Form 10-Q RingCentral Inc For: Mar 31

May 10, 2019 6:08 AM
 
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, DC 20549
_________________________________________________________
FORM 10-Q
_________________________________________________________
(Mark One)
QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the quarterly period ended March 31, 2019
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from                      to                     
Commission File Number: 001-36089
_________________________________________________________
RingCentral, Inc.
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in its Charter)
_________________________________________________________
Delaware
(State or other jurisdiction
of incorporation or organization)
94-3322844
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
20 Davis Drive
Belmont, California 94002
(Address of principal executive offices)
(650) 472-4100
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class
 
Trading Symbol(s)
 
Name of each exchange on which registered
 
Class A Common Stock,
par value $0.0001
 
 
 
RNG
 
 
 
New York Stock Exchange
 
Securities registered pursuant to section 12(g) of the Act:
None

_________________________________________________________
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes  x    No  o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes  x    No  o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer”, “smaller reporting company”, and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
x
 
Accelerated filer
o
Non-accelerated filer
o
 
Smaller reporting company
o
Emerging growth company
o
 
 
 
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).  Yes  o No   x
As of May 2, 2019, there were 70,347,665 shares of Class A Common Stock issued and outstanding and 11,591,207 shares of Class B Common Stock issued and outstanding.
 



TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
 
Page
Item 1.
 
 
 
 
 
 
Item 3.
Item 4.
 
 
 
 
Item 1.
Item 1A.
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
Item 5.
Item 6.
 

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Table of Contents

SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q contains forward-looking statements that are based on our management’s beliefs and assumptions and on information currently available to our management. The forward-looking statements are contained principally in, but not limited to, the sections entitled “Risk Factors” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations”. Forward-looking statements include all statements that are not historical facts and can be identified by terms such as “anticipates”, “believes”, “could”, “seeks”, “estimates”, “expects”, “intends”, “may”, “plans”, “potential”, “predicts”, “projects”, “should”, “will”, “would” or similar expressions and the negatives of those terms. Forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements about:
our progress against short-term and long-term goals;
our future financial performance;
our anticipated growth, growth strategies and our ability to effectively manage that growth and effect these strategies;
our success in the enterprise market;
anticipated trends, developments and challenges in our business and in the markets in which we operate, as well as general macroeconomic conditions;
our ability to scale to our desired goals, particularly the implementation of new processes and systems and the addition to our workforce;
the impact of competition in our industry and innovation by our competitors;
our ability to anticipate and adapt to future changes in our industry;
our ability to predict software subscriptions revenues, formulate accurate financial projections, and make strategic business decisions based on our analysis of market trends;
our ability to anticipate market needs and develop new and enhanced products and subscriptions to meet those needs, and our ability to successfully monetize them;
maintaining and expanding our customer base;
maintaining, expanding and responding to changes in our relationships with other companies;
maintaining and expanding our distribution channels, including our network of sales agents and resellers;
our success with our carrier partners;
our ability to sell, market, and support our products and services;
our ability to expand our business to medium-sized and larger customers as well as expanding domestically and internationally;
our ability to realize increased purchasing leverage and economies of scale as we expand;
the impact of seasonality on our business;
the impact of any failure of our solutions or solution innovations;
our reliance on our third-party product and service providers;
the potential effect on our business of litigation to which we may become a party;
our liquidity and working capital requirements;
the impact of changes in the regulatory environment;
our ability to protect our intellectual property and rely on open source licenses;
our expectations regarding the growth and reliability of the internet infrastructure;

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the timing of acquisitions of, or making and exiting investments in, other entities, businesses or technologies;
our ability to successfully and timely integrate, and realize the benefits of any significant acquisition we may make;
our capital expenditure projections;
the estimates and estimate methodologies used in preparing our condensed consolidated financial statements;
the political environment and stability in the regions in which we or our subcontractors operate;
the impact of economic downturns on us and our customers;
our ability to defend our systems and our customer information from fraud and cyber-attack;
our ability to prevent the use of fraudulent payment methods for our products;
our ability to retain key employees and to attract qualified personnel; and
the impact of foreign currencies on our non-U.S. business as we expand our business internationally.
Forward-looking statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be significantly different from any future results, performance or achievements expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements. We discuss these risks in greater detail in the section entitled “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q. Given these uncertainties, you should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements. Also, forward-looking statements represent our management’s beliefs and assumptions only as of the date of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q. You should read this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q completely and with the understanding that our actual future results may be significantly different from what we expect.
Except as required by law, we assume no obligation to update these forward-looking statements publicly, or to update the reasons actual results could differ significantly from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements, even if new information becomes available in the future.

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PART I — FINANCIAL INFORMATION
Item 1. Financial Statements
RINGCENTRAL, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(Unaudited, in thousands)
 
March 31,
2019
 
December 31,
2018
Assets
 

 
 

Current assets
 

 
 

Cash and cash equivalents
$
549,030

 
$
566,329

Accounts receivable, net
100,706

 
94,375

Deferred sales commission costs
24,924

 
23,038

Prepaid expenses and other current assets
29,708

 
23,772

Total current assets
704,368

 
707,514

Property and equipment, net
74,203

 
70,205

Operating lease right-of-use-assets
31,719

 

Deferred sales commission costs, non-current
59,098

 
55,735

Goodwill
55,373

 
31,238

Acquired intangibles, net
30,634

 
19,480

Other assets
10,307

 
10,154

Total assets
$
965,702

 
$
894,326

Liabilities and Stockholders' Equity
 
 
 
Current liabilities
 
 
 
Accounts payable
$
19,366

 
$
10,145

Accrued liabilities
115,363

 
100,687

Deferred revenue
93,828

 
88,527

Total current liabilities
228,557

 
199,359

Convertible senior notes, net
371,534

 
366,552

Operating lease liabilities
23,693

 

Other long-term liabilities
10,694

 
10,806

Total liabilities
634,478

 
576,717

 
 
 
 
Commitments and contingencies (Note 9)


 


 
 
 
 
Stockholders' equity
 
 
 
Common stock
8

 
8

Additional paid-in capital
571,426

 
551,078

Accumulated other comprehensive income
1,851

 
2,226

Accumulated deficit
(242,061
)
 
(235,703
)
Total stockholders' equity
331,224

 
317,609

Total liabilities and stockholders' equity
$
965,702

 
$
894,326


See accompanying notes to condensed consolidated financial statements

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RINGCENTRAL, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS
(Unaudited, in thousands, except per share data)
 
Three Months Ended
March 31,
 
2019
 
2018
Revenues
 
 
 
Software subscriptions
$
182,708

 
$
136,960

Other
18,781

 
13,383

Total revenues
201,489

 
150,343

Cost of revenues
 
 
 
Software subscriptions
35,334

 
24,526

Other
15,501

 
11,148

Total cost of revenues
50,835

 
35,674

Gross profit
150,654

 
114,669

Operating expenses
 
 
 
Research and development
29,787

 
22,651

Sales and marketing
99,551

 
71,920

General and administrative
28,779

 
21,449

Total operating expenses
158,117

 
116,020

Loss from operations
(7,463
)
 
(1,351
)
Other income (expense), net
 
 
 
Interest expense
(5,032
)
 
(1,411
)
Other income, net
3,051

 
73

Other income (expense), net
(1,981
)
 
(1,338
)
Loss before income taxes
(9,444
)
 
(2,689
)
Provision for (benefit from) income taxes
(3,086
)
 
27

Net loss
$
(6,358
)
 
$
(2,716
)
Net loss per common share:
 
 
 
Basic and diluted
$
(0.08
)
 
$
(0.03
)
Weighted-average number of shares used in computing net loss per share:
 
 
 
Basic and diluted
81,400

 
78,341


See accompanying notes to condensed consolidated financial statements

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RINGCENTRAL, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE LOSS
(Unaudited, in thousands)
 
Three Months Ended
March 31,
 
2019
 
2018
Net loss
$
(6,358
)
 
$
(2,716
)
Other comprehensive loss
 
 
 
Foreign currency translation adjustments
(375
)
 
222

Comprehensive loss
$
(6,733
)
 
$
(2,494
)
See accompanying notes to condensed consolidated financial statements

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RINGCENTRAL, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
(Unaudited, in thousands)

 
Common Stock
 
Additional Paid-in Capital
 
Accumulated Other Comprehensive Loss
 
Accumulated Deficit
 
Total Stockholders' Equity
 
 
 
 
 
 
Shares
 
Amount
 
 
 
 
Balance as of December 31, 2018
81,046
 
$
8

 
$
551,078

 
$
2,226

 
$
(235,703
)
 
$
317,609

Issuance of common stock in connection with Equity Incentive and Employee Stock Purchase plans
782
 

 
732

 

 

 
732

Share-based compensation

 

 
19,616

 

 

 
19,616

Changes in comprehensive loss

 

 

 
(375
)
 

 
(375
)
Net loss

 

 

 

 
(6,358
)
 
(6,358
)
Balance as of March 31, 2019
81,828
 
$
8

 
$
571,426

 
$
1,851

 
$
(242,061
)
 
$
331,224



 
Common Stock
 
Additional Paid-in Capital
 
Accumulated Other Comprehensive Loss
 
Accumulated Deficit
 
Total Stockholders' Equity
 
 
 
 
 
 
Shares
 
Amount
 
 
 
 
Balance as of December 31, 2017
78,054

 
$
8

 
$
434,840

 
$
2,998

 
$
(209,500
)
 
$
228,346

Issuance of common stock in connection with Equity Incentive and Employee Stock Purchase plans
801

 

 
2,674

 

 

 
2,674

Shares repurchased
(239
)
 

 
(15,000
)
 

 

 
(15,000
)
Share-based compensation
 
 

 
13,427

 

 

 
13,427

Equity component of convertible senior notes, net of issuance costs

 

 
98,823

 

 

 
98,823

Purchase of capped calls

 

 
(49,910
)
 

 

 
(49,910
)
Changes in comprehensive loss

 

 

 
222

 

 
222

Net loss

 

 

 

 
(2,716
)
 
(2,716
)
Balance as of March 31, 2018
78,616

 
$
8

 
$
484,854

 
$
3,220

 
$
(212,216
)
 
$
275,866



See accompanying notes to condensed consolidated financial statements


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RINGCENTRAL, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
(Unaudited, in thousands)
 
Three Months Ended
March 31,
 
2019
 
2018
Cash flows from operating activities
 

 
 

Net loss
$
(6,358
)
 
$
(2,716
)
Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash provided by operating activities:
 
 
 
Depreciation and amortization
7,696

 
5,542

Share-based compensation
19,398

 
13,267

Amortization of deferred sales commission costs
6,228

 
3,984

Amortization of debt discount and issuance costs
4,982

 
1,370

Foreign currency remeasurement (gain) loss
(11
)
 
267

Provision for bad debt
337

 
554

Deferred income taxes
(235
)
 
(6
)
Tax benefit from release of valuation allowance
(3,245
)
 

Other
1,347

 
206

Changes in assets and liabilities:
 
 
 
Accounts receivable
(5,267
)
 
(9,243
)
Deferred sales commission costs
(11,477
)
 
(7,478
)
Prepaid expenses and other current assets
(5,834
)
 
(2,270
)
Other assets
(83
)
 
337

Accounts payable
7,757

 
(2,816
)
Accrued liabilities
(103
)
 
6,079

Deferred revenue
5,301

 
5,120

Other liabilities
(236
)
 
(12
)
Net cash provided by operating activities
20,197

 
12,185

Cash flows from investing activities
 
 
 
Purchases of property and equipment
(6,862
)
 
(4,587
)
Capitalized internal-use software
(3,543
)
 
(2,759
)
Cash paid for business combination, net of cash acquired
(27,870
)
 

Cash paid for acquisition of intangible assets

 
(18,470
)
Net cash used in investing activities
(38,275
)
 
(25,816
)
Cash flows from financing activities
 
 
 
Proceeds from issuance of convertible senior notes, net of issuance costs

 
449,457

Payments for capped call transactions and costs

 
(49,910
)
Repurchase of common stock

 
(15,000
)
Proceeds from issuance of stock in connection with stock plans
2,666

 
3,688

Taxes paid related to net share settlement of equity awards
(1,934
)
 
(1,014
)
Net cash provided by financing activities
732

 
387,221

Effect of exchange rate changes
47

 
181

Net increase (decrease) in cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash
(17,299
)
 
373,771

Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash
 
 
 
Beginning of period
566,329

 
181,192

End of period
$
549,030

 
$
554,963

Supplemental disclosure of cash flow data
 
 
 
Cash paid for income taxes, net of refunds
$
64

 
$
44

Non-cash investing and financing activities
 
 
 
Cash held for future indemnity claims
$
7,200

 
$

Equipment acquired under financing obligations
$

 
$
4,513

Liability for potential future payments
$

 
$
3,848

Equipment and capitalized internal-use software purchased and unpaid at period end
$
3,559

 
$
1,108

See accompanying notes to condensed consolidated financial statements

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RINGCENTRAL, INC.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Unaudited)


