirements comparable to those applicable to U.S. companies, there may be less publicly available information about a foreign company than about a U.S. company. Volume and liquidity in most foreign securities markets are less than in the United States and securities of many foreign companies are less liquid and more volatile than securities of comparable U.S. companies. The securities of foreign issuers may be listed on foreign securities exchanges or traded in foreign over-the-counter markets. Fixed commissions on foreign securities exchanges are generally higher than negotiated commissions on U.S. exchanges, although each Fund endeavors to achieve the most favorable net results on its portfolio transactions. There is generally less government supervision and regulation of foreign securities exchanges, brokers, dealers and listed and unlisted companies than in the United States, and the legal remedies for investors may be more limited than the remedies available in the United States. For example, there may be no comparable provisions under certain foreign laws to insider trading and similar investor protections that apply with respect to securities transactions consummated in the United States. Mail service between the United States and foreign countries may be slower or less reliable than within the United States, thus increasing the risk of delayed settlement of portfolio transactions or loss of certificates for portfolio securities.

Foreign markets also have different clearance and settlement procedures, and in certain markets there have been times when settlements have been unable to keep pace with the volume of securities transactions, making it difficult to conduct such transactions. Such delays in settlement could result in temporary periods when some of a Fund’s assets are uninvested and no return is earned on such assets. The inability of a Fund to make intended security purchases due to settlement problems could cause the Fund to miss attractive investment opportunities. Inability to dispose of portfolio securities due to settlement problems could result either in losses to the Fund due to subsequent declines in value of the portfolio securities or, if the Fund has entered into a contract to sell the securities, could result in possible liability to the purchaser.

These and other factors discussed in the section below, entitled “Illiquid Investments,” may impact the liquidity of investments in securities of foreign issuers.

Each Fund may invest in foreign securities which take the form of sponsored and unsponsored American Depositary Receipts (“ADRs”) and Global Depositary Receipts (“GDRs”). The Real Estate Securities Fund, International Real Estate Securities Fund, Global Real Estate Securities Fund, Absolute Return Tracker Fund, Commodity Strategy Fund, Global Infrastructure Fund, Alternative Premia Fund, Managed Futures Strategy Fund, International Tax-Managed Equity Fund and International Equity Dividend and Premium Fund may also invest in European Depositary Receipts (“EDRs”) or other similar instruments representing securities of foreign issuers (together, “Depositary Receipts”). ADRs represent the right to receive securities of foreign issuers deposited in a domestic bank or a correspondent bank. ADRs are traded on domestic exchanges or in the U.S. over-the-counter market and, generally, are in registered form. EDRs and GDRs are receipts evidencing an arrangement with a non-U.S. bank similar to that for ADRs and are designed for use in the non-U.S. securities markets. EDRs and GDRs are not necessarily quoted in the same currency as the underlying security.

To the extent a Fund acquires Depositary Receipts through banks which do not have a contractual relationship with the foreign issuer of the security underlying the Depositary Receipts to issue and service such unsponsored Depositary Receipts, there is an increased possibility that the Fund will not become aware of and be able to respond to corporate actions such as stock splits or rights offerings involving the foreign issuer in a timely manner. In addition, the lack of information may result in inefficiencies in the valuation of such instruments. Investment in Depositary Receipts does not eliminate all the risks inherent in investing in securities of non-U.S. issuers.

 

B-18


The market value of Depositary Receipts is dependent upon the market value of the underlying securities and fluctuations in the relative value of the currencies in which the Depositary Receipts and the underlying securities are quoted. However, by investing in Depositary Receipts, such as ADRs, which are quoted in U.S. dollars, a Fund may avoid currency risks during the settlement period for purchases and sales.

As described more fully below, each Fund, other than the U.S. Equity Dividend and Premium Fund and U.S. Tax-Managed Equity Fund, may invest in countries with emerging economies or securities markets. Political and economic structures in many of such countries may be undergoing significant evolution and rapid development, and such countries may lack the social, political and economic stability characteristic of more developed countries. Certain of such countries have in the past failed to recognize private property rights and have at times nationalized or expropriated the assets of, or ignored internationally accepted standards of due process against, private companies. In addition, a country may take these and other retaliatory actions against a specific private company, including a Fund or the Investment Adviser. There may not be legal recourse against these actions, which could arise in connection with the commercial activities of Goldman Sachs or its affiliates or otherwise, and a Fund could be subject to substantial losses. In addition, a Fund or the Investment Adviser may determine not to invest in, or may limit its overall investment in, a particular issuer, country or geographic region due to, among other things, heightened risks regarding repatriation restrictions, confiscation of assets and property, expropriation or nationalization. See “Investing in Emerging Countries” below.

Foreign Government Obligations

Foreign government obligations include securities, instruments and obligations issued or guaranteed by a foreign government, its agencies, instrumentalities or sponsored enterprises. Investment in foreign government obligations can involve a high degree of risk. The governmental entity that controls the repayment of foreign government obligations may not be able or willing to repay the principal and/or interest when due in accordance with the terms of such debt. A governmental entity’s willingness or ability to repay principal and interest due in a timely manner may be affected by, among other factors, its cash flow situation, the extent of its foreign reserves, the availability of sufficient foreign exchange on the date a payment is due, the relative size of the debt service burden to the economy as a whole, the governmental entity’s policy towards the International Monetary Fund and the political constraints to which a governmental entity may be subject. Governmental entities may also be dependent on expected disbursements from foreign governments, multilateral agencies and others abroad to reduce principal and interest on their debt. The commitment on the part of these governments, agencies and others to make such disbursements may be conditioned on a governmental entity’s implementation of economic reforms and/or economic performance and the timely service of such debtor’s obligations. Failure to implement such reforms, achieve such levels of economic performance or repay principal or interest when due may result in the cancellation of such third parties’ commitments to lend funds to the governmental entity, which may further impair such debtor’s ability or willingness to service its debts in a timely manner. Consequently, governmental entities may default on their debt. Holders of foreign government obligations (including the Funds) may be requested to participate in the rescheduling of such debt and to extend further loans to governmental agencies.

Investing in Emerging Countries

The securities markets of emerging countries are less liquid and subject to greater price volatility, and have a smaller market capitalization, than the U.S. securities markets. In certain countries, there may be fewer publicly traded securities and the market may be dominated by a few issuers or sectors. Issuers and securities markets in such countries are not subject to as extensive and frequent accounting, financial and other reporting requirements or as comprehensive government regulations as are issuers and securities markets in the U.S. In particular, the assets and profits appearing on the financial statements of emerging country issuers may not reflect their financial position or results of operations in the same manner as financial statements for U.S. issuers. Substantially less information may be publicly available about emerging country issuers than is available about issuers in the United States.

Emerging country securities markets are typically marked by a high concentration of market capitalization and trading volume in a small number of issuers representing a limited number of industries, as well as a high concentration of ownership of such securities by a limited number of investors. The markets for securities in certain emerging countries are in the earliest stages of their development. Even the markets for relatively widely traded securities in emerging countries may not be able to absorb, without price disruptions, a significant increase in trading volume or trades of a size customarily undertaken by institutional investors in the securities markets of developed countries. The limited size of many of these securities markets can cause prices to be erratic for reasons apart from factors that affect the soundness and competitiveness of the securities issuers. For example, prices may be unduly influenced by traders who control large positions in these markets. Additionally, market making and arbitrage activities are generally less extensive in such markets, which may contribute to increased volatility and reduced liquidity of such markets. The limited liquidity of emerging country securities may also affect a Fund’s ability to accurately value its portfolio securities or to acquire or dispose of securities at the price and time it wishes to do so or in order to meet redemption requests.

With respect to investments in certain emerging market countries, antiquated legal systems may have an adverse impact on the Funds. For example, while the potential liability of a shareholder in a U.S. corporation with respect to acts of the corporation is generally limited to the amount of the shareholder’s investment, the notion of limited liability is less clear in certain emerging market countries. Similarly, the rights of investors in emerging market companies may be more limited than those of shareholders of U.S. corporations.

 

B-19


Transaction costs, including brokerage commissions or dealer mark-ups, in emerging countries may be higher than in the United States and other developed securities markets. In addition, existing laws and regulations are often inconsistently applied. As legal systems in emerging countries develop, foreign investors may be adversely affected by new or amended laws and regulations. In circumstances where adequate laws exist, it may not be possible to obtain swift and equitable enforcement of the law.

Custodial and/or settlement systems in emerging markets countries may not be fully developed. To the extent a Fund invests in emerging markets, Fund assets that are traded in such markets and which have been entrusted to such sub-custodians in those markets may be exposed to risks for which the sub-custodian will have no liability.

Foreign investment in the securities markets of certain emerging countries is restricted or controlled to varying degrees. These restrictions may limit a Fund’s investment in certain emerging countries and may increase the expenses of the Fund. Certain emerging countries require governmental approval prior to investments by foreign persons or limit investment by foreign persons to only a specified percentage of an issuer’s outstanding securities or a specific class of securities which may have less advantageous terms (including price) than securities of the company available for purchase by nationals.

The repatriation of investment income, capital or the proceeds of securities sales from emerging countries may be subject to restrictions which require governmental consents or prohibit repatriation entirely for a period of time, which may make it difficult for a Fund to invest in such emerging countries. A Fund could be adversely affected by delays in, or a refusal to grant, any required governmental approval for such repatriation. Even where there is no outright restriction on repatriation of capital, the mechanics of repatriation may affect certain aspects of the operation of a Fund. A Fund may be required to establish special custodial or other arrangements before investing in certain emerging countries.

Emerging countries may be subject to a substantially greater degree of economic, political and social instability and disruption than is the case in the United States, Japan and most Western European countries. This instability may result from, among other things, the following: (i) authoritarian governments or military involvement in political and economic decision making, including changes or attempted changes in governments through extra-constitutional means; (ii) popular unrest associated with demands for improved political, economic or social conditions; (iii) internal insurgencies; (iv) hostile relations with neighboring countries; (v) ethnic, religious and racial disaffection or conflict; and (vi) the absence of developed legal structures governing foreign private investments and private property. Such economic, political and social instability could disrupt the principal financial markets in which the Funds may invest and adversely affect the value of the Funds’ assets. A Fund’s investments can also be adversely affected by any increase in taxes or by political, economic or diplomatic developments.

A Fund may seek investment opportunities within former “Eastern bloc” countries. Most of these countries had a centrally planned, socialist economy for a substantial period of time. The governments of many of these countries have more recently been implementing reforms directed at political and economic liberalization, including efforts to decentralize the economic decision-making process and move towards a market economy. However, business entities in Eastern European countries do not have an extended history of operating in a market-oriented economy, and the ultimate impact of these countries’ attempts to move toward more market-oriented economies is currently unclear. In addition, any change in the leadership or policies of these countries may halt the expansion of or reverse the liberalization of foreign investment policies now occurring and adversely affect existing investment opportunities.

The economies of emerging countries may differ unfavorably from the U.S. economy in such respects as growth of gross domestic product, rate of inflation, capital reinvestment, resources, self-sufficiency and balance of payments. Many emerging countries have experienced in the past, and continue to experience, high rates of inflation. In certain countries inflation has at times accelerated rapidly to hyperinflationary levels, creating a negative interest rate environment and sharply eroding the value of outstanding financial assets in those countries. Other emerging countries, on the other hand, have recently experienced deflationary pressures and are in economic recessions. The economies of many emerging countries are heavily dependent upon international trade and are accordingly affected by protective trade barriers and the economic conditions of their trading partners. In addition, the economies of some emerging countries are vulnerable to weakness in world prices for their commodity exports.

A Fund’s income and, in some cases, capital gains from foreign stocks and securities will be subject to applicable taxation in certain of the countries in which it invests, and treaties between the U.S. and such countries may not be available in some cases to reduce the otherwise applicable tax rates. See “TAXATION.”

From time to time, certain of the companies in which a Fund may invest may operate in, or have dealings with, countries subject to sanctions or embargos imposed by the U.S. Government and the United Nations and/or countries identified by the U.S. Government as state sponsors of terrorism. For example, the United Nations Security Council has imposed certain sanctions relating to Iran and Sudan and both countries are embargoed countries by the Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC) of the U.S. Treasury.

 

B-20


In addition, from time to time, certain of the companies in which a Fund may invest may engage in, or have dealings with countries or companies that engage in, activities that may not be considered socially and/or environmentally responsible. Such activities may relate to human rights issues (such as patterns of human rights abuses or violations, persecution or discrimination), impacts to local communities in which companies operate and environmental sustainability. For a description of the Investment Adviser’s approach to responsible and sustainable investing, please see GSAM’s Statement on Responsible and Sustainable Investing at https://www.gsam.com/content/dam/gsam/pdfs/common/en/public/miscellaneous/GSAM_statement_on_respon_sustainable_investing.pdf.

As a result, a company may suffer damage to its reputation if it is identified as a company which engages in, or has dealings with countries or companies that engage in, the above referenced activities. As an investor in such companies, a Fund would be indirectly subject to those risks.

The Investment Adviser is committed to complying fully with sanctions in effect as of the date of this Statement of Additional Information and any other applicable sanctions that may be enacted in the future with respect to Sudan or any other country.

Investing in Australia

The Australian economy is heavily dependent on the economies of Asia, Europe and the U.S. as key trading partners, and in particular, on the price and demand for agricultural products and natural resources. By total market capitalization, the Australian stock market is small relative to the U.S. stock market and issues may trade with lesser liquidity. Australian reporting, accounting and auditing standards differ substantially from U.S. standards. In general, Australian corporations do not provide all of the disclosure required by U.S. law and accounting practice, and such disclosure may be less timely and less frequent than that required of U.S. companies.

Investing in Europe

Certain of the Funds may operate in euros and/ or may hold euros and/or euro-denominated bonds and other obligations. The euro requires participation of multiple sovereign states forming the Euro zone and is therefore sensitive to the credit, general economic and political position of each such state, including each state’s actual and intended ongoing engagement with and/or support for the other sovereign states then forming the EU, in particular those within the Euro zone. Changes in these factors might materially adversely impact the value of securities that a Fund has invested in.

European countries can be significantly affected by the tight fiscal and monetary controls that the European Economic and Monetary Union (“EMU”) imposes for membership. Europe’s economies are diverse, its governments are decentralized, and its cultures vary widely. Several EU countries, including Greece, Ireland, Italy, Spain and Portugal, have faced budget issues, some of which may have negative long-term effects for the economies of those countries and other EU countries. There is continued concern about national-level support for the euro and the accompanying coordination of fiscal and wage policy among EMU member countries. Member countries are required to maintain tight control over inflation, public debt, and budget deficit to qualify for membership in the EMU. These requirements can severely limit the ability of EMU member countries to implement monetary policy to address regional economic conditions.

In a June 2016 referendum, citizens of the United Kingdom voted to leave the EU. In March 2017, the United Kingdom formally notified the European Council of its intention to withdraw from the EU (commonly known as “Brexit”) by invoking Article 50 of the Treaty on European Union, which triggered a two-year period of negotiations on the terms of Brexit. Brexit has resulted in volatility in European and global markets and may also lead to weakening in political, regulatory, consumer, corporate and financial confidence in the markets of the United Kingdom and throughout Europe. The longer term economic, legal, political, regulatory and social framework to be put in place between the United Kingdom and the EU remains unclear and may lead to ongoing political, regulatory and economic uncertainty and periods of exacerbated volatility in both the United Kingdom and in wider European markets for some time. Additionally, the decision made in the British referendum may lead to a call for similar referenda in other European jurisdictions, which may cause increased economic volatility in European and global markets. The mid-to long-term uncertainty may have an adverse effect on the economy generally and on the value of a Fund’s investments. This may be due to, among other things: fluctuations in asset values and exchange rates; increased illiquidity of investments located, traded or listed within the United Kingdom, the EU or elsewhere; changes in the willingness or ability of counterparties to enter into transactions at the price and terms on which a Fund is prepared to transact; and/or changes in legal and regulatory regimes to which certain of a Fund’s assets are or become subject. Fluctuations in the value of the British Pound and/or the Euro, along with the potential downgrading of the United Kingdom’s sovereign credit rating, may also have an impact on the performance of a Fund’s assets or investments economically tied to the United Kingdom or Europe.

 

B-21


The effects of Brexit will depend, in part, on agreements the United Kingdom negotiates to retain access to EU markets including, but not limited to, trade and finance agreements. Brexit could lead to legal and tax uncertainty and potentially divergent national laws and regulations as the United Kingdom determines which EU laws to replace or replicate. The extent of the impact of the withdrawal in the United Kingdom and in global markets as well as any associated adverse consequences remain unclear, and the uncertainty may have a significant negative effect on the value of a Fund’s investments. While certain measures are being proposed and/or will be introduced, at the EU level or at the member state level, which are designed to minimize disruption in the financial markets, it is not currently possible to determine whether such measures would achieve their intended effects.

On January 31, 2020, the United Kingdom withdrew from the EU subject to a withdrawal agreement that permits the United Kingdom to effectively remain in the EU from an economic perspective during a transition phase that expires at the end of 2020. During this transition phase, the United Kingdom and the EU will seek to negotiate and finalize a new, more permanent trade deal. Due to political uncertainty, it is not possible to anticipate whether the United Kingdom and the EU will be able to agree on and implement a new trade agreement or what the nature of such trade arrangement will be. In the event that no agreement is reached, the relationship between the United Kingdom and the EU would be based on the World Trade Organization rules.

Other economic challenges facing the region include high levels of public debt, significant rates of unemployment, aging populations, and heavy regulation in certain economic sectors. European policy makers have taken unprecedented steps to respond to the economic crisis and to boost growth in the region, which has increased the risk that regulatory uncertainty could negatively affect the value of a Fund’s investments.

Certain countries have applied to become new member countries of the EU, and these candidate countries’ accessions may become more controversial to the existing EU members. Some member states may repudiate certain candidate countries joining the EU upon concerns about the possible economic, immigration and cultural implications. Also, Russia may be opposed to the expansion of the EU to members of the former Soviet bloc and may, at times, take actions that could negatively impact EU economic activity.

Investing in Eastern Europe

Certain of the Funds may seek investment opportunities within Eastern Europe. Most Eastern European countries had a centrally planned, socialist economy for a substantial period of time. The governments of many Eastern European countries have more recently been implementing reforms directed at political and economic liberalization, including efforts to decentralize the economic decision-making process and move towards a market economy. However, business entities in many Eastern European countries do not have an extended history of operating in a market-oriented economy, and the ultimate impact of Eastern European countries’ attempts to move toward more market-oriented economies is currently unclear. Any change in the leadership or policies of Eastern European countries may halt the expansion of or reverse the liberalization of foreign investment policies now occurring and adversely affect existing investment opportunities. In addition, Eastern European markets are particularly sensitive to social, economic and currency events in Western Europe and Russia. Russia may attempt to assert its influence in the region through military measures.

Where a Fund invests in securities issued by companies incorporated in or whose principal operations are located in Eastern Europe, other risks may also be encountered. Legal, political, economic and fiscal uncertainties in Eastern European markets may affect the value of the Funds’ investment in such securities. The currencies in which these investments may be denominated may be unstable, may be subject to significant depreciation and may not be freely convertible. Existing laws and regulations may not be consistently applied. The markets of the countries of Eastern Europe are still in the early stages of their development, have less volume, are less highly regulated, are less liquid and experience greater volatility than more established markets. Settlement of transactions may be subject to delay and administrative uncertainties. Custodians are not able to offer the level of service and safekeeping, settlement and administration services that is customary in more developed markets, and there is a risk that the Fund will not be recognized as the owner of securities held on its behalf by a sub-custodian.

Investing in Asia

Although many countries in Asia have experienced a relatively stable political environment over the last decade, there is no guarantee that such stability will be maintained in the future. As an emerging region, many factors may affect such stability on a country-by-country as well as on a regional basis – increasing gaps between the rich and poor, agrarian unrest, instability of existing coalitions in politically-fractionated countries, hostile relations with neighboring countries, and ethnic, religious and racial disaffection – and may result in adverse consequences to a Fund. The political history of some Asian countries has been characterized by political uncertainty, intervention by the military in civilian and economic spheres, and political corruption. Such developments, if they continue to occur, could reverse favorable trends toward market and economic reform, privatization, and removal of trade barriers, and could result in significant disruption to securities markets.

The legal infrastructure in each of the countries in Asia is unique and often undeveloped. In most cases, securities laws are evolving and far from adequate for the protection of the public from serious fraud. Investment in Asian securities involves considerations and possible risks not typically involved with investment in other issuers, including changes in governmental administration or economic or monetary policy or changed circumstances in dealings between nations. The application of tax laws (e.g., the imposition of

 

B-22


withholding taxes on dividend or interest payments) or confiscatory taxation may also affect investment in Asian securities. Higher expenses may result from investments in Asian securities than would from investments in other securities because of the costs that must be incurred in connection with conversions between various currencies and brokerage commissions that may be higher than more established markets. Asian securities markets also may be less liquid, more volatile and less subject to governmental supervision than elsewhere. Investments in countries in the region could be affected by other factors not present elsewhere, including lack of uniform accounting, auditing and financial reporting standards, inadequate settlement procedures and potential difficulties in enforcing contractual obligations.

Some Asian economies have limited natural resources, resulting in dependence on foreign sources for energy and raw materials and economic vulnerability to global fluctuations of price and supply. Certain countries in Asia are especially prone to natural disasters, such as flooding, drought and earthquakes. Combined with the possibility of man-made disasters, the occurrence of such disasters may adversely affect companies in which a Fund is invested and, as a result, may result in adverse consequences to the Fund. Many of the countries in Asia periodically have experienced significant inflation. Should the governments and central banks of the countries in Asia fail to control inflation, this may have an adverse effect on the performance of a Fund’s investments in Asian securities. Several of the countries in Asia remain dependent on the U.S. economy as their largest export customer, and future barriers to entry into the U.S. market or other important markets could adversely affect a Fund’s performance. Intraregional trade is becoming an increasingly significant percentage of total trade for the countries in Asia. Consequently, the intertwined economies are becoming increasingly dependent on each other, and any barriers to entry to markets in Asia in the future may adversely affect a Fund’s performance.

Certain Asian countries may have managed currencies which are maintained at artificial levels to the U.S. dollar rather than at levels determined by the market. This type of system can lead to sudden and large adjustments in the currency which, in turn, can have a disruptive and negative effect on foreign investors. Certain Asian countries also may restrict the free conversion of their currency into foreign currencies, including the U.S. dollar. There is no significant foreign exchange market for certain currencies, and it would, as a result, be difficult to engage in foreign currency transactions designed to protect the value of a Fund’s interests in securities denominated in such currencies.

Although the Funds will generally attempt to invest in those markets which provide the greatest freedom of movement of foreign capital, there is no assurance that this will be possible or that certain countries in Asia will not restrict the movement of foreign capital in the future. Changes in securities laws and foreign ownership laws may have an adverse effect on a Fund.

Investing in Greater China. Investing in Greater China (Mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan) involves a high degree of risk and special considerations not typically associated with investing in other more established economies or securities markets. Such risks may include: (a) greater social, economic and political uncertainty (including the risk of armed conflict); (b) the risk of nationalization or expropriation of assets or confiscatory taxation; (c) dependency on exports and the corresponding importance of international trade; (d) the imposition of tariffs or other trade barriers by the U.S. or foreign governments on exports from Mainland China; (e) increasing competition from Asia’s other low-cost emerging economies; (f) greater price volatility and smaller market capitalization of securities markets; (g) decreased liquidity, particularly of certain share classes of Chinese securities; (h) currency exchange rate fluctuations (with respect to investments in Mainland China and Taiwan) and the lack of available currency hedging instruments; (i) higher rates of inflation; (j) controls on foreign investment and limitations on repatriation of invested capital and on a Fund’s ability to exchange local currencies for U.S. dollars; (k) greater governmental involvement in and control over the economy; (l) uncertainty regarding the People’s Republic of China’s commitment to economic reforms; (m) the fact that Chinese companies may be smaller, less seasoned and newly-organized companies; (n) the differences in, or lack of, auditing and financial reporting standards which may result in unavailability of material information about issuers; (o) the fact that statistical information regarding the economy of Greater China may be inaccurate or not comparable to statistical information regarding the U.S. or other economies; (p) less extensive, and still developing, legal systems and regulatory frameworks regarding the securities markets, business entities and commercial transactions; (q) the fact that the settlement period of securities transactions in foreign markets may be longer; (r) the fact that it may be more difficult, or impossible, to obtain and/or enforce a judgment than in other countries; and (s) the rapid and erratic nature of growth, particularly in the People’s Republic of China, resulting in inefficiencies and dislocations.

Mainland China. Investments in Mainland China are subject to the risks associated with greater governmental control over the economy, political and legal uncertainties and currency fluctuations or blockage. In particular, the Chinese Communist Party exercises significant control over economic growth in Mainland China through the allocation of resources, controlling payment of foreign currency-denominated obligations, setting monetary policy and providing preferential treatment to particular industries or companies.

Because the local legal system is still developing, it may be more difficult to obtain or enforce judgments with respect to investments in Mainland China. Chinese companies may not be subject to the same disclosure, accounting, auditing and financial reporting standards and practices as U.S. companies. Thus, there may be less information publicly available about Chinese companies than about most U.S. companies. Government supervision and regulation of Chinese stock exchanges, currency markets, trading systems and brokers may be more or less rigorous than that present in the U.S. The procedures and rules governing transactions and custody in Mainland China also may involve delays in payment, delivery or recovery of money or investments. The imposition of tariffs or other trade barriers by the U.S. or other foreign governments on exports from Mainland China may also have an adverse impact on Chinese issuers and China’s economy as a whole.

 

B-23


Foreign investments in Mainland China are somewhat restricted. Securities listed on the Shanghai and Shenzhen Stock Exchanges are divided into two classes of shares: A shares and B Shares. Ownership of A Shares is restricted to Chinese investors, Qualified Foreign Institutional Investors (“QFIIs”) who have obtained a QFII license, and participants in the Shanghai-Hong Kong and Shenzhen-Hong Kong Stock Connect programs (“Stock Connect”). B shares may be owned by Chinese and foreign investors. The Funds may obtain exposure to the A share market in the People’s Republic of China by either investing directly in A shares through participation in Stock Connect, or by investing in participatory notes issued by banks, broker-dealers and other financial institutions, or other structured or derivative instruments that are designed to replicate, or otherwise provide exposure to, the performance of A shares of Chinese companies. The Funds may also invest directly in B shares on the Shanghai and Shenzhen Stock Exchanges.

As a result of investing in the People’s Republic of China, a Fund may be subject to withholding and various other taxes imposed by the People’s Republic of China. To date, a 10% withholding tax has been levied on cash dividends, distributions and interest payments from companies listed in the People’s Republic of China to foreign investors, unless the withholding tax can be reduced by an applicable income tax treaty.

As of November 17, 2014, foreign mutual funds, which qualify as Qualified Foreign Institutional Investors (“QFIIs”) and/or RMB Qualified Foreign Institutional Investors (“RQFIIs”), are temporarily exempt from enterprise income tax on capital gains arising from securities trading in the People’s Republic of China. It is currently unclear when this preferential treatment would end. If the preferential treatment were to end, such capital gains would be subject to a 10% withholding tax in the People’s Republic of China. Meanwhile, the purchase and sale of publicly traded equities by a QFII/RQFII is exempt from value-added tax in the People’s Republic of China.

The tax law and regulations of the People’s Republic of China are constantly changing, and they may be changed with retrospective effect to the advantage or disadvantage of shareholders. The interpretation and applicability of the tax law and regulations by tax authorities may not be as consistent and transparent as those of more developed nations, and may vary from region to region. It should also be noted that any provision for taxation made by the Investment Adviser may be excessive or inadequate to meet final tax liabilities. Consequently, shareholders may be advantaged or disadvantaged depending upon the final tax liabilities, the level of provision and when they subscribed and/or redeemed their shares of a Fund.

Hong Kong. Hong Kong is a Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China. Since Hong Kong reverted to Chinese sovereignty in 1997, it has been governed by the Basic Law, a “quasi-constitution.” The Basic Law guarantees a high degree of autonomy in certain matters, including economic matters, until 2047. Attempts by the government of the People’s Republic of China to exert greater control over Hong Kong’s economic, political or legal structures or its existing social policy, could negatively affect investor confidence in Hong Kong, which in turn could negatively affect markets and business performance.

In addition, the Hong Kong dollar trades within a fixed trading band rate to (or is “pegged” to) the U.S. dollar. This fixed exchange rate has contributed to the growth and stability of the economy, but could be discontinued. It is uncertain what effect any discontinuance of the currency peg and the establishment of an alternative exchange rate system would have on the Hong Kong economy.

Taiwan. The prospect of political reunification of the People’s Republic of China and Taiwan has engendered hostility between the two regions’ governments. This situation poses a significant threat to Taiwan’s economy, as heightened conflict could potentially lead to distortions in Taiwan’s capital accounts and have an adverse impact on the value of investments throughout Greater China.

Investing in Japan. Japan’s economy is heavily dependent upon international trade and is especially sensitive to any adverse effects arising from trade tariffs and other protectionist measures, as well as the economic condition of its trading partners. Japan’s high volume of exports has caused trade tensions with Japan’s primary trading partners, particularly with the United States. The relaxing of official and de facto barriers to imports, or hardships created by the actions of trading partners, could adversely affect Japan’s economy. Because the Japanese economy is so dependent on exports, any fall-off in exports may be seen as a sign of economic weakness, which may adversely affect Japanese markets. In addition, Japan’s export industry, its most important economic sector, depends heavily on imported raw materials and fuels, including iron ore, copper, oil and many forest products. Japan has historically depended on oil for most of its energy requirements. Almost all of its oil is imported, the majority from the Middle East. In the past, oil prices have had a major impact on the domestic economy, but more recently Japan has worked to reduce its dependence on oil by encouraging energy conservation and use of alternative fuels. However, Japan remains sensitive to fluctuations in commodity prices, and a substantial rise in world oil or commodity prices could have a negative effect on its economy.

The Japanese yen has fluctuated widely during recent periods and may be affected by currency volatility elsewhere in Asia, especially Southeast Asia. In addition, the yen has had a history of unpredictable and volatile movements against the U.S. dollar. A weak yen is disadvantageous to U.S. shareholders investing in yen-denominated securities. A strong yen, however, could be an impediment to strong continued exports and economic recovery, because it makes Japanese goods sold in other countries more expensive and reduces the value of foreign earnings repatriated to Japan.

 

B-24


The performance of the global economy could have a major impact upon equity returns in Japan. As a result of the strong correlation with the economy of the U.S., Japan’s economy and its stock market are vulnerable to any unfavorable economic conditions in the U.S. and poor performance of U.S. stock markets. The growing economic relationship between Japan and its other neighboring countries in the Southeast Asia region, especially China, also exposes Japan’s economy to changes to the economic climates in those countries.

Like many developed countries, Japan faces challenges to its competitiveness. Growth slowed markedly in the 1990s and Japan’s economy fell into a long recession. After a few years of mild recovery in the mid-2000s, the Japanese economy fell into another recession in part due to the recent global economic crisis. This economic recession was likely compounded by an unstable financial sector, low domestic consumption, and certain corporate structural weaknesses, which remain some of the major issues facing the Japanese economy. Japan is reforming its political process and deregulating its economy to address this situation. However, there is no guarantee that these efforts will succeed in making the performance of the Japanese economy more competitive.

Japan has experienced natural disasters, such as earthquakes and tidal waves, of varying degrees of severity. The risks of such phenomena, and the resulting damage, continue to exist and could have a severe and negative impact on a Fund’s holdings in Japanese securities. Japan also has one of the world’s highest population densities. A significant percentage of the total population of Japan is concentrated in the metropolitan areas of Tokyo, Osaka, and Nagoya. Therefore, a natural disaster centered in or very near to one of these cities could have a particularly devastating effect on Japan’s financial markets. Japan’s recovery from the recession has been affected by economic distress resulting from the earthquake and resulting tsunami that struck northeastern Japan in March 2011 causing major damage along the coast, including damage to nuclear power plants in the region. Since the earthquake, Japan’s financial markets have fluctuated dramatically. The disaster caused large personal losses, reduced energy supplies, disrupted manufacturing, resulted in significant declines in stock market prices and resulted in an appreciable decline in Japan’s economic output. Although production levels are recovering in some industries as work is shifted to factories in areas not directly affected by the disaster, the timing of a full economic recovery is uncertain, and foreign business whose supply chains are dependent on production or manufacturing in Japan may decrease their reliance on Japanese industries in the future.

Forward Foreign Currency Exchange Contracts

The Real Estate Securities Fund, International Real Estate Securities Fund, Global Real Estate Securities Fund, Absolute Return Tracker Fund, Commodity Strategy Fund, Alternative Premia Fund, Managed Futures Strategy Fund, Global Infrastructure Fund, International Equity Dividend and Premium Fund and International Tax-Managed Equity Fund may, to the extent consistent with their investment policies, enter into forward foreign currency exchange contracts for hedging purposes and to seek to protect against anticipated changes in future foreign currency exchange rates. The Absolute Return Tracker Fund may also enter into foreign currency transactions to seek a closer correlation between the Fund’s overall currency exposures and the currency exposures of the Market Exposures. A forward foreign currency exchange contract involves an obligation to purchase or sell a specific currency at a future date, which may be any fixed number of days from the date of the contract agreed upon by the parties, at a price set at the time of the contract. These contracts are traded in the interbank market between currency traders (usually large commercial banks) and their customers. A forward contract generally has no deposit requirement, and no commissions are generally charged at any stage for trades.

At the maturity of a forward contract a Fund may either accept or make delivery of the currency specified in the contract or, at or prior to maturity, enter into a closing transaction involving the purchase or sale of an offsetting contract. Closing transactions with respect to forward contracts are often, but not always, effected with the currency trader who is a party to the original forward contract.

A Fund may, from time to time, engage in non-deliverable forward transactions to manage currency risk or to gain exposure to a currency without purchasing securities denominated in that currency. A non-deliverable forward is a transaction that represents an agreement between a Fund and a counterparty (usually a commercial bank) to pay the other party the amount that it would have cost based on current market rates as of the termination date to buy or sell a specified (notional) amount of a particular currency at an agreed upon foreign exchange rate on an agreed upon future date. If the counterparty defaults, the Fund will have contractual remedies pursuant to the agreement related to the transaction, but the Fund may be delayed or prevented from obtaining payments owed to it pursuant to non-deliverable forward transactions. Such non-deliverable forward transactions will be settled in cash.