Note 1. Description of Business and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Description of Business
RingCentral, Inc. (the “Company”) is a provider of software-as-a-service (“SaaS”) solutions that enables businesses to communicate, collaborate and connect. The Company was incorporated in California in 1999 and was reincorporated in Delaware on September 26, 2013.
Basis of Presentation and Consolidation
The Company's unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes reflect all adjustments (all of which are normal, recurring in nature and those discussed in these notes) that are, in the opinion of management, necessary for a fair presentation of the interim periods presented. All intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation. The results of operations for the interim periods presented are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected for any subsequent quarter or for the entire year ending December 31, 2019. Certain information and note disclosures normally included in annual consolidated financial statements prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”) have been condensed or omitted under the rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”).
Effective January 1, 2019, the Company adopted the requirements of Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842) ("Topic 842"), issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”), as discussed in Note 2.
The unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the Company’s audited consolidated financial statements and related notes included in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018, filed with the SEC on February 27, 2019.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of condensed consolidated financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the condensed consolidated financial statements, and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. The significant estimates made by management affect revenues, the allowance for doubtful accounts, deferred sales commission costs, goodwill, useful lives of intangible assets, share-based compensation, capitalization of internally developed software, return reserves, provision for income taxes, uncertain tax positions, loss contingencies, sales tax liabilities, and accrued liabilities. Management periodically evaluates these estimates and will make adjustments prospectively based upon the results of such periodic evaluations. Actual results could differ from these estimates.
Changes in Significant Accounting Policies
Except for the accounting policies for leases that were updated as a result of adopting Topic 842, there have been no changes to the Company's significant accounting policies described in the Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018, that have had a material impact on the Company’s condensed consolidated financial statements and related notes.
Leases
The Company determines if a contract is a lease or contains a lease at the inception of the contract, and reassesses that conclusion if the contract is modified. All leases are assessed for classification as an operating lease or a finance lease. Operating lease right-of-use (“ROU”) assets are presented separately on the Company's Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheet. Operating lease liabilities are separated into a current portion, included within accrued liabilities on the Company's Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheet, and a non-current portion included within operating lease liabilities on the Company's Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheet. The Company does not have significant finance lease ROU assets or liabilities. ROU assets represent the Company's right to use an underlying asset for the lease term and lease liabilities represent its obligation to make lease payments arising from the lease. The Company does not obtain and control its right to use the identified asset until the lease commencement date.
The Company’s lease liabilities are recognized at the applicable lease commencement date based on the present value of the lease payments required to be paid over the lease term. Because the rate implicit in the lease is not readily determinable, the Company generally uses its incremental borrowing rate to discount the lease payments to present value. The estimated incremental

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RINGCENTRAL, INC.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Unaudited)

borrowing rate is derived from information available at the lease commencement date. The Company factors in publicly available data for instruments with similar characteristics when calculating its incremental borrowing rates. The Company's ROU assets are also recognized at the applicable lease commencement date. The ROU asset equals the carrying amount of the related lease liability, adjusted for any lease payments made prior to lease commencement and lease incentives provided by the lessor. Variable lease payments are expensed as incurred and do not factor into the measurement of the applicable ROU asset or lease liability.
The term of the Company's leases equal the non-cancellable period of the lease, including any rent-free periods provided by the lessor, and also include options to renew or extend the lease (including by not terminating the lease) that the Company is reasonably certain to exercise. The Company establishes the term of each lease at lease commencement, and reassesses that term in subsequent periods when one of the triggering events outlined in Topic 842 occurs. Operating lease cost for lease payments is recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term.
The Company's lease contracts often include lease and non-lease components. For facility leases, the Company has elected the practical expedient offered by the standard to not separate lease from non-lease components and accounts for them as a single lease component. For the Company's other contracts that include leases, the Company accounts for the lease and non-lease components separately.
The Company has elected, for all classes of underlying assets, not to recognize ROU assets and lease liabilities for leases with a term of twelve months or less. Lease cost for short-term leases is recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term. Additionally, for certain facility leases, the Company applies a portfolio approach, whereby it effectively accounts for the operating lease ROU assets and liabilities for multiple leases as a single unit of account because the accounting effect of doing so is not material.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements Not Yet Adopted
In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-04, Simplifying the Test for Goodwill Impairment, which modifies the goodwill impairment test and requires an entity to write down the carrying value of goodwill up to the amount by which the carrying amount of a reporting unit exceeds its fair value. The standard is effective for interim and annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2019, with early adoption permitted. The adoption of this amendment is not expected to have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements or disclosures.
In July 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-09, Codification Improvements, which is intended to change or to clarify the codification or correct unintended application of guidance that is not expected to have a significant effect on current accounting practice or create a significant administrative cost to most entities. Since this applies to various codifications, its implementation and impact on financial statements would be commensurate with the codification itself, for example -  it clarifies when companies should recognize excess tax benefits for share-based compensation awards; removes inconsistent guidance about income tax accounting for business combinations; clarifies derivatives measurement of a liability with an identical instrument held as an asset, and allows companies to use the portfolio approach to valuation of financial instruments; etc. The adoption of this amendment is not expected to have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements or disclosures.
In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-13, Fair Value Measurement (Topic 820): Disclosure Framework - Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Fair Value Measurements, which expands the disclosure requirements for Level 3 fair value measurements and expands disclosures for entities that calculate net assets value. This amendment is applicable to all public business entities for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2019, with early adoption permitted. The Company expects to adopt this update effective fiscal first quarter of 2020. The adoption of this amendment is not expected to have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements or disclosures.
In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-15, Intangibles - Goodwill and Other - Internal-Use Software (Subtopic 350-40): Customer's Accounting for Implementation Costs Incurred in a Cloud Computing Arrangement That is a Service Contract, which aligns the requirements for capitalizing implementation costs incurred in a hosting arrangement that is a service contract with the requirements for capitalizing implementation costs incurred to develop or obtain internal-use software. This amendment is applicable to all public business entities for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2019, with early adoption permitted. The Company will early adopt this guidance in 2019 and does not expect implementation of this amendment to have a material impact on its financial statements or disclosures.
Note 2. Impact of Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements

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RINGCENTRAL, INC.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Unaudited)

On January 1, 2019, the Company adopted FASB ASU No. 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842), which requires recognition of ROU assets and lease liabilities for most leases on the Company’s Consolidated Balance Sheet. The Company adopted ASU 2016-02 using a modified retrospective transition approach as of the effective date as permitted by the amendments in ASU 2018-11. As a result, the Company was not required to adjust its comparative period financial information for effects of the standard or make the new required lease disclosures for the periods before the date of adoption (i.e., January 1, 2019). The Company elected the package of practical expedients which allows the Company not to reassess (1) whether existing or expired contracts, as of the adoption date, contain leases, (2) the lease classification for existing leases, and (3) whether existing initial direct costs meet the new definition. The Company also elected the practical expedient to not separate lease and non-lease components for its facility leases, and to not recognize ROU assets and liabilities for short-term leases.
The standard had a material impact on the Company’s Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheet but did not have a significant impact on its Condensed Consolidated Statement of Operations or Cash Flows. The most significant impact was the recognition of ROU assets and lease liabilities for operating leases.
The adoption of this new standard at January 1, 2019, resulted in the following changes (in thousands):
assets increased by $33.5 million, primarily representing the recognition of ROU assets for operating leases; and
liabilities increased by $33.5 million, primarily representing the recognition of lease liabilities for operating leases.

Note 3. Revenue and Cost of Revenue
The Company derives its revenues primarily from software subscriptions, sale of products, and professional services. Revenues are recognized when control of these services is transferred to the customers, in an amount that reflects the consideration the Company expects to be entitled to in exchange for those services.
Disaggregation of revenue
The following table provides information about disaggregated revenue by primary geographical markets:
 
Three Months Ended
March 31,
 
2019
 
2018
Primary geographical markets
 

 
 

North America
95
%
 
96
%
Others
5

 
4

Total revenues
100
%
 
100
%
The Company derived approximately 91% and 86% of subscription revenues from RingCentral Office product for the three months ended March 31, 2019 and 2018, respectively.
Deferred revenue
During the three months ended March 31, 2019, the Company recognized revenue of $49.1 million, that was included in the corresponding deferred revenue balance at the beginning of the year.
Remaining performance obligations
The typical subscription term ranges from one month to five years. Contracted revenue as of March 31, 2019 that has not yet been recognized was $0.7 billion. This excludes contracts with an original expected length of less than one year. The Company expects to recognize approximately 58% of this balance over the next 12 months and 42% thereafter.  
Other revenues and cost of revenues
Other revenues are primarily comprised of product revenue from the sale of pre-configured phones, phone rentals, and professional services. Product revenues were $9.6 million and $8.0 million for the three months ended March 31, 2019 and 2018, respectively. Cost of product revenues were $9.0 million and $7.9 million for the three months ended March 31, 2019 and 2018, respectively.

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RINGCENTRAL, INC.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Unaudited)

Note 4. Financial Statement Components
Cash and cash equivalents consisted of the following (in thousands):
 
March 31,
2019
 
December 31,
2018
Cash
$
60,404

 
$
80,457

Money market funds
488,626

 
485,872

Total cash and cash equivalents
$
549,030

 
$
566,329

Accounts receivable, net consisted of the following (in thousands):
 
March 31,
2019
 
December 31, 2018
Accounts receivable
$
90,701

 
$
82,740

Unbilled accounts receivable
12,374

 
14,141

Allowance for doubtful accounts
(2,369
)
 
(2,506
)
Accounts receivable, net
$
100,706

 
$
94,375

Prepaid expenses and other current assets consisted of the following (in thousands):
 
March 31,
2019
 
December 31,
2018
Prepaid expenses
$
15,928

 
$
14,805

Inventory
251

 
199

Other current assets
13,529

 
8,768

Total prepaid expenses and other current assets
$
29,708

 
$
23,772


Property and equipment, net consisted of the following (in thousands):
 
March 31,
2019
 
December 31,
2018
Computer hardware and software
$
105,851

 
$
103,766

Internal-use software development costs
33,660

 
29,886

Furniture and fixtures
6,557

 
5,896

Leasehold improvements
8,363

 
6,863

Total property and equipment
154,431

 
146,411

Less: accumulated depreciation and amortization
(80,228
)
 
(76,206
)
Property and equipment, net
$
74,203

 
$
70,205

Depreciation and amortization expense was $5.8 million and $4.5 million for the three months ended March 31, 2019 and 2018, respectively.
The carrying value of goodwill is as follows (in thousands):
Balance at December 31, 2018
 
$
31,238

Connect First acquisition
 
24,552

Foreign currency translation adjustments
 
(417
)
Balance at March 31, 2019
 
$
55,373


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RINGCENTRAL, INC.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Unaudited)

The carrying values of intangible assets are as follows (in thousands):
 
 
 
March 31, 2019
 
December 31, 2018
 
Estimated Lives
 
Cost
 
Accumulated
Amortization
 
Acquired
Intangibles, Net
 
Cost
 
Accumulated
Amortization
 
Acquired
Intangibles, Net
Customer relationships
2 to 5 years
 
$
21,247

 
$
5,369

 
$
15,878

 
$
20,121

 
$
4,460

 
$
15,661

Developed technology
3 to 5 years
 
18,039

 
3,283

 
14,756

 
6,098

 
2,279

 
3,819

Total acquired intangible assets
 
 
$
39,286

 
$
8,652

 
$
30,634

 
$
26,219

 
$
6,739

 
$
19,480

Amortization expense from acquired intangible assets for the three months ended March 31, 2019 and 2018 was $1.9 million and $1.1 million, respectively.
Amortization of developed technology is included in cost of revenues and amortization of customer relationships is included in sales and marketing expenses in the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations.  At March 31, 2019, the weighted average amortization period for customer relationships and developed technology both were approximately 3.0 years.
Estimated amortization expense for acquired intangible assets for the following five fiscal years and thereafter is as follows (in thousands):
2019 (remaining)
$
6,829

2020
8,761

2021
8,504

2022
4,711

2023 onwards
1,829

Total estimated amortization expense
$
30,634

Accrued liabilities consisted of the following (in thousands):
 
March 31, 2019
 
December 31, 2018
Accrued compensation and benefits
$
22,049

 
$
20,932

Accrued sales, use and telecom related taxes
20,465

 
19,609

Accrued marketing
12,184

 
12,291

Operating lease liabilities, short-term
11,937

 

Other accrued expenses
48,728

 
47,855

Total accrued liabilities
$
115,363

 
$
100,687

Accrued sales, use and telecom related taxes included current sales tax liability for non-contingent amounts expected to be remitted in the next twelve months of $14.8 million and $14.4 million as of March 31, 2019 and December 31, 2018, respectively.
Deferred Sales Commission Costs
Amortization expense for the deferred sales commission costs for the three months ended March 31, 2019 and 2018 were $6.2 million and $4.0 million, respectively. There was no impairment loss in relation to the costs capitalized for the periods presented.

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RINGCENTRAL, INC.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Unaudited)

Note 5. Fair Value of Financial Instruments
The Company measures and reports certain cash equivalents, including money market funds and certificates of deposit, at fair value in accordance with the provisions of the authoritative accounting guidance that addresses fair value measurements.  This guidance establishes a hierarchy for inputs used in measuring fair value that maximizes the use of observable inputs and minimizes the use of unobservable inputs by requiring that the most observable inputs be used when available.  The hierarchy is broken down into three levels based on the reliability of the inputs as follows:
Level 1:
Observable inputs that reflect unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.
Level 2:
Other inputs, such as quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities, quoted prices for identical or similar assets or liabilities in inactive markets, or other inputs that are observable or can be corroborated by observable market data for substantially the full term of the asset or liability.
Level 3:
Unobservable inputs that are supported by little or no market activity and that are based on management’s assumptions, including fair value measurements determined by using pricing models, discounted cash flow methodologies or similar techniques.
The financial assets carried at fair value were determined using the following inputs (in thousands):
 
Balance at
March 31, 2019
 
(Level 1)
 
(Level 2)
 
(Level 3)
Cash equivalents:
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Money market funds
$
488,626

 
$
488,626

 
$

 
$

 
Balance at
December 31, 2018
 
(Level 1)
 
(Level 2)
 
(Level 3)
Cash equivalents:
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Money market funds
$
485,872

 
$
485,872

 
$

 
$

The Company’s other financial instruments, including accounts receivable, accounts payable, and other current liabilities, are carried at cost, which approximates fair value due to the relatively short maturity of those instruments.
As of March 31, 2019, the fair value of the 0% convertible senior notes due 2023 (the “Notes”) was approximately $653.0 million. The fair value was determined based on the quoted price for the Notes in an inactive market on the last trading day of the reporting period and is considered as Level 2 in the fair value hierarchy.
Note 6. Business Acquisition

On January 14, 2019, the Company acquired the equity interests of Connect First, Inc. (“Connect First”), a cloud-based outbound/blended customer engagement platform for midsize and enterprise companies. The acquisition will complement the Company’s current Customer Engagement portfolio to provide differentiated customer experiences.