A Fund may enter into forward foreign currency exchange contracts in several circumstances. First, when a Fund enters into a contract for the purchase or sale of a security denominated or quoted in a foreign currency, or when a Fund anticipates the receipt in a foreign currency of dividend or interest payments on such a security which it holds, the Fund may desire to “lock in” the U.S. dollar price of the security or the U.S. dollar equivalent of such dividend or interest payment, as the case may be. By entering into a forward contract for the purchase or sale, for a fixed amount of dollars, of the amount of foreign currency involved in the underlying transactions, the Fund will attempt to protect itself against an adverse change in the relationship between the U.S. dollar and the subject foreign currency during the period between the date on which the security is purchased or sold, or on which the dividend or interest payment is declared, and the date on which such payments are made or received.

 

B-25


Additionally, when the Investment Adviser believes that the currency of a particular foreign country may suffer a substantial decline against the U.S. dollar, it may enter into a forward contract to sell, for a fixed amount of U.S. dollars, the amount of foreign currency approximating the value of some or all of such Fund’s portfolio securities quoted or denominated in such foreign currency. The precise matching of the forward contract amounts and the value of the securities involved will not generally be possible because the future value of such securities in foreign currencies will change as a consequence of market movements in the value of those securities between the date on which the contract is entered into and the date it matures. Using forward contracts to protect the value of a Fund’s portfolio securities against a decline in the value of a currency does not eliminate fluctuations in the underlying prices of the securities. It simply establishes a rate of exchange which a Fund can achieve at some future point in time. The precise projection of short-term currency market movements is not possible, and short-term hedging provides a means of fixing the U.S. dollar value of only a portion of a Fund’s foreign assets.

The Funds may engage in cross-hedging by using forward contracts in one currency to hedge against fluctuations in the value of securities quoted or denominated in a different currency. In addition, the Real Estate Securities Fund, International Real Estate Securities Fund, Global Real Estate Securities Fund, Commodity Strategy Fund, Global Infrastructure Fund, Managed Futures Strategy Fund, International Equity Dividend and Premium Fund and International Tax-Managed Equity Fund may enter into foreign currency transactions to seek a closer correlation between a Fund’s overall currency exposure and the currency exposure of a Fund’s performance benchmark.

While a Fund may enter into forward contracts to reduce currency exchange rate risks, transactions in such contracts involve certain other risks. Thus, while a Fund may benefit from such transactions, unanticipated changes in currency prices may result in a poorer overall performance for the Fund than if it had not engaged in any such transactions. Moreover, there may be imperfect correlation between a Fund’s portfolio holdings of securities quoted or denominated in a particular currency and forward contracts entered into by such Fund. Such imperfect correlation may cause a Fund to sustain losses which will prevent the Fund from achieving a complete hedge or expose the Fund to risk of foreign exchange loss.

Certain forward foreign currency exchange contracts and other currency transactions are not exchange traded or cleared. Markets for trading such foreign forward currency contracts offer less protection against defaults than is available when trading in currency instruments on an exchange. Such forward contracts are subject to the risk that the counterparty to the contract will default on its obligations. Because these contracts are not guaranteed by an exchange or clearinghouse, a default on a contract would deprive a Fund of unrealized profits, transaction costs or the benefits of a currency hedge or force the Fund to cover its purchase or sale commitments, if any, at the current market price. In addition, the institutions that deal in forward currency contracts are not required to continue to make markets in the currencies they trade and these markets can experience periods of illiquidity. To the extent that a portion of a Fund’s total assets, adjusted to reflect the Fund’s net position after giving effect to currency transactions, is denominated or quoted in the currencies of foreign countries, the Fund will be more susceptible to the risk of adverse economic and political developments within those countries.

These and other factors discussed in the section below, entitled “Illiquid Investments,” may impact the liquidity of investments in issuers of emerging country securities.

Futures Contracts and Options on Futures Contracts

Each Fund may purchase and sell futures contracts and may also purchase and write call and put options on futures contracts. Each Fund (other than the U.S. Equity Dividend and Premium Fund and U.S. Tax-Managed Equity Fund) may purchase and sell futures contracts based on various securities, securities indices, foreign currencies and other financial instruments and indices. The U.S. Equity Dividend and Premium Fund and U.S. Tax-Managed Equity Fund may engage in transactions only with respect to U.S. equity indices. The Absolute Return Tracker Fund may also engage in futures and related options transactions in an attempt to match the returns of the Market Exposures. Each Fund will engage in futures and related options transactions in order to seek to increase total return or to hedge against changes in interest rates, securities prices or, to the extent a Fund invests in foreign securities, currency exchange rates, or to otherwise manage its term structure, sector selection and duration of its fixed income securities holdings in accordance with its investment objective and policies. Each Fund may also enter into closing purchase and sale transactions with respect to such contracts and options.

Futures contracts utilized by mutual funds have historically been traded on U.S. exchanges or boards of trade that are licensed and regulated by the CFTC or with respect to certain funds on foreign exchanges. More recently, certain futures may also be traded either over-the-counter or on trading facilities such as derivatives transaction execution facilities, exempt boards of trade or electronic trading facilities that are licensed and/or regulated to varying degrees by the CFTC. Also, certain single stock futures and narrow based security index futures may be traded either over-the-counter or on trading facilities such as contract markets, derivatives transaction execution facilities and electronic trading facilities that are licensed and/or regulated to varying degrees by both the CFTC and the SEC or on foreign exchanges.

 

B-26


Neither the CFTC, National Futures Association (“NFA”), SEC nor any domestic exchange regulates activities of any foreign exchange or boards of trade, including the execution, delivery and clearing of transactions, or has the power to compel enforcement of the rules of a foreign exchange or board of trade or any applicable foreign law. This is true even if the exchange is formally linked to a domestic market so that a position taken on the market may be liquidated by a transaction on another market. Moreover, such laws or regulations will vary depending on the foreign country in which the foreign futures or foreign options transaction occurs. For these reasons, a Fund’s investments in foreign futures or foreign options transactions may not be provided the same protections in respect of transactions on United States exchanges. In particular, persons who trade foreign futures or foreign options contracts may not be afforded certain of the protective measures provided by the CEA, the CFTC’s regulations and the rules of the NFA and any domestic exchange, including the right to use reparations proceedings before the CFTC and arbitration proceedings provided by the NFA or any domestic futures exchange. Similarly, those persons may not have the protection of the U.S. securities laws.

Futures Contracts

A futures contract may generally be described as an agreement between two parties to buy and sell particular financial instruments for an agreed price during a designated month (or to deliver the final cash settlement price, in the case of a contract relating to an index or otherwise not calling for physical delivery at the end of trading in the contract).

When interest rates are rising or securities prices are falling, a Fund can seek through the sale of futures contracts to offset a decline in the value of its current portfolio securities. When interest rates are falling or securities prices are rising, a Fund, through the purchase of futures contracts, can attempt to secure better rates or prices than might later be available in the market when it effects anticipated purchases. Similarly, the Real Estate Securities Fund, International Real Estate Securities Fund, Global Real Estate Securities Fund, Commodity Strategy Fund, Global Infrastructure Fund, Managed Futures Strategy Fund, International Equity Dividend and Premium Fund and International Tax-Managed Equity Fund can purchase and sell futures contracts on a specified currency in order to seek to increase total return or to protect against changes in currency exchange rates. For example, a Fund can purchase futures contracts on foreign currency to establish the price in U.S. dollars of a security quoted or denominated in such currency that such Fund has acquired or expects to acquire. In addition, the Real Estate Securities Fund, International Real Estate Securities Fund, Global Real Estate Securities Fund, Commodity Strategy Fund, Global Infrastructure Fund, Managed Futures Strategy Fund, International Equity Dividend and Premium Fund and International Tax-Managed Equity Fund may enter into futures transactions to seek a closer correlation between a Fund’s overall currency exposures and the currency exposures of a Fund’s performance benchmark.

Positions taken in the futures market are not normally held to maturity, but are instead liquidated through offsetting transactions which may result in a profit or a loss. While each Fund will usually liquidate futures contracts on securities or currency in this manner, a Fund may instead make or take delivery of the underlying securities or currency whenever it appears economically advantageous for the Fund to do so. A clearing corporation associated with the exchange on which futures are traded guarantees that, if still open, the sale or purchase will be performed on the settlement date.

Hedging Strategies Using Futures Contracts

When a Fund uses futures for hedging purposes, the Fund often seeks to establish with more certainty than would otherwise be possible the effective price or rate of return on portfolio securities (or securities that the Fund proposes to acquire) or the exchange rate of currencies in which portfolio securities are quoted or denominated. A Fund may, for example, take a “short” position in the futures market by selling futures contracts to seek to hedge against an anticipated rise in interest rates or a decline in market prices or, except in the case of the U.S. Equity Dividend and Premium Fund and U.S. Tax-Managed Equity Fund, foreign currency rates that would adversely affect the dollar value of such Fund’s portfolio securities. Such futures contracts may include contracts for the future delivery of securities held by a Fund or securities with characteristics similar to those of a Fund’s portfolio securities. Similarly, each Fund, other than the U.S. Equity Dividend and Premium Fund and U.S. Tax-Managed Equity Fund, may sell futures contracts on a currency in which its portfolio securities are quoted or denominated, or sell futures contracts on one currency to seek to hedge against fluctuations in the value of securities quoted or denominated in a different currency if there is an established historical pattern of correlation between the two currencies. If, in the opinion of the Investment Adviser, there is a sufficient degree of correlation between price trends for a Fund’s portfolio securities and futures contracts based on other financial instruments, securities indices or other indices, a Fund may also enter into such futures contracts as part of its hedging strategy. Although under some circumstances prices of securities in a Fund’s portfolio may be more or less volatile than prices of such futures contracts, the Investment Adviser will attempt to estimate the extent of this volatility difference based on historical patterns and compensate for any such differential by having a Fund enter into a greater or lesser number of futures contracts or by attempting to achieve only a partial hedge against price changes affecting a Fund’s portfolio securities. When hedging of this character is successful, any depreciation in the value of portfolio securities will be substantially offset by appreciation in the value of the futures position. On the other hand, any unanticipated appreciation in the value of a Fund’s portfolio securities would be substantially offset by a decline in the value of the futures position.

 

B-27


On other occasions, a Fund may take a “long” position by purchasing such futures contracts. This may be done, for example, when a Fund anticipates the subsequent purchase of particular securities when it has the necessary cash, but expects the prices or currency exchange rates (except in the case of the U.S. Equity Dividend and Premium Fund and U.S. Tax-Managed Equity Fund) then available in the applicable market to be less favorable than prices or rates that are currently available.

Options on Futures Contracts

The acquisition of put and call options on futures contracts will give a Fund the right (but not the obligation), for a specified price, to sell or to purchase, respectively, the underlying futures contract at any time during the option period. As the purchaser of an option on a futures contract, a Fund obtains the benefit of the futures position if prices move in a favorable direction but limits its risk of loss in the event of an unfavorable price movement to the loss of the premium and transaction costs.

The writing of a call option on a futures contract generates a premium which may partially offset a decline in the value of a Fund’s assets. By writing a call option, a Fund becomes obligated, in exchange for the premium, to sell a futures contract if the option is exercised, which may have a value higher than the exercise price. The writing of a put option on a futures contract generates a premium, which may partially offset an increase in the price of securities that a Fund intends to purchase. However, a Fund becomes obligated (upon the exercise of the option) to purchase a futures contract if the option is exercised, which may have a value lower than the exercise price. Thus, the loss incurred by a Fund in writing options on futures is potentially unlimited and may exceed the amount of the premium received. A Fund will incur transaction costs in connection with the writing of options on futures.

The holder or writer of an option on a futures contract may terminate its position by selling or purchasing an offsetting option on the same financial instrument. There is no guarantee that such closing transactions can be effected. A Fund’s ability to establish and close out positions on such options will be subject to the development and maintenance of a liquid market.

Other Considerations

A Fund will engage in transactions in futures contracts and related options transactions only to the extent such transactions are consistent with the requirements of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”) for maintaining its qualification as a regulated investment company for federal income tax purposes. Transactions in futures contracts and options on futures involve brokerage costs, require margin deposits and, in certain cases, require the Fund to identify on its books cash or liquid assets.

While transactions in futures contracts and options on futures may reduce certain risks, such transactions themselves entail certain other risks. Thus, unanticipated changes in interest rates, securities prices or currency exchange rates (except in the case of the U.S. Equity Dividend and Premium Fund and U.S. Tax-Managed Equity Fund) may result in a poorer overall performance for a Fund than if it had not entered into any futures contracts or options transactions. When futures contracts and options are used for hedging purposes, perfect correlation between a Fund’s futures positions and portfolio positions may be impossible to achieve, particularly where futures contracts based on individual equity or corporate fixed income securities are currently not available. In the event of an imperfect correlation between a futures position and a portfolio position which is intended to be protected, the desired protection may not be obtained and a Fund may be exposed to risk of loss. In addition, it is not possible for a Fund to hedge fully or perfectly against currency fluctuations affecting the value of securities quoted or denominated in foreign currencies because the value of such securities is likely to fluctuate as a result of independent factors unrelated to currency fluctuations. The profitability of a Fund’s trading in futures depends upon the ability of the Investment Adviser to analyze correctly the futures markets.

A Fund may cover its transactions in futures contracts and related options by identifying on its books cash or liquid assets or by other means, in any manner permitted by applicable law. For more information about these practices, see “Description of Investment Securities and Practices – Asset Segregation.”

High Yield Securities

The Real Estate Securities Fund, International Real Estate Securities Fund, Global Real Estate Securities Fund, Absolute Return Tracker Fund, Commodity Strategy Fund, Alternative Premia Fund, Managed Futures Strategy Fund and Global Infrastructure Fund may invest in bonds rated BB+ or below by Standard & Poor’s Rating Group (“Standard & Poor’s”), or Ba1 or below by Moody’s Investor Services, Inc. (“Moody’s”) (or comparable rated and unrated securities). These bonds are commonly referred to as “junk bonds,” are non-investment grade and are considered speculative. Each of the Real Estate Securities and International Real Estate Securities Funds may invest up to 20% of its total assets in non-investment grade securities, the Global Real Estate Securities Fund and the Global Infrastructure Fund may invest up to 20% of its Net Assets in non-investment grade securities, and the Commodity Strategy Fund may invest up to 10% of its Net Assets in non-investment grade securities. The ability of issuers of high yield securities to make principal and interest payments may be questionable because such issuers are often less creditworthy companies or are highly leveraged and generally less able than more established or less leveraged entities to make scheduled payments of principal and interest. High yield

 

B-28


securities are also issued by governmental issuers that may have difficulty in making all scheduled interest and principal payments. In some cases, such high yield securities may be highly speculative, have poor prospects for reaching investment grade standing and be in default. As a result, investment in such bonds will entail greater risks than those associated with investments in investment grade bonds (i.e., bonds rated AAA, AA, A or BBB by Standard & Poor’s or Aaa, Aa, A or Baa by Moody’s). Analysis of the creditworthiness of issuers of high yield securities may be more complex than for issuers of higher quality debt securities, and the ability of a Fund to achieve its investment objective may, to the extent of its investments in high yield securities, be more dependent upon such creditworthiness analysis than would be the case if the Fund were investing in higher quality securities. See Appendix A for a description of the corporate bond and preferred stock ratings by Standard & Poor’s, Moody’s, Fitch, Inc. (“Fitch”) and Dominion Bond Rating Service Limited (“DBRS”).

The market values of high yield, fixed income securities tend to reflect individual corporate or municipal developments to a greater extent than do those of higher rated securities, which react primarily to fluctuations in the general level of interest rates. Issuers of high yield securities that are highly leveraged may not be able to make use of more traditional methods of financing. Their ability to service debt obligations may be more adversely affected by economic downturns or their inability to meet specific projected business forecasts than would be the case for issuers of higher-rated securities. Negative publicity about the junk bond market and investor perceptions regarding lower-rated securities, whether or not based on fundamental analysis, may depress the prices for high yield securities. In the lower quality segments of the fixed income securities market, changes in perceptions of issuers’ creditworthiness tend to occur more frequently and in a more pronounced manner than do changes in higher quality segments of the fixed income securities market, resulting in greater yield and price volatility. Another factor which causes fluctuations in the prices of high yield securities is the supply and demand for similarly rated securities. In addition, the prices of investments fluctuate in response to the general level of interest rates. Fluctuations in the prices of portfolio securities subsequent to their acquisition will not affect cash income from such securities but will be reflected in a Fund’s NAV.

The risk of loss from default for the holders of high yield securities is significantly greater than is the case for holders of other debt securities because high yield securities are generally unsecured and are often subordinated to the rights of other creditors of the issuers of such securities. Investment by a Fund in already defaulted securities poses an additional risk of loss should nonpayment of principal and interest continue in respect of such securities. Even if such securities are held to maturity, recovery by a Fund of its initial investment and any anticipated income or appreciation is uncertain. In addition, a Fund may incur additional expenses to the extent that it is required to seek recovery relating to the default in the payment of principal or interest on such securities or otherwise protect its interests. A Fund may be required to liquidate other portfolio securities to satisfy annual distribution obligations of the Fund in respect of accrued interest income on securities which are subsequently written off, even though the Fund has not received any cash payments of such interest.

The secondary market for high yield securities is concentrated in relatively few markets and is dominated by institutional investors, including mutual funds, insurance companies and other financial institutions. Accordingly, the secondary market for such securities may not be as liquid as and may be more volatile than the secondary market for higher-rated securities. In addition, the trading volume for high-yield securities is generally lower than that of higher rated securities. The secondary market for high yield securities could contract under adverse market or economic conditions independent of any specific adverse changes in the condition of a particular issuer. These factors may have an adverse effect on the ability of a Fund to dispose of particular portfolio investments when needed to meet their redemption requests or other liquidity needs. The Investment Adviser could find it difficult to sell these investments or may be able to sell the investments only at prices lower than if such investments were widely traded. Prices realized upon the sale of such lower rated or unrated securities, under these circumstances, may be less than the prices used in calculating the NAV of a Fund. A less liquid secondary market also may make it more difficult for a Fund to obtain precise valuations of the high yield securities in their portfolios.

The adoption of new legislation could adversely affect the secondary market for high yield securities and the financial condition of issuers of these securities. The form of any future legislation, and the probability of such legislation being enacted, is uncertain.

Non-investment grade securities also present risks based on payment expectations. High yield securities frequently contain “call” or buy-back features which permit the issuer to call or repurchase the security from its holder. If an issuer exercises such a “call option” and redeems the security, a Fund may have to replace such security with a lower-yielding security, resulting in a decreased return for investors. In addition, if a Fund experiences net redemptions of its shares, it may be forced to sell its higher-rated securities, resulting in a decline in the overall credit quality of its portfolio and increasing its exposure to the risks of high yield securities.

Credit ratings issued by credit rating agencies are designed to evaluate the safety of principal and interest payments of rated securities. They do not, however, evaluate the market value risk of non-investment grade securities and, therefore, may not fully reflect the true risks of an investment. In addition, credit rating agencies may or may not make timely changes in a rating to reflect changes in the economy or in the conditions of the issuer that affect the market value of the security. Consequently, credit ratings are used only as a preliminary indicator of investment quality. Investments in non-investment grade and comparable unrated obligations will be more dependent on the Investment Adviser’s credit analysis than would be the case with investments in investment-grade debt obligations.

 

B-29


The Investment Adviser employs its own credit research and analysis, which includes a study of an issuer’s existing debt, capital structure, ability to service debt and to pay dividends, sensitivity to economic conditions, operating history and current trend of earnings. The Investment Adviser continually monitors the investments in the Funds’ portfolios and evaluates whether to dispose of or to retain non-investment grade and comparable unrated securities whose credit ratings or credit quality may have changed. If after its purchase, a portfolio security is assigned a lower rating or ceases to be rated, a Fund may continue to hold the security if the Investment Adviser believes it is in the best interest of the Fund and its shareholders.

An economic downturn could severely affect the ability of highly leveraged issuers of junk bond investments to service their debt obligations or to repay their obligations upon maturity. Factors having an adverse impact on the market value of junk bonds will have an adverse effect on a Fund’s NAV to the extent it invests in such investments. In addition, a Fund may incur additional expenses to the extent it is required to seek recovery upon a default in payment of principal or interest on its portfolio holdings.

These and other factors discussed in the section below, entitled “Illiquid Investments,” may impact the liquidity of investments in high yield securities.

Illiquid Investments

Pursuant to Rule 22e-4 under the 1940 Act, a Fund may not acquire any “illiquid investment” if, immediately after the acquisition, the Fund would have invested more than 15% of its net assets in illiquid investments that are assets. An “illiquid investment” is any investment that a Fund reasonably expects cannot be sold or disposed of in current market conditions in seven calendar days or less without the sale or disposition significantly changing the market value of the investment. The Trust has implemented a liquidity risk management program and related procedures to categorize each Fund’s portfolio investments and identify illiquid investments pursuant to Rule 22e-4, and the Trustees have approved the designation of the Investment Adviser to administer the Trust’s liquidity risk management program and related procedures. In determining whether an investment is an illiquid investment, the Investment Adviser will take into account actual or estimated daily transaction volume of an investment, group of related investments or asset class and other relevant market, trading, and investment-specific considerations. In addition, in determining the liquidity of an investment, the Investment Adviser must determine whether trading varying portions of a position in a particular portfolio investment or asset class, in sizes that a Fund would reasonably anticipate trading, is reasonably expected to significantly affect its liquidity, and if so, the Fund must take this determination into account when classifying the liquidity of that investment or asset class.

In addition to actual or estimated daily transaction volume of an investment, group of related investments or asset class and other relevant market, trading, and investment-specific considerations, the following factors, among others, will generally impact the classification of an investment as an “illiquid investment”: (i) any investment that is placed on the Investment Adviser’s restricted trading list; and (ii) any investment that is delisted or for which there is a trading halt at the close of the trading day on the primary listing exchange at the time of classification (and in respect of which no active secondary market exists). Investments purchased by a Fund that are liquid at the time of purchase may subsequently become illiquid due to these and other events and circumstances. If one or more investments in a Fund’s portfolio become illiquid, the Fund may exceed the 15% limitation in illiquid investments. In the event that changes in the portfolio or other external events cause a Fund to exceed this limit, the Fund must take steps to bring its illiquid investments that are assets to or below 15% of its net assets within a reasonable period of time. This requirement would not force a Fund to liquidate any portfolio instrument where the Fund would suffer a loss on the sale of that instrument.

Inverse Floating Rate Securities

The Real Estate Securities Fund, International Real Estate Securities Fund, Global Real Estate Securities Fund, Absolute Return Tracker Fund, Commodity Strategy Fund, Global Infrastructure Fund, Managed Futures Strategy Fund and U.S. Tax-Managed Equity Fund may invest in leveraged inverse floating rate debt instruments (“inverse floaters”). The interest rate on an inverse floater resets in the opposite direction from the market rate of interest to which the inverse floater is indexed. An inverse floater may be considered to be leveraged to the extent that its interest rate varies by a magnitude that exceeds the magnitude of the change in the index rate of interest. The higher degree of leverage inherent in inverse floaters is associated with greater volatility in their market values. Accordingly, the duration of an inverse floater may exceed its stated final maturity. Certain inverse floaters may be illiquid securities for purposes of the 15% limitation on investments in such securities.

Investing in Master Limited Partnerships

Each Fund may invest in Master Limited Partnerships (“MLPs”). MLPs are publicly traded partnerships primarily engaged in the transportation, storage, processing, refining, marketing, exploration, production, and mining of minerals and natural resources. Investments in securities of MLPs involve risks that differ from investments in common stock, including risks related to limited control and limited rights to vote on matters affecting the MLP, risks related to potential conflicts of interest between the MLP and the MLP’s general partner, cash flow risks, dilution risks and risks related to the general partner’s right to require unit-holders to sell their common units at an undesirable time or price, resulting from regulatory changes or other reasons. Certain MLP securities may trade in lower

 

B-30


volumes due to their smaller capitalizations. Accordingly, those MLPs may be subject to more abrupt or erratic price movements, may lack sufficient market liquidity to enable a Fund to effect sales at an advantageous time or without a substantial drop in price, and investment in those MLPs may restrict a Fund’s ability to take advantage of other investment opportunities. MLPs are generally considered interest-rate sensitive investments. During periods of interest rate volatility, these investments may not provide attractive returns. Depending on the state of interest rates in general, the use of MLPs could enhance or harm the overall performance of a Fund.

MLPs are subject to various risks related to the underlying operating companies they control, including dependence upon specialized management skills and the risk that such companies may lack or have limited operating histories. The success of a Fund’s investments also will vary depending on the underlying industry represented by the MLP’s portfolio. A Fund must recognize income that it receives from underlying MLPs for tax purposes, even if the Fund does not receive cash distributions from the MLPs in an amount necessary to pay such tax liability. Certain MLPs in which a Fund may invest depend upon their parent or sponsor entities for the majority of their revenues. If the parent or sponsor entities fail to make payments or satisfy their obligations to an MLP, the revenues and cash flows of that MLP and ability of that MLP to make distributions to unit holders such as a Fund would be adversely affected.

Certain MLPs in which a Fund invests depend upon a limited number of customers for substantially all of their revenue. Similarly, certain MLPs in which a Fund may invest depend upon a limited number of suppliers of goods or services to continue their operations. The loss of those customers or suppliers could have a material adverse effect on an MLP’s results of operations and cash flow, and on its ability to make distributions to unit holders such as a Fund.

In addition, a percentage of a distribution received by a Fund as the holder of an MLP interest may be treated as a return of capital, which would reduce a Fund’s adjusted tax basis in the interests of the MLP, which will result in an increase in the amount of income or gain (or decrease in the amount of loss) that will be recognized by a Fund for tax purposes upon the sale of any such interests or upon subsequent distributions in respect of such interests. Furthermore, any return of capital distribution received from the MLP may require a Fund to restate the character of its distributions and amend any shareholder tax reporting previously issued.

MLPs generally do not pay U.S. federal income tax at the partnership level. Rather, each partner is allocated a share of the partnership’s income, gains, losses, deductions and expenses. A change in current tax law, or a change in the underlying business mix of a given MLP, could result in an MLP being treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes, which would result in the MLP being required to pay U.S. federal income tax (as well as state and local income taxes) on its taxable income. The classification of an MLP as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes would have the effect of reducing the amount of cash available for distribution by the MLP. If any MLP in which a Fund invests were treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes, it could result in a reduction of the value of the Fund’s investment in the MLP and lower income to the Fund.

Investment in Unseasoned Companies

Each Fund may invest in companies (including predecessors) which have operated less than three years. The securities of such companies may have limited liquidity, which can result in their being priced higher or lower than might otherwise be the case. In addition, investments in unseasoned companies are more speculative and entail greater risk than do investments in companies with an established operating record.

Investments in the Wholly-Owned Subsidiaries

Each of the Absolute Return Tracker Fund, Commodity Strategy Fund, Alternative Premia Fund and Managed Futures Strategy Fund may invest in a Subsidiary. Investments in a Subsidiary are expected to provide the Funds with exposure to the commodity markets within the limitations of Subchapter M of the Code and IRS revenue rulings, as discussed below under “TAXATION—Fund Taxation.” The Subsidiaries are companies organized under the laws of the Cayman Islands, and each Subsidiary is overseen by its own board of directors. Each of the Absolute Return Tracker Fund, Commodity Strategy Fund, Alternative Premia Fund and Commodity Strategy Fund is currently the sole shareholder of its respective Subsidiary. The Subsidiaries may invest without limitation in commodity index-linked securities (including leveraged and unleveraged structured notes) and other commodity-linked securities and derivative instruments that provide exposure to the performance of the commodity markets. Although a Fund may invest in commodity-linked derivative instruments directly, the Fund may gain exposure to these derivative instruments indirectly by investing in its respective Subsidiary. Each Subsidiary also invests in fixed income securities, which are intended to serve as margin or collateral for the Subsidiary’s derivative positions. To the extent that a Fund invests in its respective Subsidiary, it may be subject to the risks associated with those derivative instruments and other securities, which are discussed elsewhere in the applicable Prospectus and this SAI.

Each Subsidiary is not an investment company registered under the 1940 Act and, unless otherwise noted in the applicable Prospectus and this SAI, is not subject to all of the investor protections of the 1940 Act and other U.S. regulations. Changes in the laws of the United States and/or the Cayman Islands could result in the inability of the Funds and/or the Subsidiaries to operate as described in the applicable Prospectus and this SAI and could negatively affect the Funds and their shareholders.

 

B-31


Although the Managed Futures Strategy Fund does not currently intend to do so, the Fund may also invest through a wholly-owned subsidiary, which would be advised by the Investment Adviser and would seek to gain commodities exposure, or in commodity-linked investments. Such investments would be made only to the extent permissible under applicable law then in effect, or in reliance upon a private letter ruling from the IRS or an opinion of counsel, or other applicable guidance or relief provided by the IRS or other agencies.

Lending of Portfolio Securities

Each Fund (other than the Commodity Strategy Fund and Managed Futures Strategy Fund) may lend its portfolio securities to brokers, dealers and other institutions, including Goldman Sachs. By lending its securities, a Fund attempts to increase its net investment income.

Securities loans are required to be secured continuously by collateral in cash, cash equivalents, letters of credit or U.S. Government Securities equal to at least 100% of the value of the loaned securities. This collateral must be valued, or “marked to market,” daily. Borrowers are required to furnish additional collateral to the Fund as necessary to fully cover their obligations.

With respect to loans that are collateralized by cash, a Fund may reinvest that cash in short-term investments and pay the borrower a pre-negotiated fee or “rebate” from any return earned on the investment. Investing the collateral subjects it to market depreciation or appreciation, and a Fund is responsible for any loss that may result from its investment of the borrowed collateral. Cash collateral may be invested in, among other things, other registered or unregistered funds, including private investing funds or money market funds that are managed by the Investment Adviser or its affiliates, and which pay the Investment Adviser or its affiliates for their services. If a Fund would receive non-cash collateral, the Fund receives a fee from the borrower equal to a negotiated percentage of the market value of the loaned securities.

For the duration of any securities loan, a Fund will continue to receive the equivalent of the interest, dividends or other distributions paid by the issuer on the loaned securities. A Fund will not have the right to vote its loaned securities during the period of the loan, but the Fund may attempt to recall a loaned security in anticipation of a material vote if it desires to do so. A Fund will have the right to terminate a loan at any time and recall the loaned securities within the normal and customary settlement time for securities transactions.

Securities lending involves certain risks. A Fund may lose money on its investment of cash collateral, resulting in a loss of principal, or may fail to earn sufficient income on its investment to cover the fee or rebate it has agreed to pay the borrower. A Fund may incur losses in connection with its securities lending activities that exceed the value of the interest income and fees received in connection with such transactions. Securities lending subjects a Fund to the risk of loss resulting from problems in the settlement and accounting process, and to additional credit, counterparty and market risk. These risks could be greater with respect to non-U.S. securities. Engaging in securities lending could have a leveraging effect, which may intensify the other risks associated with investments in a Fund. In addition, a Fund bears the risk that the price of the securities on loan will increase while they are on loan, or that the price of the collateral will decline in value during the period of the loan, and that the counterparty will not provide, or will delay in providing, additional collateral. A Fund also bears the risk that a borrower may fail to return securities in a timely manner or at all, either because the borrower fails financially or for other reasons. If a borrower of securities fails financially, a Fund may also lose its rights in the collateral. A Fund could experience delays and costs in recovering loaned securities or in gaining access to and liquidating the collateral, which could result in actual financial loss and which could interfere with portfolio management decisions or the exercise of ownership rights in the loaned securities. If a Fund is not able to recover the securities lent, the Fund may sell the collateral and purchase replacement securities in the market. However, a Fund will incur transaction costs on the purchase of replacement securities. These events could trigger adverse tax consequences for the Fund. In determining whether to lend securities to a particular borrower, and throughout the period of the loan, the creditworthiness of the borrower will be considered and monitored. Loans will only be made to firms deemed to be of good standing, and where the consideration that can be earned currently from securities loans of this type is deemed to justify the attendant risk. It is intended that the value of securities loaned by a Fund will not exceed one-third of the value of the Fund’s total assets (including the loan collateral).

A Fund will consider the loaned securities as assets of the Fund, but will not consider any collateral as a Fund asset except when determining total assets for the purpose of the “above one-third” limitation. Loan collateral (including any investment of the collateral) is not subject to the percentage limitations stated elsewhere in this SAI or in the applicable Prospectus regarding investing in fixed income securities and cash equivalents.

The Funds’ Board of Trustees has approved the Absolute Return Tracker Fund’s, the Alternative Premia Fund’s, the Global Infrastructure Fund’s, the Global Real Estate Securities Fund’s, the International Equity Dividend and Premium Fund’s, the International Real Estate Securities Fund’s, International Tax-Managed Equity Fund’s, the U.S. Equity Dividend and Premium Fund’s and the U.S. Tax-Managed Equity Fund’s participation in a securities lending program and has adopted policies and procedures relating thereto. Under the current securities lending program, the Funds have retained an affiliate of the Investment Adviser to serve as their securities lending agent.

 

B-32


For its services, the securities lending agent may receive a fee from a Fund, including a fee based on the returns earned on the Fund’s investment of cash received as collateral for the loaned securities. In addition, a Fund may make brokerage and other payments to Goldman Sachs and its affiliates in connection with the Fund’s portfolio investment transactions. Each Fund’s Board of Trustees periodically reviews reports on securities loan transactions for which a Goldman Sachs affiliate has acted as lending agent for compliance with the Fund’s securities lending procedures. Goldman Sachs also has been approved as a borrower under each Fund’s securities lending program, subject to certain conditions.

Mortgage Dollar Rolls

Each Fund (other than the Managed Futures Strategy Fund) may enter into mortgage “dollar rolls” in which a Fund sells securities for delivery in the current month and simultaneously contracts with the same counterparty to repurchase similar, but not identical securities on a specified future date. During the roll period, a Fund loses the right to receive principal and interest paid on the securities sold. However, a Fund would benefit to the extent of any difference between the price received for the securities sold and the lower forward price for the future purchase or fee income plus the interest earned on the cash proceeds of the securities sold until the settlement date of the forward purchase. All cash proceeds will be invested in instruments that are permissible investments for the Fund. Each Fund will identify on its books until the settlement date cash or liquid assets, as permitted by applicable law, in an amount equal to its forward purchase price.

For financial reporting and tax purposes, the Fund treats mortgage dollar rolls as two separate transactions; one involving the purchase of a security and a separate transaction involving a sale. The Fund does not currently intend to enter into mortgage dollar rolls for financing and does not treat them as borrowings.

Mortgage dollar rolls involve certain risks including the following: if the broker-dealer to whom the Fund sells the security becomes insolvent, the Fund’s right to purchase or repurchase the mortgage-related securities subject to the mortgage dollar roll may be restricted. Also, the instrument which the Fund is required to repurchase may be worth less than an instrument which the Fund originally held. Successful use of mortgage dollar rolls will depend upon the Investment Adviser’s ability to manage the Fund’s interest rate and mortgage prepayments exposure. For these reasons, there is no assurance that mortgage dollar rolls can be successfully employed. The use of this technique may diminish the investment performance of the Fund compared to what such performance would have been without the use of mortgage dollar rolls.