The total purchase price of approximately $36.5 million consisted of cash of $29.3 million and $7.2 million held to cover indemnity claims made by the Company after the closing date. In connection with the acquisition, the Company granted $4.0 million in restricted stock units, which will vest over four years.

The preliminary allocation of the purchase price of the assets acquired and liabilities assumed based on their estimated fair values was as follows (in thousands):
Cash and cash equivalents
$
1,427

Other tangible assets acquired
2,266

Acquired intangible assets
13,300

Goodwill
24,552

Total assets acquired
$
41,545

Liabilities assumed
(5,048
)
Total consideration
$
36,497


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RINGCENTRAL, INC.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Unaudited)


The amortizable intangible assets have a weighted average useful life of three years. The purchase price exceeded the estimated fair value of the tangible and identifiable intangible assets and liabilities acquired and, as a result of the allocation, the Company recorded goodwill of $24.6 million, which is not deductible for tax purposes. The goodwill recognized is attributable primarily to contributions of the entity's technology to the overall corporate strategy, enhancements to the Company's contact center product offerings, and assembled workforce of the acquired business.
Note 7. Convertible Senior Notes
In March 2018, the Company issued $460.0 million aggregate principal amount of 0% convertible senior notes due 2023 in a private placement, including the exercise in full of the over-allotment options of the initial purchasers. The Notes are senior unsecured obligations of the Company, do not bear regular interest, and the principal amount of the Notes does not accrete. The Notes may bear special interest under specified circumstances as outlined in the indenture relating to the issuance of Notes (the “Indenture”) or if the Notes are not freely tradeable as required by the indenture. The Notes will mature on March 15, 2023, unless earlier repurchased or redeemed by the Company or converted pursuant to their terms. The total net proceeds from the debt offering, after deducting initial purchase discounts and debt issuance costs, were approximately $449.5 million.
Each $1,000 principal amount of the Notes is initially convertible into 12.2782 shares of the Company’s Class A common stock par value $0.0001 (“Class A Common Stock”), which is equivalent to an initial conversion price of approximately $81.45 per share. The conversion rate is subject to adjustment upon the occurrence of certain specified events but will not be adjusted for any accrued and unpaid special interest. In addition, upon the occurrence of a make-whole fundamental change or a redemption period, each as defined in the Indenture, the Company will, in certain circumstances, increase the conversion rate by a number of additional shares for a holder that elects to convert its Notes in connection with such make-whole fundamental change or during the relevant redemption period.
The Notes will be convertible at certain times and upon the occurrence of certain events in the future. Further, on or after December 15, 2022, until the close of business on the scheduled trading day immediately preceding the maturity date, holders of the Notes may convert all or a portion of their Notes regardless of these conditions.
Upon conversion, the Company will pay or deliver, as the case may be, cash, shares of Class A Common Stock, or a combination of cash and shares of Class A Common Stock, at the Company’s election.  It is the Company’s current intent to settle the principal amount of the Notes with cash.  
During the three months ended March 31, 2019, the conditions allowing holders of the Notes to convert were not met.
The Company may redeem the Notes, at its option, on or after September 20, 2020, at a redemption price equal to 100% of the principal amount thereof, plus accrued and unpaid special interest to, but excluding the redemption date, subject to certain conditions. No sinking fund is provided for the Notes. Upon the occurrence of a fundamental change (as defined in the Indenture) prior to the maturity date, holders may require the Company to repurchase all or a portion of the Notes for cash at a price equal to 100% of the principal amount of the Notes to be repurchased, plus any accrued and unpaid special interest to, but excluding, the fundamental change repurchase date.
The net carrying amount of the liability component of the Notes was as follows (in thousands):
 
March 31,
2019
Principal
$
460,000

Unamortized discount
(81,627
)
Unamortized issuance cost
(6,839
)
Net carrying amount
$
371,534


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RINGCENTRAL, INC.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Unaudited)

The following table sets forth the interest expense recognized related to the Notes (in thousands):
 
For the Three Months Ended March 31,
 
2019
 
2018
Contractual interest expense
$

 
$

Amortization of debt discount
4,643

 
1,282

Amortization of debt issuance costs
339

 
88

Total interest expense related to the Notes
$
4,982

 
$
1,370

In connection with the offering of the Notes, the Company entered into privately-negotiated capped call transactions with certain counterparties (the “Capped Calls”). The Capped Calls each have an initial strike price of approximately $81.45 per share, subject to certain adjustments, which corresponds to the initial conversion price of the Notes. The Capped Calls have initial cap prices of $119.035 per share, subject to certain adjustments. The Capped Calls cover, subject to anti-dilution adjustments, approximately 5.6 million shares of Class A Common Stock. The Capped Calls are generally intended to reduce or offset the potential dilution to the Class A Common Stock upon any conversion of the Notes with such reduction or offset, as the case may be, subject to a cap based on the cap price. The Capped Calls settle in components commencing January 13, 2023 with the last component expiring on March 13, 2023. The Capped Calls are subject to either adjustment or termination upon the occurrence of specified extraordinary events affecting the Company, including a merger event; a tender offer; and a nationalization, insolvency or delisting involving the Company. In addition, the Capped Calls are subject to certain specified additional disruption events that may give rise to a termination of the Capped Calls, including changes in law; insolvency filings; and hedging disruptions. The Capped Call transactions are recorded in stockholders’ equity and are not accounted for as derivatives. The net cost of $49.9 million incurred to purchase the Capped Call transactions was recorded as a reduction to additional paid-in capital on the Company's Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets.    
Note 8. Leases

The Company primarily leases facilities for office and datacenter space under non-cancelable operating leases for its U.S. and international locations.  As of March 31, 2019, non-cancelable leases expire on various dates between 2019 and 2024.

Generally, the non-cancelable leases include one or more options to renew, with renewal terms that can extend the lease term from one to five years or more. The Company has the right to exercise or forego the lease renewal options. The lease agreements do not contain any material residual value guarantees or material restrictive covenants.

As of March 31, 2019, the components of leases and lease costs are as follows (in thousands):

Operating Leases
March 31, 2019
Operating lease right-of-use assets
$
31,719

 
 
Accrued liabilities
$
11,937

Operating lease liabilities
23,693

Total operating lease liabilities
$
35,630


Lease Cost
Three Months Ended March 31, 2019
Operating lease cost (a)
$
4,049


(a) Includes short-term leases and variable lease costs, which are immaterial.

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RINGCENTRAL, INC.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Unaudited)

Maturity of Lease Liabilities
Operating Leases
2019 (remaining)
$
10,130

2020
12,384

2021
8,667

2022
4,181

2023
3,244

2024 onwards
28

Total future minimum lease payments
38,634

Less: Imputed interest
(3,004
)
Present value of lease liabilities
$
35,630


Other supplemental information as of March 31, 2019 is as follows (in thousand):
Lease Term and Discount Rate
March 31, 2019
Weighted-average remaining operating lease term (years)
2.8

Weighted-average operating lease discount rate
5
%

 
Supplemental Cash Flow Information
Three Months Ended
March 31, 2019
 
 
Cash paid for amounts included in the measurement of lease liabilities:
 
 
Operating cash flows resulting from operating leases
$
3,715

 
 
 
 
New ROU assets obtained in exchange of lease liabilities:
 
 
Operating leases
$
1,276


As of March 31, 2019, the Company has additional operating leases of approximately $14 million that have not yet commenced and as such, have not yet been recognized on the Company’s Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheet. These operating leases are expected to commence in 2019 with lease terms between three and ten years.

Note 9. Commitments and Contingencies
Legal Matters
The Company is subject to certain legal proceedings described below, and from time to time may be involved in a variety of claims, lawsuits, investigations, and proceedings relating to contractual disputes, intellectual property rights, employment matters, regulatory compliance matters, and other litigation matters relating to various claims that arise in the normal course of business.
The Company determines whether an estimated loss from a contingency should be accrued by assessing whether a loss is deemed probable and can be reasonably estimated. The Company assesses its potential liability by analyzing specific litigation and regulatory matters using reasonably available information. The Company develops its views on estimated losses in consultation with inside and outside counsel, which involves a subjective analysis of potential results and outcomes, assuming various combinations of appropriate litigation and settlement strategies.  Actual claims could settle or be adjudicated against the Company in the future for materially different amounts than the Company has accrued due to the inherently unpredictable nature of litigation. Legal fees are expensed in the period in which they are incurred.
TCPA Matters
On April 21, 2016, Supply Pro Sorbents, LLC (“SPS”) filed a putative class action against the Company in the United States District Court for the Northern District of California, alleging common law conversion and violations of the federal Telephone Consumer Protection Act (“TCPA”) arising from fax cover sheets used by the Company’s customers when sending facsimile transmissions over the Company’s system (“SPS Lawsuit”).  SPS seeks statutory damages, costs, attorneys’ fees and an injunction in connection with its TCPA claim, and unspecified damages and punitive damages in connection with its conversion claim.  On

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RINGCENTRAL, INC.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Unaudited)

July 6, 2016, the Company filed a Petition for Expedited Declaratory Ruling before the Federal Communications Commission (“FCC”), requesting that the FCC issue a ruling clarifying certain portions of its regulations promulgated under TCPA at issue in the SPS Lawsuit (“Petition”).  The Petition remains pending.  On July 8, 2016, the Company filed a motion to dismiss the SPS Lawsuit in its entirety, along with a collateral motion to dismiss or stay the SPS Lawsuit pending a ruling by the FCC on the Company’s Petition.  On October 7, 2016, the district court granted the Company’s motion to dismiss.  The district court concurrently dismissed the Company’s motion to dismiss or stay as moot.  Plaintiff filed its amended complaint on October 27, 2016, alleging essentially the same theories and claims.  On November 21, 2016, the Company filed a motion to dismiss the amended complaint, along with a renewed motion to dismiss or stay the case pending resolution of the FCC Petition.  On July 17, 2017, the district court granted the Company’s motion to dismiss with prejudice and concurrently dismissed the Company’s motion to dismiss or stay as moot. SPS filed a notice of appeal to the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals on July 28, 2017. SPS’s opening brief on appeal was filed on December 20, 2017; asking that the dismissal be reversed and the case be returned to the district court for the Lawsuit to proceed. The Company’s answering brief was filed on February 20, 2018; asking that the dismissal be affirmed. SPS filed its reply brief on April 12, 2018. The Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals issued a decision on November 20, 2018, affirming the order of the district court and finding in RingCentral’s favor. On December 4, 2018, SPS filed a petition for panel rehearing, which RingCentral responded to on January 9, 2019. On January 28, 2019, the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals denied SPS’ petition for rehearing.  On April 29, 2019, SPS filed a petition in the Supreme Court for a writ of certiorari.  A response in opposition from the Company is optional unless the Supreme Court requests that the Company file a response.  The Company cannot predict whether the Supreme Court will grant SPS’s petition.  It is too early to predict the outcome of the SPS Lawsuit. Based on the information known to the Company as of the date of this filing and the rules and regulations applicable to the preparation of the Company’s condensed consolidated financial statements, it is not possible to provide an estimated amount of any such loss or range of loss that may occur.
On November 17, 2017, Joann Hurley (“Hurley”), filed a second amended complaint in an ongoing putative class action lawsuit pending in the United States District Court for the Southern District of West Virginia, adding the Company as a named defendant and alleging that the Company and other defendants violated the TCPA and regulations promulgated thereunder by allegedly using an automated telephone dialing system to deliver prerecorded political messages to Hurley, an incumbent running for reelection, and others.  Hurley alternatively alleged that the Company was vicariously liable for the actions of the other co-defendants.  Hurley seeks statutory, compensatory, consequential, incidental and punitive damages, costs, and attorneys’ fees in connection with her claims.  The Company was served with the second amended complaint on January 4, 2018. On March 23, 2018, the Company filed a motion to dismiss the complaint for lack of standing and failure to sufficiently state a claim on which relief may be granted. Hurley filed her opposition brief on April 6, 2018, and the Company filed its reply brief on April 13, 2018. On October 4, 2018, the district court issued its memorandum and opinion order granting in part and denying in part the Company’s motion to dismiss.  The district court dismissed Hurley’s vicarious liability claim but allowed Hurley’s TCPA claim to proceed.  The Company filed its answer and affirmatives defenses to the second amended complaint on October 18, 2018.  It is too early to predict the outcome of this lawsuit. Based on the information known to the Company as of the date of this filing and the rules and regulations applicable to the preparation of the Company’s condensed consolidated financial statements, it is not possible to provide an estimated amount of any such loss or range of loss that may occur.
Patent Infringement Matter
On April 25, 2017, Uniloc USA, Inc. and Uniloc Luxembourg, S.A. (together, “Uniloc”) filed in the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Texas two actions against the Company alleging infringement of U.S. Patent Nos. 7,804,948; 7,853,000; and 8,571,194 by RingCentral’s Glip unified communications application.  The plaintiffs seek a declaration that the Company has infringed the patents, damages according to proof, injunctive relief, as well as their costs, attorney’s fees, expenses and interest. On October 9, 2017, the Company filed a motion to dismiss or transfer requesting that the case be transferred to the United States District Court for the Northern District of California. In response to the motion, plaintiffs filed a first amended complaint on October 24, 2017. The Company filed a renewed motion to dismiss or transfer on November 15, 2017. Although briefing on that motion has been completed, the motion has not yet been decided. On February 5, 2018, Uniloc moved to stay the litigation pending the resolution of certain third-party inter partes review proceedings (“IPRs”) before the United States Patent and Trademark Office. On February 9, 2018, the court stayed the litigation pending resolution of the IPRs without prejudice to or waiver of the Company’s motion to dismiss or transfer. This litigation is still in its earliest stages. Based on the information known by the Company as of the date of this filing and the rules and regulations applicable to the preparation of the Company’s condensed consolidated financial statements, it is not possible to provide an estimated amount of any such loss or range of loss that may occur. The Company intends to vigorously defend against this lawsuit. 
Note 10. Share-Based Compensation

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Table of Contents
RINGCENTRAL, INC.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Unaudited)

A summary of share-based compensation expense recognized in the Company’s Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations is as follows (in thousands):
 
Three Months Ended
March 31,
 
2019
 
2018
Cost of revenues
$
1,641

 
$
1,010

Research and development
4,262

 
3,094

Sales and marketing
7,608

 
5,041

General and administrative
5,887

 
4,122

Total share-based compensation expense
$
19,398

 
$
13,267

A summary of share-based compensation expense by award type is as follows (in thousands):
 
Three Months Ended
March 31,
 
2019
 
2018
Options
$
535

 
$
1,128

Employee stock purchase plan rights
900

 
735

Restricted stock units
17,963

 
11,404

Total share-based compensation expense
$
19,398

 
$
13,267

Equity Incentive Plans
As of March 31, 2019, a total of 16,956,508 shares remained available for grant under the RingCentral, Inc. Amended and Restated 2013 Equity Incentive Plan (“2013 Plan”). A summary of option activity under all of the Company’s equity incentive plans at March 31, 2019 and changes during the period then ended is presented in the following table:
 
Number of
Options
Outstanding
(in thousands)
 
Weighted-
Average
Exercise Price
Per Share
 
Weighted-
Average
Contractual
Term
(in Years)
 
Aggregate
Intrinsic
Value
(in thousands)
Outstanding at December 31, 2018
4,131

 
$
10.86

 
3.3
 
$
295,921

Granted

 

 
 
 
 
Exercised
(343
)
 
7.77

 
 
 
 
Canceled/Forfeited
(125
)
 
1.29

 
 
 
 
Outstanding at March 31, 2019
3,663

 
$
11.47

 
3.1
 
$
353,165

Vested and expected to vest as of March 31, 2019
3,658

 
$
11.46

 
3.1
 
$
352,465

Exercisable as of March 31, 2019
3,571

 
$
11.31

 
3.1
 
$
344,531

No options were granted during the three months ended March 31, 2019 and 2018. The total intrinsic value of options exercised during three months ended March 31, 2019 and 2018 were $32.1 million and $20.0 million, respectively.
As of March 31, 2019, there was approximately $0.5 million of unrecognized share-based compensation expense, net of estimated forfeitures, related to non-vested stock option grants, which will be recognized on a straight-line basis over the remaining weighted-average vesting period of approximately 0.8 years.  
Employee Stock Purchase Plan
The Employee Stock Purchase Plan (“ESPP”) allows eligible employees to purchase shares of the Company’s Class A common stock at a discounted price through payroll deductions.
As of March 31, 2019, there was a total of $0.5 million of unrecognized share-based compensation expense, net of estimated forfeitures, related to the ESPP, which will be recognized on a straight-line basis over the remaining weighted-average vesting period of approximately 0.1 years. At March 31, 2019, a total of 4,100,814 shares were available for issuance under the ESPP.

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Table of Contents
RINGCENTRAL, INC.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Unaudited)

Restricted Stock Units
The 2013 Plan provides for the issuance of restricted stock units (“RSUs”) to employees, directors, and consultants.  RSUs issued under the 2013 Plan generally vest over four years.  A summary of activity of RSUs under the 2013 Plan at March 31, 2019, and changes during the period then ended is presented in the following table:
 
Number of
RSUs
Outstanding
(in thousands)
 
Weighted-
Average
Grant Date Fair
Value Per Share
 
Aggregate
Intrinsic Value
(in thousands)
Outstanding at December 31, 2018
3,561

 
$
42.09

 
$
293,523

Granted
258

 
97.18

 
 
Released
(457
)
 
38.33

 
 
Canceled/Forfeited
(97
)
 
48.30

 
 
Outstanding at March 31, 2019
3,265

 
$
46.88

 
$
351,949

As of March 31, 2019, there was a total of $110.0 million of unrecognized share-based compensation expense, net of estimated forfeitures, related to RSUs, which will be recognized on a straight-line basis over the remaining weighted-average vesting period of approximately 2.3 years.
Bonus Plan
In December 2017, the Company's board of directors (the "Board") adopted the Selective 2018 Key Employee Equity Bonus Plan (the "2018 KEEB Plan”), which became effective on January 1, 2018, and in December 2018, the Board adopted the Selective 2019 Key Employee Equity Bonus Plan (the "2019 KEEB Plan" and together with the 2018 KEEB Plan the "KEEB Plans"), which became effective on January 1, 2019. Both the 2018 KEEB Plan and the 2019 KEEB Plan allow the recipients to earn fully vested shares of the Company’s common stock upon the achievement of quarterly service and performance conditions. During the quarter ended March 31, 2019, 27,253 RSUs were issued under the 2018 KEEB Plan. The Company recognized an estimated $3.0 million of expense on a straight-line basis during the three months ended March 31, 2019, based on a total requisite service period of approximately 0.4 years.
The unrecognized share-based compensation expense was approximately $1.1 million, which will be recognized over the remaining service period of 0.1 years. The shares issued under this plan will be issued from the Company’s 2013 Plan shares available for issuance.
Note 11. Segment Reporting
The Company has determined that the chief executive officer is the chief operating decision maker. The Company’s chief executive officer reviews financial information presented on a consolidated basis for purposes of assessing performance and making decisions on how to allocate resources. Accordingly, the Company has determined that it operates in a single reportable segment.
Concentrations
At March 31, 2019 and December 31, 2018, none of the Company’s customers accounted for more than 10% of the Company’s total accounts receivable.  
Long-lived assets by geographic location is based on the location of the legal entity that owns the asset. At March 31, 2019 and December 31, 2018, more than 77% and 67% of the Company’s consolidated long-lived assets, respectively, were located in the U.S. France represented 16% and 26% of the Company's consolidated long-lived assets, including fair value adjustments relating to Dimelo, as of March 31, 2019 and December 31, 2018, respectively. No other single country outside of the U.S. represented more than 10% of the Company’s consolidated long-lived assets.
Note 12. Income Taxes
The provision for (benefit from) income taxes for the three months ended March 31, 2019 and 2018, was $(3,086,000) and $27,000, respectively, and consisted primarily of state minimum taxes and foreign income taxes. For the three months ended March 31, 2019 and 2018, the provision for income taxes differed from the U.S federal statutory rate primarily due to state and foreign taxes currently payable. Due to the Connect First acquisition, a deferred tax liability was established for the book-tax basis difference related to identifiable acquired intangibles. The net deferred tax liability from acquisitions is considered an additional source of income to support the realizability of the Company's pre-existing deferred tax asset and as a result, the Company released a portion of the valuation allowance that was established in the previous year and recorded a one-time tax benefit of $3.2 million

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Table of Contents
RINGCENTRAL, INC.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Unaudited)

for the three months ended March 31, 2019. The Company realized no benefit for current year losses due to a full valuation allowance against the U.S. and the foreign net deferred tax assets.
The realization of tax benefits of net deferred tax assets is dependent upon future levels of taxable income, of an appropriate character, in the periods the items are expected to be deductible or taxable. Based on the available objective evidence, the Company does not believe it is more likely than not that the net deferred tax assets will be realizable. Accordingly, the Company has provided a full valuation allowance against the entire domestic and the majority of the foreign net deferred tax assets as of March 31, 2019 and December 31, 2018. The Company intends to maintain the full valuation allowance on the U.S. net deferred tax assets until sufficient positive evidence exists to support a reversal of, or decrease in, the valuation allowance.
During the three months ended March 31, 2019, there were no material changes to the total amount of unrecognized tax benefits.
Note 13. Basic and Diluted Net Loss Per Share
Basic net loss per share is computed by dividing the net loss by the weighted-average number of shares of common stock outstanding during the period, less the weighted-average unvested common stock subject to repurchase or forfeiture as they are not deemed to be issued for accounting purposes. Diluted net loss per share is computed by giving effect to all potential shares of common stock, stock options, restricted stock units, ESPP, and convertible senior notes, to the extent dilutive. For the three months ended March 31, 2019 and 2018, all such common stock equivalents have been excluded from diluted net loss per share as the effect to net loss per share would be anti-dilutive.
The following table sets forth the computation of the Company’s basic and diluted net loss per share of common stock (in thousands, except per share data):
 
Three Months Ended
March 31,
 
2019
 
2018
Numerator
 

 
 

Net loss
$
(6,358
)
 
$
(2,716
)
Denominator:
 
 
 
Weighted-average common shares outstanding for basic and diluted net loss per share
81,400

 
78,341

Basic and diluted net loss per share
$
(0.08
)
 
$
(0.03
)
The following table summarizes the potentially dilutive common shares that were excluded from diluted weighted-average common shares outstanding because including them would have had an anti-dilutive effect (in thousands):
 
Three Months Ended
March 31,
 
2019
 
2018
Shares of common stock issuable under equity incentive awards outstanding
7,470

 
9,328

Convertible senior notes
966

 

Potential common shares excluded from diluted net loss per share
8,436

 
9,328

Since the Company expects to settle the principal amount of its outstanding convertible senior notes in cash and any excess in cash or shares of the Company’s common stock, the Company uses the treasury stock method for calculating any potential dilutive effect of the conversion spread on diluted net income per share, if applicable. The conversion spread will have a dilutive impact on diluted net income per share of common stock when the average market price of the Company’s common stock for a given period exceeds the conversion price of $81.45 per share for the Notes.
Note 14. Related Party Transactions
In the ordinary course of business, the Company made purchases from Google Inc., at which one of the Company’s directors serves as President, Americas. Total payables to Google Inc. at March 31, 2019 and December 31, 2018 were $1.4 million and $1.2 million, respectively. Total expenses incurred from Google Inc. were $4.6 million and $5.1 million in the three months ended March 31, 2019 and 2018, respectively.

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RINGCENTRAL, INC.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Unaudited)


Item 2. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
The following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with our condensed consolidated financial statements and related notes appearing elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q and our Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the SEC on February 27, 2019 under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”). As discussed in the section entitled “Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements,” the following discussion and analysis contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties, as well as assumptions that, if they never materialize or prove incorrect, could cause our results to differ significantly from those expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. Factors that could cause or contribute to these differences include, but are not limited to, those discussed below and elsewhere in this report, particularly in the section entitled “Risk Factors” included under Part II, Item 1A below.
Overview
We are a leading provider of software-as-a-service (“SaaS”) solutions that enable businesses to communicate, collaborate, and connect. We believe that our innovative, cloud-based approach disrupts the large market for business communications and collaboration by providing flexible and cost-effective solutions that support distributed workforces, mobile employees, and the proliferation of smart phones and tablets. We enable convenient and effective communications for organizations across all their locations and employees, enabling them to be more productive and more responsive to their customers.
Our cloud-based business communications and collaboration solutions are designed to be easy to use, providing a single user identity across multiple locations and devices, including smartphones, tablets, PCs and desk phones. Our solutions can be deployed rapidly, configured and managed easily. Through our platform, we enable third-party developers and customers to integrate our solution with leading business applications to customize their own business workflows.
RingCentral has a portfolio of cloud-based offerings that are subscription based, made available at different monthly rates, varying by the specific functionalities, services, and number of users. We primarily generate revenues from the sale of software subscriptions to our offerings.
Our subscription plans have historically had monthly or annual contractual terms, although we also have subscription plans with multi-year contractual terms, generally with larger customers. We believe that this flexibility in contract duration is important to meet the different needs of our customers. For each of the three months ended March 31, 2019 and 2018, software subscriptions revenues accounted for more than 90% of our total revenues. The remainder of our revenues has historically been primarily comprised of product revenues from the sale of pre-configured phones and professional services. We do not develop, manufacture, or otherwise touch the delivery of physical phones and offer it as a convenience for a total solution to our customers in connection with subscriptions to our services. We rely on third-party providers to develop and manufacture these devices and fulfillment partners to successfully serve our customers.
We continue to invest in our direct inside sales force while also developing indirect sales channels to market our brand and our subscription offerings. Our indirect sales channel consists of a network of resellers who sell our solutions. We also sell our solutions through carriers including AT&T, Inc. (“AT&T”), TELUS Communications Company (“TELUS”) and BT Group plc (“BT”). We intend to continue to foster this network and expand our network with other resellers. We also participate in more traditional forms of media advertising, such as radio and billboard advertising.
Since its launch, our revenue growth has primarily been driven by our flagship RingCentral Office product offering, which has resulted in an increased number of customers, increased average software subscription revenue per customer, and increased retention of our existing customer and user base. We define a “customer” as one individual billing relationship for the subscription to our services, which generally correlates to one company account per customer. As of March 31, 2019, we had customers from a range of industries, including financial services, education, healthcare, legal services, real estate, retail, technology, insurance, construction, hospitality, and state and local government, among others. For each of the three months ended March 31, 2019 and 2018, the vast majority of our total revenues were generated in the U.S. and Canada, although we expect the percentage of our total revenues derived outside of the U.S. and Canada to grow as we continue to expand internationally.
The growth of our business and our future success depend on many factors, including our ability to expand our customer base to medium-sized and larger customers, continue to innovate, grow revenues from our existing customer base, expand our distribution channels, and scale internationally.