Mortgage Loans and Mortgage-Backed Securities

The Real Estate Securities Fund, International Real Estate Securities Fund, Global Real Estate Securities Fund, Absolute Return Tracker Fund, Commodity Strategy Fund, Alternative Premia Fund, Managed Futures Strategy Fund and Global Infrastructure Fund may invest in mortgage loans, mortgage pass-through securities and other securities representing an interest in or collateralized by adjustable and fixed rate mortgage loans (“Mortgage-Backed Securities”). Mortgage-Backed Securities are subject to both call risk and extension risk. Because of these risks, these securities can have significantly greater price and yield volatility than traditional fixed income securities.

General Characteristics of Mortgage Backed Securities.

In general, each mortgage pool underlying Mortgage-Backed Securities consists of mortgage loans evidenced by promissory notes secured by first mortgages or first deeds of trust or other similar security instruments creating a first lien on owner occupied and non-owner occupied one-unit to four-unit residential properties, multi-family (i.e., five-units or more) properties, agricultural properties, commercial properties and mixed use properties (the “Mortgaged Properties”). The Mortgaged Properties may consist of detached individual dwelling units, multi-family dwelling units, individual condominiums, townhouses, duplexes, triplexes, fourplexes, row houses, individual units in planned unit developments, other attached dwelling units (“Residential Mortgaged Properties”) or commercial properties, such as office properties, retail properties, hospitality properties, industrial properties, healthcare related properties or other types of income producing real property (“Commercial Mortgaged Properties”). Residential Mortgaged Properties may also include residential investment properties and second homes. In addition, the Mortgage-Backed Securities which are residential mortgage-backed securities may also consist of mortgage loans evidenced by promissory notes secured entirely or in part by second priority mortgage liens on Residential Mortgaged Properties.

The investment characteristics of adjustable and fixed rate Mortgage-Backed Securities differ from those of traditional fixed income securities. The major differences include the payment of interest and principal on Mortgage-Backed Securities on a more frequent (usually monthly) schedule, and the possibility that principal may be prepaid at any time due to prepayments on the underlying mortgage loans or other assets. These differences can result in significantly greater price and yield volatility than is the case with

 

B-33


traditional fixed income securities. As a result, if a Fund purchases Mortgage-Backed Securities at a premium, a faster than expected prepayment rate will reduce both the market value and the yield to maturity from their anticipated levels. A prepayment rate that is slower than expected will have the opposite effect, increasing yield to maturity and market value. Conversely, if a Fund purchases Mortgage-Backed Securities at a discount, faster than expected prepayments will increase, while slower than expected prepayments will reduce yield to maturity and market value. To the extent that a Fund invests in Mortgage-Backed Securities, the Investment Adviser may seek to manage these potential risks by investing in a variety of Mortgage-Backed Securities and by using certain hedging techniques.

Prepayments on a pool of mortgage loans are influenced by changes in current interest rates and a variety of economic, geographic, social and other factors (such as changes in mortgagor housing needs, job transfers, unemployment, mortgagor equity in the mortgage properties and servicing decisions). The timing and level of prepayments cannot be predicted. A predominant factor affecting the prepayment rate on a pool of mortgage loans is the difference between the interest rates on outstanding mortgage loans and prevailing mortgage loan interest rates (giving consideration to the cost of any refinancing). Generally, prepayments on mortgage loans will increase during a period of falling mortgage interest rates and decrease during a period of rising mortgage interest rates. Accordingly, the amounts of prepayments available for reinvestment by a Fund are likely to be greater during a period of declining mortgage interest rates. If general interest rates decline, such prepayments are likely to be reinvested at lower interest rates than a Fund was earning on the Mortgage-Backed Securities that were prepaid. Due to these factors, Mortgage-Backed Securities may be less effective than U.S. Treasury and other types of debt securities of similar maturity at maintaining yields during periods of declining interest rates. Because a Fund’s investments in Mortgage-Backed Securities are interest-rate sensitive, a Fund’s performance will depend in part upon the ability of the Fund to anticipate and respond to fluctuations in market interest rates and to utilize appropriate strategies to maximize returns to the Fund, while attempting to minimize the associated risks to its investment capital. Prepayments may have a disproportionate effect on certain Mortgage-Backed Securities and other multiple class pass-through securities, which are discussed below.

The rate of interest paid on Mortgage-Backed Securities is normally lower than the rate of interest paid on the mortgages included in the underlying pool due to (among other things) the fees paid to any servicer, special servicer and trustee for the trust fund which holds the mortgage pool, other costs and expenses of such trust fund, fees paid to any guarantor, such as Ginnie Mae (as defined below) or to any credit enhancers, mortgage pool insurers, bond insurers and/or hedge providers, and due to any yield retained by the issuer. Actual yield to the holder may vary from the coupon rate, even if adjustable, if the Mortgage-Backed Securities are purchased or traded in the secondary market at a premium or discount. In addition, there is normally some delay between the time the issuer receives mortgage payments from the servicer and the time the issuer (or the trustee of the trust fund which holds the mortgage pool) makes the payments on the Mortgage-Backed Securities, and this delay reduces the effective yield to the holder of such securities.

The issuers of certain mortgage-backed obligations may elect to have the pool of mortgage loans (or indirect interests in mortgage loans) underlying the securities treated as a Real Estate Mortgage Investment Conduit (“REMIC”), which is subject to special federal income tax rules. A description of the types of mortgage loans and mortgage-backed securities in which certain of the Funds may invest is provided below. The descriptions are general and summary in nature, and do not detail every possible variation of the types of securities that are permissible investments for a Fund.

Certain General Characteristics of Mortgage Loans

Adjustable Rate Mortgage Loans (“ARMs”). The Real Estate Securities Fund, International Real Estate Securities Fund, Global Real Estate Securities Fund, Absolute Return Tracker Fund, Commodity Strategy Fund, Global Infrastructure Fund, Alternative Premia Fund and Managed Futures Strategy Fund may invest in ARMs. ARMs generally provide for a fixed initial mortgage interest rate for a specified period of time. Thereafter, the interest rates (the “Mortgage Interest Rates”) may be subject to periodic adjustment based on changes in the applicable index rate (the “Index Rate”). The adjusted rate would be equal to the Index Rate plus a fixed percentage spread over the Index Rate established for each ARM at the time of its origination. ARMs allow a Fund to participate in increases in interest rates through periodic increases in the securities coupon rates. During periods of declining interest rates, coupon rates may readjust downward resulting in lower yields to a Fund.

Adjustable interest rates can cause payment increases that some mortgagors may find difficult to make. However, certain ARMs may provide that the Mortgage Interest Rate may not be adjusted to a rate above an applicable lifetime maximum rate or below an applicable lifetime minimum rate for such ARM. Certain ARMs may also be subject to limitations on the maximum amount by which the Mortgage Interest Rate may adjust for any single adjustment period (the “Maximum Adjustment”). Other ARMs (“Negatively Amortizing ARMs”) may provide instead or as well for limitations on changes in the monthly payment on such ARMs. Limitations on monthly payments can result in monthly payments which are greater or less than the amount necessary to amortize a Negatively Amortizing ARM by its maturity at the Mortgage Interest Rate in effect in any particular month. In the event that a monthly payment is not sufficient to pay the interest accruing on a Negatively Amortizing ARM, any such excess interest is added to the principal balance of the loan, causing negative amortization, and will be repaid through future monthly payments. It may take borrowers under Negatively Amortizing ARMs longer periods of time to build up equity and may increase the likelihood of default by such borrowers. In the event that a monthly payment exceeds the sum of the interest accrued at the applicable Mortgage Interest Rate and the principal payment

 

B-34


which would have been necessary to amortize the outstanding principal balance over the remaining term of the loan, the excess (or “accelerated amortization”) further reduces the principal balance of the ARM. Negatively Amortizing ARMs do not provide for the extension of their original maturity to accommodate changes in their Mortgage Interest Rate. As a result, unless there is a periodic recalculation of the payment amount (which there generally is), the final payment may be substantially larger than the other payments. After the expiration of the initial fixed rate period and upon the periodic recalculation of the payment to cause timely amortization of the related mortgage loan, the monthly payment on such mortgage loan may increase substantially which may, in turn, increase the risk of the borrower defaulting in respect of such mortgage loan. These limitations on periodic increases in interest rates and on changes in monthly payments protect borrowers from unlimited interest rate and payment increases, but may result in increased credit exposure and prepayment risks for lenders. When interest due on a mortgage loan is added to the principal balance of such mortgage loan, the related mortgaged property provides proportionately less security for the repayment of such mortgage loan. Therefore, if the related borrower defaults on such mortgage loan, there is a greater likelihood that a loss will be incurred upon any liquidation of the mortgaged property which secures such mortgage loan.

ARMs also have the risk of prepayment. The rate of principal prepayments with respect to ARMs has fluctuated in recent years. The value of Mortgage-Backed Securities collateralized by ARMs is less likely to rise during periods of declining interest rates than the value of fixed-rate securities during such periods. Accordingly, ARMs may be subject to a greater rate of principal repayments in a declining interest rate environment resulting in lower yields to a Fund. For example, if prevailing interest rates fall significantly, ARMs could be subject to higher prepayment rates (than if prevailing interest rates remain constant or increase) because the availability of low fixed-rate mortgages may encourage mortgagors to refinance their ARMs to “lock-in” a fixed-rate mortgage. On the other hand, during periods of rising interest rates, the value of ARMs will lag behind changes in the market rate. ARMs are also typically subject to maximum increases and decreases in the interest rate adjustment which can be made on any one adjustment date, in any one year, or during the life of the security. In the event of dramatic increases or decreases in prevailing market interest rates, the value of a Fund’s investment in ARMs may fluctuate more substantially because these limits may prevent the security from fully adjusting its interest rate to the prevailing market rates. As with fixed-rate mortgages, ARM prepayment rates vary in both stable and changing interest rate environments.

There are two main categories of indices which provide the basis for rate adjustments on ARMs: those based on U.S. Treasury securities and those derived from a calculated measure, such as a cost of funds index or a moving average of mortgage rates. Indices commonly used for this purpose include the one-year, three-year and five-year constant maturity Treasury rates, the three-month Treasury bill rate, the 180-day Treasury bill rate, rates on longer-term Treasury securities, the 11th District Federal Home Loan Bank Cost of Funds, the National Median Cost of Funds, the one-month, three-month, six-month or one-year London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”), the prime rate of a specific bank, or commercial paper rates. Some indices, such as the one-year constant maturity Treasury rate, closely mirror changes in market interest rate levels. Others, such as the 11th District Federal Home Loan Bank Cost of Funds index, tend to lag behind changes in market rate levels and tend to be somewhat less volatile. The degree of volatility in the market value of ARMs in a Fund’s portfolio and, therefore, in the NAV of the Fund’s shares, will be a function of the length of the interest rate reset periods and the degree of volatility in the applicable indices.

Fixed-Rate Mortgage Loans. Generally, fixed-rate mortgage loans included in mortgage pools (the “Fixed-Rate Mortgage Loans”) will bear simple interest at fixed annual rates and have original terms to maturity ranging from 5 to 40 years. Fixed-Rate Mortgage Loans generally provide for monthly payments of principal and interest in substantially equal installments for the term of the mortgage note in sufficient amounts to fully amortize principal by maturity, although certain Fixed-Rate Mortgage Loans provide for a large final “balloon” payment upon maturity.

Certain Legal Considerations of Mortgage Loans. The following is a discussion of certain legal and regulatory aspects of the mortgage loans in which certain of the Funds may invest. This discussion is not exhaustive, and does not address all of the legal or regulatory aspects affecting mortgage loans. These regulations may impair the ability of a mortgage lender to enforce its rights under the mortgage documents. These regulations may also adversely affect a Fund’s investments in Mortgage-Backed Securities (including those issued or guaranteed by the U.S. Government, its agencies or instrumentalities) by delaying the Fund’s receipt of payments derived from principal or interest on mortgage loans affected by such regulations.

 

  1.

Foreclosure. A foreclosure of a defaulted mortgage loan may be delayed due to compliance with statutory notice or service of process provisions, difficulties in locating necessary parties or legal challenges to the mortgagee’s right to foreclose. Depending upon market conditions, the ultimate proceeds of the sale of foreclosed property may not equal the amounts owed on the Mortgage-Backed Securities. Furthermore, courts in some cases have imposed general equitable principles upon foreclosure generally designed to relieve the borrower from the legal effect of default and have required lenders to undertake affirmative and expensive actions to determine the causes for the default and the likelihood of loan reinstatement.

 

  2.

Rights of Redemption. In some states, after foreclosure of a mortgage loan, the borrower and foreclosed junior lienors are given a statutory period in which to redeem the property, which right may diminish the mortgagee’s ability to sell the property.

 

B-35


  3.

Legislative Limitations. In addition to anti-deficiency and related legislation, numerous other federal and state statutory provisions, including the federal bankruptcy laws and state laws affording relief to debtors, may interfere with or affect the ability of a secured mortgage lender to enforce its security interest. For example, a bankruptcy court may grant the debtor a reasonable time to cure a default on a mortgage loan, including a payment default. The court in certain instances may also reduce the monthly payments due under such mortgage loan, change the rate of interest, reduce the principal balance of the loan to the then-current appraised value of the related mortgaged property, alter the mortgage loan repayment schedule and grant priority of certain liens over the lien of the mortgage loan. If a court relieves a borrower’s obligation to repay amounts otherwise due on a mortgage loan, the mortgage loan servicer will not be required to advance such amounts, and any loss may be borne by the holders of securities backed by such loans. In addition, numerous federal and state consumer protection laws impose penalties for failure to comply with specific requirements in connection with origination and servicing of mortgage loans.

 

  4.

“Due-on-Sale” Provisions. Fixed-rate mortgage loans may contain a so-called “due-on-sale” clause permitting acceleration of the maturity of the mortgage loan if the borrower transfers the property. The Garn-St. Germain Depository Institutions Act of 1982 sets forth nine specific instances in which no mortgage lender covered by that Act may exercise a “due-on-sale” clause upon a transfer of property. The inability to enforce a “due-on-sale” clause or the lack of such a clause in mortgage loan documents may result in a mortgage loan being assumed by a purchaser of the property that bears an interest rate below the current market rate.

 

  5.

Usury Laws. Some states prohibit charging interest on mortgage loans in excess of statutory limits. If such limits are exceeded, substantial penalties may be incurred and, in some cases, enforceability of the obligation to pay principal and interest may be affected.

 

  6.

Recent Governmental Action, Legislation and Regulation. The rise in the rate of foreclosures of properties in certain states or localities has resulted in legislative, regulatory and enforcement action in such states or localities seeking to prevent or restrict foreclosures, particularly in respect of residential mortgage loans. Actions have also been brought against issuers and underwriters of residential Mortgage-Backed Securities collateralized by such residential mortgage loans and investors in such residential Mortgage-Backed Securities. Legislative or regulatory initiatives by federal, state or local legislative bodies or administrative agencies, if enacted or adopted, could delay foreclosure or the exercise of other remedies, provide new defenses to foreclosure, or otherwise impair the ability of the loan servicer to foreclose or realize on a defaulted residential mortgage loan included in a pool of residential mortgage loans backing such residential Mortgage-Backed Securities. While the nature or extent of limitations on foreclosure or exercise of other remedies that may be enacted cannot be predicted, any such governmental actions that interfere with the foreclosure process could increase the costs of such foreclosures or exercise of other remedies in respect of residential mortgage loans which collateralize Mortgage-Backed Securities held by a Fund, delay the timing or reduce the amount of recoveries on defaulted residential mortgage loans which collateralize Mortgage-Backed Securities held by a Fund, and consequently, could adversely impact the yields and distributions a Fund may receive in respect of its ownership of Mortgage-Backed Securities collateralized by residential mortgage loans. For example, the Helping Families Save Their Homes Act of 2009 authorizes bankruptcy courts to assist bankrupt borrowers by restructuring residential mortgage loans secured by a lien on the borrower’s primary residence. Bankruptcy judges are permitted to reduce the interest rate of the bankrupt borrower’s residential mortgage loan, extend its term to maturity to up to 40 years or take other actions to reduce the borrower’s monthly payment. As a result, the value of, and the cash flows in respect of, the Mortgage-Backed Securities collateralized by these residential mortgage loans may be adversely impacted, and, as a consequence, a Fund’s investment in such Mortgage-Backed Securities could be adversely impacted. Other federal legislation, including the Home Affordability Modification Program (“HAMP”), encourages servicers to modify residential mortgage loans that are either already in default or are at risk of imminent default. Furthermore, HAMP provides incentives for servicers to modify residential mortgage loans that are contractually current. This program, as well other legislation and/or governmental intervention designed to protect consumers, may have an adverse impact on servicers of residential mortgage loans by increasing costs and expenses of these servicers while at the same time decreasing servicing cash flows. Such increased financial pressures may have a negative effect on the ability of servicers to pursue collection on residential mortgage loans that are experiencing increased delinquencies and defaults and to maximize recoveries on the sale of underlying residential mortgaged properties following foreclosure. Other legislative or regulatory actions include insulation of servicers from liability for modification of residential mortgage loans without regard to the terms of the applicable servicing agreements. The foregoing legislation and current and future governmental regulation activities may have the effect of reducing returns to a Fund to the extent it has invested in Mortgage-Backed Securities collateralized by these residential mortgage loans.

Government Guaranteed Mortgage-Backed Securities.

There are several types of government guaranteed Mortgage-Backed Securities currently available, including guaranteed mortgage pass-through certificates and multiple class securities, which include guaranteed Real Estate Mortgage Investment Conduit Certificates (“REMIC Certificates”), other collateralized mortgage obligations and stripped Mortgage-Backed Securities. A Fund is permitted to invest in other types of Mortgage-Backed Securities that may be available in the future to the extent consistent with its investment policies and objective.

 

B-36


A Fund’s investments in Mortgage-Backed Securities may include securities issued or guaranteed by the U.S. Government or one of its agencies, authorities, instrumentalities or sponsored enterprises, such as the Government National Mortgage Association (“Ginnie Mae”), Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. Ginnie Mae securities are backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Government, which means that the U.S. Government guarantees that the interest and principal will be paid when due. Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac securities are not backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Government. Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac have the ability to borrow from the U.S. Treasury, and as a result, they have historically been viewed by the market as high quality securities with low credit risks. From time to time, proposals have been introduced before Congress for the purpose of restricting or eliminating federal sponsorship of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. The Trust cannot predict what legislation, if any, may be proposed in the future in Congress as regards such sponsorship or which proposals, if any, might be enacted. Such proposals, if enacted, might materially and adversely affect the availability of government guaranteed Mortgage-Backed Securities and the liquidity and value of a Fund’s portfolio.

There is risk that the U.S. Government will not provide financial support to its agencies, authorities, instrumentalities or sponsored enterprises. A Fund may purchase U.S. Government Securities that are not backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Government, such as those issued by Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. The maximum potential liability of the issuers of some U.S. Government Securities held by a Fund may greatly exceed such issuers’ current resources, including such issuers’ legal right to support from the U.S. Treasury. It is possible that these issuers will not have the funds to meet their payment obligations in the future. Below is a general discussion of certain types of guaranteed Mortgage-Backed Securities in which certain of the Funds may invest.

Ginnie Mae Certificates. Ginnie Mae is a wholly-owned corporate instrumentality of the United States. Ginnie Mae is authorized to guarantee the timely payment of the principal of and interest on certificates that are based on and backed by a pool of mortgage loans insured by the Federal Housing Administration (“FHA”), or guaranteed by the Veterans Administration (“VA”), or by pools of other eligible mortgage loans. In order to meet its obligations under any guaranty, Ginnie Mae is authorized to borrow from the U.S. Treasury in an unlimited amount. The National Housing Act provides that the full faith and credit of the U.S. Government is pledged to the timely payment of principal and interest by Ginnie Mae of amounts due on Ginnie Mae certificates.

Fannie Mae Certificates. Fannie Mae is a stockholder-owned corporation chartered under an act of the United States Congress. Generally, Fannie Mae Certificates are issued and guaranteed by Fannie Mae and represent an undivided interest in a pool of mortgage loans (a “Pool”) formed by Fannie Mae. A Pool consists of residential mortgage loans either previously owned by Fannie Mae or purchased by it in connection with the formation of the Pool. The mortgage loans may be either conventional mortgage loans (i.e., not insured or guaranteed by any U.S. Government agency) or mortgage loans that are either insured by the FHA or guaranteed by the VA. However, the mortgage loans in Fannie Mae Pools are primarily conventional mortgage loans. The lenders originating and servicing the mortgage loans are subject to certain eligibility requirements established by Fannie Mae. Fannie Mae has certain contractual responsibilities. With respect to each Pool, Fannie Mae is obligated to distribute scheduled installments of principal and interest after Fannie Mae’s servicing and guaranty fee, whether or not received, to Certificate holders. Fannie Mae also is obligated to distribute to holders of Certificates an amount equal to the full principal balance of any foreclosed mortgage loan, whether or not such principal balance is actually recovered. The obligations of Fannie Mae under its guaranty of the Fannie Mae Certificates are obligations solely of Fannie Mae. See “Certain Additional Information with Respect to Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae” below.

Freddie Mac Certificates. Freddie Mac is a publicly held U.S. Government sponsored enterprise. A principal activity of Freddie Mac currently is the purchase of first lien, conventional, residential and multifamily mortgage loans and participation interests in such mortgage loans and their resale in the form of mortgage securities, primarily Freddie Mac Certificates. A Freddie Mac Certificate represents a pro rata interest in a group of mortgage loans or participations in mortgage loans (a “Freddie Mac Certificate group”) purchased by Freddie Mac. Freddie Mac guarantees to each registered holder of a Freddie Mac Certificate the timely payment of interest at the rate provided for by such Freddie Mac Certificate (whether or not received on the underlying loans). Freddie Mac also guarantees to each registered Certificate holder ultimate collection of all principal of the related mortgage loans, without any offset or deduction, but does not, generally, guarantee the timely payment of scheduled principal. The obligations of Freddie Mac under its guaranty of Freddie Mac Certificates are obligations solely of Freddie Mac. See “Certain Additional Information with Respect to Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae” below.

The mortgage loans underlying the Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae Certificates consist of adjustable rate or fixed-rate mortgage loans with original terms to maturity of up to forty years. These mortgage loans are usually secured by first liens on one-to-four-family residential properties or multi-family projects. Each mortgage loan must meet the applicable standards set forth in the law creating Freddie Mac or Fannie Mae. A Freddie Mac Certificate group may include whole loans, participation interests in whole loans, undivided interests in whole loans and participations comprising another Freddie Mac Certificate group.

 

B-37


Conventional Mortgage Loans. The conventional mortgage loans underlying the Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae Certificates consist of adjustable rate or fixed-rate mortgage loans normally with original terms to maturity of between five and thirty years. Substantially all of these mortgage loans are secured by first liens on one- to four-family residential properties or multi-family projects. Each mortgage loan must meet the applicable standards set forth in the law creating Freddie Mac or Fannie Mae. A Freddie Mac Certificate group may include whole loans, participation interests in whole loans, undivided interests in whole loans and participations comprising another Freddie Mac Certificate group.

Certain Additional Information with Respect to Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae. The volatility and disruption that impacted the capital and credit markets during late 2008 and into 2009 have led to increased market concerns about Freddie Mac’s and Fannie Mae’s ability to withstand future credit losses associated with securities held in their investment portfolios, and on which they provide guarantees, without the direct support of the federal government. On September 6, 2008, both Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae were placed under the conservatorship of the Federal Housing Finance Agency (“FHFA”). Under the plan of conservatorship, the FHFA has assumed control of, and generally has the power to direct, the operations of Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae, and is empowered to exercise all powers collectively held by their respective shareholders, directors and officers, including the power to (1) take over the assets of and operate Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae with all the powers of the shareholders, the directors, and the officers of Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae and conduct all business of Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae; (2) collect all obligations and money due to Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae; (3) perform all functions of Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae which are consistent with the conservator’s appointment; (4) preserve and conserve the assets and property of Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae; and (5) contract for assistance in fulfilling any function, activity, action or duty of the conservator. In addition, in connection with the actions taken by the FHFA, the U.S. Treasury entered into certain preferred stock purchase agreements with each of Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae which established the U.S. Treasury as the holder of a new class of senior preferred stock in each of Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae, which stock was issued in connection with financial contributions from the U.S. Treasury to Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae. The conditions attached to the financial contribution made by the U.S. Treasury to Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae and the issuance of this senior preferred stock placed significant restrictions on the activities of Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae. Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae must obtain the consent of the U.S. Treasury to, among other things, (i) make any payment to purchase or redeem its capital stock or pay any dividend other than in respect of the senior preferred stock issued to the U.S. Treasury, (ii) issue capital stock of any kind, (iii) terminate the conservatorship of the FHFA except in connection with a receivership, or (iv) increase its debt beyond certain specified levels. In addition, significant restrictions were placed on the maximum size of each of Freddie Mac’s and Fannie Mae’s respective portfolios of mortgages and Mortgage-Backed Securities, and the purchase agreements entered into by Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae provide that the maximum size of their portfolios of these assets must decrease by a specified percentage each year. On June 16, 2010, FHFA ordered Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac’s stock de-listed from the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”) after the price of common stock in Fannie Mae fell below the NYSE minimum average closing price of $1 for more than 30 days.

The future status and role of Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae could be impacted by (among other things) the actions taken and restrictions placed on Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae by the FHFA in its role as conservator, the restrictions placed on Freddie Mac’s and Fannie Mae’s operations and activities as a result of the senior preferred stock investment made by the U.S. Treasury, market responses to developments at Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae, and future legislative and regulatory action that alters the operations, ownership, structure and/or mission of these institutions, each of which may, in turn, impact the value of, and cash flows on, any Mortgage-Backed Securities guaranteed by Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae, including any such Mortgage-Backed Securities held by a Fund.

Privately Issued Mortgage-Backed Securities.

To the extent consistent with their investment policies, the Real Estate Securities Fund, International Real Estate Securities Fund, Global Real Estate Securities Fund, Absolute Return Tracker Fund, Commodity Strategy Fund, Global Infrastructure Fund, Alternative Premia Fund and Managed Futures Strategy Fund may invest in privately issued Mortgage-Backed Securities. Privately issued Mortgage-Backed Securities are generally backed by pools of conventional (i.e., non-government guaranteed or insured) mortgage loans. The seller or servicer of the underlying mortgage obligations will generally make representations and warranties to certificate-holders as to certain characteristics of the mortgage loans and as to the accuracy of certain information furnished to the trustee in respect of each such mortgage loan. Upon a breach of any representation or warranty that materially and adversely affects the interests of the related certificate-holders in a mortgage loan, the seller or servicer generally will be obligated either to cure the breach in all material respects, to repurchase the mortgage loan or, if the related agreement so provides, to substitute in its place a mortgage loan pursuant to the conditions set forth therein. Such a repurchase or substitution obligation may constitute the sole remedy available to the related certificate-holders or the trustee for the material breach of any such representation or warranty by the seller or servicer.

Mortgage Pass-Through Securities

To the extent consistent with their investment policies, the Real Estate Securities Fund, International Real Estate Securities Fund, Global Real Estate Securities Fund, Absolute Return Tracker Fund, Commodity Strategy Fund, Alternative Premia Fund, Managed Futures Strategy Fund and Global Infrastructure Fund may invest in both government guaranteed and privately issued mortgage pass-through securities (“Mortgage Pass-Throughs”) that are fixed or adjustable rate Mortgage-Backed Securities which provide for monthly payments that are a “pass-through” of the monthly interest and principal payments (including any prepayments) made by the individual borrowers on the pooled mortgage loans, net of any fees or other amounts paid to any guarantor, administrator

 

B-38


and/or servicer of the underlying mortgage loans. The seller or servicer of the underlying mortgage obligations will generally make representations and warranties to certificate-holders as to certain characteristics of the mortgage loans and as to the accuracy of certain information furnished to the trustee in respect of each such mortgage loan. Upon a breach of any representation or warranty that materially and adversely affects the interests of the related certificate-holders in a mortgage loan, the seller or servicer generally may be obligated either to cure the breach in all material respects, to repurchase the mortgage loan or, if the related agreement so provides, to substitute in its place a mortgage loan pursuant to the conditions set forth therein. Such a repurchase or substitution obligation may constitute the sole remedy available to the related certificate-holders or the trustee for the material breach of any such representation or warranty by the seller or servicer. The following discussion describes certain aspects of only a few of the wide variety of structures of Mortgage Pass-Throughs that are available or may be issued.

General Description of Certificates.

Mortgage Pass-Throughs may be issued in one or more classes of senior certificates and one or more classes of subordinate certificates. Each such class may bear a different pass-through rate. Generally, each certificate will evidence the specified interest of the holder thereof in the payments of principal or interest or both in respect of the mortgage pool comprising part of the trust fund for such certificates.

Any class of certificates may also be divided into subclasses entitled to varying amounts of principal and interest. If a REMIC election has been made, certificates of such subclasses may be entitled to payments on the basis of a stated principal balance and stated interest rate, and payments among different subclasses may be made on a sequential, concurrent, pro rata or disproportionate basis, or any combination thereof. The stated interest rate on any such subclass of certificates may be a fixed rate or one which varies in direct or inverse relationship to an objective interest index.

Generally, each registered holder of a certificate will be entitled to receive its pro rata share of monthly distributions of all or a portion of principal of the underlying mortgage loans or of interest on the principal balances thereof, which accrues at the applicable mortgage pass-through rate, or both. The difference between the mortgage interest rate and the related mortgage pass-through rate (less the amount, if any, of retained yield) with respect to each mortgage loan will generally be paid to the servicer as a servicing fee. Because certain adjustable rate mortgage loans included in a mortgage pool may provide for deferred interest (i.e., negative amortization), the amount of interest actually paid by a mortgagor in any month may be less than the amount of interest accrued on the outstanding principal balance of the related mortgage loan during the relevant period at the applicable mortgage interest rate. In such event, the amount of interest that is treated as deferred interest will generally be added to the principal balance of the related mortgage loan and will be distributed pro rata to certificate-holders as principal of such mortgage loan when paid by the mortgagor in subsequent monthly payments or at maturity.

Ratings. The ratings assigned by a rating organization to Mortgage Pass-Throughs generally address the likelihood of the receipt of distributions on the underlying mortgage loans by the related certificate-holders under the agreements pursuant to which such certificates are issued. A rating organization’s ratings normally take into consideration the credit quality of the related mortgage pool, including any credit support providers, structural and legal aspects associated with such certificates, and the extent to which the payment stream on such mortgage pool is adequate to make payments required by such certificates. A rating organization’s ratings on such certificates do not, however, constitute a statement regarding frequency of prepayments on the related mortgage loans. In addition, the rating assigned by a rating organization to a certificate may not address the possibility that, in the event of the insolvency of the issuer of certificates where a subordinated interest was retained, the issuance and sale of the senior certificates may be recharacterized as a financing and, as a result of such recharacterization, payments on such certificates may be affected. A rating organization may downgrade or withdraw a rating assigned by it to any Mortgage Pass-Through at any time, and no assurance can be made that any ratings on any Mortgage Pass-Throughs included in a Fund will be maintained, or that if such ratings are assigned, they will not be downgraded or withdrawn by the assigning rating organization.

In the past, rating agencies have placed on credit watch or downgraded the ratings previously assigned to a large number of mortgage-backed securities (which may include certain of the Mortgage-Backed Securities in which a Fund may have invested or may in the future be invested), and may continue to do so in the future. In the event that any Mortgage-Backed Security held by a Fund is placed on credit watch or downgraded, the value of such Mortgage-Backed Security may decline and the Fund may consequently experience losses in respect of such Mortgage-Backed Security.

Credit Enhancement. Mortgage pools created by non-governmental issuers generally offer a higher yield than government and government-related pools because of the absence of direct or indirect government or agency payment guarantees. To lessen the effect of failures by obligors on underlying assets to make payments, Mortgage Pass-Throughs may contain elements of credit support. Credit support falls generally into two categories: (i) liquidity protection and (ii) protection against losses resulting from default by an obligor on the underlying assets. Liquidity protection refers to the provision of advances, generally by the entity administering the pools of mortgages, the provision of a reserve fund, or a combination thereof, to ensure, subject to certain limitations, that scheduled payments on the underlying pool are made in a timely fashion. Protection against losses resulting from default ensures ultimate payment of the obligations on at least a portion of the assets in the pool. Such credit support can be provided by, among other things, payment guarantees, letters of credit, pool insurance, subordination, or any combination thereof.

 

B-39


Subordination; Shifting of Interest; Reserve Fund. In order to achieve ratings on one or more classes of Mortgage Pass-Throughs, one or more classes of certificates may be subordinate certificates which provide that the rights of the subordinate certificate-holders to receive any or a specified portion of distributions with respect to the underlying mortgage loans may be subordinated to the rights of the senior certificate holders. If so structured, the subordination feature may be enhanced by distributing to the senior certificate-holders on certain distribution dates, as payment of principal, a specified percentage (which generally declines over time) of all principal payments received during the preceding prepayment period (“shifting interest credit enhancement”). This will have the effect of accelerating the amortization of the senior certificates while increasing the interest in the trust fund evidenced by the subordinate certificates. Increasing the interest of the subordinate certificates relative to that of the senior certificates is intended to preserve the availability of the subordination provided by the subordinate certificates. In addition, because the senior certificate-holders in a shifting interest credit enhancement structure are entitled to receive a percentage of principal prepayments which is greater than their proportionate interest in the trust fund, the rate of principal prepayments on the mortgage loans may have an even greater effect on the rate of principal payments and the amount of interest payments on, and the yield to maturity of, the senior certificates.

In addition to providing for a preferential right of the senior certificate-holders to receive current distributions from the mortgage pool, a reserve fund may be established relating to such certificates (the “Reserve Fund”). The Reserve Fund may be created with an initial cash deposit by the originator or servicer and augmented by the retention of distributions otherwise available to the subordinate certificate-holders or by excess servicing fees until the Reserve Fund reaches a specified amount.

The subordination feature, and any Reserve Fund, are intended to enhance the likelihood of timely receipt by senior certificate-holders of the full amount of scheduled monthly payments of principal and interest due to them and will protect the senior certificate-holders against certain losses; however, in certain circumstances the Reserve Fund could be depleted and temporary shortfalls could result. In the event that the Reserve Fund is depleted before the subordinated amount is reduced to zero, senior certificate-holders will nevertheless have a preferential right to receive current distributions from the mortgage pool to the extent of the then outstanding subordinated amount. Unless otherwise specified, until the subordinated amount is reduced to zero, on any distribution date any amount otherwise distributable to the subordinate certificates or, to the extent specified, in the Reserve Fund will generally be used to offset the amount of any losses realized with respect to the mortgage loans (“Realized Losses”). Realized Losses remaining after application of such amounts will generally be applied to reduce the ownership interest of the subordinate certificates in the mortgage pool. If the subordinated amount has been reduced to zero, Realized Losses generally will be allocated pro rata among all certificate-holders in proportion to their respective outstanding interests in the mortgage pool.

Alternative Credit Enhancement. As an alternative, or in addition to the credit enhancement afforded by subordination, credit enhancement for Mortgage Pass-Throughs may be provided through bond insurers, or at the mortgage loan-level through mortgage insurance, hazard insurance, or through the deposit of cash, certificates of deposit, letters of credit, a limited guaranty or by such other methods as are acceptable to a rating agency. In certain circumstances, such as where credit enhancement is provided by bond insurers, guarantees or letters of credit, the security is subject to credit risk because of its exposure to the credit risk of an external credit enhancement provider.

Voluntary Advances. Generally, in the event of delinquencies in payments on the mortgage loans underlying the Mortgage Pass-Throughs, the servicer may agree to make advances of cash for the benefit of certificate-holders, but generally will do so only to the extent that it determines such voluntary advances will be recoverable from future payments and collections on the mortgage loans or otherwise.

Optional Termination. Generally, the servicer may, at its option with respect to any certificates, repurchase all of the underlying mortgage loans remaining outstanding at such time the aggregate outstanding principal balance of such mortgage loans is less than a specified percentage (generally 5-10%) of the aggregate outstanding principal balance of the mortgage loans as of the cut-off date specified with respect to such series.

Multiple Class Mortgage-Backed Securities and Collateralized Mortgage Obligations. A Fund (other than the U.S. Equity Dividend and Premium Fund, International Equity Dividend and Premium Fund, U.S. Tax-Managed Equity Fund and International Tax-Managed Equity Fund) may invest in multiple class securities including collateralized mortgage obligations (“CMOs”) and REMIC Certificates. These securities may be issued by U.S. Government agencies, instrumentalities or sponsored enterprises such as Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac or by trusts formed by private originators of, or investors in, mortgage loans, including savings and loan associations, mortgage bankers, commercial banks, insurance companies, investment banks and special purpose subsidiaries of the foregoing. In general, CMOs are debt obligations of a legal entity that are collateralized by, and multiple class Mortgage-Backed Securities represent direct ownership interests in, a pool of mortgage loans or Mortgage-Backed Securities the payments on which are used to make payments on the CMOs or multiple class Mortgage-Backed Securities.

 

B-40


Fannie Mae REMIC Certificates are issued and guaranteed as to timely distribution of principal and interest by Fannie Mae. In addition, Fannie Mae will be obligated to distribute the principal balance of each class of REMIC Certificates in full, whether or not sufficient funds are otherwise available.

Freddie Mac guarantees the timely payment of interest on Freddie Mac REMIC Certificates and also guarantees the payment of principal as payments are required to be made on the underlying mortgage participation certificates (“PCs”). PCs represent undivided interests in specified level payment, residential mortgages or participations therein purchased by Freddie Mac and placed in a PC pool. With respect to principal payments on PCs, Freddie Mac generally guarantees ultimate collection of all principal of the related mortgage loans without offset or deduction but the receipt of the required payments may be delayed. Freddie Mac also guarantees timely payment of principal of certain PCs.

CMOs and guaranteed REMIC Certificates issued by Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac are types of multiple class Mortgage-Backed Securities. The REMIC Certificates represent beneficial ownership interests in a REMIC trust, generally consisting of mortgage loans or Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac or Ginnie Mae guaranteed Mortgage-Backed Securities (the “Mortgage Assets”). The obligations of Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac under their respective guaranty of the REMIC Certificates are obligations solely of Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac, respectively. See “Certain Additional Information with Respect to Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae.”

CMOs and REMIC Certificates are issued in multiple classes. Each class of CMOs or REMIC Certificates, often referred to as a “tranche,” is issued at a specific adjustable or fixed interest rate and must be fully retired no later than its final distribution date. Principal prepayments on the mortgage loans or the Mortgage Assets underlying the CMOs or REMIC Certificates may cause some or all of the classes of CMOs or REMIC Certificates to be retired substantially earlier than their final distribution dates. Generally, interest is paid or accrues on all classes of CMOs or REMIC Certificates on a monthly basis.

The principal of and interest on the Mortgage Assets may be allocated among the several classes of CMOs or REMIC Certificates in various ways. In certain structures (known as “sequential pay” CMOs or REMIC Certificates), payments of principal, including any principal prepayments, on the Mortgage Assets generally are applied to the classes of CMOs or REMIC Certificates in the order of their respective final distribution dates. Thus, no payment of principal will be made on any class of sequential pay CMOs or REMIC Certificates until all other classes having an earlier final distribution date have been paid in full.

Additional structures of CMOs and REMIC Certificates include, among others, “parallel pay” CMOs and REMIC Certificates. Parallel pay CMOs or REMIC Certificates are those which are structured to apply principal payments and prepayments of the Mortgage Assets to two or more classes concurrently on a proportionate or disproportionate basis. These simultaneous payments are taken into account in calculating the final distribution date of each class.

A wide variety of REMIC Certificates may be issued in parallel pay or sequential pay structures. These securities include accrual certificates (also known as “Z-Bonds”), which only accrue interest at a specified rate until all other certificates having an earlier final distribution date have been retired and are converted thereafter to an interest-paying security, and planned amortization class (“PAC”) certificates, which are parallel pay REMIC Certificates that generally require that specified amounts of principal be applied on each payment date to one or more classes or REMIC Certificates (the “PAC Certificates”), even though all other principal payments and prepayments of the Mortgage Assets are then required to be applied to one or more other classes of the PAC Certificates. The scheduled principal payments for the PAC Certificates generally have the highest priority on each payment date after interest due has been paid to all classes entitled to receive interest currently. Shortfalls, if any, are added to the amount payable on the next payment date. The PAC Certificate payment schedule is taken into account in calculating the final distribution date of each class of PAC. In order to create PAC tranches, one or more tranches generally must be created that absorb most of the volatility in the underlying mortgage assets. These tranches tend to have market prices and yields that are much more volatile than other PAC classes.

Commercial Mortgage-Backed Securities. Commercial mortgage-backed securities (“CMBS”) are a type of Mortgage Pass-Through that are primarily backed by a pool of commercial mortgage loans. The commercial mortgage loans are, in turn, generally secured by commercial mortgaged properties (such as office properties, retail properties, hospitality properties, industrial properties, healthcare related properties or other types of income producing real property). CMBS generally entitle the holders thereof to receive payments that depend primarily on the cash flow from a specified pool of commercial or multifamily mortgage loans. CMBS will be affected by payments, defaults, delinquencies and losses on the underlying mortgage loans. The underlying mortgage loans generally are secured by income producing properties such as office properties, retail properties, multifamily properties, manufactured housing, hospitality properties, industrial properties and self-storage properties. Because issuers of CMBS have no significant assets other than the underlying commercial real estate loans and because of the significant credit risks inherent in the underlying collateral, credit risk is a correspondingly important consideration with respect to the related CMBS. Certain of the mortgage loans underlying CMBS constituting part of the collateral interests may be delinquent, in default or in foreclosure.

 

B-41


Commercial real estate lending may expose a lender (and the related Mortgage-Backed Security) to a greater risk of loss than certain other forms of lending because it typically involves making larger loans to single borrowers or groups of related borrowers. In addition, in the case of certain commercial mortgage loans, repayment of loans secured by commercial and multifamily properties depends upon the ability of the related real estate project to generate income sufficient to pay debt service, operating expenses and leasing commissions and to make necessary repairs, tenant improvements and capital improvements, and in the case of loans that do not fully amortize over their terms, to retain sufficient value to permit the borrower to pay off the loan at maturity through a sale or refinancing of the mortgaged property. The net operating income from and value of any commercial property is subject to various risks, including changes in general or local economic conditions and/or specific industry segments; declines in real estate values; declines in rental or occupancy rates; increases in interest rates, real estate tax rates and other operating expenses; changes in governmental rules, regulations and fiscal policies; acts of God; terrorist threats and attacks and social unrest and civil disturbances. In addition, certain of the mortgaged properties securing the pools of commercial mortgage loans underlying CMBS may have a higher degree of geographic concentration in a few states or regions. Any deterioration in the real estate market or economy or adverse events in such states or regions, may increase the rate of delinquency and default experience (and as a consequence, losses) with respect to mortgage loans related to properties in such state or region. Pools of mortgaged properties securing the commercial mortgage loans underlying CMBS may also have a higher degree of concentration in certain types of commercial properties. Accordingly, such pools of mortgage loans represent higher exposure to risks particular to those types of commercial properties. Certain pools of commercial mortgage loans underlying CMBS consist of a fewer number of mortgage loans with outstanding balances that are larger than average. If a mortgage pool includes mortgage loans with larger than average balances, any realized losses on such mortgage loans could be more severe, relative to the size of the pool, than would be the case if the aggregate balance of the pool were distributed among a larger number of mortgage loans. Certain borrowers or affiliates thereof relating to certain of the commercial mortgage loans underlying CMBS may have had a history of bankruptcy. Certain mortgaged properties securing the commercial mortgage loans underlying CMBS may have been exposed to environmental conditions or circumstances. The ratings in respect of certain of the CMBS comprising the Mortgage-Backed Securities may have been withdrawn, reduced or placed on credit watch since issuance. In addition, losses and/or appraisal reductions may be allocated to certain of such CMBS and certain of the collateral or the assets underlying such collateral may be delinquent and/or may default from time to time.

CMBS held by a Fund may be subordinated to one or more other classes of securities of the same series for purposes of, among other things, establishing payment priorities and offsetting losses and other shortfalls with respect to the related underlying mortgage loans. Realized losses in respect of the mortgage loans included in the CMBS pool and trust expenses generally will be allocated to the most subordinated class of securities of the related series. Accordingly, to the extent any CMBS is or becomes the most subordinated class of securities of the related series, any delinquency or default on any underlying mortgage loan may result in shortfalls, realized loss allocations or extensions of its weighted average life and will have a more immediate and disproportionate effect on the related CMBS than on a related more senior class of CMBS of the same series. Further, even if a class is not the most subordinate class of securities, there can be no assurance that the subordination offered to such class will be sufficient on any date to offset all losses or expenses incurred by the underlying trust. CMBS are typically not guaranteed or insured, and distributions on such CMBS generally will depend solely upon the amount and timing of payments and other collections on the related underlying commercial mortgage loans.

Stripped Mortgage-Backed Securities. The Funds (other than the Managed Futures Strategy Fund, U.S. Equity Dividend and Premium Fund, International Equity Dividend and Premium Fund, U.S. Tax-Managed Equity Fund and International Tax-Managed Equity Fund) may invest in stripped mortgage-backed securities (“SMBS”), which are derivative multiclass mortgage securities, issued or guaranteed by the U.S. Government, its agencies or instrumentalities or non-governmental originators. SMBS are usually structured with two different classes: one that receives substantially all of the interest payments (the interest-only, or “IO” and/or the high coupon rate with relatively low principal amount, or “IOette”), and the other that receives substantially all of the principal payments (the principal-only, or “PO”), from a pool of mortgage loans.

Certain SMBS may not be readily marketable. The market value of POs generally is unusually volatile in response to changes in interest rates. The yields on IOs and IOettes are generally higher than prevailing market yields on other Mortgage-Backed Securities because their cash flow patterns are more volatile and there is a greater risk that the initial investment will not be fully recouped. A Fund’s investment in SMBS may require the Fund to sell certain of its portfolio securities to generate sufficient cash to satisfy certain income distribution requirements. These and other factors discussed in the section above, entitled “Illiquid Investments,” may impact the liquidity of investments in SMBS.

Municipal Securities

The Absolute Return Tracker Fund, Commodity Strategy Fund and Alternative Premia Fund may invest in municipal securities. Municipal securities consist of bonds, notes and other instruments issued by or on behalf of states, territories and possessions of the United States (including the District of Columbia) and their political subdivisions, agencies or instrumentalities, the interest on which is exempt from regular federal income tax. Municipal securities are often issued to obtain funds for various public purposes. Municipal securities also include “private activity bonds” or industrial development bonds, which are issued by or on behalf of public authorities to obtain funds for privately operated facilities, such as airports and waste disposal facilities, and, in some cases, commercial and industrial facilities.

 

B-42


The yields and market values of municipal securities are determined primarily by the general level of interest rates, the creditworthiness of the issuers of municipal securities and economic and political conditions affecting such issuers. Due to their tax exempt status, the yields and market prices of municipal securities may be adversely affected by changes in tax rates and policies, which may have less effect on the market for taxable fixed-income securities. Moreover, certain types of municipal securities, such as housing revenue bonds, involve prepayment risks which could affect the yield on such securities. The credit rating assigned to municipal securities may reflect the existence of guarantees, letters of credit or other credit enhancement features available to the issuers or holders of such municipal securities.

Investments in municipal securities are subject to the risk that the issuer could default on its obligations. Such a default could result from the inadequacy of the sources or revenues from which interest and principal payments are to be made or the assets collateralizing such obligations. Revenue bonds, including private activity bonds, are backed only by specific assets or revenue sources and not by the full faith and credit of the governmental issuer.

Non-Diversified Status

Because the Global Infrastructure Fund, Real Estate Securities Fund and International Real Estate Securities Fund are each “non-diversified” under the Act, they are subject only to certain federal tax diversification requirements. Pursuant to such requirements, a Fund must diversify its holdings so that, in general, at the close of each quarter of its taxable year, (a) at least 50% of the fair market value of the Fund’s total (gross) assets is comprised of cash, cash items, U.S. Government Securities, securities of other regulated investment companies and other securities limited in respect of any one issuer to an amount not greater in value than 5% of the value of the Fund’s total assets and to not more than 10% of the outstanding voting securities of such issuer, and (b) not more than 25% of the value of its total (gross) assets is invested in the securities of any one issuer (other than U.S. Government Securities and securities of other regulated investment companies), two or more issuers controlled by the Fund and engaged in the same, similar or related trades or businesses, or certain publicly traded partnerships.

Options on Securities, Securities Indices and Foreign Currencies

Writing Options

Each Fund may write (sell) call and put options on any securities in which it may invest or any securities index consisting of securities in which it may invest. A Fund may write such options on securities that are listed on national domestic securities exchanges or foreign securities exchanges or traded in the over-the-counter market. A Fund may also, to the extent it invests in foreign securities, write (sell) put and call options on foreign currencies. A call option written by a Fund obligates that Fund to sell specified securities to the holder of the option at a specified price if the option is exercised on or before the expiration date. Depending upon the type of call option, the purchaser of the call option either (i) has the right to any appreciation in the value of the security over a fixed price (the “exercise price”) on a certain date in the future (the “expiration date”) or (ii) has the right to any appreciation in the value of the security over the exercise price at any time prior to the expiration of the option. If the purchaser exercises the option, a Fund pays the purchaser the difference between the price of the security and the exercise price of the option. The premium, the exercise price and the market value of the security determine the gain or loss realized by a Fund as the seller of the call option. A Fund can also repurchase the call option prior to the expiration date, ending its obligation. In this case, the cost of entering into closing purchase transactions will determine the gain or loss realized by a Fund. All call options written by a Fund are covered, which means that such Fund will own the securities subject to the option as long as the option is outstanding or such Fund will use the other methods described below. A Fund’s purpose in writing call options is to realize greater income than would be realized on portfolio securities transactions alone. However, a Fund may forego the opportunity to profit from an increase in the market price of the underlying security.

A put option written by a Fund would obligate such Fund to purchase specified securities from the option holder at a specified price if, depending upon the type of put option, either (i) the option is exercised at any time on or before the expiration date or (ii) the option is exercised on the expiration date. All put options written by a Fund would be covered, which means that such Fund will identify on its books cash or liquid assets with a value at least equal to the exercise price of the put option (less any margin on deposit) or will use the other methods described below. For more information about these practices, see “Description of Investment Securities and Practices — Asset Segregation.”

The purpose of writing such options is to generate additional income for the Fund. However, in return for the option premium, each Fund accepts the risk that it may be required to purchase the underlying securities at a price in excess of the securities’ market value at the time of purchase.

In the case of a call option, the option is “covered” if a Fund owns the instrument underlying the call or has an absolute and immediate right to acquire that instrument without additional cash consideration (or, if additional cash consideration is required, liquid assets in such amount are identified on its books) upon conversion or exchange of other instruments held by it. A call option is also covered if a Fund holds a call on the same instrument as the option written where the exercise price of the option held is (i) equal to or

 

B-43


less than the exercise price of the option written, or (ii) greater than the exercise price of the option written provided the Fund identifies liquid assets in the amount of the difference. A put option is also covered if a Fund holds a put on the same instrument as the option written where the exercise price of the option held is (i) equal to or higher than the exercise price of the option written, or (ii) less than the exercise price of the option written provided the Fund identifies on its books liquid assets in the amount of the difference. A Fund may also cover options on securities by identifying cash or liquid assets, as permitted by applicable law, with a value, when added to any margin on deposit that is equal to the market value of the securities in the case of a call option. Identified cash or liquid assets may be quoted or denominated in any currency.

Each Fund may also write (sell) call and put options on any securities index comprised of securities in which it may invest. Options on securities indices are similar to options on securities, except that the exercise of securities index options requires cash payments and does not involve the actual purchase or sale of securities. In addition, securities index options are designed to reflect price fluctuations in a group of securities or segment of the securities market rather than price fluctuations in a single security. The U.S. Equity Dividend and Premium Fund expects that, under normal circumstances, it will sell call options on the S&P 500 Index or related ETFs in an amount that is between 20% and 75% of the value of the U.S. Equity Dividend and Premium Fund’s portfolio.

A Fund may cover call options on a securities index by owning securities whose price changes are expected to be similar to those of the underlying index, or by having an absolute and immediate right to acquire such securities without additional cash consideration (or for additional consideration which has been identified by the Fund on its books) upon conversion or exchange of other securities in its portfolio. A Fund may also cover call and put options on a securities index by identifying cash or liquid assets, as permitted by applicable law, with a value, when added to any margin on deposit, that is equal to the market value of the underlying securities in the case of a call option or the exercise price in the case of a put option, or by owning offsetting options as described above.

A Fund may terminate its obligations under an exchange traded call or put option by purchasing an option identical to the one it has written. Obligations under over-the-counter options may be terminated only by entering into an offsetting transaction with the counterparty to such option. Such purchases are referred to as “closing purchase transactions.”

Purchasing Options

Each Fund may purchase put and call options on any securities in which it may invest or any securities index comprised of securities in which it may invest. A Fund may also, to the extent that it invests in foreign securities, purchase put and call options on foreign currencies. A Fund may also enter into closing sale transactions in order to realize gains or minimize losses on options it had purchased.

A Fund may purchase call options in anticipation of an increase, or put options in anticipation of a decrease (“protective puts”) in the market value of securities or other instruments of the type in which it may invest. The purchase of a call option would entitle a Fund, in return for the premium paid, to purchase specified securities or other instruments at a specified price during the option period. A Fund would ordinarily realize a gain on the purchase of a call option if, during the option period, the value of such securities or other instruments exceeded the sum of the exercise price, the premium paid and transaction costs; otherwise the Fund would realize either no gain or a loss on the purchase of the call option.

The purchase of a put option would entitle a Fund, in exchange for the premium paid, to sell specified securities or other instruments at a specified price during the option period. The purchase of protective puts is designed to offset or hedge against a decline in the market value of a Fund’s securities or other instruments. Put options may also be purchased by a Fund for the purpose of affirmatively benefiting from a decline in the price of securities or other instruments which it does not own. A Fund would ordinarily realize a gain if, during the option period, the value of the underlying securities or other instruments decreased below the exercise price sufficiently to cover the premium and transaction costs; otherwise such a Fund would realize either no gain or a loss on the purchase of the put option. Gains and losses on the purchase of put options would tend to be offset by countervailing changes in the value of the underlying portfolio securities or other instruments.

A Fund would purchase put and call options on securities indices for the same purposes as it would purchase options on individual securities. For a description of options on securities indices, see “Writing Options” above.

Yield Curve Options

The Real Estate Securities Fund, International Real Estate Securities Fund, Global Real Estate Securities Fund, Global Infrastructure Fund, Absolute Return Tracker Fund, Commodity Strategy Fund and Managed Futures Strategy Fund may enter into options on the yield “spread” or differential between two securities. Such transactions are referred to as “yield curve” options. In contrast to other types of options, a yield curve option is based on the difference between the yields of designated securities, rather than the prices of the individual securities, and is settled through cash payments. Accordingly, a yield curve option is profitable to the holder if this differential widens (in the case of a call) or narrows (in the case of a put), regardless of whether the yields of the underlying securities increase or decrease.

 

B-44


These Funds may purchase or write yield curve options for the same purposes as other options on securities. For example, the Funds may purchase a call option on the yield spread between two securities if they own one of the securities and anticipate purchasing the other security and want to hedge against an adverse change in the yield spread between the two securities. These funds may also purchase or write yield curve options in an effort to increase current income if, in the judgment of the Investment Adviser, the Funds will be able to profit from movements in the spread between the yields of the underlying securities. The trading of yield curve options is subject to all of the risks associated with the trading of other types of options. In addition, however, such options present risk of loss even if the yield of one of the underlying securities remains constant, or if the spread moves in a direction or to an extent which was not anticipated.

Yield curve options written by a Fund will be “covered.” A call (or put) option is covered if a Fund holds another call (or put) option on the spread between the same two securities and identifies on its books cash or liquid assets sufficient to cover the Fund’s net liability under the two options. Therefore, a Fund’s liability for such a covered option is generally limited to the difference between the amount of such Fund’s liability under the option written by the Fund less the value of the option held by the Fund. Yield curve options may also be covered in such other manner as may be in accordance with the requirements of the counterparty with which the option is traded and applicable laws and regulations. Yield curve options are traded over-the-counter and established trading markets for these options may not exist.

Risks Associated with Options Transactions

There is no assurance that a liquid secondary market on an options exchange will exist for any particular exchange-traded option or at any particular time. If a Fund is unable to effect a closing purchase transaction with respect to options it has written, the Fund will not be able to sell the underlying securities or dispose of the assets identified on its books to cover the position until the options expire or are exercised. Similarly, if a Fund is unable to effect a closing sale transaction with respect to options it has purchased, it will have to exercise the options in order to realize any profit and will incur transaction costs upon the purchase or sale of underlying securities.

Reasons for the absence of a liquid secondary market on an exchange include the following: (i) there may be insufficient trading interest in certain options; (ii) restrictions may be imposed by an exchange on opening or closing transactions or both; (iii) trading halts, suspensions or other restrictions may be imposed with respect to particular classes or series of options; (iv) unusual or unforeseen circumstances may interrupt normal operations on an exchange; (v) the facilities of an exchange or the Options Clearing Corporation may not at all times be adequate to handle current trading volume; or (vi) one or more exchanges could, for economic or other reasons, decide or be compelled at some future date to discontinue the trading of options (or a particular class or series of options), in which event the secondary market on that exchange (or in that class or series of options) would cease to exist, although outstanding options on that exchange that had been issued by the Options Clearing Corporation as a result of trades on that exchange would continue to be exercisable in accordance with their terms.

There can be no assurance that higher trading activity, order flow or other unforeseen events will not, at times, render certain of the facilities of the Options Clearing Corporation or various exchanges inadequate. Such events have, in the past, resulted in the institution by an exchange of special procedures, such as trading rotations, restrictions on certain types of order or trading halts or suspensions with respect to one or more options. These special procedures may limit liquidity.

Each Fund may purchase and sell both options that are traded on U.S. and foreign exchanges and options traded over-the-counter with broker-dealers who make markets in these options. The ability to terminate over-the-counter options is more limited than with exchange-traded options and may involve the risk that broker-dealers participating in such transactions will not fulfill their obligations.

Transactions by each Fund in options will be subject to limitations established by each of the exchanges, boards of trade or other trading facilities on which such options are traded governing the maximum number of options in each class which may be written or purchased by a single investor or group of investors acting in concert regardless of whether the options are written or purchased on the same or different exchanges, boards of trade or other trading facility or are held in one or more accounts or through one or more brokers. Thus, the number of options which a Fund may write or purchase may be affected by options written or purchased by other investment advisory clients of the Investment Adviser. An exchange, board of trade or other trading facility may order the liquidation of positions found to be in excess of these limits, and it may impose certain other sanctions.

The writing and purchase of options is a highly specialized activity which involves investment techniques and risks different from those associated with ordinary portfolio securities transactions. The use of options to seek to increase total return involves the risk of loss if the Investment Adviser is incorrect in its expectation of fluctuations in securities prices or interest rates. The successful use

 

B-45


of options for hedging purposes also depends in part on the ability of the Investment Adviser to manage future price fluctuations and the degree of correlation between the options and securities (or currency) markets. If the Investment Adviser is incorrect in its expectation of changes in securities prices or determination of the correlation between the securities or securities indices on which options are written and purchased and the securities in a Fund’s investment portfolio, the Fund may incur losses that it would not otherwise incur. The writing of options could increase a Fund’s portfolio turnover rate and, therefore, associated brokerage commissions or spreads.

Writing and Purchasing Currency Call and Put Options

The Absolute Return Tracker Fund, Real Estate Securities Fund, International Real Estate Securities Fund, Global Real Estate Securities Fund, Commodity Strategy Fund, Global Infrastructure Fund, Alternative Premia Fund, Managed Futures Strategy Fund, International Equity Dividend and Premium Fund and International Tax-Managed Equity Fund may, to the extent that they invest in foreign securities, write and purchase put and call options on foreign currencies. As with other kinds of option transactions, however, the writing of an option on foreign currency will constitute only a partial hedge, up to the amount of the premium received. If an option that a Fund has written is exercised, the Fund could be required to purchase or sell foreign currencies at disadvantageous exchange rates, thereby incurring losses. The purchase of an option on foreign currency may constitute an effective hedge against exchange rate fluctuations; however, in the event of exchange rate movements adverse to a Fund’s position, the Fund may forfeit the entire amount of the premium plus related transaction costs. Options on foreign currencies may be traded on U.S. and foreign exchanges or over-the-counter.

Options on currency may also be used for cross-hedging purposes, which involves writing or purchasing options on one currency to seek to hedge against changes in exchange rates for a different currency with a pattern of correlation, or to seek to increase total return when the Investment Adviser anticipates that the currency will appreciate or depreciate in value, but the securities quoted or denominated in that currency do not present attractive investment opportunities and are not included in the Fund’s portfolio.

A currency call option written by a Fund obligates the Fund to sell a specified currency to the holder of the option at a specified price if the option is exercised before the expiration date. A currency put option written by a Fund obligates the Fund to purchase a specified currency from the option holder at a specified price if the option is exercised before the expiration date. The writing of currency options involves a risk that a Fund will, upon exercise of the option, be required to sell currency subject to a call at a price that is less than the currency’s market value or be required to purchase currency subject to a put at a price that exceeds the currency’s market value. Written put and call options on foreign currencies may be covered in a manner similar to written put and call options on securities and securities indices described under “Options on Securities and Securities Indices—Writing Options” above.

A Fund may terminate its obligations under a call or put option by purchasing an option identical to the one it has written. Such purchases are referred to as “closing purchase transactions.” A Fund may enter into closing sale transactions in order to realize gains or minimize losses on options purchased by the Fund.

A Fund may purchase call options on foreign currency in anticipation of an increase in the U.S. dollar value of currency in which securities to be acquired by a Fund are quoted or denominated. The purchase of a call option would entitle the Fund, in return for the premium paid, to purchase specified currency at a specified price during the option period. A Fund would ordinarily realize a gain if, during the option period, the value of such currency exceeded the sum of the exercise price, the premium paid and transaction costs; otherwise the Fund would realize either no gain or a loss on the purchase of the call option.

A Fund may purchase put options in anticipation of a decline in the U.S. dollar value of currency in which securities in its portfolio are quoted or denominated (“protective puts”). The purchase of a put option would entitle a Fund, in exchange for the premium paid, to sell specified currency at a specified price during the option period. The purchase of protective puts is usually designed to offset or hedge against a decline in the dollar value of a Fund’s portfolio securities due to currency exchange rate fluctuations. A Fund would ordinarily realize a gain if, during the option period, the value of the underlying currency decreased below the exercise price sufficiently to more than cover the premium and transaction costs; otherwise the Fund would realize either no gain or a loss on the purchase of the put option. Gains and losses on the purchase of protective put options would tend to be offset by countervailing changes in the value of underlying currency or portfolio securities.

In addition to using options for the hedging purposes described above, the Funds may use options on currency to seek to increase total return. The Funds may write (sell) put and call options on any currency in an attempt to realize greater income than would be realized on portfolio securities transactions alone. However, in writing call options for additional income, the Funds may forego the opportunity to profit from an increase in the market value of the underlying currency. Also, when writing put options, the Funds accept, in return for the option premium, the risk that they may be required to purchase the underlying currency at a price in excess of the currency’s market value at the time of purchase.

 

B-46


Special Risks Associated with Options on Currency. An exchange traded options position may be closed out only on an options exchange that provides a secondary market for an option of the same series. Although a Fund will generally purchase or write only those options for which there appears to be an active secondary market, there is no assurance that a liquid secondary market on an exchange will exist for any particular option, or at any particular time. For some options no secondary market on an exchange may exist. In such event, it might not be possible to effect closing transactions in particular options, with the result that a Fund would have to exercise its options in order to realize any profit and would incur transaction costs upon the sale of underlying securities pursuant to the exercise of put options. If a Fund as a call option writer is unable to effect a closing purchase transaction in a secondary market, it will not be able to sell the underlying currency (or security quoted or denominated in that currency) or dispose of the identified assets, until the option expires or it delivers the underlying currency upon exercise.

There is no assurance that higher than anticipated trading activity or other unforeseen events will not, at times, render certain of the facilities of the Options Clearing Corporation inadequate, and thereby result in the institution by an exchange of special procedures which may interfere with the timely execution of customers’ orders.

A Fund may purchase and write over-the-counter options. Trading in over-the-counter options is subject to the risk that the other party will be unable or unwilling to close out options purchased or written by a Fund.

The amount of the premiums which a Fund may pay or receive may be adversely affected as new or existing institutions, including other investment companies, engage in or increase their option purchasing and writing activities.

Pooled Investment Vehicles

Each Fund may invest in securities of pooled investment vehicles, including other investment companies and ETFs. A Fund will indirectly bear its proportionate share of any management fees and other expenses paid by pooled investment vehicles in which it invests, in addition to the management fees (and other expenses) paid by the Fund. A Fund’s investments in other investment companies are subject to statutory limitations prescribed by the Act, including in certain circumstances a prohibition on the Fund acquiring more than 3% of the voting shares of any other investment company, and a prohibition on investing more than 5% of the Fund’s total assets in securities of any one investment company or more than 10% of its total assets in the securities of all investment companies. Many ETFs, however, have obtained exemptive relief from the SEC to permit unaffiliated funds (such as the Funds) to invest in their shares beyond these statutory limits, subject to certain conditions and pursuant to contractual arrangements between the ETFs and the investing funds. A Fund may rely on these exemptive orders in investing in ETFs. Moreover, subject to applicable law and/or pursuant to an exemptive order obtained from the SEC or under an exemptive rule adopted by the SEC, the Funds may invest in investment companies, including ETFs and money market funds, for which an Investment Adviser, or any of its affiliates, serves as investment adviser, administrator and/or distributor. With respect to a Fund’s investments in money market funds, to the extent that a Fund invests in a money market fund for which an Investment Adviser or any of its affiliates acts as investment adviser, the management fees payable by the Fund to the Investment Adviser will, to the extent required by the SEC, be reduced by an amount equal to the Fund’s proportionate share of the management fees paid by such money market fund to its investment adviser. Although the Funds do not expect to do so in the foreseeable future, each Fund is authorized to invest substantially all of its assets in a single open-end investment company or series thereof that has substantially the same investment policies and fundamental restrictions as the Fund. Additionally, if any Fund serves as an “underlying Fund” to another Goldman Sachs Fund, that Fund may invest in a percentage of its assets in other investment companies only if those instruments are consistent with applicable law and/or exemptive relief obtained from the SEC.

Each Fund (other than the U.S. Equity Dividend and Premium Fund) may purchase shares of investment companies investing primarily in foreign securities, including “country funds.” Country funds have portfolios consisting primarily of securities of issuers located in specified foreign countries or regions.

ETFs are pooled investment vehicles issuing shares which are traded like traditional equity securities on a stock exchange. An ETF represents a portfolio of securities or other assets, which is often designed to track a particular market segment or index. An investment in an ETF, like one in any pooled investment vehicle, carries risks of its underlying securities. An ETF may fail to accurately track the returns of the market segment or index that it is designed to track, and the price of an ETF’s shares may fluctuate or lose money. In addition, because they, unlike other pooled investment vehicles, are traded on an exchange, ETFs are subject to the following risks: (i) the market price of the ETF’s shares may trade at a premium or discount to the ETF’s NAV; (ii) an active trading market for an ETF may not develop or be maintained; and (iii) there is no assurance that the requirements of the exchange necessary to maintain the listing of the ETF will continue to be met or remain unchanged. In the event substantial market or other disruptions affecting ETFs should occur in the future, the liquidity and value of a Fund’s shares could also be substantially and adversely affected.

 

B-47


Portfolio Turnover

Each Fund may engage in active short-term trading to benefit from price disparities among different issues of securities or among the markets for equity securities, or for other reasons. As a result of active management, it is anticipated that the portfolio turnover rate may vary greatly from year to year as well as within a particular year, and may be affected by changes in the holdings of specific issuers, changes in country and currency weightings, cash requirements for redemption of shares and by requirements which enable the Funds to receive favorable tax treatment. The Funds are not restricted by policy with regard to portfolio turnover and will make changes in their investment portfolios from time to time as business and economic conditions as well as market prices may dictate. Portfolio turnover is subject to many factors, including but not limited to market conditions, model development and portfolio construction considerations. It can change from year to year without notice.

Preferred Securities

Each Fund (other than the Managed Futures Strategy Fund) may invest in preferred securities. Unlike debt securities, the obligations of an issuer of preferred stock, including dividend and other payment obligations, may not typically be accelerated by the holders of preferred stock on the occurrence of an event of default (such as a covenant default or filing of a bankruptcy petition) or other non-compliance by the issuer with the terms of the preferred stock. Often, however, on the occurrence of any such event of default or non-compliance by the issuer, preferred stockholders will be entitled to gain representation on the issuer’s board of directors or increase their existing board representation. In addition, preferred stockholders may be granted voting rights with respect to certain issues on the occurrence of any event of default.