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Key Business Metrics
In addition to United States generally accepted accounting principles (“U.S. GAAP”) and financial measures such as total revenues, gross margin and cash flows from operations, we regularly review a number of key business metrics to evaluate growth trends, measure our performance, and make strategic decisions. We discuss revenues and gross margin under “Results of Operations” and cash flow from operations under “Liquidity and Capital Resources” below. Other key business metrics are discussed below.
Annualized Exit Monthly Recurring Subscriptions
We believe that our Annualized Exit Monthly Recurring Subscriptions (“ARR”) is a leading indicator of our anticipated subscriptions revenues. We believe that trends in revenue are important to understanding the overall health of our business, and we use these trends in order to formulate financial projections and make strategic business decisions. Our ARR equals our Monthly Recurring Subscriptions multiplied by 12. Our Monthly Recurring Subscriptions equals the monthly value of all customer recurring charges at the end of a given month. For example, our Monthly Recurring Subscriptions at March 31, 2019 was $64.7 million. As such, our ARR at March 31, 2019 was $776.7 million.
RingCentral Office Annualized Exit Monthly Recurring Subscriptions
We calculate our RingCentral Office Annualized Exit Monthly Recurring Subscriptions (“Office ARR”) in the same manner as we calculate our ARR, except that only customer subscriptions from RingCentral Office and RingCentral Contact Center solutions customers are included when determining Monthly Recurring Subscriptions for the purposes of calculating this key business metric. We believe that trends in revenue with respect to these products are important to the understanding of the overall health of our business, and we use these trends in order to formulate financial projections and make strategic business decisions. Our Office ARR at March 31, 2019 was $694.0 million.
Net Monthly Subscription Dollar Retention Rate
We believe that our Net Monthly Subscription Dollar Retention Rate provides insight into our ability to retain and grow software subscriptions revenue, as well as our customers’ potential long-term value to us. We believe that our ability to retain our customers and expand their use of our solutions over time is a leading indicator of the stability of our revenue base and we use these trends in order to formulate financial projections and make strategic business decisions. We define our Net Monthly Subscription Dollar Retention Rate as (i) one plus (ii) the quotient of Dollar Net Change divided by Average Dollar Monthly Recurring Subscriptions.
We define Dollar Net Change as the quotient of (i) the difference of our Monthly Recurring Subscriptions at the end of a period minus our Monthly Recurring Subscriptions at the beginning of a period minus our Monthly Recurring Subscriptions at the end of the period from new customers we added during the period, (ii) all divided by the number of months in the period. We define our Average Monthly Recurring Subscriptions as the average of the Monthly Recurring Subscriptions at the beginning and end of the measurement period.
For example, if our Monthly Recurring Subscriptions were $118 at the end of a quarterly period and $100 at the beginning of the period, and $20 at the end of the period from new customers we added during the period, then the Dollar Net Change would be equal to ($0.67), or the amount equal to the difference of $118 minus $100 minus $20, all divided by three months. Our Average Monthly Recurring Subscriptions would equal $109, or the sum of $100 plus $118, divided by two. Our Net Monthly Subscription Dollar Retention Rate would then equal 99.4%, or approximately 99%, or one plus the quotient of the Dollar Net Change divided by the Average Monthly Recurring Subscriptions.
Our key business metrics for the five quarterly periods ended March 31, 2019 were as follows (dollars in millions):
 
March 31, 2019
 
December 31, 2018
 
September 30, 2018
 
June 30, 2018
 
March 31, 2018
Net Monthly Subscription Dollar Retention Rate
>99%

 
>99%

 
>99%

 
>99%

 
>99%

Annualized Exit Monthly Recurring Subscriptions
$
776.7

 
$
725.8

 
$
673.6

 
$
629.6

 
$
589.0

RingCentral Office Annualized Exit Monthly
   Recurring Subscriptions
$
694.0

 
$
644.1

 
$
591.7

 
$
548.0

 
$
509.2

Results of Operations

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The following tables set forth selected condensed consolidated statements of operations data and such data as a percentage of total revenues. The historical results presented below are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for any future period (in thousands):
 
Three Months Ended March 31,
 
2019
 
2018
Revenues
 

 
 

Software subscriptions
$
182,708

 
$
136,960

Other
18,781

 
13,383

Total revenues
201,489

 
150,343

Cost of revenues
 

 
 

Software subscriptions
35,334

 
24,526

Other
15,501

 
11,148

Total cost of revenues
50,835

 
35,674

Gross profit
150,654

 
114,669

Operating expenses
 

 
 

Research and development
29,787

 
22,651

Sales and marketing
99,551

 
71,920

General and administrative
28,779

 
21,449

Total operating expenses
158,117

 
116,020

Loss from operations
(7,463
)
 
(1,351
)
Other income (expense), net
 

 
 

Interest expense
(5,032
)
 
(1,411
)
Other income, net
3,051

 
73

Other income (expense), net
(1,981
)
 
(1,338
)
Loss before income taxes
(9,444
)
 
(2,689
)
Provision for (benefit from) income taxes
(3,086
)
 
27

Net loss
$
(6,358
)
 
$
(2,716
)


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Percentage of Total Revenues *
 
Three Months Ended March 31,
 
2019
 
2018
Revenues
 

 
 

Software subscriptions
91
 %
 
91
 %
Other
9

 
9

Total revenues
100

 
100

Cost of revenues
 

 
 

Software subscriptions
17

 
16

Other
8

 
8

Total cost of revenues
25

 
24

Gross profit
75

 
76

Operating expenses
 

 
 

Research and development
15

 
15

Sales and marketing
49

 
48

General and administrative
14

 
14

Total operating expenses
78

 
77

Loss from operations
(4
)
 
(1
)
Other income (expense), net
 

 
 

Interest expense
(3
)
 
(1
)
Other income, net
2

 

Other income (expense), net
(1
)
 
(1
)
Loss before income taxes
(5
)
 
(2
)
Provision for (benefit from) income taxes
(2
)
 

Net loss
(3
)%
 
(2
)%
* Percentages may not add up due to rounding.
Comparison of the Three Months Ended March 31, 2019 and 2018
Revenues
 
 
Three Months Ended March 31,
 
 
 
 
(in thousands, except percentages)
 
2019
 
2018
 
$ Change
 
% Change
Revenues
 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Software subscriptions
 
$
182,708

 
$
136,960

 
$
45,748

 
33
%
Other
 
18,781

 
13,383

 
5,398

 
40
%
Total revenues
 
$
201,489

 
$
150,343

 
$
51,146

 
34
%
Percentage of revenues
 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Software subscriptions
 
91
%
 
91
%
 
 

 
 

Other
 
9

 
9

 
 

 
 

Total
 
100
%
 
100
%
 
 

 
 

Software subscriptions revenue.  Software subscriptions revenue increased by $45.7 million, or 33%, for the three months ended March 31, 2019, as compared to the respective prior year period. The increase was primarily a combination of the acquisition of new customers and upsells of additional offerings and seats to our existing customer base. This growth was primarily driven by an increase in sales to our mid-market and enterprise customers as we continue to move up market, and sales through our channel partners.    

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Other revenues.  Other revenues are primarily comprised of product revenue from the sale of pre-configured phones and professional services.
Other revenues increased by $5.4 million, or 40%, for the three months ended March 31, 2019, as compared to the respective prior year period, primarily due to the increase in product sales and professional services resulting from the overall growth in our business.
Cost of Revenues and Gross Margin
 
 
Three Months Ended March 31,
 
 
 
 
(in thousands, except percentages)
 
2019
 
2018
 
$ Change
 
% Change
Cost of revenues
 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Software subscriptions
 
$
35,334

 
$
24,526

 
$
10,808

 
44
%
Other
 
15,501

 
11,148

 
4,353

 
39
%
Total cost of revenues
 
$
50,835

 
$
35,674

 
$
15,161

 
42
%
Gross margins
 
 

 
 
 
 

 
 

Software subscriptions
 
81
%
 
82
%
 
 

 
 

Other
 
17
%
 
17
%
 
 

 
 

Total gross margin %
 
75
%
 
76
%
 
 

 
 

Cost of software subscriptions revenues. Cost of software subscriptions revenues increased by $10.8 million, or 44%, for the three months ended March 31, 2019, as compared to the respective prior year period. Primary drivers of the increase were increases in third-party costs to support our products of $4.8 million, overhead costs to support our products of $3.5 million, and headcount and personnel related costs of $2.5 million including share-based compensation expense.
The increase in headcount and other expense categories described herein were driven primarily by investments in our infrastructure and capacity to improve the availability of our subscription offerings, while also supporting the growth in new customers and increased usage of our subscriptions by our existing customer base.
Cost of other revenues. Cost of other revenues increased by $4.4 million, or 39%, for the three months ended March 31, 2019, as compared to the respective prior year period. This was primarily due to the increase in support and services personnel costs of $2.4 million, including share-based compensation expense, and the cost of product sales of $1.4 million.
Gross margin.  Our gross margin was 75% and 76% for the three months ended March 31, 2019 and 2018, respectively. We expect gross margin to remain fairly consistent in the future.
Software subscription revenues gross margin was 81% and 82% in the three months ended March 31, 2019 and 2018, respectively. We expect gross margin to remain relatively consistent in the future.
Gross margin for other revenues remained consistent at 17% for both the three months ended March 31, 2019 and 2018.
Research and Development
 
 
Three Months Ended March 31,
 
 
 
 
(in thousands, except percentages)
 
2019
 
2018
 
$ Change
 
% Change
Research and development
 
$
29,787

 
$
22,651

 
$
7,136

 
32
%
Percentage of total revenues
 
15
%
 
15
%
 
 
 
 
Research and development expenses increased by $7.1 million, or 32%, for the three months ended March 31, 2019 as compared to the respective prior year period primarily due to increases in personnel costs of $5.8 million and overhead costs to support our research and development efforts of $1.2 million. The increase in personnel cost was primarily driven by headcount growth and higher share-based compensation expense of $1.2 million.  

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The increases in research and development headcount and other expense categories were driven by continued investment in current and future software development projects for our applications.  We expect research and development expenses to continue to increase in absolute dollars as we continue to invest in such development.
Sales and Marketing
 
 
Three Months Ended March 31,
 
 
 
 
(in thousands, except percentages)
 
2019
 
2018
 
$ Change
 
% Change
Sales and marketing
 
$
99,551

 
$
71,920

 
$
27,631

 
38
%
Percentage of total revenues
 
49
%
 
48
%
 
 

 
 

Sales and marketing expenses increased by $27.6 million, or 38%, for the three months ended March 31, 2019, as compared to the respective prior year period primarily due to increases in personnel costs of $13.0 million, third-party commissions of $4.8 million, advertising and marketing costs of $3.1 million, amortization of deferred sales commission costs of $2.2 million, overhead costs to support our marketing efforts of $1.3 million, and acquisition related expenses of $1.3 million. The increase in personnel costs was primarily due to headcount growth, higher share-based compensation expense of $2.6 million, and other related costs.  
The increases in sales and marketing headcount and other expense categories were necessary to support our growth strategy to acquire new customers with a focus on larger customers, and to establish brand recognition to achieve greater penetration into the North American and international markets. Additionally, we expect sales and marketing expenses to continue to increase in absolute dollars as we continue to expand our presence in North America, Europe, and other markets.
General and Administrative
 
 
Three Months Ended March 31,
 
 
 
 
(in thousands, except percentages)
 
2019
 
2018
 
$ Change
 
% Change
General and administrative
 
$
28,779

 
$
21,449

 
$
7,330

 
34
%
Percentage of total revenues
 
14
%
 
14
%
 
 

 
 

General and administrative expenses increased by $7.3 million, or 34%, for the three months ended March 31, 2019, as compared to the respective prior year period primarily due to increases in personnel costs of $6.8 million and professional fees of $0.8 million. The increase in personnel cost was primarily driven by headcount growth and higher share-based compensation expense of $1.8 million.
We expect general and administrative expenses to continue to increase in absolute dollars as we continue to make additional investments in processes, systems and personnel to support our anticipated revenue growth.
Other Income (Expense), Net
 
 
Three Months Ended March 31,
 
 
 
 
(in thousands, except percentages)
 
2019
 
2018
 
$ Change
 
% Change
Interest expense
 
$
(5,032
)
 
$
(1,411
)
 
$
(3,621
)
 
Nm

Other income, net
 
3,051

 
73

 
2,978

 
Nm

Other income (expense), net
 
$
(1,981
)
 
$
(1,338
)
 
$
(643
)
 
48
%
Nm – Not meaningful
Other expense, net increased by $0.6 million for the three months ended March 31, 2019, as compared to the respective prior year period primarily due to an increase in interest expense resulting from the amortization of debt discount and issuance costs of our 0% convertible senior notes due 2023 (“Notes”). This was offset by an increase in interest income on our cash and cash equivalents.