Real Estate Investment Trusts

Each Fund (other than the Managed Futures Strategy Fund) may invest in shares of REITs. The Real Estate Securities Fund, International Real Estate Securities Fund and Global Real Estate Securities Fund expect that a substantial portion of their assets will be invested in real estate industry companies, including REITs and entities similar to REITs. REITs are pooled investment vehicles which invest primarily in real estate or real estate related loans. REITs are generally classified as equity REITs, mortgage REITs or a combination of equity and mortgage REITs. Equity REITs invest the majority of their assets directly in real property and derive income primarily from the collection of rents. Equity REITs can also realize capital gains by selling properties that have appreciated in value. Mortgage REITs invest the majority of their assets in real estate mortgages and derive income from the collection of interest payments. Like regulated investment companies such as the Funds, REITs are not taxed on income distributed to shareholders provided they comply with certain requirements under the Code. A Fund will indirectly bear its proportionate share of any expenses paid by REITs in which it invests in addition to the expenses paid by a Fund.

Investing in REITs involves certain unique risks. Equity REITs may be affected by changes in the value of the underlying property owned by such REITs, while mortgage REITs may be affected by the quality of any credit extended. REITs are dependent upon management skills, are not diversified (except to the extent the Code requires), and are subject to the risks of financing projects. REITs are subject to heavy cash flow dependency, default by borrowers, self-liquidation, and the possibilities of failing to qualify for the exemption from tax for distributed income under the Code and failing to maintain their exemptions from the Act. REITs (especially mortgage REITs) are also subject to interest rate risks.

Repurchase Agreements

Each Fund may enter into repurchase agreements with counterparties approved by the Investment Adviser pursuant to procedures by the Board of Trustees that furnish collateral at least equal in value or market price to the amount of their repurchase obligation. Repurchase agreements involving obligations other than U.S. Government Securities may be subject to additional risks. A repurchase agreement is an arrangement under which a Fund purchases securities and the seller agrees to repurchase the securities within a particular time and at a specified price. Custody of the securities is maintained by a Fund’s custodian (or subcustodian). The repurchase price may be higher than the purchase price, the difference being income to a Fund, or the purchase and repurchase prices may be the same, with interest at a stated rate due to a Fund together with the repurchase price on repurchase. In either case, the income to a Fund is unrelated to the interest rate on the security subject to the repurchase agreement.

For purposes of the Act and generally for tax purposes, a repurchase agreement is deemed to be a loan from a Fund to the seller of the security. For other purposes, it is not always clear whether a court would consider the security purchased by a Fund subject to a repurchase agreement as being owned by a Fund or as being collateral for a loan by a Fund to the seller. In the event of commencement of bankruptcy or insolvency proceedings with respect to the seller of the security before repurchase of the security under a repurchase agreement, a Fund may encounter delay and incur costs before being able to sell the security. Such a delay may involve loss of interest or a decline in price of the security. If the court characterizes the transaction as a loan and a Fund has not perfected a security interest in the security, a Fund may be required to return the security to the seller’s estate and be treated as an unsecured creditor of the seller. As an unsecured creditor, a Fund would be at risk of losing some or all of the principal and interest involved in the transaction.

 

B-48


Apart from the risk of bankruptcy or insolvency proceedings, there is also the risk that the seller may fail to repurchase the security. However, if the market value of the security subject to the repurchase agreement becomes less than the repurchase price (including accrued interest), a Fund will direct the seller of the security to deliver additional securities so that the market value of all securities subject to the repurchase agreement equals or exceeds the repurchase price. Certain repurchase agreements which provide for settlement in more than seven days can be liquidated before the nominal fixed term on seven days or less notice.

The Funds, together with other registered investment companies having advisory agreements with the Investment Adviser or its affiliates, may transfer uninvested cash balances into a single joint account, the daily aggregate balance of which will be invested in one or more repurchase agreements.

Restricted Securities

A Fund may purchase securities and other financial instruments that are not registered or that are offered in an exempt non-public offering (“Restricted Securities”) under the 1933 Act, including securities eligible for resale to “qualified institutional buyers” pursuant to Rule 144A under the 1933 Act. The purchase price and subsequent valuation of Restricted Securities may reflect a discount from the price at which such securities trade when they are not restricted, because the restriction makes them less liquid. The amount of the discount from the prevailing market price is expected to vary depending upon the type of security, the character of the issuer, the party who will bear the expenses of registering the Restricted Securities and prevailing supply and demand conditions. These and other factors discussed in the section above, entitled “Illiquid Investments,” may impact the liquidity of investments in Restricted Securities

Reverse Repurchase Agreements

The Funds (except for the Global Infrastructure Fund) may borrow money by entering into transactions called reverse repurchase agreements. Under these arrangements, a Fund may sell portfolio securities to dealers in U.S. Government Securities or members of the Federal Reserve System, with an agreement to repurchase the security on an agreed date, price and interest payment. For certain Funds, these reverse repurchase agreements may involve foreign government securities. Reverse repurchase agreements involve the possible risk that the value of portfolio securities the Fund relinquishes may decline below the price the Fund must pay when the transaction closes. Borrowings may magnify the potential for gain or loss on amounts invested resulting in an increase in the speculative character of a Fund’s outstanding shares.

When a Fund enters into a reverse repurchase agreement, it identifies on its books cash or liquid assets that have a value equal to or greater than the repurchase price. The identified amount is then continuously monitored by the Investment Adviser to make sure that an appropriate value is maintained. Reverse repurchase agreements are considered to be borrowings under the Act.

Short Sales

The Absolute Return Tracker Fund, Alternative Premia Fund, Commodity Strategy Fund and Managed Futures Strategy Fund may engage in short sales. Short sales are transactions in which a Fund sells a security it does not own in anticipation of a decline in the market value of that security. To complete such a transaction, the Fund must borrow the security to make delivery to the buyer. The Fund then is obligated to replace the security borrowed by purchasing it at the market price at the time of replacement. The price at such time may be more or less than the price at which the security was sold by the Fund. Until the security is replaced, the Fund is required to pay to the lender amounts equal to any dividend which accrues during the period of the loan. To borrow the security, the Fund also may be required to pay a premium, which would increase the cost of the security sold. There will also be other costs associated with short sales.

A Fund will incur a loss as a result of the short sale if the price of the security increases between the date of the short sale and the date on which the Fund replaces the borrowed security. The Fund will realize a gain if the security declines in price between those dates. This result is the opposite of what one would expect from a cash purchase of a long position in a security. The amount of any gain will be decreased, and the amount of any loss increased, by the amount of any premium or amounts in lieu of interest the Fund may be required to pay in connection with a short sale, and will be also decreased by any transaction or other costs.

Until a Fund replaces a borrowed security in connection with a short sale, the Fund will (a) identify on its books cash or liquid assets at such a level that the identified assets plus any amount deposited as collateral will equal the current value of the security sold short or (b) otherwise cover its short position in accordance with applicable law.

There is no guarantee that a Fund will be able to close out a short position at any particular time or at an acceptable price. During the time that a Fund is short a security, it is subject to the risk that the lender of the security will terminate the loan at a time when the Fund is unable to borrow the same security from another lender. If that occurs, the Fund may be “bought in” at the price required to purchase the security needed to close out the short position, which may be a disadvantageous price.

The Absolute Return Tracker Fund, Alternative Premia Fund, Managed Futures Strategy Fund, Real Estate Securities Fund, International Real Estate Securities Fund, Global Real Estate Securities Fund, Global Infrastructure Fund, International Equity Dividend and Premium Fund and International Tax-Managed Equity Fund may also engage in short sales against the box. As noted above, a short

 

B-49


sale is made by selling a security the seller does not own. A short sale is “against the box” to the extent that the seller contemporaneously owns or has the right to obtain, at no added cost, securities identical to those sold short. It may be entered into by a Fund, for example, to lock in a sales price for a security the Fund does not wish to sell immediately. If a Fund sells securities short against the box, it may protect itself from loss if the price of the securities declines in the future, but will lose the opportunity to profit on such securities if the price rises.

If a Fund effects a short sale of securities at a time when it has an unrealized gain on the securities, it may be required to recognize that gain as if it had actually sold the securities (as a “constructive sale”) on the date it effects the short sale. However, such constructive sale treatment may not apply if a Fund closes out the short sale with securities other than the appreciated securities held at the time of the short sale and if certain other conditions are satisfied. Uncertainty regarding the tax consequences of effecting short sales may limit the extent to which a Fund may effect short sales.

Risks of Qualified Financial Contracts

Regulations adopted by federal banking regulators under the Dodd-Frank Act, which are scheduled to take effect throughout 2019, require that certain qualified financial contracts (“QFCs”) with counterparties that are part of U.S. or foreign global systemically important banking organizations be amended to include contractual restrictions on close-out and cross-default rights. QFCs include, but are not limited to, securities contracts, commodities contracts, forward contracts, repurchase agreements, securities lending agreements and swaps agreements, as well as related master agreements, security agreements, credit enhancements, and reimbursement obligations. If a covered counterparty of a Fund or certain of the covered counterparty’s affiliates were to become subject to certain insolvency proceedings, the Fund may be temporarily unable to exercise certain default rights, and the QFC may be transferred to another entity. These requirements may impact a Fund’s credit and counterparty risks.

Structured Notes

The Absolute Return Tracker Fund, Commodity Strategy Fund, Alternative Premia Fund, Managed Futures Strategy Fund, Global Real Estate Securities Fund and Global Infrastructure Fund may invest in structured notes, which may be privately issued. Structured notes are derivative debt securities, the interest rate and/or principal of which is determined by an unrelated indicator. The value of the principal of and/or interest on structured notes is determined by reference to changes in the return, interest rate or value at maturity of a specific asset, reference rate or index (the “reference instrument”) or the relative change in two or more reference instruments. The terms of structured notes may provide that in certain circumstances no principal is due at maturity, which may result in a loss of invested capital. The interest rate or the principal amount payable upon maturity or redemption may also be increased or decreased, depending upon changes in the applicable reference instruments. Structured notes may be positively or negatively indexed, so that an increase in value of the reference instrument may produce an increase or a decrease in the interest rate or value of the structured note at maturity. In addition, changes in the interest rate or the value of the structured note at maturity may be calculated as a specified multiple of the change in the value of the reference instrument; therefore, the value of such note may be very volatile. Structured notes may entail a greater degree of market risk than other types of debt securities because the investor bears the risk of the reference instrument. Structured notes may also be more volatile, less liquid and more difficult to accurately price than less complex securities or more traditional debt securities.

Temporary Investments

Each Fund may, for temporary defensive purposes (and to the extent it is permitted to invest in the following), invest a certain percentage of its total assets in: U.S. Government Securities; commercial paper rated at least A-2 by Standard & Poor’s, P-2 by Moody’s or having a comparable rating by another NRSRO (or, if unrated, determined by the Investment Adviser to be of comparable credit quality); certificates of deposit; bankers’ acceptances; repurchase agreements; non-convertible preferred stocks and non-convertible corporate bonds with a remaining maturity of less than one year; ETFs; other investment companies; and cash items. When a Fund’s assets are invested in such instruments, the Fund may not be achieving its investment objective.

U.S. Government Securities

Each Fund may invest in U.S. Government Securities, which are obligations issued or guaranteed by the U.S. government, its agencies, instrumentalities or sponsored enterprises. Some U.S. Government Securities (such as Treasury bills, notes and bonds, which differ only in their interest rates, maturities and times of issuance) are supported by the full faith and credit of the United States. Others, such as obligations issued or guaranteed by U.S. government agencies, instrumentalities or sponsored enterprises, are supported either by (i) the right of the issuer to borrow from the U.S. Treasury, (ii) the discretionary authority of the U.S. government to purchase certain obligations of the issuer or (iii) the credit of the issuer. The U.S. government is under no legal obligation, in general, to purchase the obligations of its agencies, instrumentalities or sponsored enterprises. No assurance can be given that the U.S. government will provide financial support to the U.S. government agencies, instrumentalities or sponsored enterprises in the future, and the U.S. Government may be unable to pay debts when due.

 

B-50


U.S. Government Securities include (to the extent consistent with the Act) securities for which the payment of principal and interest is backed by an irrevocable letter of credit issued by the U.S. government, or its agencies, instrumentalities or sponsored enterprises. U.S. Government Securities may also include (to the extent consistent with the Act) participations in loans made to foreign governments or their agencies that are guaranteed as to principal and interest by the U.S. government or its agencies, instrumentalities or sponsored enterprises. The secondary market for certain of these participations is extremely limited. In the absence of a suitable secondary market, such participations are regarded as illiquid. These and other factors discussed in the section above, entitled “Illiquid Investments,” may impact the liquidity of investments in these participations

Each Fund may also purchase U.S. Government Securities in private placements and may also invest in separately traded principal and interest components of securities guaranteed or issued by the U.S. Treasury that are traded independently under the separate trading of registered interest and principal of securities program (“STRIPS”). Each Fund may also invest in zero coupon U.S. Treasury securities and in zero coupon securities issued by financial institutions which represent a proportionate interest in underlying U.S. Treasury securities.

Treasury Inflation-Protected Securities. The Funds (except for the International Real Estate Fund) may invest in U.S. Government Securities, called “Treasury inflation-protected securities” or “TIPS,” which are fixed income securities whose principal value is periodically adjusted according to the rate of inflation. The interest rate on TIPS is fixed at issuance, but over the life of the bond this interest may be paid on an increasing or decreasing principal value that has been adjusted for inflation. Although repayment of the greater of the adjusted or original bond principal upon maturity is guaranteed, the market value of TIPS is not guaranteed, and will fluctuate.

The values of TIPS generally fluctuate in response to changes in real interest rates, which are in turn tied to the relationship between nominal interest rates and the rate of inflation. If inflation were to rise at a faster rate than nominal interest rates, real interest rates will decline, leading to an increase in the value of TIPS. In contrast, if nominal interest rates were to increase at a faster rate than inflation, real interest rates will rise, leading to a decrease in the value of TIPS. If inflation is lower than expected during the period the Fund holds TIPS, the Fund may earn less on the TIPS than on a conventional bond. If interest rates rise due to reasons other than inflation (for example, due to changes in the currency exchange rates), investors in TIPS may not be protected to the extent that the increase is not reflected in the bonds’ inflation measure. There can be no assurance that the inflation index for TIPS will accurately measure the real rate of inflation in the prices of goods and services.

Any increase in principal value of TIPS caused by an increase in the consumer price index is taxable in the year the increase occurs, even though the Fund holding TIPS will not receive cash representing the increase at that time. As a result, a Fund could be required at times to liquidate other investments, including when it is not advantageous to do so, in order to satisfy its distribution requirements as a regulated investment company.

If a Fund invests in TIPS, it will be required to treat as original issue discount any increase in the principal amount of the securities that occurs during the course of its taxable year. If a Fund purchases such inflation protected securities that are issued in stripped form either as stripped bonds or coupons, it will be treated as if it had purchased a newly issued debt instrument having original issue discount.

Because a Fund is required to distribute substantially all of its net investment income (including accrued original issue discount), the Fund’s investment in either zero coupon bonds or TIPS may require it to distribute to shareholders an amount greater than the total cash income it actually receives. Accordingly, in order to make the required distributions, a Fund may be required to borrow or liquidate securities.

Variable and Floating Rate Securities

The interest rates payable on certain debt securities in which a Fund may invest are not fixed and may fluctuate based upon changes in market rates. Variable and floating rate obligations are debt instruments issued by companies or other entities with interest rates that reset periodically (typically, daily, monthly, quarterly, or semi-annually) in response to changes in the market rate of interest on which the interest rate is based. Moreover, such obligations may fluctuate in value in response to interest rate changes if there is a delay between changes in market interest rates and the interest reset date for the obligation, or for other reasons. The value of these obligations is generally more stable than that of a fixed rate obligation in response to changes in interest rate levels, but they may decline in value if their interest rates do not rise as much, or as quickly, as interest rates in general. Conversely, floating rate securities will not generally increase in value if interest rates decline.

 

B-51


Warrants and Stock Purchase Rights

Each Fund (other than the Alternative Premia Fund and Managed Futures Strategy Fund) may invest in warrants or stock purchase rights (“rights”) (in addition to those acquired in units or attached to other securities) which entitle the holder to buy equity securities at a specific price for a specific period of time. A Fund will invest in warrants and rights only if such equity securities are deemed appropriate by the Investment Adviser for investment by the Fund. The U.S. Tax-Managed Equity and International Tax-Managed Equity Funds have no present intention of acquiring warrants or rights. Warrants and rights have no voting rights, receive no dividends and have no rights with respect to the assets of the issuer.

When-Issued Securities and Forward Commitments

Each Fund (other than the Managed Futures Strategy Fund) may purchase securities on a when-issued basis, including TBA securities, or purchase or sell securities on a forward commitment basis beyond the customary settlement time. TBA securities, which are usually mortgage-backed securities, are purchased on a forward commitment basis with an approximate principal amount and no defined maturity date. These transactions involve a commitment by a Fund to purchase or sell securities at a future date. The price of the underlying securities (usually expressed in terms of yield) and the date when the securities will be delivered and paid for (the settlement date) are fixed at the time the transaction is negotiated. In addition, recently finalized rules of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (“FINRA”) include mandatory margin requirements that require the Fund to post collateral in connection with its TBA transactions. There is no similar requirement applicable to the Fund’s TBA counterparties. The required collateralization of TBA trades could increase the cost of TBA transactions to the Fund and impose added operational complexity. When-issued purchases and forward commitment transactions are negotiated directly with the other party, and such commitments are not traded on exchanges. A Fund will generally purchase securities on a when-issued basis or purchase or sell securities on a forward commitment basis only with the intention of completing the transaction and actually purchasing or selling the securities. If deemed advisable as a matter of investment strategy, however, a Fund may dispose of or negotiate a commitment after entering into it. A Fund may also sell securities it has committed to purchase before those securities are delivered to the Fund on the settlement date. A Fund may realize a capital gain or loss in connection with these transactions. For purposes of determining a Fund’s duration, the maturity of when-issued or forward commitment securities will be calculated from the commitment date. A Fund is generally required to identify on its books cash and liquid assets in an amount sufficient to meet the purchase price unless the Fund’s obligations are otherwise covered. Alternatively, each Fund may enter into offsetting contracts for the forward sale of other securities that it owns. Securities purchased or sold on a when-issued or forward commitment basis involve a risk of loss if the value of the security to be purchased declines prior to the settlement date or if the value of the security to be sold increases prior to the settlement date.

Zero Coupon Bonds

Each Fund’s investments in fixed income securities may include zero coupon bonds. Zero coupon bonds are debt obligations issued or purchased at a discount from face value. The discount approximates the total amount of interest the bonds would have accrued and compounded over the period until maturity. A zero coupon bond pays no interest to its holder during its life and its value consists of the difference between its face value at maturity and its cost. Such investments benefit the issuer by mitigating its need for cash to meet debt service but also require a higher rate of return to attract investors who are willing to defer receipt of such cash. Such investments may experience greater volatility in market value than debt obligations which provide for regular payments of interest. Moreover, zero coupon bonds involve the additional risk that, unlike securities that periodically pay interest to maturity, a Fund will realize no cash until a specified future payment date unless a portion of such securities is sold and, if the issuer of such securities defaults, the Fund may obtain no return at all on its investment. The valuation of such investments requires judgment regarding the collection of futures payments. A Fund will accrue income on such investments for each taxable year which (net of deductible expenses, if any) is distributable to shareholders and which, because no cash is generally received at the time of accrual, may require the liquidation of other portfolio securities to obtain sufficient cash to satisfy the Fund’s distribution obligations.

Special Note Regarding Regulatory Changes and Other Market Events

Federal, state, and foreign governments, regulatory agencies, and self-regulatory organizations may take actions that affect the regulation of the Funds or the instruments in which the Funds invest, or the issuers of such instruments, in ways that are unforeseeable. Future legislation or regulation or other governmental actions could limit or preclude the Funds’ ability to achieve their investment objectives or otherwise adversely impact an investment in the Funds. Furthermore, worsened market conditions, including as a result of U.S. government shutdowns or the perceived creditworthiness of the United States, could have a negative impact on securities markets.

The Funds’ investments, payment obligations and financing terms may be based on floating rates, such LIBOR, EURIBOR and other similar types of reference rates (each, a “Reference Rate”). On July 27, 2017, the Chief Executive of the U.K. Financial Conduct Authority (FCA) which regulates LIBOR, announced that the FCA will no longer persuade nor compel banks to submit rates for the calculation of LIBOR and certain other Reference Rates after 2021. Such announcement indicates that the continuation of LIBOR and other Reference Rates on the current basis cannot and will not be guaranteed after 2021. This announcement and any additional regulatory or market changes may have an adverse impact on a Fund’s investments, performance or financial condition. Until then, the Funds may continue to invest in instruments that reference such rates or otherwise use such Reference Rates due to favorable liquidity or pricing.

 

B-52


In advance of 2021, regulators and market participants will seek to work together to identify or develop successor Reference Rates and how the calculation of associated spreads (if any) should be adjusted. Additionally, prior to 2021, it is expected that industry trade associations and participants will focus on the transition mechanisms by which the Reference Rates and spreads (if any) in existing contracts or instruments may be amended, whether through marketwide protocols, fallback contractual provisions, bespoke negotiations or amendments or otherwise. Nonetheless, the termination of certain Reference Rates presents risks to the Funds. At this time, it is not possible to exhaustively identify or predict the effect of any such changes, any establishment of alternative Reference Rates or any other reforms to Reference Rates that may be enacted in the United Kingdom or elsewhere. The elimination of a Reference Rate or any other changes or reforms to the determination or supervision of Reference Rates may affect the value, liquidity or return on certain Fund investments and may result in costs incurred in connection with closing out positions and entering into new trades, adversely impacting a Fund’s overall financial condition or results of operations. The impact of any successor or substitute Reference Rate, if any, will vary on an investment-by-investment basis, and any differences may be material and/or create material economic mismatches, especially if investments are used for hedging or similar purposes. In addition, although certain Fund investments may provide for a successor or substitute Reference Rate (or terms governing how to determine a successor or substitute Reference Rate) if the Reference Rate becomes unavailable, certain Fund investments may not provide such a successor or substitute Reference Rate (or terms governing how to determine a successor or substitute Reference Rate). Accordingly, there may be disputes as to: (i) any successor or substitute Reference Rate; or (ii) the enforceability of any Fund investment that does not provide such a successor or substitute Reference Rate (or terms governing how to determine a successor or substitute Reference Rate). The Investment Adviser, Goldman Sachs and/or their affiliates may have discretion to determine a successor or substitute Reference Rate, including any price or other adjustments to account for differences between the successor or substitute Reference Rate and the previous rate. The successor or substitute Reference Rate and any adjustments selected may negatively impact a Fund’s investments, performance or financial condition, including in ways unforeseen by the Investment Adviser, Goldman Sachs and/or their affiliates. In addition, any successor or substitute Reference Rate and any pricing adjustments imposed by a regulator or by counterparties or otherwise may adversely affect a Fund’s performance and/or NAV, and may expose a Fund to additional tax, accounting and regulatory risks.

In the aftermath of the 2007-2008 financial crisis, the financial sector experienced reduced liquidity in credit and other fixed income markets, and an unusually high degree of volatility, both domestically and internationally. While entire markets were impacted, issuers that had exposure to the real estate, mortgage and credit markets were particularly affected. The instability in the financial markets led the U.S. government to take a number of unprecedented actions designed to support certain financial institutions and certain segments of the financial markets. For example, the Dodd-Frank Act, which was enacted in 2010, provides for broad regulation of financial institutions, consumer financial products and services, broker-dealers, over-the-counter derivatives, investment advisers, credit rating agencies and mortgage lending.

Governments or their agencies may also acquire distressed assets from financial institutions and acquire ownership interests in those institutions. The implications of government ownership and disposition of these assets are unclear, and such ownership or disposition may have positive or negative effects on the liquidity, valuation and performance of the Funds’ portfolio holdings.

In addition, global economies and financial markets are becoming increasingly interconnected, and political, economic and other conditions and events (including, but not limited to, natural disasters, pandemics, epidemics, and social unrest) in one country, region, or financial market may adversely impact issuers in a different country, region or financial market. Furthermore, the occurrence of, among other events, natural or man-made disasters, severe weather or geological events, fires, floods, earthquakes, outbreaks of disease (such as COVID-19, avian influenza or H1N1/09), epidemics, pandemics, malicious acts, cyber-attacks, terrorist acts or the occurrence of climate change, may also adversely impact the performance of a Fund. Such events may result in, among other things, closing borders, exchange closures, health screenings, healthcare service delays, quarantines, cancellations, supply chain disruptions, lower consumer demand, market volatility and general uncertainty. Such events could adversely impact issuers, markets and economies over the short- and long-term, including in ways that cannot necessarily be foreseen. A Fund could be negatively impacted if the value of a portfolio holding were harmed by such political or economic conditions or events. Moreover, such negative political and economic conditions and events could disrupt the processes necessary for a Fund’s operations. See “Special Note Regarding Operational, and Cyber Security and Litigation Risks” for additional information on operational risks.

Special Note Regarding Operational, Cyber Security and Litigation Risks

An investment in a Fund may be negatively impacted because of the operational risks arising from factors such as processing errors and human errors, inadequate or failed internal or external processes, failures in systems and technology, changes in personnel, and errors caused by third-party service providers or trading counterparties. The use of certain investment strategies that involve manual or additional processing, such as over-the-counter derivatives, increases these risks. Although a Fund attempts to minimize such failures through controls and oversight, it is not possible to identify all of the operational risks that may affect the Fund or to develop processes and controls that completely eliminate or mitigate the occurrence of such failures. A Fund and its shareholders could be negatively impacted as a result.

 

B-53


A Fund is also susceptible to operational and information security risks resulting from cyber-attacks. In general, cyber-attacks result from deliberate attacks, but other events may have effects similar to those caused by cyber-attacks. Cyber-attacks include, among others, stealing or corrupting confidential information and other data that is maintained online or digitally for financial gain, denial-of-service attacks on websites causing operational disruption, and the unauthorized release of confidential information and other data. Cyber-attacks affecting a Fund or its investment adviser, sub-adviser, custodian, transfer agent, intermediary or other third-party service provider may adversely impact the Fund and its shareholders. These cyber-attacks have the ability to cause significant disruptions and impact business operations; to result in financial losses; to prevent shareholders from transacting business; to interfere with a Fund’s calculation of NAV and to lead to violations of applicable privacy and other laws, regulatory fines, penalties, reputational damage, reimbursement or other compensation costs and/or additional compliance costs. Similar to operational risk in general, a Fund and its service providers, including GSAM, have instituted risk management systems designed to minimize the risks associated with cyber security. However, there is a risk that these systems will not succeed (or that any remediation efforts will not be successful), especially because a Fund does not directly control the risk management systems of the service providers to the Fund, its trading counterparties or the issuers in which the Fund may invest. Moreover, there is a risk that cyber-attacks will not be detected.

The Funds may be subject to third-party litigation, which could give rise to legal liability. These matters involving the Funds may arise from their activities and investments and could have a materially adverse effect on the Funds, including the expense of defending against claims and paying any amounts pursuant to settlements or judgments. There can be no guarantee that these matters will not arise in the normal course of business. If the Funds were to be found liable in any suit or proceeding, any associated damages and/or penalties could have a materially adverse effect on the Funds’ finances, in addition to being materially damaging to their reputation.

INVESTMENT RESTRICTIONS

The investment restrictions set forth below have been adopted by the Trust as fundamental policies that cannot be changed with respect to a Fund without the affirmative vote of the holders of a majority of the outstanding voting securities (as defined in the Act) of the affected Fund. The investment objective of each Fund and all other investment policies or practices of each Fund are considered by the Trust not to be fundamental and accordingly may be changed without shareholder approval. For purposes of the Act, a “majority” of the outstanding voting securities means the lesser of (a) 67% or more of the shares of the Trust or a Fund present at a meeting, if the holders of more than 50% of the outstanding shares of the Trust or a Fund are present or represented by proxy, or (b) more than 50% of the outstanding shares of the Trust or a Fund.

For purposes of the following limitations (except for the asset coverage requirement with respect to borrowings, which is subject to different requirements under the Act), any limitation which involves a maximum percentage shall not be considered violated unless an excess over the percentage occurs immediately after, and is caused by, an acquisition or encumbrance of securities or assets of, or borrowings by, a Fund. With respect to each Fund’s fundamental investment restrictions on borrowings, below, in the event that asset coverage (as defined in the Act) at any time falls below 300%, the Fund, within three days thereafter (not including Sundays and holidays) or such longer period as the SEC may prescribe by rules and regulations, will reduce the amount of its borrowings to the extent required so that the asset coverage of such borrowings will be at least 300%.

Fundamental Investment Restrictions

Each Fund may, notwithstanding any other fundamental investment restriction or policy, invest some or all of its assets in a single open-end investment company or series thereof with substantially the same fundamental investment restrictions and policies as the Fund.

Absolute Return Tracker Fund

As a matter of fundamental policy, the Fund may not:

 

  (1)

Invest 25% of its total assets in the securities of one or more issuers conducting their principal business activities in the same industry or group of industries (excluding the U.S. Government or any of its agencies or instrumentalities). Nonetheless, to the extent one or more Component Market Factors are or become concentrated in a particular industry or group of industries, the Fund’s investments may exceed this 25% limitation to the extent that it is necessary to gain exposure to those Component Market Factors to track the GS-ART Index.1

 

1 

Effective April 2, 2012, this exception is not applicable to the Fund, as the Fund no longer tracks the GS-ART Index.

 

B-54


  (2)

Borrow money, except (a) the Fund may borrow from banks (as defined in the Act) or through reverse repurchase agreements in amounts up to 33-1/3% of its total assets (including the amount borrowed), (b) the Fund may, to the extent permitted by applicable law, borrow up to an additional 5% of its total assets for temporary purposes, (c) the Fund may obtain such short-term credits as may be necessary for the clearance of purchases and sales of portfolio securities, (d) the Fund may purchase securities on margin to the extent permitted by applicable law, and (e) the Fund may engage in portfolio transactions, such as mortgage dollar rolls which are accounted for as financings.

The following interpretation applies to, but is not part of, this fundamental policy: In determining whether a particular investment in portfolio instruments or participation in portfolio transactions is subject to this borrowing policy, the accounting treatment of such instrument or participation shall be considered, but shall not by itself be determinative. Whether a particular instrument or transaction constitutes a borrowing shall be determined by the Board, after consideration of all of the relevant circumstances.

 

  (3)

Make loans, except through (a) the purchase of debt obligations in accordance with the Fund’s investment objective and policies, (b) repurchase agreements with banks, brokers, dealers and other financial institutions, and (c) loans of securities as permitted by applicable law.

 

  (4)

Underwrite securities issued by others, except to the extent that the sale of portfolio securities by the Fund may be deemed to be an underwriting.

 

  (5)

Purchase, hold or deal in real estate, although the Fund may purchase and sell securities or other investments that are secured by real estate or interests therein or that reflect the return of an index of real estate values, securities of real estate investment trusts and mortgage-related securities and may hold and sell real estate acquired by the Fund as a result of the ownership of securities.

 

  (6)

Invest in commodities or commodity contracts, except that the Fund may invest in currency and financial instruments and contracts, including structured notes, futures contracts and options on such contracts, that are commodities or commodity contracts or that represent indices of commodities prices or that reflect the return of such indices.

 

  (7)

Issue senior securities to the extent such issuance would violate applicable law.

The Fund was previously registered as a non-diversified investment company. Pursuant to current positions of the SEC staff, the Fund’s classification changed from non-diversified to diversified, and the Fund will not be able to become non-diversified unless it seeks and obtains the approval of shareholders. Accordingly, the Fund may not make any investment inconsistent with the Fund’s classification as a diversified company under the Act.

Commodity Strategy Fund

As a matter of fundamental policy, the Fund may not:

 

  (1)

Invest 25% or more of its total assets in the securities of one or more issuers conducting their principal business activities in the same industry (excluding the U.S. Government or any of its agencies or instrumentalities) except that this restriction shall not apply to the Fund’s counterparties in foreign currency transactions.

 

  (2)

Borrow money, except (a) to the extent permitted by applicable law, the Fund may borrow from banks (as defined in the Act), other affiliated investment companies and other persons or through reverse repurchase agreements in amounts up to 33-1/3% of its total assets (including the amount borrowed), (b) the Fund may, to the extent permitted by applicable law, borrow up to an additional 5% of its total assets for temporary purposes, (c) the Fund may obtain such short-term credits as may be necessary for the clearance of purchases and sales of portfolio securities, (d) the Fund may purchase securities on margin to the extent permitted by applicable law and (e) the Fund may engage in transactions in mortgage dollar rolls which are accounted for as financings.

The following interpretation applies to, but is not part of, this fundamental policy: In determining whether a particular investment in portfolio instruments or participation in portfolio transactions is subject to this borrowing policy, the accounting treatment of such instrument or participation shall be considered, but shall not by itself be determinative. Whether a particular instrument or transaction constitutes a borrowing shall be determined by the Board, after consideration of all of the relevant circumstances.

 

B-55


  (3)

Make loans, except through (a) the purchase of debt obligations in accordance with the Fund’s investment objective and policies, (b) repurchase agreements with banks, brokers, dealers and other financial institutions, (c) loans of securities as permitted by applicable law and (d) loans to affiliates of the Fund to the extent permitted by law.

 

  (4)

Underwrite securities issued by others, except to the extent that the sale of portfolio securities by the Fund may be deemed to be an underwriting.

 

  (5)

Purchase, hold or deal in real estate, although the Fund may purchase and sell securities that are secured by real estate or interests therein, securities of real estate investment trusts and mortgage-related securities and may hold and sell real estate acquired by the Fund as a result of the ownership of securities.

 

  (6)

Invest in commodities or commodity contracts, except that the Fund may invest in currency and financial instruments and contracts that are commodities or commodity contracts.

 

  (7)

Issue senior securities to the extent such issuance would violate applicable law.

The Fund was previously registered as a non-diversified investment company. Pursuant to current positions of the SEC staff, the Fund’s classification has changed from non-diversified to diversified, and the Fund will not be able to become non-diversified unless it seeks and obtains the approval of shareholders. Accordingly, the Fund may not make any investment inconsistent with the Fund’s classification as a diversified company under the Act.

Alternative Premia Fund

As a matter of fundamental policy, the Fund may not:

 

  (1)

Invest 25% of its total assets in the securities of one or more issuers conducting their principal business activities in the same group of industries (excluding the U.S. Government or any of its agencies or instrumentalities).