Liquidity and Capital Resources

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Table of Contents

As of March 31, 2019 and December 31, 2018, we had $549.0 million and $566.3 million, respectively, of cash and cash equivalents. We finance our operations primarily through sales to our customers, proceeds from issuance of stock under our stock plans, and proceeds from issuance of debt. As of March 31, 2019, the carrying value of our Notes totaled $371.5 million. We believe that our operations along with existing liquidity sources will satisfy our cash requirements for at least the next 12 months.
A majority of our customers are billed monthly.  As we continue to move up market, the number and size of customers with annual or multi-year contracts and those who opt for annual invoicing is increasing.  For these customers, we generally invoice only one annual period in advance and all invoicing occurs at the start of the respective subscription period.  Revenue is deferred for such advanced billings. As of March 31, 2019 and December 31, 2018, we had deferred revenue of $93.8 million and $88.5 million, respectively.
Our future capital requirements will depend on many factors, including revenue growth and costs incurred to support customer growth, acquisitions and expansions, sales and marketing, research and development, increased general and administrative expenses to support the anticipated growth in our operations, and capital equipment required to support our growing headcount and in support of our co-location data center facilities. Our capital expenditures in future periods are expected to grow in line with our business. To the extent that existing cash and cash equivalents are not sufficient to fund our future operations, we may need to raise additional funds through public or private equity offerings or through additional debt financing. We may in the future make investments in or acquisitions of businesses or technologies, which could also require us to seek additional equity or debt financing. Additional financing sources may not be available on terms favorable to us or at all.
The table below, for the periods indicated, provides selected cash flow information (in thousands):
 
Three Months Ended March 31,
 
2019
 
2018
Net cash provided by operating activities
$
20,197

 
$
12,185

Net cash used in investing activities
(38,275
)
 
(25,816
)
Net cash provided by financing activities
732

 
387,221

Effect of exchange rate changes
47

 
181

Net (decrease) increase in cash and cash equivalents
$
(17,299
)
 
$
373,771


Net Cash Provided by Operating Activities
Cash provided by operating activities is influenced by timing of customer collections, as well as the amount and timing of disbursements to our vendors, the amount of cash we invest in personnel, marketing, and infrastructure costs to support the anticipated growth of our business, and the increase in the number of customers.
Net cash provided by operating activities was $20.2 million for the three months ended March 31, 2019. This was driven by a net loss of $6.4 million adjusted for impacts of non-cash adjustments of $36.5 million and partially offset by reduction of net working capital of $9.9 million, mainly driven by the timing cash payments to vendors and cash receipts from customers and carriers. Non-cash adjustments resulted primarily from $19.4 million of share-based compensation, $7.7 million of depreciation and amortization, $6.2 million of amortization of deferred sales commission costs, and $5.0 million of amortization of debt discount and issuance costs related to our convertible notes.
Net cash provided by operating activities for the three months ended March 31, 2019 increased by $8.0 million compared to the respective prior year period, primarily due to increased sales and cash collections, partially offset by higher operating expenses driven by increased headcount.  
Net Cash Used in Investing Activities
Our primary investing activities have consisted of capital expenditures and internal-use software. It also reflects net cash used to acquire Connect First. As our business grows, we expect our capital expenditures to continue to increase.
Net cash used in investing activities was $38.3 million for the three months ended March 31, 2019. This was driven by $27.9 million net cash paid for our acquisition of Connect First and $10.4 million of capital expenditures including personnel-related costs associated with development of internal-use software.

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Table of Contents

Net cash used in investing activities for the three months ended March 31, 2019 increased by $12.5 million as compared to the respective prior year period. The increase was primarily related to cash paid for acquisitions, capital expenditures and capitalized internal-use software.
Net Cash Provided by Financing Activities
Our primary financing activities have consisted of raising proceeds through the issuance of stock under our stock plans and issuance of the Notes.  
Net cash provided by financing activities was approximately $0.7 million for the three months ended March 31, 2019, and resulted from proceeds from the issuance of shares in connection with our stock plans, net of taxes paid. Net cash provided by financing activities decreased by $386.5 million as compared to the respective prior year period, primarily due to our convertible notes issued in 2018.
Backlog
We have generally signed new customers to contracts that vary in length, from month-to-month to multi-year terms for our subscriptions. The timing of invoicing to our customers is a negotiated term and thus varies among our subscription contracts. Payment terms are generally billed either monthly or on an annual basis. At any point in the contract term, there can be amounts that we have not yet been contractually able to invoice, which constitute backlog. Until such time as these amounts are invoiced, we do not recognize them as revenues, unearned revenues or elsewhere in our condensed consolidated financial statements. Given the variability in our contract length, we believe that backlog is not a reliable indicator of future revenues and we do not utilize backlog as a key management metric internally.
Deferred Revenue
Deferred revenue primarily consists of the unearned portion of invoiced fees for our software subscriptions, which we recognize as revenue in accordance with our revenue recognition policy. As we continue to move up market, the number of customers who opt for multi-year contracts are increasing along with their related contract values. For customers with multi-year contracts, however, we generally invoice only one annual subscription period in advance. Therefore, our deferred revenue balance does not capture the full contract value of such multi-year contracts. Accordingly, we believe that deferred revenue is not a reliable indicator of future revenues, and we do not utilize deferred revenue as a key management metric internally.
Contractual Obligations and Commitments
Except as set forth below, and in Notes 8 and 9 of the Notes to the Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements included in Part I, Item 1 of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, there were no significant changes in our commitments under contractual obligations, as disclosed in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018.
Contingencies
We are and may be in the future subject to certain legal proceedings and from time to time may be involved in a variety of claims, lawsuits, investigations, and proceedings relating to contractual disputes, intellectual property rights, employment matters, regulatory compliance matters, and other matters relating to various claims that arise in the normal course of business. We record a provision for a liability when we believe that it is both probable that a liability has been incurred, and the amount can be reasonably estimated. Significant judgment is required to determine both probability and the estimated amount of loss. Such legal proceedings are inherently unpredictable and subject to significant uncertainties, some of which are beyond our control. Should any of these estimates and assumptions change or prove to be incorrect, it could have a significant impact on our results of operations, financial position, and cash flows.
Off-balance Sheet Arrangements
During the three months ended March 31, 2019 and 2018, we did not have any relationships with unconsolidated organizations or financial partnerships, such as structured finance or special purpose entities that would have been established for the purpose of facilitating off-balance sheet arrangements.
Item 3. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

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We are exposed to market risk in the ordinary course of our business. Market risk represents the risk of loss that may impact our financial position due to adverse changes in financial market prices and rates. Our market risk exposure is primarily a result of fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates and interest rates. We do not hold or issue financial instruments for trading purposes.
Foreign Currency Risk
The majority of our sales and contracts are denominated in U.S. dollars, and therefore our net revenue is not currently subject to significant foreign currency risk. As part of our international operations, we charge customers in British Pounds, European Union (“EU”) Euro, Canadian Dollars and Australian Dollars, among others. However, this impact has not been significant during the three months ended March 31, 2019. Our operating expenses are generally denominated in the currencies of the countries in which our operations are located, which are primarily in the U.S., and to a lesser extent in Canada, Europe, and Asia-Pacific. Our functional currency of our foreign subsidiaries is generally the local currency. Our consolidated results of operations and cash flows are, therefore, subject to fluctuations due to changes in foreign currency exchange rates and may be adversely affected in the future due to changes in foreign exchange rates. To date, we have not entered into any hedging arrangements with respect to foreign currency risk or other derivative financial instruments. During the three months ended March 31, 2019, the effect of a hypothetical 10% change in foreign currency exchange rates applicable to our business would not have a material impact on our condensed consolidated financial statements. As our international operations continue to grow, our risks associated with fluctuation in currency rates could become greater, and we will continue to reassess our approach to managing these risks.
Interest Rate Sensitivity
As of March 31, 2019, we had cash and cash equivalents of $549.0 million. We hold our cash and cash equivalents for working capital purposes. Declines in interest rates would reduce future interest income. For the three months ended March 31, 2019, the effect of a hypothetical 10% increase or decrease in overall interest rates would not materially impact our interest income. The carrying amount of our cash equivalents reasonably approximates fair values. Due to the short-term nature of our money-market funds, we believe that we do not have any material exposure to changes in the fair value of our cash equivalents as a result of changes in interest rates.
As of March 31, 2019, we had $371.5 million outstanding on our 0% convertible senior notes due 2023. The Notes have zero percent fixed annual interest rates and, therefore, we do not have economic interest rate exposure on our Notes. However, the values of the Notes are exposed to interest rate risk. Generally, the fair market value of our fixed interest rate Notes will increase as interest rates fall and decrease as interest rates rise. In addition, the fair values of the Notes are affected by our stock price. The fair value of the Notes will generally increase as our common stock price increases and will generally decrease as our common stock price declines in value. Additionally, we carry the Notes at face value less unamortized discount on our balance sheet, and we present the fair value for required disclosure purposes only.
Item 4. Controls and Procedures
Evaluation of Disclosure Controls and Procedures
Our management, with the participation of our Chief Executive Officer and our Chief Financial Officer, evaluated the effectiveness of our disclosure controls and procedures as of March 31, 2019. The term “disclosure controls and procedures,” as defined in Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e) under the Exchange Act, means controls and other procedures of a company that are designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by a company in the reports that it files or submits under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized and reported, within the time periods specified in the SEC’s rules and forms. Disclosure controls and procedures include, without limitation, controls and procedures designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by a company in the reports that it files or submits under the Exchange Act is accumulated and communicated to the company’s management, including its principal executive and principal financial officers, as appropriate to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosure. Based on the evaluation of our disclosure controls and procedures as of March 31, 2019, our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer concluded that, as of such date, our disclosure controls and procedures were effective at the reasonable assurance level.
Changes in Internal Control over Financial Reporting
Effective January 1, 2019, we adopted ASU No. 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842). Changes were made to the relevant business processes and the related control activities, including information systems, in order to monitor and maintain appropriate controls over financial reporting. There are no other changes in our internal control over financial reporting identified in connection with the evaluation required by Rule 13a-15(d) and 15d-15(d) of the Exchange Act that occurred during the three months ended March 31, 2019, that have materially affected, or are reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting.
Limitations on Effectiveness of Controls and Procedures

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In designing and evaluating our disclosure controls and procedures, management recognizes that any disclosure controls and procedures, no matter how well designed and operated, can provide only reasonable assurance of achieving the desired control objectives. In addition, the design of disclosure controls and procedures must reflect the fact that there are resource constraints and that management is required to apply its judgment in evaluating the benefits of possible controls and procedures relative to their costs.

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PART II — OTHER INFORMATION
Item 1. Legal Proceedings
Information with respect to this item may be found in Note 9, Commitments and Contingencies, in the accompanying notes to the condensed consolidated financial statements included in Part I, Item 1 of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q under “Legal Matters”, which is incorporated herein by reference.

Item 1A. Risk Factors
This Report contains forward-looking statements that are subject to risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from those projected. These risks and uncertainties include, but are not limited to, the risk factors set forth below. The risks and uncertainties described in this Report are not the only ones we face. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently believe are immaterial may also affect our business. See Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for a discussion of the forward-looking statements that are qualified by these risk factors. If any of these known or unknown risks or uncertainties actually occurs and have a material adverse effect on us, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be seriously harmed.
Risks Related to Our Business and Our Industry
We have incurred significant losses and negative cash flows in the past and anticipate continuing to incur losses for at least the foreseeable future, and we may therefore not be able to achieve or sustain profitability in the future.
We have incurred substantial net losses since our inception. Over the past few years, we have spent considerable amounts of time and money to develop new business communications solutions and enhanced versions of our existing business communications solutions to position us for future growth. Additionally, we have incurred substantial losses and expended significant resources upfront to market, promote and sell our solutions and expect to continue to do so in the future. We also expect to continue to invest for future growth, including for advertising, customer acquisition, technology infrastructure, storage capacity, services development and international expansion. In addition, as a public company, we incur significant accounting, legal, and other expenses.
We expect to continue to incur losses for at least the foreseeable future and will have to generate and sustain increased revenues to achieve future profitability. Achieving profitability will require us to increase revenues, manage our cost structure, and avoid significant liabilities. Revenue growth may slow, revenues may decline, or we may incur significant losses in the future for a number of possible reasons, including general macroeconomic conditions, increasing competition (including competitive pricing pressures), a decrease in the growth of the markets in which we compete, in particular the SaaS market, or if we fail for any reason to continue to capitalize on growth opportunities. Additionally, we may encounter unforeseen operating expenses, difficulties, complications, delays, service delivery, and quality problems and other unknown factors that may result in losses in future periods. If these losses exceed our expectations or our revenue growth expectations are not met in future periods, our financial performance will be harmed and our stock price could be volatile or decline.
Our rapid growth and the quickly changing markets in which we operate make it difficult to evaluate our current business and future prospects, which may increase the risk of investing in our stock.
We have grown rapidly since 2009, when we introduced RingCentral Office, our current flagship product. We have encountered and expect to continue to encounter risks and uncertainties frequently experienced by growing companies in rapidly changing markets. If our assumptions regarding these uncertainties are incorrect or change in reaction to changes in our markets, or if we do not manage or address these risks successfully, our results of operations could differ materially from our expectations, and our business could suffer. Any success that we may experience in the future will depend, in large part, on our ability to, among other things:
retain and expand our customer base;
increase revenues from existing customers as they add users and, in the future, purchase additional functionalities and premium editions;
successfully expand our business to larger customers;
successfully expand our business internationally;
successfully acquire customers on a cost-effective basis;
improve the performance and capabilities of our services, products and applications through research and development and third-party service providers;