 

  (2)

Borrow money, except (a) the Fund may borrow from banks (as defined in the Act), or through reverse repurchase agreements in amounts up to 33-1/3% of its total assets (including the amount borrowed), (b) the Fund may, to the extent permitted by applicable law, borrow up to an additional 5% of its total assets for temporary purposes, (c) the Fund may obtain such short-term credits as may be necessary for the clearance of purchases and sales of portfolio securities, (d) the Fund may purchase securities on margin to the extent permitted by applicable law and (e) the Fund may engage in transactions in mortgage dollar rolls which are accounted for as financings.

The following interpretation applies to, but is not part of, this fundamental policy: In determining whether a particular investment in portfolio instruments or participation in portfolio transactions is subject to this borrowing policy, the accounting treatment of such instrument or participation shall be considered, but shall not by itself be determinative. Whether a particular instrument or transaction constitutes a borrowing shall be determined by the Board, after consideration of all of the relevant circumstances.

 

  (3)

Make loans, except through (a) the purchase of debt obligations in accordance with the Fund’s investment objective and policies, (b) repurchase agreements with banks, brokers, dealers and other financial institutions, and (c) loans of securities as permitted by applicable law.

 

  (4)

Underwrite securities issued by others, except to the extent that the sale of portfolio securities by the Fund may be deemed to be an underwriting.

 

  (5)

Purchase, hold or deal in real estate, although the Fund may purchase and sell securities or investments that are secured by real estate or interests therein, or that reflect the return of an index of real estate values, and may hold and sell real estate acquired by the Fund as a result of the ownership of securities.

 

  (6)

Invest in commodities or commodity contracts, except that the Fund may invest in currency and financial instruments and contracts, including structured notes, futures contracts and options on such contracts, that are commodities or commodity contracts or that represent indices of commodities prices or that reflect the return of such indices.

 

  (7)

Issue senior securities to the extent such issuance would violate applicable law.

The Fund was previously registered as a non-diversified investment company. Pursuant to current positions of the SEC staff, the Fund’s classification has changed from non-diversified to diversified, and the Fund will not be able to become non-diversified unless it seeks and obtains the approval of shareholders. Accordingly, the Fund may not make any investment inconsistent with the Fund’s classification as a diversified company under the Act.

 

B-56


Managed Futures Strategy Fund

As a matter of fundamental policy, the Fund may not:

 

  (1)

Invest 25% or more of its total assets in the securities of one or more issuers conducting their principal business activities in the same industry (excluding the U.S. Government or any of its agencies or instrumentalities), except that this restriction shall not apply to the Fund’s counterparties in foreign currency transactions.

 

  (2)

Borrow money, except that (a) to the extent permitted by applicable law, the Fund may borrow from banks (as defined in the Act), other affiliated investment companies and other persons or through reverse repurchase agreements in amounts up to 33-1/3% of its total assets (including the amount borrowed); (b) the Fund may, to the extent permitted by applicable law, borrow up to an additional 5% of its net assets for temporary purposes, (c) the Fund may obtain such short-term credits as may be necessary for the clearance of purchases and sales of portfolio securities, (d) the Fund may purchase securities on margin to the extent permitted by applicable law and (e) the Fund may engage in transactions in mortgage dollar rolls which are accounted for as financings.

The following interpretation applies to, but is not part of, this fundamental policy: In determining whether a particular investment in portfolio instruments or participation in portfolio transactions is subject to this borrowing policy, the accounting treatment of such instrument or participation shall be considered, but shall not by itself be determinative. Whether a particular instrument or transaction constitutes a borrowing shall be determined by the Board, after consideration of all of the relevant circumstances.

 

  (3)

Make loans, except through (a) the purchase of debt obligations in accordance with the Fund’s investment objective and policies, (b) repurchase agreements with banks, brokers, dealers and other financial institutions, (c) loans of securities as permitted by applicable law and (d) loans to affiliates of the Fund to the extent permitted by law.

 

  (4)

Underwrite securities issued by others, except to the extent that the sale of portfolio securities by the Fund may be deemed to be an underwriting.

 

  (5)

Purchase, hold or deal in real estate, although the Fund may purchase and sell securities or other investments that are secured by real estate or interests therein, securities or other investments that reflect the return of or index of real estate values, securities of real estate investment trusts and mortgage-related securities and may hold and sell real estate acquired by the Fund as a result of the ownership of securities.

 

  (6)

Invest in commodities or commodity contracts, except that the Fund may invest in currency and financial instruments and contracts, including structured notes, futures contracts and options on such contracts that are commodities or commodity contracts, or that represent indices of commodities prices, or that reflect the return of such indices.

 

  (7)

Issue senior securities to the extent such issuance would violate applicable law.

The Fund was previously registered as a non-diversified investment company. Pursuant to current positions of the SEC staff, the Fund’s classification has changed from non-diversified to diversified, and the Fund will not be able to become non-diversified unless it seeks and obtains the approval of shareholders. Accordingly, the Fund may not make any investment inconsistent with the Fund’s classification as a diversified company under the Act.

Real Estate Securities Fund

As a matter of fundamental policy, the Fund may not:

 

  (1)

Invest 25% or more of its total assets in the securities of one or more issuers conducting their principal business activities in the same industry (excluding the U.S. Government or any of its agencies or instrumentalities), except that the Fund will invest at least 25% or more of its total assets in the real estate industry.

 

  (2)

Borrow money, except (a) the Fund may borrow from banks (as defined in the Act) or through reverse repurchase agreements in amounts up to 33-1/3% of its total assets (including the amount borrowed), (b) the Fund may, to the extent permitted by applicable law, borrow up to an additional 5% of its total assets for temporary purposes, (c) the Fund may obtain such short-term credits as may be necessary for the clearance of purchases and sales of portfolio securities, (d) the Fund may purchase securities on margin to the extent permitted by applicable law, and (e) the Fund may engage in portfolio transactions, such as mortgage dollar rolls which are accounted for as financings.

 

B-57


The following interpretation applies to, but is not part of, this fundamental policy: In determining whether a particular investment in portfolio instruments or participation in portfolio transactions is subject to this borrowing policy, the accounting treatment of such instrument or participation shall be considered, but shall not by itself be determinative. Whether a particular instrument or transaction constitutes a borrowing shall be determined by the Board, after consideration of all of the relevant circumstances.

 

  (3)

Make loans, except through (a) the purchase of debt obligations in accordance with the Fund’s investment objective and policies, (b) repurchase agreements with banks, brokers, dealers and other financial institutions, and (c) loans of securities as permitted by applicable law.

 

  (4)

Underwrite securities issued by others, except to the extent that the sale of portfolio securities by the Fund may be deemed to be an underwriting.

 

  (5)

Purchase, hold or deal in real estate, although the Fund may purchase and sell securities that are secured by real estate or interests therein, securities of real estate investment trusts and mortgage-related securities and may hold and sell real estate acquired by the Fund as a result of the ownership of securities.

 

  (6)

Invest in commodities or commodity contracts, except that the Fund may invest in currency and financial instruments and contracts that are commodities or commodity contracts.

 

  (7)

Issue senior securities to the extent such issuance would violate applicable law.

International Real Estate Securities Fund

As a matter of fundamental policy, the Fund may not:

 

  (1)

Invest 25% or more of its total assets in the securities of one or more issuers conducting their principal business activities in the same industry (excluding the U.S. Government or any of its agencies or instrumentalities), except that the Fund will invest at least 25% or more of its total assets in the real estate industry.

 

  (2)

Borrow money, except (a) to the extent permitted by applicable law, the Fund may borrow from banks (as defined in the Act), other affiliated investment companies and other persons or through reverse repurchase agreements in amounts up to 33-1/3% of its total assets (including the amount borrowed); (b) the Fund may, to the extent permitted by applicable law, borrow up to an additional 5% of its total assets for temporary purposes, (c) the Fund may obtain such short-term credits as may be necessary for the clearance of purchases and sales of portfolio securities, (d) the Fund may purchase securities on margin to the extent permitted by applicable law and (e) the Fund may engage in transactions in mortgage dollar rolls which are accounted for as financings.

The following interpretation applies to, but is not part of, this fundamental policy: In determining whether a particular investment in portfolio instruments or participation in portfolio transactions is subject to this borrowing policy, the accounting treatment of such instrument or participation shall be considered, but shall not by itself be determinative. Whether a particular instrument or transaction constitutes a borrowing shall be determined by the Board, after consideration of all of the relevant circumstances.

 

  (3)

Make loans, except through (a) the purchase of debt obligations in accordance with the Fund’s investment objective and policies, (b) repurchase agreements with banks, brokers, dealers and other financial institutions, (c) loans of securities as permitted by applicable law and (d) loans to affiliates of the Fund to the extent permitted by law.

 

  (4)

Underwrite securities issued by others, except to the extent that the sale of portfolio securities by the Fund may be deemed to be an underwriting.

 

  (5)

Purchase, hold or deal in real estate, although the Fund may purchase and sell securities that are secured by real estate or interests therein, securities of real estate investment trusts and other entities and companies in the real estate industry, and mortgage-related securities and may hold and sell real estate acquired by the Fund as a result of the ownership of securities.

 

B-58


  (6)

Invest in commodities or commodity contracts, except that the Fund may invest in currency and financial instruments and contracts that are commodities or commodity contracts.

 

  (7)

Issue senior securities to the extent such issuance would violate applicable law.

Global Real Estate Securities Fund

As a matter of fundamental policy, the Fund may not:

 

  (1)

Invest more than 25% of its total assets in the securities of one or more issuers conducting their principal business activities in the same industry (for the purposes of this restriction, the U.S. Government, state and municipal governments and their agencies, authorities and instrumentalities are not deemed to be industries), provided that during normal market conditions, the Fund will invest more than 25% of its total assets in the real estate industry;

 

  (2)

Borrow money, except as permitted by the Act, or interpretations or modifications by the SEC, SEC staff or other authority with appropriate jurisdiction.

The following interpretation applies to, but is not part of, this fundamental policy: In determining whether a particular investment in portfolio instruments or participation in portfolio transactions is subject to this borrowing policy, the accounting treatment of such instrument or participation shall be considered, but shall not by itself be determinative. Whether a particular instrument or transaction constitutes a borrowing shall be determined by the Board, after consideration of all of the relevant circumstances;

 

  (3)

Make loans, except through (a) the purchase of debt obligations, loan interests and other interests or obligations in accordance with the Fund’s investment objective and policies, (b) repurchase agreements with banks, brokers, dealers and other financial institutions, (c) loans of securities as permitted by applicable law or pursuant to an exemptive order granted under the Act, or (d) loans to affiliates of the Fund to the extent permitted by law;

 

  (4)

Underwrite securities issued by others, except to the extent that the sale of portfolio securities by the Fund may be deemed to be an underwriting;

 

  (5)

Purchase, hold or deal in real estate, although the Fund may purchase and sell securities that are secured by real estate or interests therein, or that reflect the return of an index of real estate values, securities of issuers which invest or deal in real estate, securities of real estate investment trusts and mortgage-related securities and may hold and sell real estate acquired by the Fund as a result of the ownership of securities;

 

  (6)

Invest in physical commodities, except that the Fund may invest in currency and financial instruments and contracts in accordance with its investment objective and policies, including without limitation, structured notes, futures contracts, swaps, options on commodities, currencies, swaps and futures, ETFs, investment pools and other instruments, regardless of whether such instrument is considered to be a commodity; and

 

  (7)

Issue senior securities to the extent such issuance would violate applicable law.

The Fund was previously registered as a non-diversified investment company. Pursuant to current positions of the SEC staff, the Fund’s classification has changed from non-diversified to diversified, and the Fund will not be able to become non-diversified unless it seeks and obtains the approval of shareholders. Accordingly, the Fund may not make any investment inconsistent with the Fund’s classification as a diversified company under the Act.

Global Infrastructure Fund

As a matter of fundamental policy, the Fund may not:

 

  (1)

Invest more than 25% of its total assets in the securities of one or more issuers conducting their principal business activities in the same industry (for the purposes of this restriction, the U.S. Government, state and municipal governments and their agencies, authorities and instrumentalities are not deemed to be industries), provided that during normal market conditions, the Fund will invest more than 25% of its total assets in the infrastructure group of industries;

 

  (2)

Borrow money, except as permitted by the Act, or interpretations or modifications by the SEC, SEC staff or other authority with appropriate jurisdiction.

 

B-59


The following interpretation applies to, but is not part of, this fundamental policy: In determining whether a particular investment in portfolio instruments or participation in portfolio transactions is subject to this borrowing policy, the accounting treatment of such instrument or participation shall be considered, but shall not by itself be determinative. Whether a particular instrument or transaction constitutes a borrowing shall be determined by the Board, after consideration of all of the relevant circumstances;

 

  (3)

Make loans, except through (a) the purchase of debt obligations, loan interests and other interests or obligations in accordance with the Fund’s investment objective and policies, (b) repurchase agreements with banks, brokers, dealers and other financial institutions, (c) loans of securities as permitted by applicable law or pursuant to an exemptive order granted under the Act, or (d) loans to affiliates of the Fund to the extent permitted by law;

 

  (4)

Underwrite securities issued by others, except to the extent that the sale of portfolio securities by the Fund may be deemed to be an underwriting;

 

  (5)

Purchase, hold or deal in real estate, although the Fund may purchase and sell securities that are secured by real estate or interests therein, or that reflect the return of an index of real estate values, securities of issuers which invest or deal in real estate, securities of real estate investment trusts and mortgage-related securities and may hold and sell real estate acquired by the Fund as a result of the ownership of securities;

 

  (6)

Invest in physical commodities, except that the Fund may invest in currency and financial instruments and contracts in accordance with its investment objective and policies, including without limitation, structured notes, futures contracts, swaps, options on commodities, currencies, swaps and futures, ETFs, investment pools and other instruments, regardless of whether such instrument is considered to be a commodity; and

 

  (7)

Issue senior securities to the extent such issuance would violate applicable law.

U.S. Equity Dividend and Premium Fund

As a matter of fundamental policy, the Fund may not:

 

  (1)

Make any investment inconsistent with the Fund’s classification as a diversified company under the Act.

 

  (2)

Invest 25% of its total assets in the securities of one or more issuers conducting their principal business activities in the same industry (excluding the U.S. Government or any of its agencies or instrumentalities).

 

  (3)

Borrow money, except (a) to the extent permitted by applicable law, the Fund may borrow from banks (as defined in the Act), other affiliated investment companies and other persons or through reverse repurchase agreements in amounts up to 33-1/3% of its total assets (including the amount borrowed), (b) the Fund may, to the extent permitted by applicable law, borrow up to an additional 5% of its total assets for temporary purposes, (c) the Fund may obtain such short-term credits as may be necessary for the clearance of purchases and sales of portfolio securities, and (d) the Fund may purchase securities on margin to the extent permitted by applicable law.

The following interpretation applies to, but is not part of, this fundamental policy: In determining whether a particular investment in portfolio instruments or participation in portfolio transactions is subject to this borrowing policy, the accounting treatment of such instrument or participation shall be considered, but shall not by itself be determinative. Whether a particular instrument or transaction constitutes a borrowing shall be determined by the Board, after consideration of all of the relevant circumstances.

 

  (4)

Make loans, except through (a) the purchase of debt obligations in accordance with the Fund’s investment objective and policies, (b) repurchase agreements with banks, brokers, dealers and other financial institutions, (c) loans of securities as permitted by applicable law and (d) loans to affiliates of the Fund to the extent permitted by law.

 

  (5)

Underwrite securities issued by others, except to the extent that the sale of portfolio securities by the Fund may be deemed to be an underwriting.

 

  (6)

Purchase, hold or deal in real estate, although the Fund may purchase and sell securities that are secured by real estate or interests therein, securities of real estate investment trusts and mortgage-related securities and may hold and sell real estate acquired by a Fund as a result of the ownership of securities.

 

B-60


  (7)

Invest in commodities or commodity contracts, except that the Fund may invest in currency and financial instruments and contracts that are commodities or commodity contracts.

 

  (8)

Issue senior securities to the extent such issuance would violate applicable law.

International Equity Dividend and Premium Fund and International Tax-Managed Equity Fund

As a matter of fundamental policy, each Fund may not:

 

  (1)

Make any investment inconsistent with the Fund’s classification as a diversified company under the Act.

 

  (2)

Invest 25% of its total assets in the securities of one or more issuers conducting their principal business activities in the same industry (excluding the U.S. Government or any of its agencies or instrumentalities).

 

  (3)

Borrow money, except (a) to the extent permitted by applicable law, the Fund may borrow from banks (as defined in the Act), other affiliated investment companies and other persons or through reverse repurchase agreements in amounts up to 33-1/3% of its total assets (including the amount borrowed); (b) the Fund may, to the extent permitted by applicable law, borrow up to an additional 5% of its total assets for temporary purposes, (c) the Fund may obtain such short-term credits as may be necessary for the clearance of purchases and sales of portfolio securities, (d) the Fund may purchase securities on margin to the extent permitted by applicable law and (e) the Fund may engage in transactions in mortgage dollar rolls which are accounted for as financings.

The following interpretation applies to, but is not part of, this fundamental policy: In determining whether a particular investment in portfolio instruments or participation in portfolio transactions is subject to this borrowing policy, the accounting treatment of such instrument or participation shall be considered, but shall not by itself be determinative. Whether a particular instrument or transaction constitutes a borrowing shall be determined by the Board, after consideration of all of the relevant circumstances.

 

  (4)

Make loans, except through (a) the purchase of debt obligations in accordance with the Fund’s investment objective and policies, (b) repurchase agreements with banks, brokers, dealers and other financial institutions, (c) loans of securities as permitted by applicable law and (d) loans to affiliates of the Fund to the extent permitted by law.

 

  (5)

Underwrite securities issued by others, except to the extent that the sale of portfolio securities by the Fund may be deemed to be an underwriting.

 

  (6)

Purchase, hold or deal in real estate, although the Fund may purchase and sell securities that are secured by real estate or interests therein, securities of real estate investment trusts and mortgage-related securities and may hold and sell real estate acquired by the Fund as a result of the ownership of securities.

 

  (7)

Invest in commodities or commodity contracts, except that the Fund may invest in currency and financial instruments and contracts that are commodities or commodity contracts.

 

  (8)

Issue senior securities to the extent such issuance would violate applicable law.

U.S. Tax-Managed Equity Fund

As a matter of fundamental policy, the Fund may not:

 

  (1)

Make any investment inconsistent with the Fund’s classification as a diversified company under the Act.

 

  (2)

Invest 25% of its total assets in the securities of one or more issuers conducting their principal business activities in the same industry (excluding the U.S. Government or any of its agencies or instrumentalities).

 

  (3)

Borrow money, except (a) the Fund may borrow from banks (as defined in the Act), or through reverse repurchase agreements in amounts up to 33-1/3% of its total assets (including the amount borrowed), (b) the Fund may, to the extent permitted by applicable law, borrow up to an additional 5% of its total assets for temporary purposes, (c) the Fund may obtain such short-term credits as may be necessary for the clearance of purchases and sales of portfolio securities, and (d) the Fund may purchase securities on margin to the extent permitted by applicable law.

 

B-61


The following interpretation applies to, but is not part of, this fundamental policy: In determining whether a particular Investment in portfolio instruments or participation in portfolio transactions is subject to this borrowing policy, the accounting treatment of such instrument or participation shall be considered, but shall not by itself be determinative. Whether a particular instrument or transaction constitutes a borrowing shall be determined by the Board, after consideration of all of the relevant circumstances.

 

  (4)

Make loans, except through (a) the purchase of debt obligations in accordance with the Fund’s investment objective and policies, (b) repurchase agreements with banks, brokers, dealers and other financial institutions, and (c) loans of securities as permitted by applicable law.

 

  (5)

Underwrite securities issued by others, except to the extent that the sale of portfolio securities by the Fund may be deemed to be an underwriting.

 

  (6)

Purchase, hold or deal in real estate, although the Fund may purchase and sell securities that are secured by real estate or interests therein, securities of real estate investment trusts and mortgage-related securities and may hold and sell real estate acquired by the Fund as a result of the ownership of securities.

 

  (7)

Invest in commodities or commodity contracts, except that the Fund may invest in currency and financial instruments and contracts that are commodities or commodity contracts.

 

  (8)

Issue senior securities to the extent such issuance would violate applicable law.

For purposes of the Funds’ industry concentration policies, the Investment Adviser may analyze the characteristics of a particular issuer and instrument and may assign an industry classification consistent with those characteristics. The Investment Adviser may, but need not, consider industry classifications provided by third parties, and the classifications applied to Fund investments will be informed by applicable law.

TRUSTEES AND OFFICERS

The Trust’s Leadership Structure

The business and affairs of the Funds are managed under the direction of the Board of Trustees (the “Board”), subject to the laws of the State of Delaware and the Trust’s Declaration of Trust. The Trustees are responsible for deciding matters of overall policy and reviewing the actions of the Trust’s service providers. The officers of the Trust conduct and supervise each Fund’s daily business operations. Trustees who are not deemed to be “interested persons” of the Trust as defined in the Act are referred to as “Independent Trustees.” Trustees who are deemed to be “interested persons” of the Trust are referred to as “Interested Trustees.” The Board is currently composed of seven Independent Trustees and one Interested Trustee. The Board has selected an Independent Trustee to act as Chair, whose duties include presiding at meetings of the Board and its Committees, except as otherwise specified in the applicable Committee charter documents, and acting as a focal point to address significant issues that may arise between regularly scheduled Board and Committee meetings. In the performance of the Chair’s duties, the Chair will consult with the other Independent Trustees and the Funds’ officers and legal counsel, as appropriate. The Chair may perform other functions as requested by the Board from time to time.

The Board meets as often as necessary to discharge its responsibilities. Currently, the Board conducts regular, in-person meetings at least six times a year, and holds special in-person or telephonic meetings as necessary to address specific issues that require attention prior to the next regularly scheduled meeting. In addition, the Independent Trustees meet at least annually to review, among other things, investment management agreements, distribution (Rule 12b-1) and/or service plans and related agreements, transfer agency agreements and certain other agreements providing for the compensation of Goldman Sachs and/or its affiliates by the Funds, and to consider such other matters as they deem appropriate.

The Board has established five standing committees—Audit, Governance and Nominating, Compliance, Valuation and Contract Review Committees. The Board may establish other committees, or nominate one or more Trustees to examine particular issues related to the Board’s oversight responsibilities, from time to time. Each Committee meets periodically to perform its delegated oversight functions and reports its findings and recommendations to the Board. For more information on the Committees, see the section “STANDING BOARD COMMITTEES,” below.

The Trustees have determined that the Trust’s leadership structure is appropriate because it allows the Trustees to effectively perform their oversight responsibilities.

 

B-62


Trustees of the Trust

Information pertaining to the Trustees of the Trust as of April 29, 2020 is set forth below.

Independent Trustees

 

Name, Address and Age1

  

Position(s)

Held with the

Trust

  

Term of

Office and

Length of
Time Served2

  

Principal Occupation(s) During Past 5 Years

   Number of
Portfolios in
Fund Complex
Overseen by
Trustee3
   Other
Directorships Held
by Trustee4

Jessica Palmer

Age: 71

   Chair of the Board of Trustees    Since 2018 (Trustee since 2007)   

Ms. Palmer is retired. She was formerly Consultant, Citigroup Human Resources Department (2007–2008); Managing Director, Citigroup Corporate and Investment Banking (previously, Salomon Smith Barney/Salomon Brothers) (1984–2006). Ms. Palmer was a Member of the Board of Trustees of Indian Mountain School (private elementary and secondary school) (2004–2009).

 

Chair of the Board of Trustees—Goldman Sachs Trust and Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust

   103    None

Dwight L. Bush

Age: 63

   Trustee    Since 2020   

Ambassador Bush is President and CEO of D.L. Bush & Associates (a financial advisory and private investment firm) (2002–2014 and 2017– present); and was formerly U.S. Ambassador to the Kingdom of Morocco (2014–2017) and a Member of the Board of Directors of Santander Bank, N.A. (2018–2019). Previously, Ambassador Bush served as an Advisory Board Member of Goldman Sachs Trust and Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust (October 2019– January 2020).

 

Trustee—Goldman Sachs Trust and Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust.

 

   103    None

Kathryn A. Cassidy

Age: 66

   Trustee    Since 2015   

Ms. Cassidy is retired. Formerly, she was Advisor to the Chairman (May 2014–December 2014); and Senior Vice President and Treasurer (2008–2014), General Electric Company & General Electric Capital Corporation (technology and financial services companies).

 

Trustee—Goldman Sachs Trust and Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust.

   103    None

 

B-63


Name, Address and Age1

  

Position(s)

Held with the

Trust

  

Term of

Office and

Length of
Time Served2

  

Principal Occupation(s) During Past 5 Years

   Number of
Portfolios in
Fund Complex
Overseen by
Trustee3
   Other
Directorships Held
by Trustee4

Diana M. Daniels

Age: 70

   Trustee    Since 2007   

Ms. Daniels is retired. Formerly, she was Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary, The Washington Post Company (1991–2006). Ms. Daniels is a Trustee Emeritus and serves as a Presidential Councillor of Cornell University (2013–Present); former Member of the Legal Advisory Board, New York Stock Exchange (2003–2006) and of the Corporate Advisory Board, Standish Mellon Management Advisors (2006–2007).

 

Trustee—Goldman Sachs Trust and Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust.

   103    None

Joaquin Delgado

Age: 60

   Trustee    Since 2020   

Dr. Delgado is retired. He is Director, Hexion Inc. (a specialty chemical manufacturer) (2019– present); and Director, Stepan Company (a specialty chemical manufacturer) (2011– present); and was formerly Executive Vice President, Consumer Business Group of 3M Company (July 2016–July 2019); and Executive Vice President, Health Care Business Group of 3M Company (October 2012–July 2016). Previously, Dr. Delgado served as an Advisory Board Member of Goldman Sachs Trust and Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust (October 2019– January 2020).

 

Trustee—Goldman Sachs Trust and Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust.

   103    Stepan
Company (a
specialty
chemical
manufacturer)

Roy W. Templin

Age: 59

   Trustee    Since 2013   

Mr. Templin is retired. He is Director, Armstrong World Industries, Inc. (a designer and manufacturer of ceiling, wall and suspension system solutions) (2016–Present); and was formerly Chairman of the Board of Directors, Con-Way Incorporated (a transportation, logistics and supply chain management service company) (2014–2015); Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer, Whirlpool Corporation (an appliance manufacturer and marketer) (2004–2012). Previously, Mr. Templin served as an Advisory Board Member of Goldman Sachs Trust and Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust (June 2013 – October 2013).

 

Trustee—Goldman Sachs Trust and Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust.

   103    Armstrong
World
Industries, Inc.
(a ceiling, wall
and suspension
systems
solutions
manufacturer)

Gregory G. Weaver

Age: 68

   Trustee    Since 2015   

Mr. Weaver is retired. He is Director, Verizon Communications Inc. (2015–Present); and was formerly Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Deloitte & Touche LLP (a professional services firm) (2001–2005 and 2012–2014); and Member of the Board of Directors, Deloitte & Touche LLP (2006–2012).

 

Trustee—Goldman Sachs Trust and Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust.

   103    Verizon
Communications
Inc.

 

B-64


Name, Address and Age1

  

Position(s)

Held with the

Trust

  

Term of

Office and

Length of
Time Served2

  

Principal Occupation(s) During Past 5 Years

   Number of
Portfolios in
Fund Complex
Overseen by
Trustee3
   Other
Directorships Held
by Trustee4
Interested Trustee

James A. McNamara*

Age: 57

   President and Trustee    Since 2007   

Advisory Director, Goldman Sachs (January 2018–Present); Managing Director, Goldman Sachs (January 2000–December 2017); Director of Institutional Fund Sales, GSAM (April 1998–December 2000); and Senior Vice President and Manager, Dreyfus Institutional Service Corporation (January 1993–April 1998).

 

President and Trustee—Goldman Sachs Trust; Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust; Goldman Sachs Trust II; Goldman Sachs MLP Income Opportunities Fund; Goldman Sachs MLP and Energy Renaissance Fund; Goldman Sachs ETF Trust; Goldman Sachs Credit Income Fund; and Goldman Sachs Real Estate Diversified Income Fund.

   168    None

 

* 

Mr. McNamara is considered to be an “Interested Trustee” because he holds positions with Goldman Sachs and owns securities issued by The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. Mr. McNamara holds comparable positions with certain other companies of which Goldman Sachs, GSAM or an affiliate thereof is the investment adviser, administrator and/or distributor.

1 

Each Trustee may be contacted by writing to the Trustee, c/o Goldman Sachs, 200 West Street, New York, New York, 10282, Attn: Caroline Kraus.

2 

Subject to such policies as may be adopted by the Board from time-to-time, each Trustee holds office for an indefinite term, until the earliest of: (a) the election of his or her successor; (b) the date the Trustee resigns or is removed by the Board or shareholders, in accordance with the Trust’s Declaration of Trust; or (c) the termination of the Trust. The Board has adopted policies which provide that (a) no Trustee shall hold office for more than 15 years and (b) a Trustee shall retire as of December 31st of the calendar year in which he or she reaches his or her 74th birthday, unless a waiver of such requirements shall have been adopted by a majority of the other Trustees. These policies may be changed by the Trustees without shareholder vote.

3 

The Goldman Sachs Fund Complex includes certain other companies listed above for each respective Trustee. As of April 29, 2020, Goldman Sachs Trust consisted of 90 portfolios (88 of which offered shares to the public); Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust consisted of 13 portfolios; Goldman Sachs Trust II consisted of 19 portfolios (17 of which offered shares to the public); Goldman Sachs ETF Trust consisted of 42 portfolios (21 of which offered shares to the public); and Goldman Sachs MLP Income Opportunities Fund, Goldman Sachs MLP and Energy Renaissance Fund, Goldman Sachs Credit Income Fund and Goldman Sachs Real Estate Diversified Income Fund each consisted of one portfolio. Goldman Sachs Credit Income Fund did not offer shares to the public.

4 

This column includes only directorships of companies required to report to the SEC under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (i.e., “public companies”) or other investment companies registered under the Act.

The significance or relevance of a Trustee’s particular experience, qualifications, attributes and/or skills is considered by the Board on an individual basis. Experience, qualifications, attributes and/or skills common to all Trustees include the ability to critically review, evaluate and discuss information provided to them and to interact effectively with the other Trustees and with representatives of the Investment Adviser and its affiliates, other service providers, legal counsel and the Funds’ independent registered public accounting firm, the capacity to address financial and legal issues and exercise reasonable business judgment, and a commitment to the representation of the interests of the Funds and their shareholders. The Governance and Nominating Committee’s charter contains certain other factors that are considered by the Governance and Nominating Committee in identifying and evaluating potential nominees to serve as Independent Trustees. Based on each Trustee’s experience, qualifications, attributes and/or skills, considered individually and with respect to the experience, qualifications, attributes and/or skills of other Trustees, the Board has concluded that each Trustee should serve as a Trustee. Below is a brief discussion of the experience, qualifications, attributes and/or skills of each individual Trustee as of April 29, 2020 that led the Board to conclude that such individual should serve as a Trustee.

Jessica Palmer. Ms. Palmer has served as a Trustee since 2007 and Chair of the Board since 2018. Ms. Palmer worked at Citigroup Corporate and Investment Banking (previously, Salomon Smith Barney/Salomon Brothers) for over 20 years, where she was a Managing Director. While at Citigroup Corporate and Investment Banking, Ms. Palmer was Head of Global Risk Management, Chair of the Global Commitment Committee, Co-Chair of International Investment Banking (New York) and Head of Fixed Income Capital Markets. Ms.

 

B-65


Palmer was also a member of the Management Committee and Risk Management Operating Committee of Citigroup, Inc. Ms. Palmer was also Assistant Vice President of the International Division at Wells Fargo Bank, N.A. Ms. Palmer was also a member of the Board of Trustees of a private elementary and secondary school. Based on the foregoing, Ms. Palmer is experienced with financial and investment matters.

Dwight L. Bush. Ambassador Bush has served as a Trustee since 2020. Ambassador Bush also serves as President and CEO of D.L. Bush & Associates, a financial advisory and private investment firm. From 2014 to 2017, he served as U.S. Ambassador to the Kingdom of Morocco. Prior to his service as U.S. Ambassador, he established and served as CEO of Urban Trust Bank and UTB Education Finance, LLC, an integrated provider of education credit services. Ambassador Bush was previously Vice President of Corporate Development for SLM Corporation (commonly known as Sallie Mae). Formerly, he served as a member of the Board of Directors of Santander Bank, N.A., JER Investors Trust, a specialty real estate finance company, and as Vice Chairman of the Board of Directors of CASI Pharmaceuticals (formerly Entremed, Inc.) where he was Chairman of the Audit Committee. He also serves as a member of the Board of Directors for several philanthropic organizations, including the Middle East Investment Initiative and the American Council of Young Political Leaders, and has served on the executive committee of Cornell University. Ambassador Bush previously served on the Trust’s Advisory Board. Based on the foregoing, Ambassador Bush is experienced with financial and investment matters.

Kathryn A. Cassidy. Ms. Cassidy has served as a Trustee since 2015. Previously, Ms. Cassidy held several senior management positions at General Electric Company (“GE”) and General Electric Capital Corporation (“GECapital”) and its subsidiaries, where she worked for 35 years, most recently as Advisor to the Chairman of GECapital and Senior Vice President and Treasurer of GE and GECapital. As Senior Vice President and Treasurer, Ms. Cassidy led capital markets and treasury matters of multiple initial public offerings. Ms. Cassidy was responsible for managing global treasury operations, including global funding, hedging, derivative accounting and execution, cash and liquidity management, cash operations and treasury services, and global regulatory compliance and reporting for liquidity, derivatives, market risk and counterparty credit risk. Ms. Cassidy also serves as a Director of buildOn, a not-for-profit organization, where she serves as Chair of the Finance Committee. Based on the foregoing, Ms. Cassidy is experienced with financial and investment matters.

Diana M. Daniels. Ms. Daniels has served as a Trustee since 2007. Ms. Daniels also serves as a Trustee Emeritus and Presidential Councillor of Cornell University. Ms. Daniels held several senior management positions at The Washington Post Company and its subsidiaries, where she worked for 29 years. While at The Washington Post Company, Ms. Daniels served as Vice President, General Counsel, Secretary to the Board of Directors and Secretary to the Audit Committee. Previously, Ms. Daniels served as Vice President and General Counsel of Newsweek, Inc. Ms. Daniels has also served as Vice Chair and Chairman of the Executive Committee of the Board of Trustees of Cornell University and as a member of the Corporate Advisory Board of Standish Mellon Management Advisors and of the Legal Advisory Board of New York Stock Exchange. Ms. Daniels is also a member of the American Law Institute and of the Advisory Council of the Inter-American Press Association. Based on the foregoing, Ms. Daniels is experienced with legal, financial and investment matters.

Joaquin Delgado. Dr. Delgado has served as a Trustee since 2020. Dr. Delgado is a member of the Board of Directors for Stepan Company, a publicly-traded specialty chemical manufacturer, and Hexion Inc., a privately held specialty chemical manufacturer. Previously, Dr. Delgado held several senior management positions at 3M Company, where he worked for over 30 years, most recently as Executive Vice President of 3M Company’s Consumer Business Group. As Executive Vice President, Vice President, and General Manager at 3M Company, Dr. Delgado directed mergers and acquisitions worldwide, and was responsible for managing global operations in specialized markets such as semiconductors, consumer electronics, communications, medical and office supplies and software. Dr. Delgado also serves as a Director of MacPhail Center for Music, a not-for-profit organization. Dr. Delgado previously served on the Trust’s Advisory Board. Based on the foregoing, Dr. Delgado is experienced with financial and investment matters.

Roy W. Templin. Mr. Templin has served as a Trustee since 2013. Mr. Templin is a member of the Board of Directors of Armstrong World Industries, Inc., a ceiling, wall and suspension system solutions manufacturer, where he serves as Chair of the Finance Committee and a member of the Nominating and Governance Committee, Management Development and Compensation Committee and Audit Committee. Previously, Mr. Templin served as Chairman of the Board of Directors of Con-Way Incorporated, a transportation, logistics and supply-chain management services company, prior to its sale to XPO Logistics, Inc. in 2015. Mr. Templin held a number of senior management positions at Whirlpool Corporation, an appliance manufacturer and marketer, including Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer, Vice President and Corporate Controller there. At Whirlpool, Mr. Templin served on the Executive Committee and was responsible for all aspects of finance globally, including treasury, accounting, risk management, investor relations, internal auditing, tax and facilities. Prior to joining Whirlpool, Mr. Templin served in several roles at Kimball International, a furniture and electronic assemblies manufacturer, including Vice President of Finance and Chief Accounting Officer. Mr. Templin was also a Director of Corporate Finance for Cummins, Inc., a diesel engine manufacturer, a Director of Financial Development at NCR Corporation, a computer hardware and electronics company, and a member of the audit staff of Price Waterhouse (now PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP). Mr. Templin is a certified public accountant and a certified management accountant. Based on the foregoing, Mr. Templin is experienced with accounting, financial and investment matters.

Gregory G. Weaver. Mr. Weaver has served as a Trustee since 2015. Mr. Weaver has been designated as the Board’s “audit committee financial expert” given his extensive accounting and finance experience. Mr. Weaver also serves as a Director of Verizon Communications Inc., where he serves as Chair of the Audit Committee. Previously, Mr. Weaver was a partner with Deloitte & Touche

 

 

B-66


LLP for 30 years. He was the firm’s first chairman and chief executive officer from 2001–2005, and was elected to serve a second term (2012–2014). While serving as chairman at Deloitte & Touche LLP, Mr. Weaver led the audit and enterprise risk services practice, overseeing all operations, strategic positioning, audit quality, and talent matters. Mr. Weaver also served as a member of the firm’s Board of Directors for six years where he served on the Governance Committee and Partner Earnings and Benefits Committee and was chairman of the Elected Leaders Committee and Strategic Investment Committee. Mr. Weaver is also a Board member and Audit Committee chair of the YMCA of Westfield, New Jersey. Mr. Weaver has also served as President of the Council of Boy Scouts of America in Long Rivers, Connecticut, President of A Better Chance in Glastonbury, Connecticut, as a member of the Financial Accounting Standards Advisory Council and as a board member of the Stan Ross Department of Accountancy, Baruch College. Based on the foregoing, Mr. Weaver is experienced with accounting, financial and investment matters.

James A. McNamara. Mr. McNamara has served as a Trustee and President of the Trust since 2007 and has served as an officer of the Trust since 2001. Mr. McNamara is an Advisory Director to Goldman Sachs. Prior to retiring as Managing Director at Goldman Sachs in 2017, Mr. McNamara was head of Global Third Party Distribution at GSAM and was previously head of U.S. Third Party Distribution. Prior to that role, Mr. McNamara served as Director of Institutional Fund Sales. Prior to joining Goldman Sachs, Mr. McNamara was Vice President and Manager at Dreyfus Institutional Service Corporation. Based on the foregoing, Mr. McNamara is experienced with financial and investment matters.

Officers of the Trust

Information pertaining to the officers of the Trust as of December 14, 2020 is set forth below.

 

Name, Age and Address

  

Position(s) Held

with the Trust

  

Term of Office and

Length of Time Served1

  

Principal Occupation(s) During Past 5 Years

James A. McNamara

200 West Street

New York, NY 10282

Age: 58

  

Trustee and

President

   Since 2007   

Advisory Director, Goldman Sachs (January 2018 – Present); Managing Director, Goldman Sachs (January 2000 – December 2017); Director of Institutional Fund Sales, GSAM (April 1998 – December 2000); and Senior Vice President and Manager, Dreyfus Institutional Service Corporation (January 1993 – April 1998).

 

President and Trustee—Goldman Sachs Trust; Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust; Goldman Sachs Trust II; Goldman Sachs MLP and Energy Renaissance Fund; Goldman Sachs ETF Trust; Goldman Sachs Credit Income Fund; and Goldman Sachs Real Estate Diversified Income Fund.

Joseph F. DiMaria

30 Hudson Street

Jersey City, NJ 07302

Age: 52

   Treasurer, Principal Financial Officer and Principal Accounting Officer    Since 2017 (Treasurer and Principal Financial Officer since 2019)   

Managing Director, Goldman Sachs (November 2015 – Present) and Vice President – Mutual Fund Administration, Columbia Management Investment Advisers, LLC (May 2010 – October 2015).

 

Treasurer, Principal Financial Officer and Principal Accounting Officer—Goldman Sachs Trust (previously Assistant Treasurer (2016)); Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust (previously Assistant Treasurer (2016)); Goldman Sachs Trust II (previously Assistant Treasurer (2017)); Goldman Sachs MLP and Energy Renaissance Fund (previously Assistant Treasurer (2017)); Goldman Sachs ETF Trust (previously Assistant Treasurer (2017)); Goldman Sachs Credit Income Fund; and Goldman Sachs Real Estate Diversified Income Fund.

 

B-67


Name, Age and Address

  

Position(s) Held

with the Trust

  

Term of Office and

Length of Time Served1

  

Principal Occupation(s) During Past 5 Years

Julien Yoo

200 West Street

New York, NY 10282

Age: 49

   Chief Compliance Officer    Since 2019   

Managing Director, Goldman Sachs (January 2020–Present); Vice President, Goldman Sachs (December 2014–December 2019); and Vice President, Morgan Stanley Investment Management (2005–2010).

 

Chief Compliance Officer—Goldman Sachs Trust; Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust; Goldman Sachs Trust II; Goldman Sachs BDC, Inc.; Goldman Sachs Private Middle Market Credit LLC; Goldman Sachs Private Middle Market Credit II LLC; Goldman Sachs Middle Market Lending Corp.; Goldman Sachs MLP and Energy Renaissance Fund; Goldman Sachs ETF Trust; Goldman Sachs Credit Income Fund; and Goldman Sachs Real Estate Diversified Income Fund.

Peter W. Fortner
30 Hudson Street Jersey City, NJ 07302

Age: 62

   Assistant Treasurer    Since 2000   

Vice President, Goldman Sachs (July 2000–Present); Principal Accounting Officer, Commerce Bank Mutual Fund Complex (2008–Present); and Treasurer of Goldman Sachs Philanthropy Fund (2019–Present).

 

Assistant Treasurer—Goldman Sachs Trust; Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust; Goldman Sachs Trust II; Goldman Sachs MLP and Energy Renaissance Fund; Goldman Sachs ETF Trust; Goldman Sachs Credit Income Fund; and Goldman Sachs Real Estate Diversified Income Fund.

Allison Fracchiolla

30 Hudson Street

Jersey City, NJ 07302

Age: 37

   Assistant Treasurer    Since 2014   

Vice President, Goldman Sachs (January 2013–Present).

 

Assistant Treasurer—Goldman Sachs Trust; Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust; Goldman Sachs Trust II; and Goldman Sachs ETF Trust.

Tyler Hanks

222 S. Main St

Salt Lake City,

UT 84101

Age: 38

   Assistant Treasurer    Since 2019   

Vice President, Goldman Sachs (January 2016—Present); and Associate, Goldman Sachs (January 2014—January 2016).

 

Assistant Treasurer—Goldman Sachs Trust; Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust; Goldman Sachs Trust II; Goldman Sachs MLP and Energy Renaissance Fund; Goldman Sachs ETF Trust; Goldman Sachs Credit Income Fund; and Goldman Sachs Real Estate Diversified Income Fund.

Kirsten Frivold Imohiosen

200 West Street

New York, NY 10282

Age: 50

   Assistant Treasurer    Since 2019   

Managing Director, Goldman Sachs (January 2018–Present); and Vice President, Goldman Sachs (May 1999–December 2017).

 

Assistant Treasurer—Goldman Sachs Trust; Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust; Goldman Sachs Trust II; Goldman Sachs MLP and Energy Renaissance Fund; Goldman Sachs BDC, Inc.; Goldman Sachs Private Middle Market Credit LLC; Goldman Sachs Private Middle Market Credit II LLC; Goldman Sachs Middle Market Lending Corp.; Goldman Sachs ETF Trust; Goldman Sachs Credit Income Fund; and Goldman Sachs Real Estate Diversified Income Fund.

 

B-68


Name, Age and Address

  

Position(s) Held

with the Trust

  

Term of Office and

Length of Time Served1

  

Principal Occupation(s) During Past 5 Years

Steven Z. Indich

30 Hudson Street

Jersey City, NJ 07302

Age: 51

   Assistant Treasurer    Since 2019   

Vice President, Goldman Sachs (February 2010 – Present).

 

Assistant Treasurer—Goldman Sachs Trust; Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust; Goldman Sachs Trust II; Goldman Sachs MLP and Energy Renaissance Fund; Goldman Sachs BDC, Inc.; Goldman Sachs Private Middle Market Credit LLC; Goldman Sachs Private Middle Market Credit II LLC; Goldman Sachs Middle Market Lending Corp.; Goldman Sachs ETF Trust; Goldman Sachs Credit Income Fund; and Goldman Sachs Real Estate Diversified Income Fund.

Carol Liu

30 Hudson Street

Jersey City, NJ 07302

Age: 45

   Assistant Treasurer    Since 2019   

Vice President, Goldman Sachs (October 2017 – Present); Tax Director, The Raine Group LLC (August 2015 – October 2017); and Tax Director, Icon Investments LLC (January 2012 – August 2015).

 

Assistant Treasurer—Goldman Sachs Trust; Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust; Goldman Sachs Trust II; Goldman Sachs MLP and Energy Renaissance Fund; Goldman Sachs BDC, Inc.; Goldman Sachs Private Middle Market Credit LLC; Goldman Sachs Private Middle Market Credit II LLC; Goldman Sachs Middle Market Lending Corp.; Goldman Sachs ETF Trust; Goldman Sachs Credit Income Fund; and Goldman Sachs Real Estate Diversified Income Fund.

Christopher Bradford

30 Hudson Street

Jersey City, NJ 07302

Age: 39

   Vice President    Since 2020   

Vice President, Goldman Sachs (January 2014–Present).

 

Vice President—Goldman Sachs Trust; Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust; Goldman Sachs Trust II; Goldman Sachs ETF Trust; Goldman Sachs MLP and Energy Renaissance Fund; Goldman Sachs Real Estate Diversified Income Fund; and Goldman Sachs Credit Income Fund.

Jesse Cole

71 South Wacker Drive

Chicago, IL 60606

Age: 57

   Vice President    Since 1998   

Managing Director, Goldman Sachs (December 2006 – Present); Vice President, GSAM (June 1998 – Present); and Vice President, AIM Management Group, Inc. (investment adviser) (April 1996 – June 1998).

 

Vice President—Goldman Sachs Trust; Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust; and Goldman Sachs Trust II.

Miriam L. Cytryn

200 West Street

New York, NY 10282

Age: 62

   Vice President    Since 2008   

Vice President, GSAM (2008 – Present); Vice President of Divisional Management, Investment Management Division (2007 – 2008); Vice President and Chief of Staff, GSAM US Distribution (2003 – 2007); and Vice President of Employee Relations, Goldman Sachs (1996 – 2003).

 

Vice President—Goldman Sachs Trust; Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust; and Goldman Sachs Trust II.

 

B-69


Name, Age and Address

  

Position(s) Held

with the Trust

  

Term of Office and

Length of Time Served1

  

Principal Occupation(s) During Past 5 Years

Frank Murphy

200 West Street

New York, NY 10282

Age: 46

   Vice President    Since 2019   

Managing Director, Goldman Sachs (2015 – Present); Vice President, Goldman Sachs (2003 – 2014); Associate, Goldman Sachs (2001 – 2002); and Analyst, Goldman Sachs (1999 – 2001).

 

Vice President—Goldman Sachs Trust; and Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust.

Patrick Hyland

200 West Street

New York, NY 10282

Age: 46

   Vice President    Since 2019   

Vice President, Goldman Sachs (2010 – Present).

 

Vice President—Goldman Sachs Trust; and Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust.

Emily Stecher

200 West Street

New York, NY 10282

Age: 33

   Vice President    Since 2020   

Managing Director, Goldman Sachs (January 2020–Present); Vice President, Goldman Sachs (January 2015–December 2019).

 

Vice President—Goldman Sachs Trust; Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust; Goldman Sachs Trust II; Goldman Sachs ETF Trust; Goldman Sachs MLP and Energy Renaissance Fund; Goldman Sachs Real Estate Diversified Income Fund; and Goldman Sachs Credit Income Fund.

Caroline L. Kraus

200 West Street

New York, NY 10282

Age: 43

   Secretary    Since 2012   

Managing Director, Goldman Sachs (January 2016–Present); Vice President, Goldman Sachs (August 2006–December 2015); Senior Counsel, Goldman Sachs (January 2020–Present); Associate General Counsel, Goldman Sachs (2012–December 2019); Assistant General Counsel, Goldman Sachs (August 2006–December 2011); and Associate, Weil, Gotshal & Manges, LLP (2002–2006).

 

Secretary—Goldman Sachs Trust (previously Assistant Secretary (2012)); Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust (previously Assistant Secretary (2012)); Goldman Sachs Trust II; Goldman Sachs BDC, Inc.; Goldman Sachs Private Middle Market Credit LLC; Goldman Sachs Private Middle Market Credit II LLC; Goldman Sachs Middle Market Lending Corp.; Goldman Sachs MLP and Energy Renaissance Fund; Goldman Sachs ETF Trust; Goldman Sachs Credit Income Fund; and Goldman Sachs Real Estate Diversified Income Fund.

David A. Fishman

200 West Street
New York, NY 10282

Age: 56

   Assistant Secretary    Since 2001   

Managing Director, Goldman Sachs (December 2001 – Present); and Vice President, Goldman Sachs (1997 – December 2001).

 

Assistant Secretary—Goldman Sachs Trust; and Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust.

 

B-70


Name, Age and Address

  

Position(s) Held

with the Trust

  

Term of Office and

Length of Time Served1

  

Principal Occupation(s) During Past 5 Years

Robert Griffith

200 West Street

New York, NY 10282

Age: 46

   Assistant Secretary    Since 2011   

Vice President, Goldman Sachs (August 2011 – Present); Associate General Counsel, Goldman Sachs (December 2014 – Present); Assistant General Counsel, Goldman Sachs (August 2011 – December 2014); Vice President and Counsel, Nomura Holding America, Inc. (2010 – 2011); and Associate, Simpson Thacher & Bartlett LLP (2005 – 2010).

 

Assistant Secretary—Goldman Sachs Trust; Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust; Goldman Sachs Trust II; Goldman Sachs MLP and Energy Renaissance Fund; Goldman Sachs ETF Trust; Goldman Sachs Credit Income Fund; and Goldman Sachs Real Estate Diversified Income Fund.

Shaun Cullinan

200 West Street

New York, NY 10282

Age: 40

   Assistant Secretary    Since 2018   

Managing Director, Goldman Sachs (2018 – Present); Vice President, Goldman Sachs (2009 – 2017); Associate, Goldman Sachs (2006 – 2008); Analyst, Goldman Sachs (2004 – 2005).

 

Assistant Secretary—Goldman Sachs Trust; Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust; and Goldman Sachs Trust II.

 

1

Officers hold office at the pleasure of the Board of Trustees or until their successors are duly elected and qualified. Each officer holds comparable positions with certain other companies of which Goldman Sachs, GSAM or an affiliate thereof is the investment adviser, administrator and/or distributor.

Standing Board Committees

The Audit Committee oversees the audit process and provides assistance to the Board with respect to fund accounting, tax compliance and financial statement matters. In performing its responsibilities, the Audit Committee selects and recommends annually to the Board an independent registered public accounting firm to audit the books and records of the Trust for the ensuing year, and reviews with the firm the scope and results of each audit. All of the Independent Trustees serve on the Audit Committee and Mr. Weaver serves as Chair of the Audit Committee. The Audit Committee held five meetings during the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019.

The Governance and Nominating Committee has been established to: (i) assist the Board in matters involving mutual fund governance, which includes making recommendations to the Board with respect to the effectiveness of the Board in carrying out its responsibilities in governing the Funds and overseeing their management; (ii) select and nominate candidates for appointment or election to serve as Independent Trustees and work to retain high-performing Independent Trustees; and (iii) advise the Board on ways to improve its effectiveness. All of the Independent Trustees serve on the Governance and Nominating Committee. The Governance and Nominating Committee held three meetings during the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019. As stated above, each Trustee holds office for an indefinite term until the occurrence of certain events. In filling Board vacancies, the Governance and Nominating Committee will consider nominees recommended by shareholders. Nominee recommendations should be submitted to the Trust at its mailing address stated in the Funds’ Prospectuses and should be directed to the attention of the Goldman Sachs Trust Governance and Nominating Committee.

The Compliance Committee has been established for the purpose of overseeing the compliance processes: (i) of the Funds; and (ii) insofar as they relate to services provided to the Funds, of the Funds’ Investment Adviser, Distributor, administrator (if any), and Transfer Agent, except that compliance processes relating to the accounting and financial reporting processes, and certain related matters, are overseen by the Audit Committee. In addition, the Compliance Committee provides assistance to the full Board with respect to compliance matters. The Compliance Committee met five times during the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019. All of the Independent Trustees serve on the Compliance Committee.

The Valuation Committee is authorized to act for the Board in connection with the valuation of portfolio securities held by the Funds in accordance with the Trust’s Valuation Procedures. Messrs. McNamara and DiMaria serve on the Valuation Committee. The Valuation Committee met twelve times during the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019.

The Contract Review Committee has been established for the purpose of overseeing the processes of the Board for reviewing and monitoring performance under the Funds’ investment management, distribution, transfer agency, and certain other agreements with the Funds’ Investment Adviser and its affiliates. The Contract Review Committee is also responsible for overseeing the Board’s processes for considering and reviewing performance under the operation of the Funds’ distribution, service, shareholder administration and other plans, and any agreements related to the plans, whether or not such plans and agreements are adopted pursuant to Rule 12b-1 under the Act. The Contract Review Committee also provides appropriate assistance to the Board in connection with the Board’s approval, oversight and review of the Funds’ other service providers including, without limitation, the Funds’ custodian/accounting agent, sub-transfer agents, professional (legal and accounting) firms and printing firms. The Contract Review Committee met two times during the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019. All of the Independent Trustees serve on the Contract Review Committee.

Risk Oversight

The Board is responsible for the oversight of the activities of the Funds, including oversight of risk management. Day-to-day risk management with respect to the Funds is the responsibility of GSAM or other service providers (depending on the nature of the risk), subject to supervision by GSAM. The risks of the Funds include, but are not limited to, liquidity risk, investment risk, compliance risk, operational risk, reputational risk, credit risk and counterparty risk. Each of GSAM and the other service providers have their own

 

B-71


independent interest in risk management and their policies and methods of risk management may differ from the Funds and each other’s in the setting of priorities, the resources available or the effectiveness of relevant controls. As a result, the Board recognizes that it is not possible to identify all of the risks that may affect the Funds or to develop processes and controls to eliminate or mitigate their occurrence or effects, and that some risks are simply beyond the control of the Funds or GSAM, its affiliates or other service providers.

The Board effectuates its oversight role primarily through regular and special meetings of the Board and Board committees. In certain cases, risk management issues are specifically addressed in reports, presentations and discussions. For example, on an annual basis, GSAM will provide the Board with a written report that addresses the operation, adequacy and effectiveness of the Trust’s liquidity risk management program, which is designed to assess and manage the Fund’s liquidity risk. GSAM also has a risk management team that assists GSAM in managing investment risk. Representatives from the risk management team meet regularly with the Board to discuss their analysis and methodologies. In addition, investment risk is discussed in the context of regular presentations to the Board on Fund strategy and performance. Other types of risk are addressed as part of presentations on related topics (e.g. compliance policies) or in the context of presentations focused specifically on one or more risks. The Board also receives reports from GSAM management on operational risks, reputational risks and counterparty risks relating to the Funds.

Board oversight of risk management is also performed by various Board committees. For example, the Audit Committee meets with both the Funds’ independent registered public accounting firm and GSAM’s internal audit group to review risk controls in place that support the Funds as well as test results, and the Compliance Committee meets with the CCO and representatives of GSAM’s compliance group to review testing results of the Funds’ compliance policies and procedures and other compliance issues. Board oversight of risk is also performed as needed between meetings through communications between GSAM and the Board. The Board may, at any time and in its discretion, change the manner in which it conducts risk oversight. The Board’s oversight role does not make the Board a guarantor of the Fund’s investments or activities.

Trustee Ownership of Fund Shares

The following table shows the dollar range of shares beneficially owned by each Trustee in the Funds and other portfolios of the Goldman Sachs Fund Complex as of December 31, 2019, unless otherwise noted.

 

Name of Trustee

  

Dollar Range of

Equity Securities in the Funds1

   Aggregate Dollar Range of
Equity Securities in All

Portfolios in Fund Complex
Overseen By Trustee

Jessica Palmer

   None    Over $100,000

Dwight L. Bush2

   None    None

Kathryn A. Cassidy

   Absolute Return Tracker Fund: $10,001–$50,000    Over
$100,000

Diana M. Daniels

   None    Over $100,000

Joaquin Delgado2

   None    None

James A. McNamara

   U.S. Equity Dividend and Premium Fund: Over $100,000    Over $100,000

Roy W. Templin

   International Real Estate Securities Fund: Over $100,000    Over $100,000

Gregory G. Weaver

   None    Over $100,000

 

1

Includes the value of shares beneficially owned by each Trustee in each Fund described in this SAI.

2

Ambassador Bush and Dr. Delgado began serving as Trustees effective January 23, 2020.

As of April 1, 2020, the Trustees and Officers of the Trust as a group owned less than 1% of the outstanding shares of beneficial interest of each class of each Fund, except for the International Real Estate Securities Fund. As of April 1, 2020, the Trustees and Officers of the Trust, as a group, owned 1.61% of the International Real Estate Securities Fund’s outstanding Institutional Shares.

 

B-72


Board Compensation

Each Independent Trustee is compensated with a unitary annual fee for his or her services as a Trustee of the Trust and as a member of the Governance and Nominating Committee, Compliance Committee, Contract Review Committee, and Audit Committee. The Chair and “audit committee financial expert” receive additional compensation for their services. The Independent Trustees are also reimbursed for reasonable travel expenses incurred in connection with attending meetings. The Trust may also pay the reasonable incidental costs of a Trustee to attend training or other types of conferences relating to the investment company industry.

 

B-73


The following tables set forth certain information with respect to the compensation of each Trustee of the Trust for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019:

Trustee Compensation

Aggregate Compensation from each Fund:

 

Name of Trustee   Absolute
Return
Tracker
    Commodity
Strategy
    Alternative
Premia
    Managed
Futures
Strategy
    Real Estate
Securities
    International
Real Estate
Securities
    Global Real
Estate
Securities
    Global
Infrastructure
    U.S. Equity
Dividend
and
Premium
    International
Equity
Dividend and
Premium
    U.S. Tax-
Managed
Equity
    International
Tax-Managed
Equity
 

Jessica Palmer1

  $ 4,929     $ 3,833     $ 3,737     $ 3,805     $ 3,774     $ 3,741     $ 3,806     $ 3,787     $ 4,872     $ 3,829     $ 4,393     $ 3,994  

Dwight L. Bush2

    823       633       619       632       626       621       630       628       792       634       724       661  

Kathryn A. Cassidy

    3,286       2,556       2,491       2,536       2,516       2,494       2,537       2,525       3,248       2,553       2,929       2,663  

Diana M. Daniels

    3,286       2,556       2,491       2,536       2,516       2,494       2,537       2,525       3,248       2,553       2,929       2,663  

Joaquin Delgado2

    823       633       619       632       626       621       630       628       792       634       724       661  

James A. McNamara3

    —         —         —         —         —         —         —         —         —         —         —         —    

Roy W. Templin

    3,286       2,556       2,491       2,536       2,516       2,494       2,537       2,525       3,248       2,553       2,929       2,663  

Gregory G. Weaver4

    3,821       2,971       2,896       2,949       2,925       2,899       2,950       2,935       3,777       2,968       3,405       3,096  

 

Name of Trustee

   Pension or Retirement
Benefits Accrued
as Part Of the Trust’s
Expenses
     Total Compensation From
Fund Complex (including the
Funds)*
 

Jessica Palmer1

   $ 0      $ 498,000  

Dwight L Bush2

     0        83,000  

Kathryn A. Cassidy

     0        332,000  

Diana M. Daniels

     0        332,000  

Joaquin Delgado2

     0        83,000  

James A. McNamara3

     —          —    

Roy W. Templin

     0        332,000  

Gregory G. Weaver4

     0        386,000  

 

*

Represents fees paid to each Trustee during the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019 from the Goldman Sachs Fund Complex.

1

Includes compensation as Board Chair.

2

Includes compensation Ambassador Bush and Dr. Delgado received as Advisory Board Members during the fiscal year. Ambassador Bush and Dr. Delgado began serving as Advisory Board Members effective October 16, 2019 and as Trustees effective January 23, 2020.

3

Mr. McNamara is an Interested Trustee, and as such, receives no compensation from the Funds or the Goldman Sachs Fund Complex.

4

Includes compensation as “audit committee financial expert,” as defined in Item 3 of Form N-CSR.

 

B-74


Miscellaneous

Class A Shares of the Funds may be sold at NAV without payment of any sales charge to Goldman Sachs, its affiliates and their respective officers, partners, directors or employees (including retired employees and former partners), any partnership of which Goldman Sachs is a general partner, any Trustee or officer of the Trust and designated family members of any of the above individuals. These and the Funds’ other sales load waivers are due to the nature of the investors and/or the reduced sales effort and expense that are needed to obtain such investments.

The Trust, its Investment Adviser and principal underwriter have adopted codes of ethics under Rule 17j-1 under the Act that permit personnel subject to their particular codes of ethics to invest in securities, including securities that may be purchased or held by the Funds.

MANAGEMENT SERVICES

As stated in the Funds’ Prospectuses, GSAM, 200 West Street, New York, New York 10282, serves as Investment Adviser to the Funds. GSAM will also serve as investment adviser to the Subsidiaries. GSAM is an indirect, wholly-owned subsidiary of The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. and an affiliate of Goldman Sachs. Prior to the end of April 2003, Goldman Sachs Asset Management, a business unit of the Investment Management Division of Goldman Sachs served as the Funds’ investment adviser. In April 2003, GSAM assumed Goldman Sachs Asset Management’s investment advisory responsibilities for the Funds. See “Service Providers” in the Funds’ Prospectuses for a description of the Investment Adviser’s duties to the Funds.

Founded in 1869, The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. is a publicly-held financial holding company and a leading global investment banking, securities and investment management firm. Goldman Sachs is a leader in developing portfolio strategies and in many fields of investing and financing, participating in financial markets worldwide and serving individuals, institutions, corporations and governments. Goldman Sachs is also among the principal market sources for current and thorough information on companies, industrial sectors, markets, economies and currencies, and trades and makes markets in a wide range of equity and debt securities 24 hours a day. The firm is headquartered in New York with offices in countries throughout the world. It has trading professionals throughout the United States, as well as in London, Frankfurt, Tokyo, Seoul, Sao Paulo and other major financial centers around the world. The active participation of Goldman Sachs in the world’s financial markets enhances its ability to identify attractive investments. Goldman Sachs has agreed to permit the Funds to use the name “Goldman Sachs” or a derivative thereof as part of each Fund’s name for as long as each Fund’s Management Agreement (as described below) is in effect.

A Fund’s management agreement (each, a “Management Agreement”) provides that GSAM, in its capacity as Investment Adviser, may render similar services to others so long as the services under the Management Agreement are not impaired thereby. The Funds’ Management Agreements were most recently approved by the Trustees of the Trust, including a majority of the Trustees of the Trust who are not parties to such agreement or “interested persons” (as such term is defined in the Act) of any party thereto (the “non-interested Trustees”), on June 11-12, 2019. These management arrangements were last approved by the shareholders of the Funds then in existence on April 21, 1997. The management arrangements for those Funds which commenced investment operations after April 21, 1997 were last approved by the initial sole shareholder of each such Fund prior to the Fund’s commencement of operations. A discussion regarding the Trustees’ basis for approving the Management Agreements in 2019 with respect to each Fund is available in the Funds’ semi-annual reports for the period ended June 30, 2019.

The Management Agreements will remain in effect until June 30, 2020 and will continue in effect with respect to each Fund from year to year thereafter provided such continuance is specifically approved at least annually by (i) the vote of a majority of such Fund’s outstanding voting securities or a majority of the Trustees of the Trust, and (ii) the vote of a majority of the non-interested Trustees of the Trust, cast in person at a meeting called for the purpose of voting on such approval.

The Management Agreements will terminate automatically if assigned (as defined in the Act). The Management Agreements are terminable at any time without penalty by the Trustees of the Trust or by vote of a majority of the outstanding voting securities of the applicable Fund on 60 days’ written notice to the Investment Adviser or by the Investment Adviser on 60 days’ written notice to the Trust.

Pursuant to the Management Agreements, the Investment Adviser is entitled to receive the fees set forth below, payable monthly based on each Fund’s average daily net assets. Also included below are the actual management fee rates paid by each Fund (after reflection of any management fee waivers, as indicated in each Fund’s prospectuses) for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019. The management fee waivers will remain in effect through at least April 29, 2021, and prior to such date, the Investment Adviser may not terminate these arrangements without the approval of the Board of Trustees. The management fee waivers may be modified or terminated by the Investment Adviser at its discretion and without shareholder approval after such date, although the Investment Adviser does not presently intend to do

 

B-75


so. The Actual Rate may not correlate to the Contractual Rate as a result of these management fee waivers that may be in effect from time to time. The Investment Adviser may waive a portion of its management fee payable by a Fund in an amount equal to any management fees it earns as an investment adviser to any of the affiliated funds in which the Fund invests.

 

Fund

  

Contractual Rate

  

Actual Rate for the Fiscal Year

Ended December 31, 2019

Absolute Return Tracker Fund    0.70% on the first $1 billion    0.54%*
   0.63% on the next $1 billion   
   0.60% on the next $3 billion   
   0.59% on the next $3 billion   
   0.53% over $8 billion   
Commodity Strategy Fund    0.50% on the first $2 billion    0.41%**
   0.45% on the next $3 billion   
   0.43% on the next $3 billion   
   0.42% over $8 billion   
Alternative Premia Fund    0.79% on the first $1 billion    0.66%***
   0.71% on the next $1 billion   
   0.68% on the next $3 billion   
   0.66% on the next $3 billion   
   0.65% over $8 billion   
Managed Futures Strategy Fund    1.00% on the first $1 billion    0.88%****
   0.90% on the next $1 billion   
   0.86% on the next $3 billion   
   0.84% on the next $3 billion   
   0.82% over $8 billion   
Real Estate Securities Fund    0.87% on the first $1 billion    0.87%
   0.78% on the next $1 billion   
   0.74% on the next $3 billion   
   0.73% on the next $3 billion   
   0.71% over $8 billion   
International Real Estate Securities Fund    0.95% on the first $2 billion    0.95%
   0.86% on the next $3 billion   
   0.81% on the next $3 billion   
   0.80% over $8 billion   
Global Real Estate Securities Fund    0.93% on the first $1 billion    0.93%
   0.84% on the next $1 billion   
   0.80% on the next $3 billion   
   0.78% on the next $3 billion   
   0.76% over $8 billion   
Global Infrastructure Fund    0.90% on the first $1 billion    0.90%
   0.81% on the next $1 billion   
   0.77% on the next $3 billion   
   0.75% on the next $3 billion   
   0.74% over $8 billion   
U.S. Equity Dividend and Premium Fund    0.75% on the first $1 billion    0.69%
   0.68% on the next $1 billion   
   0.65% on the next $3 billion   
   0.64% on the next $3 billion   
   0.63% over $8 billion   
International Equity Dividend and Premium Fund    0.81% on the first $1 billion    0.81%
   0.73% on the next $1 billion   
   0.69% on the next $3 billion   
   0.68% on the next $3 billion   
   0.67% over $8 billion   

 

B-76


Fund

  

Contractual Rate

  

Actual Rate for the Fiscal Year

Ended December 31, 2019

U.S. Tax-Managed Equity Fund    0.70% on the first $1 billion    0.67%
   0.63% on the next $1 billion   
   0.60% on the next $3 billion   
   0.59% on the next $3 billion   
   0.58% over $8 billion   
International Tax-Managed Equity Fund    0.85% on the first $1 billion    0.85%
   0.77% on the next $1 billion   
   0.73% on the next $3 billion   
   0.72% on the next $3 billion   
   0.71% over $8 billion   

 

*

Reflects combined management fees paid to GSAM by the Fund and the ART Subsidiary after fee waivers. The Investment Adviser has contractually agreed to waive the Absolute Return Tracker Fund’s management fee in an amount equal to the management fee paid to the Investment Adviser by the ART Subsidiary. This arrangement may not be discontinued by the Investment Adviser as long as its contract with the ART Subsidiary is in place.

**

Reflects combined management fees paid to GSAM by the Fund and the CSF Subsidiary after fee waivers. The Investment Adviser has contractually agreed to waive the Commodity Strategy Fund’s management fee in an amount equal to the management fee paid to the Investment Adviser by the CSF Subsidiary. This arrangement may not be discontinued by the Investment Adviser as long as its contract with the CSF Subsidiary is in place.