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deliver our onsite support and professional services engagements effectively to ensure our customers’ systems are successfully deployed;
successfully compete in our markets;
continue to innovate and expand our offerings;
continue our relationship with carriers and our other resellers;
successfully protect our intellectual property and defend against intellectual property infringement claims;
generate leads and convert potential customers into paying customers;
maintain and enhance our third-party data center hosting facilities to minimize interruptions in the use of our subscriptions; and
hire, integrate, and retain professional and technical talent.
Our quarterly and annual results of operations have fluctuated in the past and may continue to do so in the future. As a result, we may fail to meet or to exceed the expectations of research analysts or investors, which could cause our stock price to fluctuate.
Our quarterly and annual results of operations have varied historically from period to period, and we expect that they will continue to fluctuate due to a variety of factors, many of which are outside of our control, including:
our ability to retain existing customers, resellers, and carriers, and expand our existing customers’ user base, and attract new customers;
our ability to introduce new solutions;
the actions of our competitors, including pricing changes or the introduction of new solutions;
our ability to effectively manage our growth;
our ability to successfully penetrate the market for larger businesses;
the mix of annual and multi-year subscriptions at any given time;
the timing, cost, and effectiveness of our advertising and marketing efforts;
the timing, operating cost, and capital expenditures related to the operation, maintenance and expansion of our business;
service outages or actual or perceived information security breaches and any related impact on our reputation;
our ability to accurately forecast revenues and appropriately plan our expenses;
our ability to realize our deferred tax assets;
costs associated with defending and resolving intellectual property infringement and other claims;
changes in tax laws, regulations, or accounting rules;
the timing and cost of developing or acquiring technologies, services or businesses, and our ability to successfully manage any such acquisitions;
the impact of foreign currencies on our business as we continue to expand our business internationally; and
the impact of worldwide economic, political, industry, and market conditions.
Any one of the factors above, or the cumulative effect of some or all of the factors referred to above, may result in significant fluctuations in our quarterly and annual results of operations. This variability and unpredictability could result in our failure to meet our publicly announced guidance or the expectations of securities analysts or investors for any period, which could cause our stock price to decline. In addition, a significant percentage of our operating expenses is fixed in nature and is based on forecasted revenues trends. Accordingly, in the event of revenue shortfalls, we may not be able to mitigate the negative impact on net income (loss) and margins in the short term. If we fail to meet or exceed the expectations of research analysts or investors, the market price of our shares could fall substantially, and we could face costly lawsuits, including securities class-action suits.

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We face intense competition in our markets and may lack sufficient financial or other resources to compete successfully.
The cloud-based business communications and collaboration solutions industry is competitive, and we expect competition to increase in the future. We face intense competition from other providers of business communications and collaboration systems and solutions. Our competitors include traditional on-premise, hardware business communications providers such as Alcatel-Lucent Enterprise, Avaya Inc., Cisco Systems, Inc., Mitel Networks Corporation, NEC Corporation, Siemens Enterprise Networks, LLC, their resellers, and others; as well as companies such as Microsoft Corporation (Microsoft Teams (Skype for Business)) and BroadSoft, Inc. (acquired by Cisco Systems, Inc.) and their resellers that license their software. Mitel Networks became a privately held company in November 2018, enabling it to have additional flexibility to focus on transitioning their business to cloud solutions. They could accelerate their development and sales for such solutions and become more competitive. In addition, certain of our carriers are also our competitors.  AT&T, BT and TELUS, for example, each sell our solutions but they are also competitors for business communications. These companies have significantly greater resources than us and currently, or may in the future, develop and/or host their own or other solutions through the cloud. Such competitors may cease reselling our solutions to their customers and ultimately be able to transition some or all of those customers onto their competing solutions, which could materially and adversely affect our revenues and growth.  For example, AT&T launched a competing hosted business communications solution in 2016, and new subscriptions for our solution sold by AT&T declined to an immaterial level in 2017 and into 2018. In August 2018, the Company and AT&T entered into a revised agreement, under which AT&T has resumed reselling our solutions, and we expect sales of our solutions by AT&T to increase as a result, but there can be no guarantee that AT&T will not cease reselling our solutions in the future. We also face competition from other cloud companies such as 8x8, Inc., Amazon.com, Inc. (with its Connect and Chime products), Dialpad, Inc., Fuze, StarBlue, Intermedia.net, Inc., J2 Global, Inc., Jive Communications, Inc., Microsoft Corporation (Microsoft Teams (Skype for Business)), Nextiva, Inc., Twilio, Inc., Vonage Holdings Corp., West Corporation, and Zoom Video Communications, Inc., which recently announced a voice solution. Established communications providers, such as AT&T, Verizon Communications Inc., Sprint Corporation and Comcast Corporation in the United States, TELUS and others in Canada, and BT, Vodafone Group plc, and others in the U.K., that resell on-premise hardware, software, and hosted solutions, compete with us in business communications and currently, or may in the future, develop and/or host their own cloud solutions. We may also face competition from other large Internet companies, such as Alphabet Inc. (Google Voice), Facebook, Inc., Oracle Corporation, and salesforce.com, Inc., any of which might launch its own cloud-based business communications services or acquire other cloud-based business communications companies in the future. We also compete against providers of communications platform as a service solutions and messaging software platforms with APIs such as Twilio, Inc., Nexmo (acquired by Vonage Holdings Corp.) and Slack Technologies, Inc., on which customers can build diverse solutions by integrating cloud communications into business applications. These vendors leverage free, and usage and user based paid services that over time could result in disincentives for customers to switch to RingCentral. In order to compete, we must successfully enlist developers to write applications for our marketplace and ensure that these applications have high quality, customer appeal and value. Efforts to compete with these application marketplaces may increase our cost of revenue and lower our operating margins. In addition, in 2016 we began selling a contact center solution.  We face competition with respect to this solution from contact center and customer relationship management providers such as Amazon.com, Inc., Aspect Software, Inc., Avaya Inc., Five9, Inc., Genesys Telecommunications Laboratories, Inc., Serenova, LLC, Talkdesk, Inc., NewVoiceMedia (acquired by Vonage Holdings Corp.), Salesforce.com, Inc., and Twilio, Inc. We also face competition from digital engagement vendors such as Brand Embassy Ltd, eGain Corporation, Lithium Technologies, LLC, LivePerson, Inc., SparkCentral Inc., among others named above that may offer similar features.
Many of our current and potential competitors have longer operating histories, significantly greater resources and name recognition, more diversified product offerings, and larger customer bases than we have. As a result, these competitors may have greater credibility with our existing and potential customers and may be better able to withstand an extended period of downward pricing pressure. In addition, certain of our competitors have partnered with, or been acquired by, and may in the future partner with or acquire, other competitors to offer services, leveraging their collective competitive positions, which makes it more difficult to compete with them and could significantly and adversely affect our results of operations. Demand for our platform is also sensitive to price. Many factors, including our marketing, user acquisition and technology costs, and our current and future competitors’ pricing and marketing strategies, can significantly affect our pricing strategies. Our competitors may be able to adopt more aggressive pricing policies and devote greater resources to the development, promotion and sale of their services than we can to ours. Some of these service providers have in the past and may choose in the future to sacrifice revenues in order to gain market share by offering their services at lower prices or for free, or offering alternative pricing models, such as “freemium” pricing, in which a basic offering is provided for free with advanced features provided for a fee, on the services they offer. Our competitors may also offer bundled service arrangements offering a more complete service offering, despite the technical merits or advantages of our subscriptions. Competition could force us to decrease our prices, slow our growth, increase our customer turnover, reduce our sales, or decrease our market share. The adverse impact of a shortfall in our revenues may be magnified if we are unable to adjust spending adequately to compensate for such shortfall.

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To deliver our subscriptions, we rely on third parties for our network connectivity and co-location facilities, and for certain of the features in our subscriptions.
We currently use the infrastructure of third-party network service providers, including CenturyLink, Inc., Bandwidth.com, Inc., Inteliquent, Inc. and Verizon Communications, Inc. in North America, Iristel Inc. and Comwave Networks Inc. in Canada, Colt Technology Services and British Telecommunications plc in Europe, and several others throughout the world, to deliver our subscriptions over their networks. Our third-party network service providers provide access to their Internet protocol (“IP”) networks and public switched telephone networks (“PSTN”), and provide call termination and origination services, including 911 emergency calling in the U.S. and equivalent services in Canada, the U.K., Asia, Europe, Latin America, and the Middle East, and local number portability for our customers. We expect that we will continue to rely heavily on third-party network service providers to provide these subscriptions for the foreseeable future. We also obtain certain connectivity and network services from our wholly owned subsidiary, RCLEC, Inc. (“RCLEC”) in certain geographic markets; however, RCLEC also uses the infrastructure of third-party network service providers to deliver its services. Historically, our reliance on third-party networks has reduced our operating flexibility and ability to make timely service changes and control quality of service, and we expect that this will continue for the foreseeable future. If any of these network service providers stop providing us with access to their infrastructure, fail to provide these services to us on a cost-effective basis, cease operations, or otherwise terminate these services, the delay caused by qualifying and switching to another third-party network service provider, if one is available, could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.
In addition, we currently use and may in the future use third-party service providers to deliver certain features of our subscriptions. For example, we rely on Free Conference Call Global, LLC for some conference calling features, Zoom Video Communications for our HD video and web conferencing and screen sharing features, Bandwidth.com for our texting capabilities, and NICE inContact, Inc. for our contact center capabilities. We do not or may not in the future, have long-term contracts with certain of these third-party providers, including Zoom Video Communications and Bandwidth.com. If any of these service providers elects to stop providing us with access to their services, fails to provide these services to us on a cost-effective basis, ceases operations, or otherwise terminates these services, the delay caused by qualifying and switching to another third-party service provider, if one is available, or building a proprietary replacement solution could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.
Finally, if problems occur with any of these third-party network or service providers, it may cause errors or poor call quality in our subscriptions, and we could encounter difficulty identifying the source of the problem. The occurrence of errors or poor call quality in our subscriptions, whether caused by our systems or a third-party network or service provider, may result in the loss of our existing customers, delay or loss of market acceptance of our subscriptions, termination of our relationships and agreements with our resellers, carriers, or liability for failure to meet service level agreements, and may seriously harm our business and results of operations.
Interruptions or delays in service from our third-party data center hosting facilities and co-location facilities could impair the delivery of our subscriptions, require us to issue credits or pay penalties and harm our business.
We currently serve our North American customers from three data center hosting facilities located in northern California, northern Virginia, and Chicago, Illinois, where we lease space from Equinix, Inc. We serve our customers in the U.K. and other European countries from two third-party data center hosting facilities in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, and Zurich, Switzerland and we serve the customers of Dimelo SA (“Dimelo”)’s digital customer engagement platform from a third-party data center hosting facility in Paris, France.  We also use third-party co-location facilities in Canada, the U.K., Australia, Switzerland, Singapore, Brazil, and Japan to serve our customers in these regions. Our collaboration solution, RingCentral Glip, is hosted by Amazon Web Services, Inc. (“AWS”), and our contact center solution is hosted by NICE inContact’s third party data center facilities and AWS. In addition, RCLEC uses third-party co-location facilities to provide us with network services at several locations. Damage to, or failure of, these facilities, the communications network providers with whom we or they contract, or with the systems by which our communications providers allocate capacity among their customers, including us, or software errors, have in the past and could in the future result in interruptions in our services. Additionally, in connection with the addition of new data centers or expansion or consolidation of our existing data center facilities, we may move or transfer our data and our customers’ data to other data centers. Despite precautions that we take during this process, any unsuccessful data transfers may impair or cause disruptions in the delivery of our subscriptions. Interruptions in our subscriptions may reduce our revenues, may require us to issue credits or pay penalties, subject us to claims and litigation, cause customers to terminate their subscriptions and adversely affect our renewal rates and our ability to attract new customers. Our ability to attract and retain customers depends on our ability to provide customers with a highly reliable subscription and even minor interruptions in our subscriptions could harm our brand and reputation and have a material adverse effect on our business.