***

Reflects combined management fees paid to GSAM by the Fund and the AP Subsidiary after fee waivers. The Investment Adviser has contractually agreed to waive the Alternative Premia Fund’s management fee in an amount equal to the management fee paid to the Investment Adviser by the AP Subsidiary. This arrangement may not be discontinued by the Investment Adviser as long as its contract with the AP Subsidiary is in place.

****

Reflects combined management fees paid to GSAM by the Fund and the MFS Subsidiary after fee waivers. The Investment Adviser has contractually agreed to waive the Managed Futures Strategy Fund’s management fee in an amount equal to the management fee paid to the Investment Adviser by the MFS Subsidiary. This arrangement may not be discontinued by the Investment Adviser as long as its contract with the MFS Subsidiary is in place.

For the fiscal years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017, the amounts of the fees incurred by each of the following Funds under the Management Agreement were as follows (with and without the fee limitations that were then in effect):

 

B-77


     2019      2018      2017  
   With Fee      Without Fee      With Fee      Without Fee      With Fee      Without Fee  

Fund

   Limitations      Limitations      Limitations      Limitations      Limitations      Limitations  

Absolute Return Tracker Fund1

   $  16,449,736      $ 19,603,520      $ 12,766,739      $ 17,774,775      $ 7,945,346      $ 15,227,306  

Commodity Strategy Fund2

     1,305,561        1,851,372        1,608,976        1,979,215        1,548,114        1,839,817  

Alternative Premia Fund3

     528,377        675,626        758,980        972,313        2,384,337        3,074,282  

Managed Futures Strategy Fund4

     2,173,377        2,674,694        2,418,961        2,763,753        872,476        1,099,096  

Real Estate Securities Fund5

     1,460,470        1,463,739        1,970,477        2,074,587        3,149,721        3,624,015  

International Real Estate Securities Fund6

     808,890        811,044        1,029,542        1,069,165        1,796,851        1,986,519  

Global Real Estate Securities Fund7

     2,372,671      $ 2,379,580        3,033,447        3,176,959        1,881,784        2,128,063  

Global Infrastructure Fund8

     1,795,052      $ 1,798,119        2,014,094        2,015,744        1,067,123        1,068,931  

U.S. Equity Dividend and Premium Fund9

     20,348,896      $ 20,385,483        23,227,180        23,255,734        21,938,808        21,992,485  

International Equity Dividend and Premium Fund10

     2,498,743      $ 2,498,956        3,159,407        3,161,053        3,108,081        3,110,103  

U.S. Tax-Managed Equity Fund11

     11,503,465      $ 11,506,786        10,781,919        10,795,184        8,851,563        8,871,989  

International Tax-Managed Equity Fund12

     6,091,596      $ 6,091,738        5,991,250        5,994,083        4,969,974        4,973,122  

 

1

The Investment Adviser waived approximately $3,153,784, $5,008,036 and $7,281,960 of its management fee for the fiscal years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017, respectively.

2

The Investment Adviser waived approximately $545,811, $370,239 and $291,703 of its management fee for the fiscal years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017, respectively.

3

The Investment Adviser waived approximately $147,249, $213,333, and $689,945 of its management fee for the fiscal years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017, respectively.

4

The Investment Adviser waived approximately $501,317, $344,792 and $226,620 of its management fee for the fiscal years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017, respectively.

5

The Investment Adviser waived approximately $3,269, $104,110 and $474,294 of its management fee for the fiscal years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017, respectively.

6

The Investment Adviser waived approximately $2,154, $39,623 and $189,668 of its management fee for the fiscal years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017, respectively.

7

The Investment Adviser waived approximately $6,909, $143,512 and $246,279 of its management fee for the fiscal years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017, respectively.

8

The Investment Adviser waived approximately $3,067, $1,650 and $1,808 of its management fee for the fiscal years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017, respectively.

9

The Investment Adviser waived approximately $36,587, $28,554 and $53,677 of its management fee for the fiscal years ended December 2019, 2018 and 2017, respectively.

10

The Investment Adviser waived approximately $213, $1,646 and $2,022 of its management fee for the fiscal years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017, respectively.

11

The Investment Adviser waived approximately $$3,321, $13,265 and $20,426 of its management fee for the fiscal years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017, respectively.

12

The Investment Adviser waived approximately $$142, $2,833 and $3,148 of its management fee for the fiscal years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017, respectively.

 

B-78


Unless required to be performed by others pursuant to agreements with the Funds, the Investment Adviser also performs certain administrative services for each Fund under the Management Agreement. Such administrative services include, subject to the general supervision of the Trustees of the Trust, (i) providing supervision of all aspects of the Fund’s non-investment operations; (ii) providing the Fund with personnel to perform such executive, administrative and clerical services as are reasonably necessary to provide effective administration of the Fund; (iii) arranging for, at the Fund’s expense, the preparation of the Fund’s required tax returns, the preparation and submission of reports to existing shareholders, the periodic updating and the Fund’s prospectuses and statement of additional information, and the preparation of reports filed with the SEC and other regulatory authorities; (iv) maintaining all of the Fund’s records; and (v) providing the Fund with adequate office space and all necessary office equipment and services.

As discussed in “INVESTMENT OBJECTIVES AND POLICIES” above, each of the Absolute Return Tracker Fund, Commodity Strategy Fund, Alternative Premia Fund and Managed Futures Strategy Fund may pursue its investment objective by investing in a Subsidiary. Each Subsidiary has entered into a separate contract with GSAM whereby GSAM provides investment advisory and other services to that Subsidiary (each, a “Subsidiary Management Agreement”). In consideration of these services, each Subsidiary pays GSAM a management fee at the annual rate of 0.42% of its net assets. GSAM has contractually agreed to waive the advisory fee it receives from each of the Absolute Return Tracker Fund, Commodity Strategy Fund, Alternative Premia Fund and Managed Futures Strategy Fund in amounts equal to the advisory fee paid to GSAM by each of the Subsidiaries. These waivers may not be terminated by GSAM and will remain in effect for as long as each respective Subsidiary Management Agreement is in place. Each Subsidiary Management Agreement is terminable by either of its respective parties or the Fund’s Board, without penalty, on 60 days’ prior written notice, and shall terminate automatically in the event (i) it is “assigned” by GSAM (as defined in the 1940 Act); or (ii) the Management Agreement between the Trust, acting for and on behalf of each of the Absolute Return Tracker Fund, Commodity Strategy Fund, Alternative Premia Fund and Managed Futures Strategy Fund and GSAM is terminated.

Legal Proceedings. On October 22, 2020, The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. announced a settlement of matters involving 1Malaysia Development Bhd. (1MDB), a Malaysian sovereign wealth fund, with the United States Department of Justice as well as criminal and civil authorities in the United Kingdom, Singapore and Hong Kong. Further information regarding the 1MDB settlement can be found at https://www.goldmansachs.com/media-relations/press-releases/current/goldman-sachs-2020-10-22.html. The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. previously entered into a settlement agreement with the Government of Malaysia and 1MDB to resolve all criminal and regulatory proceedings in Malaysia relating to 1MDB.

The Investment Adviser, Goldman Sachs and certain of their affiliates have received exemptive relief from the SEC to permit them to continue serving as investment adviser and principal underwriter for U.S.-registered investment companies.

 

B-79


Portfolio Managers — Other Accounts Managed by the Portfolio Managers

The following table discloses accounts within each type of category listed below for which the portfolio managers are jointly and primarily responsible for day to day portfolio management as of December 31, 2019, unless otherwise noted.

For each portfolio manager listed below, the total number of accounts managed is a reflection of accounts within the strategy they oversee or manage, as well as accounts which participate in the sector they manage. There are multiple portfolio managers involved with each account.

 

    Number of Other Accounts Managed and Total Assets by
Account Type
    Number of Other Accounts and Total Assets for Which
Advisory Fee is Performance Based
 
    Registered                             Registered                          
    Investment     Other Pooled    

Other

    Investment     Other Pooled     Other  
    Companies     Investment Vehicles     Accounts     Companies     Investment Vehicles     Accounts  
Name of   Number of     Assets     Number of     Assets     Number of     Assets     Number of     Assets     Number of     Assets     Number of     Assets  
Portfolio Manager   Accounts     Managed     Accounts     Managed     Accounts     Managed     Accounts     Managed     Accounts     Managed     Accounts     Managed  

Absolute Return Tracker Fund

                       

QIS Team

                       

Federico Gilly

    6     $ 6,153       8     $ 3,164       10     $ 6,219       —         —         —         —         —         —    

Oliver Bunn

    4     $ 4,494       2     $ 820       1     $ 0       —         —         —         —         —         —    

Commodity Strategy Fund

                       

Commodity Strategy Team

                       

Samuel Finkelstein

    63     $ 299,508       438     $ 276,903       29,085     $ 459,577       —         —         3     $ 1,101       46     $ 19,729  

Peter Stone

    36     $ 20,387       195     $ 75,106       6,117     $ 250,340       —         —         3     $ 1,101       29     $ 17,347  

Alternative Premia Fund

                       

QIS Team

                       

Federico Gilly

    6     $ 6,153       8     $ 3,164       10     $ 6,219       —         —         —         —         —         —    

James Park1

    5     $ 3,768       10     $ 3,489       13     $ 1,527       —         —         —         —         1     $ 116  

Managed Futures Strategy Fund

                —              

QIS Team

                       

James Park

    6     $ 5,215       9     $ 4,889       10     $ 2,063       —         —         —         —         1     $ 129  

Momoko Ono

    6     $ 5,215       9     $ 4,889       10     $ 2,063       —         —         —         —         1     $ 129  

Real Estate Securities Fund

                       

Real Estate Securities Team

                       

Nora Creedon

    3     $ 763       8     $ 1,620       18     $ 576       —         —         —         —         —         —    

Kristin Kuney

    1     $ 158       4     $ 1,354       10     $ 301       —         —         —         —         —         —    

Timothy Ryan

    1     $ 158       1     $ 1,184       10     $ 301       —         —         —         —         —         —    

International Real Estate Securities Fund

                       

Real Estate Securities Team

                       

Frankie Chun Wah Lee

    3     $ 591       5     $ 217       8     $ 275       —         —         —         —         —         —    

Abhinav Zutshi

    2     $ 352       0       —         0       —         —         —         —         —         —         —    

 

B-80


    Number of Other Accounts Managed and Total Assets by
Account Type
    Number of Other Accounts and Total Assets for Which
Advisory Fee is Performance Based
 
    Registered                             Registered                          
    Investment     Other Pooled    

Other

    Investment     Other Pooled     Other  
    Companies     Investment Vehicles     Accounts     Companies     Investment Vehicles     Accounts  
Name of   Number of     Assets     Number of     Assets     Number of     Assets     Number of     Assets     Number of     Assets     Number of     Assets  
Portfolio Manager   Accounts     Managed     Accounts     Managed     Accounts     Managed     Accounts     Managed     Accounts     Managed     Accounts     Managed  

Global Real Estate Securities Fund

                       

Real Estate Securities Team

                       

Nora Creedon

    3     $ 763       8     $ 1,620       18     $ 576       —         —         —         —         —         —    

Frankie Chun Wah Lee

    3     $ 591       5     $ 217       8     $ 275       —         —         —         —         —         —    

Global Infrastructure Fund

                       

Global Infrastructure Team

                       

Kristin Kuney

    1     $ 158       4     $ 1354       10     $ 301       —         —         —         —         —         —    

Nora Creedon

    3     $ 763       8     $ 1,620       18     $ 576       —         —         —         —         —         —    

U.S. Equity Dividend and Premium Fund

                       

QIS Team

                       

Monali Vora

    12     $ 5,832       2     $ 1,027       11,977     $ 85,124       —         —         —         —         —         —    

Aron Kershner

    12     $ 5,832       2     $ 1,027       11,977     $ 85,124       —         —         —         —         —         —    

John Sienkiewicz

    2     $ 2,778       —         —         —         —         —         —         —         —         —         —    

International Equity Dividend and Premium Fund

                       

QIS Team

                       

Monali Vora

    12     $ 5,832       2     $ 1,027       11,977     $ 85,124       —         —         —         —         —         —    

Aron Kershner

    12     $ 5,832       2     $ 1,027       11,977     $ 85,124       —         —         —         —         —         —    

John Sienkiewicz

    2     $ 2,778       —         —         —         —         —         —         —         —         —         —    

U.S. Tax-Managed Equity Fund

                       

QIS Team

                       

Osman Ali

    38     $ 27,427       31     $ 15,619       37     $ 9,061       —         —         —         —         4     $ 1,558  

Monali Vora

    12     $ 5,832       2     $ 1,027       11,977     $ 85,124       —         —         —         —         —         —    

John Sienkiewicz

    2     $ 2,778       —         —         —         —         —         —         —         —         —         —    

International Tax-Managed Equity Fund

                       

QIS Team

                       

Osman Ali

    38     $ 27,427       31     $ 15,619       37     $ 9,061       —         —         —         —         4     $ 1,558  

Monali Vora

    12     $ 5,832       2     $ 1,027       11,977     $ 85,124       —         —         —         —         —         —    

John Sienkiewicz

    2     $ 2,778       —         —         —         —         —         —         —         —         —         —    

 

Assets are preliminary, in millions, unless otherwise noted, as of December 31, 2019.

 

Includes wrap as a single account.

1 

Information is as of October 31, 2020.

 

B-81


Conflicts of Interest. The Investment Adviser’s portfolio managers are often responsible for managing one or more of the Funds as well as other accounts, including proprietary accounts, separate accounts and other pooled investment vehicles, such as unregistered hedge funds. A portfolio manager may manage a separate account or other pooled investment vehicle which may have materially higher fee arrangements than the Fund and may also have a performance-based fee. The side-by-side management of these funds may raise potential conflicts of interest relating to cross trading, the allocation of investment opportunities and the aggregation and allocation of trades.

The Investment Adviser has a fiduciary responsibility to manage all client accounts in a fair and equitable manner. It seeks to provide best execution of all securities transactions and aggregate and then allocate securities to client accounts in a fair and timely manner. To this end, the Investment Adviser has developed policies and procedures designed to mitigate and manage the potential conflicts of interest that may arise from side-by-side management. In addition, the Investment Adviser and the Funds have adopted policies limiting the circumstances under which cross-trades may be effected between a Fund and another client account. The Investment Adviser conducts periodic reviews of trades for consistency with these policies. For more information about conflicts of interests that may arise in connection with the portfolio manager’s management of the Fund’s investments and the investments of other accounts, see “POTENTIAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST.”

Portfolio Managers — Compensation

Compensation for portfolio managers of the Investment Adviser is comprised of a base salary and year-end discretionary variable compensation. The base salary is fixed from year to year. Year-end discretionary variable compensation is primarily a function of each portfolio manager’s individual performance and his or her contribution to overall team performance; the performance of GSAM and Goldman Sachs; the team’s net revenues for the past year which in part is derived from advisory fees, and for certain accounts, performance-based fees; and anticipated compensation levels among competitor firms. Portfolio managers are rewarded, in part, for their delivery of investment performance, which is reasonably expected to meet or exceed the expectations of clients and fund shareholders in terms of: excess return over an applicable benchmark, peer group ranking, risk management and factors specific to certain funds such as yield or regional focus. Performance is judged over 1-, 3- and 5-year time horizons.

For compensation purposes, the benchmarks for these Funds are:

 

   

Absolute Return Tracker Fund: HFRX Global Hedge Fund Index (net of management, administrative and performance/incentive fees)

 

   

Commodity Strategy Fund: S&P GSCI Total Return Index (Gross, USD, Unhedged)

 

   

Alternative Premia Fund: Bank of America Merrill Lynch USD LIBOR One-Month Constant Maturity Index, MSCI All Country World Index Investable Market Index (Net, USD, Unhedged) and Bloomberg Barclays Global Aggregate Bond Index (Gross, USD, Unhedged)

 

   

Managed Futures Strategy Fund: Bank of America Merrill Lynch USD LIBOR Constant Maturity Index

 

   

International Real Estate Securities Fund: FTSE EPRA Nareit Developed ex US Real Estate Securities Index (Gross, USD, Unhedged)

 

   

Real Estate Securities Fund: Wilshire U.S. Real Estate Securities Index

 

   

Global Real Estate Securities Fund: FTSE EPRA Nareit Developed Index (Gross, USD, Unhedged)

 

   

Global Infrastructure Fund: Dow Jones Brookfield Global Infrastructure Index

 

   

U.S. Equity Dividend and Premium Fund: S&P 500 Index and Bloomberg Barclays U.S. Aggregate Bond Index (Gross, USD, Unhedged)

 

   

International Equity Dividend and Premium Fund: MSCI EAFE Index and Bloomberg Barclays Global Aggregate Bond Index (Gross, USD, Unhedged)

 

   

U.S. Tax-Managed Equity Fund: Russell 3000® Index

 

   

International Tax-Managed Equity Fund: MSCI EAFE Index

The discretionary variable compensation for portfolio managers is also significantly influenced by various factors, including: (1) effective participation in team research discussions and process; and (2) management of risk in alignment with the targeted risk parameters and investment objectives of a Fund. Other factors may also be considered including: (1) general client/shareholder orientation and (2) teamwork and leadership.

 

B-82


As part of their year-end discretionary variable compensation and subject to certain eligibility requirements, portfolio managers may receive deferred equity-based and similar awards, in the form of: (1) shares of The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. (restricted stock units); and, (2) for certain portfolio managers, performance-tracking (or “phantom”) shares of a Fund or multiple funds. Performance-tracking shares are designed to provide a rate of return (net of fees) equal to that of the Fund(s) that a portfolio manager manages, or one or more other eligible funds, as determined by senior management, thereby aligning portfolio manager compensation with fund shareholder interests. The awards are subject to vesting requirements, deferred payment and clawback and forfeiture provisions. GSAM, Goldman Sachs or their affiliates expect, but are not required to, hedge the exposure of the performance-tracking shares of a Fund by, among other things, purchasing shares of the relevant Fund(s).

Other Compensation—In addition to base salary and year-end discretionary variable compensation, the Investment Adviser has a number of additional benefits in place including (1) a 401(k) program that enables employees to direct a percentage of their base salary and bonus income into a tax-qualified retirement plan; and (2) investment opportunity programs in which certain professionals may participate subject to certain eligibility requirements.

Portfolio Managers — Portfolio Managers’ Ownership of Securities in the Funds They Manage

The following table shows the portfolio managers’ ownership of securities, including those beneficially owned as well as those owned pursuant to the deferred compensation plan discussed above, in the Funds they manage as of June 30, 2020, unless otherwise noted:

 

     Dollar Range of Equity Securities

Name of Portfolio Manager

   Beneficially Owned by Portfolio Manager
Absolute Return Tracker Fund   

Federico Gilly

   $100,001–$500,000

Oliver Bunn

   $50,001–$100,000
Commodity Strategy Fund   

Samuel Finkelstein

   $100,001–$500,000

Peter Stone

   $10,001–$50,000
Alternative Premia Fund   

Federico Gilly

   $50,001–$100,000

James Park1

   None
Managed Futures Strategy Fund   

James Park

   $100,001–$500,000

Momoko Ono

   $50,001–$100,000
Real Estate Securities Fund   

Nora Creedon

   $100,001–$500,000

Kristin Kuney

   $50,001–$100,000

Timothy Ryan

   $100,001–$500,000
International Real Estate Securities Fund   

Frankie Chun Wah Lee

   None

Abhinav Zutshi

   $1–$10,000
Global Real Estate Securities Fund   

Nora Creedon

   $50,001–$100,000

Frankie Chun Wah Lee

   None
Global Infrastructure Fund   

Kristin Kuney

   $10,001–$50,000

Nora Creedon

   $50,001–$100,000
U.S. Equity Dividend and Premium Fund   

Monali Vora

   $100,001–$500,000

Aron Kershner

   $50,001–$100,000

John Sienkiewicz

   None
International Equity Dividend and Premium Fund   

Monali Vora

   $10,001–$50,000

Aron Kershner

   $10,001–$50,000

John Sienkiewicz

   $1–$10,000
U.S. Tax-Managed Equity Fund   

Osman Ali

   $10,001–$50,000

Monali Vora

   $50,001–$100,000

John Sienkiewicz

   None
International Tax-Managed Equity Fund   

Osman Ali

   $10,001–$50,000

Monali Vora

   $10,001–$50,000

John Sienkiewicz

   None

 

1 

Information is as of October 31, 2020.

 

B-83


Distributor and Transfer Agent

Distributor. Goldman Sachs, 200 West Street, New York, New York 10282, serves as the exclusive distributor of shares of the Funds pursuant to a “best efforts” arrangement as provided by a distribution agreement with the Trust on behalf of each Fund. Shares of the Funds are offered and sold on a continuous basis by Goldman Sachs, acting as agent. Pursuant to the distribution agreement, after the Prospectuses and periodic reports have been prepared, set in type and mailed to shareholders, Goldman Sachs will pay for the printing and distribution of copies thereof used in connection with the offering to prospective investors. Goldman Sachs will also pay for other supplementary sales literature and advertising costs. Goldman Sachs may enter into sales agreements with certain Intermediaries to solicit subscriptions for Class A, Class C, Investor, Class R, Class R6 and Class P Shares of the Funds. Goldman Sachs receives a portion of the sales charge imposed on the sale, in the case of Class A Shares, or redemption in the case of Class A and Class C Shares, of such Fund shares.

Goldman Sachs retained approximately the following combined commissions on sales of Class A and Class C Shares during the following periods:

 

     Fiscal year ended      Fiscal year ended      Fiscal year ended  

Fund

   December 31, 2019      December 31, 2018      December 31, 2017  

Absolute Return Tracker Fund

   $ 10,987      $ 15,989      $ 17,659  

Commodity Strategy Fund

   $ 3,879      $ 10,361      $ 10,030  

Alternative Premia Fund

   $ 2,027      $ 431      $ 1,776  

Managed Futures Strategy Fund

   $ 615      $ 2,956      $ 1,590  

Real Estate Securities Fund

   $ 2,352      $ 1,251      $ 2,580  

International Real Estate Securities Fund

   $ 16      $ 373      $ 2,086  

Global Real Estate Securities Fund

     —        $ 308      $ 3  

Global Infrastructure Fund*

   $ 1,063      $ 4,628        —    

U.S. Equity Dividend and Premium Fund

   $  40,342      $ 59,600      $ 119,381  

International Equity Dividend and Premium Fund

   $ 3,229      $ 278      $ 1,605  

U.S. Tax-Managed Equity Fund

   $ 2,487      $ 4,619      $ 3,361  

International Tax-Managed Equity Fund

   $ 930      $ 1,989      $ 4,915  

Dealer Reallowances. Class A Shares of the Funds are sold subject to a front-end sales charge, as described in the applicable Prospectuses and in this SAI in the section “SHARES OF THE TRUST.” Goldman Sachs may pay commissions to Intermediaries that sell Class A Shares of the Funds in the form of a “reallowance” of all or a portion of the sales charge paid on the purchase of those shares. Goldman Sachs reallows the following amounts, expressed as a percentage of each Fund’s offering price with respect to purchases of Class A Shares under $50,000 (or $100,000 in the case of the Commodity Strategy Fund):

 

Fund

   Dealer Reallowance as
Percentage of Offering Price
 

Absolute Return Tracker Fund

     6.39

Commodity Strategy Fund

     5.08

Alternative Premia Fund

     6.55

Managed Futures Strategy Fund

     6.04

Real Estate Securities Fund

     6.39

International Real Estate Securities Fund

     6.04

Global Real Estate Securities Fund

     0.00

Global Infrastructure Fund

     6.37

U.S. Equity Dividend and Premium Fund

     6.30

International Equity Dividend and Premium Fund

     6.17

U.S. Tax-Managed Equity Fund

     5.78

International Tax-Managed Equity Fund

     6.57

 

B-84


Dealer allowances may be changed periodically. During special promotions, the entire sales charge may be reallowed to Intermediaries. Intermediaries to whom substantially the entire sales charge is reallowed may be deemed to be “underwriters” under the 1933 Act.

Transfer Agent. Goldman Sachs, 71 South Wacker Drive, Chicago, IL 60606, serves as the Trust’s transfer and dividend disbursing agent. Under its transfer agency agreement with the Trust, Goldman Sachs has undertaken with the Trust with respect to each Fund to: (i) record the issuance, transfer and redemption of shares; (ii) provide purchase and redemption confirmations and quarterly statements, as well as certain other statements; (iii) provide certain information to the Trust’s custodian and the relevant sub-custodian in connection with redemptions; (iv) provide dividend crediting and certain disbursing agent services; (v) maintain shareholder accounts; (vi) provide certain state Blue Sky and other information; (vii) provide shareholders and certain regulatory authorities with tax related information; (viii) respond to shareholder inquiries; and (ix) render certain other miscellaneous services. For its transfer agency and dividend disbursing agent services, Goldman Sachs is entitled to receive a fee equal to, on an annualized basis, the following percentages:

 

Fund and Class

   Transfer Agency Fee  

Absolute Return Tracker Fund

  

Alternative Premia Fund

  

Global Infrastructure Fund

  

Global Real Estate Securities Fund

  

Managed Futures Strategy Fund

  

Class A

     0.17

Class C

     0.17  

Institutional

     0.04  

Investor

     0.17  

Class R

     0.17  

Class R6

     0.03  

Class P

     0.03  

Commodity Strategy Fund

  

Class A

     0.13

Class C

     0.13  

Institutional

     0.04  

Investor

     0.13  

Class R

     0.13  

Class R6

     0.03  

Class P

     0.03  

Real Estate Securities Fund

  

Class A

     0.17

Class C

     0.17  

Institutional

     0.04  

Investor

     0.17  

Class R

     0.17  

Service

     0.04  

Class R6

     0.03  

Class P

     0.03  

 

B-85


International Real Estate Securities Fund

  

U.S. Equity Dividend and Premium Fund

  

International Equity Dividend and Premium Fund

  

International Tax-Managed Equity Fund

  

Class A

     0.17

Class C

     0.17  

Institutional

     0.04  

Investor

     0.17  

Class R6

     0.03  

Class P

     0.03  

U.S. Tax-Managed Equity Fund

  

Class A

     0.17

Class C

     0.17  

Institutional

     0.04  

Investor

     0.17  

Service

     0.04  

Class R6

     0.03  

Class P

     0.03  

Goldman Sachs may pay to certain intermediaries who perform transfer agent services to shareholders a networking or sub-transfer agent fee. These payments will be made from the transfer agency fees noted above and in the Funds’ Prospectuses.

As compensation for the services rendered to the Trust by Goldman Sachs as transfer and dividend disbursing agent and the assumption by Goldman Sachs of the expenses related thereto, Goldman Sachs received fees for the fiscal years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017 from each Fund as follows under the fee schedules then in effect:

 

     Fiscal year ended      Fiscal year ended      Fiscal year ended  

Fund

   December 31, 2019*      December 31, 2018*      December 31, 2017  

Absolute Return Tracker Fund

        

Class A Shares

   $ 138,615      $ 114,864      $ 61,583  

Class C Shares

     31,377        30,492        23,964  

Institutional Shares

     974,240        770,407        502,535  

Investor Shares

     539,426        311,840        95,066  

Class P Shares**

     57,118        28,193        —    

Class R Shares

     3,950        3,844        4,304  

Class R6 Shares

     2,148        1,472        453  

Commodity Strategy Fund

        

Class A Shares

     32,894        58,590        63,774  

Class C Shares

     3,311        4,126        4,076  

Institutional Shares

     79,763        132,477        120,189  

Investor Shares

     12,191        11,003        13,514  

Class P Shares**

     870        915        —    

Class R Shares

     3,018        3,583        4,397  

Class R6 Shares

     23,575        633        247  

Alternative Premia Fund

        

Class A Shares

     14,764        19,283        34,185  

Class C Shares

     11,168        21,426        32,640  

Institutional Shares

     5,541        10,084        118,429  

Investor Shares

     14,031        12,880        17,513  

Class P Shares**

     4        20        —    

Class R Shares

     166        23        22  

Class R6 Shares

     12,877        18,370        49  

Managed Futures Strategy Fund

        

Class A Shares

     15,812        14,305        18,435  

Class C Shares

     5,646        6,351        6,366  

Institutional Shares

     29,795        47,984        46,290  

 

B-86


Investor Shares

     187,962        205,717        92,924  

Class P Shares**

     99        66        —    

Class R Shares

     1,004        1,047        809  

Class R6 Shares***

     15,481        8,955        —    

Real Estate Securities Fund

        

Class A Shares

     50,117        54,941        86,863  

Class C Shares

     5,716        14,498        25,791  

Institutional Shares

     12,472        45,262        113,781  

Service Shares

     686        811        1,033  

Investor Shares

     13,965        15,792        20,942  

Class P Shares**

     27,887        18,062        —    

Class R Shares

     3,102        4,239        6,385  

Class R6 Shares

     236        427        22  

International Real Estate Securities Fund

        

Class A Shares

     5,375        6,934        9,031  

Class C Shares

     328        1,066        1,813  

Institutional Shares

     2,958        21,694        73,256  

Investor Shares

     193        206        400  

Class P Shares**

     22,362        14,772        —    

Class R6 Shares

     21        132        4  

Global Real Estate Securities Fund

        

Class A Shares

     770        2,246        1,258  

Class C Shares

     97        50        65  

Institutional Shares

     829        18,223        80,744  

Investor Shares

     56        51        51  

Class P Shares**

     12,544        3,247        —    

Class R Shares

     54        50        51  

Class R6 Shares

     63,429        80,963        6  

Global Infrastructure Fund

        

Class A Shares

     2,224.00        1,914        69  

Class C Shares

     3,906        1,846        102  

Institutional Shares

     380        11,131        47,438  

Investor Shares

     1,005        423        51  

Class P Shares*

     890        685        —    

Class R Shares

     54        49        50  

Class R6 Shares

     57,527        57,452        6  

U.S. Equity Dividend and Premium Fund

        

Class A Shares

     343,807        460,745        496,203  

Class C Shares

     248,804        305,525        305,158  

Institutional Shares

     483,132        740,743        949,836  

Investor Shares

     799,677        873,292        698,158  

Class P Shares**

     198,463        139,190        —    

Class R6 Shares***

     81,354        45,336        —    

International Equity Dividend and Premium Fund

        

Class A Shares

     4,426        6,138        8,728  

Class C Shares

     1,689        5,690        6,091  

Institutional Shares

     4,761        80,175        148,595  

Investor Shares

     17,731        11,705        8,292  

Class P Shares**

     44,890        30,972        —    

Class R6 Shares***

     40,002        22,050        —    

U.S. Tax-Managed Equity Fund

        

Class A Shares

     110,649        98,581        90,275  

Class C Shares

     28,343        37,129        41,466  

Institutional Shares

     15,830        291,100        483,877  

Service Shares

     528        315        269  

 

B-87


Investor Shares

     34,984        32,089        29,391  

Class P Shares**

     36,556        11,526        —    

Class R6 Shares***

     435,927        222,666        —    

International Tax-Managed Equity Fund

        

Class A Shares

     14,965        19,565        10,725  

Class C Shares

     3,386        6,389        2,656  

Institutional Shares

     6,933        135,870        227,508  

Investor Shares

     30,208        27,774        16,612  

Class P Shares**

     19,752        10,018        —    

Class R6 Shares***

     181,724        90,679        —    

 

Prior to July 28, 2017, the fee for transfer agent and dividend disbursing agent services with respect to Class R6 Shares was 0.02%.

*

Prior to July 1, 2019, the fee for transfer agent and dividend disbursing agent services with respect to Class A, Class C, Investor and Class R Shares was 0.18%.

**

Class P shares of the Fund commenced operations on April 17, 2018.

***

Class R6 Shares of the Fund commenced operations on April 30, 2018.

The Trust’s distribution and transfer agency agreements each provide that Goldman Sachs may render similar services to others so long as the services Goldman Sachs provides thereunder are not impaired thereby. Such agreements also provide that the Trust will indemnify Goldman Sachs against certain liabilities.

Expenses

The Trust, on behalf of each Fund, is responsible for the payment of each Fund’s respective expenses. The expenses include, without limitation, the fees payable to the Investment Adviser, service fees and shareholder administration fees paid to Intermediaries, the fees and expenses of the Trust’s custodian and sub-custodians, transfer agent fees and expenses, pricing service fees and expenses, brokerage fees and commissions, filing fees for the registration or qualification of the Trust’s shares under federal or state securities laws, expenses of the organization of the Funds, fees and expenses incurred by the Trust in connection with membership in investment company organizations including, but not limited to, the Investment Company Institute, taxes, interest, costs of liability insurance, fidelity bonds or indemnification, any costs, expenses or losses arising out of any liability of, or claim for damages or other relief asserted against, the Trust for violation of any law, legal, tax and auditing fees and expenses (including the cost of legal and certain accounting services rendered by employees of Goldman Sachs or its affiliates with respect to the Trust), expenses of preparing and setting in type the Prospectuses, SAIs, proxy material, reports and notices and the printing and distributing of the same to the Trust’s shareholders and regulatory authorities, any expenses assumed by a Fund pursuant to its distribution and service plans, compensation and expenses of its Independent Trustees, the fees and expenses of pricing services, dividend expenses on short sales and extraordinary expenses, if any, incurred by the Trust. Except for fees and expenses under any service plan, shareholder administration plan or distribution and service plan applicable to a particular class and transfer agency fees and expenses, all Fund expenses are borne on a non-class specific basis.

Fees and expenses borne by the Funds relating to legal counsel, registering shares of a Fund, holding meetings and communicating with shareholders may include an allocable portion of the cost of maintaining an internal legal and compliance department. Each Fund may also bear an allocable portion of the Investment Adviser’s costs of performing certain accounting services not being provided by a Fund’s custodian.

The imposition of the Investment Adviser’s fees, as well as other operating expenses, will have the effect of reducing the total return to investors. From time to time, the Investment Adviser may waive receipt of its fees and/or assume certain expenses of a Fund, which would have the effect of lowering that Fund’s overall expense ratio and increasing total return to investors at the time such amounts are waived or assumed, as the case may be.

 

B-88


As of April 29, 2020, the Investment Adviser has agreed to reduce or limit certain “Other Expenses” of the Funds (excluding acquired fund fees and expenses, transfer agency fees and expenses, service fees and shareholder administration fees (as applicable), taxes, dividend and interest expenses on short sales (as applicable), interest, brokerage fees, expenses of shareholder meetings, litigation and indemnification, and extraordinary expenses) to the following annual percentage rates of each Fund’s average daily net assets through at least April 29, 2021:

 

Fund

   Other Expenses  

Absolute Return Tracker Fund

     0.014

Commodity Strategy Fund

     0.074  

Alternative Premia Fund

     0.114  

Managed Futures Strategy Fund

     0.254  

Real Estate Securities Fund

     0.004  

International Real Estate Securities Fund

     0.004  

Global Real Estate Securities Fund

     0.004  

Global Infrastructure Fund

     0.054