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As part of our current disaster recovery arrangements, our North American infrastructure and all of our North American customers’ data is currently replicated in near real-time at two of our data center facilities in the U.S., and our European production environment and all of our U.K. and other European customers’ data is also currently replicated in near real-time at our two European data center facilities. We do not control the operation of these facilities or of our other data center facilities or RCLEC’s co-location facilities, and they are vulnerable to damage or interruption from earthquakes, floods, fires, power loss, telecommunications failures, and similar events. They may also be subject to human error or to break-ins, sabotage, acts of vandalism, and similar misconduct.
Despite precautions taken at these facilities, the occurrence of a natural disaster, human error, or an act of terrorism or other unanticipated problems at these facilities could result in lengthy interruptions in our subscriptions. Even with the disaster recovery arrangements in place, our subscriptions could be interrupted.
We may also be required to transfer our servers to new data center facilities in the event that we are unable to renew our leases on acceptable terms, if at all, or the owners of the facilities decide to close their facilities, and we may incur significant costs and possible subscription interruption in connection with doing so. In addition, any financial difficulties, such as bankruptcy or foreclosure, faced by our third-party data center operators, or any of the service providers with which we or they contract may have negative effects on our business, the nature and extent of which are difficult to predict. Additionally, if our data centers are unable to keep up with our increasing needs for capacity, our ability to grow our business could be materially and adversely impacted.
Failures in Internet infrastructure or interference with broadband access could cause current or potential users to believe that our systems are unreliable, possibly leading our customers to switch to our competitors or to avoid using our subscriptions.
Unlike traditional communications services, our subscriptions depend on our customers’ high-speed broadband access to the Internet, usually provided through a cable or digital subscriber line (“DSL”) connection. Increasing numbers of users and increasing bandwidth requirements may degrade the performance of our subscriptions and applications due to capacity constraints and other Internet infrastructure limitations. As our customer base grows and their usage of communications capacity increases, we will be required to make additional investments in network capacity to maintain adequate data transmission speeds, the availability of which may be limited, or the cost of which may be on terms unacceptable to us. If adequate capacity is not available to us as our customers’ usage increases, our network may be unable to achieve or maintain sufficiently high data transmission capacity, reliability or performance. In addition, if Internet service providers and other third parties providing Internet services have outages or deteriorations in their quality of service, our customers will not have access to our subscriptions or may experience a decrease in the quality of our subscriptions. Furthermore, as the rate of adoption of new technologies increases, the networks on which our subscriptions and applications rely may not be able to sufficiently adapt to the increased demand for these services, including ours. Frequent or persistent interruptions could cause current or potential users to believe that our systems or subscriptions are unreliable, leading them to switch to our competitors or to avoid our subscriptions, and could permanently harm our reputation and brands.
In addition, users who access our subscriptions and applications through mobile devices, such as smartphones and tablets, must have a high-speed connection, such as Wi-Fi, 3G, 4G, or LTE, to use our subscriptions and applications. Currently, this access is provided by companies that have significant and increasing market power in the broadband and Internet access marketplace, including incumbent phone companies, cable companies, and wireless companies. Some of these providers offer products and subscriptions that directly compete with our own offerings, which can potentially give them a competitive advantage. Also, these providers could take measures that degrade, disrupt or increase the cost of user access to third-party services, including our subscriptions, by restricting or prohibiting the use of their infrastructure to support or facilitate third-party services or by charging increased fees to third parties or the users of third-party services, any of which would make our subscriptions less attractive to users, and reduce our revenues.
On January 4, 2018, the FCC released an order reclassifying broadband Internet access as an information service, subject to certain provisions of Title I of the Communications Act. The order eliminates rules adopted in 2015 that prohibited broadband providers from blocking, impairing, or degrading access to legal content, applications, services, or non-harmful devices, or engaging in the practice of paid prioritization, e.g., the favoring of some lawful Internet traffic over other traffic in exchange for higher payments. The order does require broadband providers to disclose publicly accurate information regarding network management practices, performance characteristics, and commercial terms of their broadband Internet access services sufficient to enable consumers to make informed choices regarding the purchase and use of such services and entrepreneurs and other small businesses to develop, market, and maintain Internet offerings. The rules require that such disclosure be made via a publicly available, easily accessible website or through transmittal to the FCC. The order also shifts regulatory oversight of broadband providers to the Federal Trade Commission, under its authority to prevent unfair or deceptive acts or practices. The new rules went into effect on June 11, 2018. The FCC decision was appealed and oral argument was held on February 1, 2019 before the U.S. Court of Appeals

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for the District of Columbia Circuit. In addition, Congress may take action to curtail or modify the FCC’s new broadband rules. On September 30, 2018, California enacted the California Internet Consumer Protection and Net Neutrality Act of 2018, making California the fourth state to enact a state-level net neutrality law since the FCC repealed its nationwide regulations, mandating that all broadband services in California must be provided in accordance with state net neutrality requirements. The U.S. Department of Justice has sued to block the law going into effect, and California has agreed to delay enforcement until the resolution of the FCC’s repeal of the federal rules. A number of other states are considering legislation or executive actions that would regulate the conduct of broadband providers. We cannot predict whether the FCC order or state initiatives will be modified, overturned, or vacated by legal action of the court, federal legislation, or the FCC. Under the new FCC rules, broadband internet access providers may be able to charge web-based services such as ours for priority access to customers, which could result in increased costs and a loss of existing users, impair our ability to attract new users, and materially and adversely affect our business and opportunities for growth.
Most of our customers may terminate their subscriptions for our service at any time without penalty, and increased customer turnover, or costs we incur to retain our customers and encourage them to add users and, in the future, to purchase additional functionalities and premium subscription editions, could materially and adversely affect our financial performance.
Although we have recently begun to enter into long-term contracts with larger customers, our customers generally do not have long-term contracts with us and these customers may terminate their subscriptions at any time without penalty or early termination charges. We cannot accurately predict the rate of customer terminations or average monthly subscription cancellations or failures to renew, which we refer to as turnover. Our customers with subscription agreements have no obligation to renew their subscriptions for our service after the expiration of their initial subscription period, which is typically between one and three years. In the event that these customers do renew their subscriptions, they may choose to renew for fewer users, shorter contract lengths, or for a less expensive subscription plan or edition. We cannot predict the renewal rates for customers that have entered into subscription contracts with us.
Customer turnover, as well as reductions in the number of users for which a customer subscribes, each could have a significant impact on our results of operations, as does the cost we incur in our efforts to retain our customers and encourage them to upgrade their subscriptions and increase their number of users. Our turnover rate could increase in the future if customers are not satisfied with our subscriptions, the value proposition of our subscriptions or our ability to otherwise meet their needs and expectations. Turnover and reductions in the number of users for whom a customer subscribes may also increase due to factors beyond our control, including the failure or unwillingness of customers to pay their monthly subscription fees due to financial constraints and the impact of a slowing economy. Due to turnover and reductions in the number of users for whom a customer subscribes, we have to acquire new customers, or acquire new users within our existing customer base, on an ongoing basis simply to maintain our existing level of customers and revenues. If a significant number of customers terminate, reduce, or fail to renew their subscriptions, we may be required to incur significantly higher marketing expenditures than we currently anticipate in order to increase the number of new customers or to upsell existing customers, and such additional marketing expenditures could harm our business and results of operations.
Our future success also depends in part on our ability to sell additional subscriptions and additional functionalities to our current customers. This may require increasingly sophisticated and more costly sales efforts and a longer sales cycle. Any increase in the costs necessary to upgrade, expand and retain existing customers could materially and adversely affect our financial performance. If our efforts to convince customers to add users and, in the future, to purchase additional functionalities are not successful, our business may suffer. In addition, such increased costs could cause us to increase our subscription rates, which could increase our turnover rate.
If we are unable to attract new customers to our subscriptions or upsell to those customers on a cost-effective basis, our business will be materially and adversely affected.
In order to grow our business, we must continue to attract new customers and expand the number of users in, and services provided to, our existing customer base on a cost-effective basis. We use and periodically adjust the mix of advertising and marketing programs to promote our subscriptions. Significant increases in the pricing of one or more of our advertising channels would increase our advertising costs or may cause us to choose less expensive and perhaps less effective channels to promote our subscriptions. As we add to or change the mix of our advertising and marketing strategies, we may need to expand into channels with significantly higher costs than our current programs, which could materially and adversely affect our results of operations. We will incur advertising and marketing expenses in advance of when we anticipate recognizing any revenues generated by such expenses, and we may fail to otherwise experience an increase in revenues or brand awareness as a result of such expenditures. We have made in the past, and may make in the future, significant expenditures and investments in new advertising campaigns, and we cannot assure you that any such investments will lead to the cost-effective acquisition of additional customers. If we are

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unable to maintain effective advertising programs, our ability to attract new customers could be materially and adversely affected, our advertising and marketing expenses could increase substantially, and our results of operations may suffer.
Some of our potential customers learn about us through leading search engines, such as Google, Yahoo!, and Bing. While we employ search engine optimization and search engine marketing strategies, our ability to maintain and increase the number of visitors directed to our website is not entirely within our control. If search engine companies modify their search algorithms in a manner that reduces the prominence of our listing, or if our competitors’ search engine optimization efforts are more successful than ours, or if search engine companies restrict or prohibit us from using their services, fewer potential customers may click through to our website. In addition, the cost of purchased listings has increased in the past and may increase in the future. A decrease in website traffic or an increase in search costs could materially and adversely affect our customer acquisition efforts and our results of operations.
Most of our revenues today come from small and medium-sized businesses, which may have fewer financial resources to weather an economic downturn.
Most of our revenues today come from small and medium-sized businesses. These customers may be materially and adversely affected by economic downturns to a greater extent than larger, more established businesses. These businesses typically have more limited financial resources, including capital-borrowing capacity, than larger entities. As the majority of our customers pay for our subscriptions through credit and debit cards, weakness in certain segments of the credit markets and in the U.S. and global economies has resulted in and may in the future result in increased numbers of rejected credit and debit card payments, which could materially affect our business by increasing customer cancellations and impacting our ability to engage new small and medium-sized customers. If small and medium-sized businesses experience financial hardship as a result of a weak economy, industry consolidation or for any other reason, the overall demand for our subscriptions could be materially and adversely affected.
We face significant risks in our strategy to target medium-sized and larger businesses for sales of our subscriptions and, if we do not manage these efforts effectively, our business and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.
Sales to medium-sized and larger businesses continue to grow in both absolute dollars and as a percentage of our total sales. As we continue to target more of our sales efforts to medium-sized and larger businesses, we expect to incur higher costs and longer sales cycles and we may be less effective at predicting when we will complete these sales. In these market segments, the decision to purchase our subscriptions generally requires the approval of more technical personnel and management levels within a potential customer’s organization, and therefore, these types of sales require us to invest more time educating these potential customers about the benefits of our subscriptions. In addition, larger customers may demand more features, integration services, and customization, and may require highly skilled sales and support personnel. Our investment in marketing our subscriptions to these potential customers may not be successful, which could significantly and adversely affect our results of operations and our overall ability to grow our customer base. We also have only limited experience in developing and managing sales channels and distribution arrangements for larger businesses. Furthermore, many medium-sized and larger businesses that we target for sales may already purchase business communications and solutions from our larger competitors. As a result of these factors, these sales opportunities may require us to devote greater research and development resources and sales, support to individual customers, and invest in hiring and retaining highly skilled personnel, resulting in increased costs and could likely lengthen our typical sales cycle, which could strain our limited sales and support resources. Moreover, these larger transactions may require us to delay recognizing the associated revenues we derive from these customers until any technical or implementation requirements have been met. Furthermore, as we have limited experience selling to larger businesses, our investment in marketing our subscriptions to these potential customers may not be successful, which could materially and adversely affect our results of operations and our overall ability to grow our customer base.
We rely significantly on our indirect sales channel to sell our subscriptions; our failure to effectively develop, manage, and maintain our indirect sales channels could materially and adversely affect our revenues.
Our future success depends on our continued ability to establish and maintain a network of channel relationships, and we expect that we will need to expand our network in order to support and expand our historical base of smaller enterprises as well as attract and support larger customers and expand into international markets. An increasing portion of our revenues are derived from our network of sales agents and resellers, which we refer to collectively as resellers, many of which sell or may in the future decide to sell their own services or services from other business communications providers.  We generally do not have long-term contracts with these resellers, and the loss of or reduction in sales through these third parties could materially reduce our revenues. Our competitors may in some cases be effective in causing our current or potential resellers to favor their services or prevent or reduce sales of our subscriptions.  Furthermore, while AT&T, BT, and TELUS also sell our solutions, they are also competitors for business communications. These companies have significantly greater resources than us and currently, or may in the future, develop and/or host their own or other solutions through the cloud.  Such competitors may cease reselling our solutions to their

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customers and ultimately be able to transition some or all of those customers onto their competing solutions, which could materially and adversely affect our revenues and growth.  In this regard, AT&T launched a competing hosted business communications solution in 2016, and new subscriptions for our solution sold by AT&T declined to an immaterial level in 2017 and into 2018. In August 2018, the Company and AT&T entered into a revised agreement, under which AT&T has resumed reselling our solutions, and we expect sales of our solutions by AT&T to increase as a result, but there can be no guarantee that AT&T will not cease reselling our solutions in the future. If AT&T will cease reselling our solutions, our revenues and growth could be significantly and adversely affected. If we fail to maintain relationships with our resellers and carriers, fail to develop relationships with new resellers and carriers in new markets or expand the number of resellers and carriers in our network in existing markets, or fail to manage, train, or provide appropriate incentives to our existing resellers and carriers, or if our resellers and carriers are not successful in their sales efforts, sales of our subscriptions may decrease and our operating results would suffer. If we are unable to maintain our relationships with BT or TELUS, or if these carriers reduce resources committed to reselling the service, our results of operations may suffer.
Recruiting and retaining qualified resellers and carriers in our network and training them in our technology and subscription offerings requires significant time and resources. To develop and expand our indirect sales channels, we must continue to scale and improve our processes and procedures to support these channels, including investment in systems and training. Many resellers and carriers may not be willing to invest the time and resources required to train their staff to effectively market our subscriptions.
Growth may place significant demands on our management and our infrastructure.
We have recently experienced substantial growth in our business. This growth has placed and may continue to place significant demands on our management and our operational and financial infrastructure. As our operations grow in size, scope, and complexity, we will need to increase our sales and marketing efforts and add additional sales and marketing personnel in various regions worldwide, and improve and upgrade our systems and infrastructure to attract, service, and retain an increasing number of customers. For example, we expect the volume of simultaneous calls to increase significantly as our customer base grows. Our network hardware and software may not be able to accommodate this additional simultaneous call volume. The expansion of our systems and infrastructure will require us to commit substantial financial, operational, and technical resources in advance of an increase in the volume of business, with no assurance that the volume of business will increase. Any such additional capital investments will increase our cost base.
Continued growth could also strain our ability to maintain reliable service levels for our customers, resellers, and carriers develop and improve our operational, financial and management controls, enhance our billing and reporting systems and procedures and recruit, train and retain highly skilled personnel. In addition, our existing systems, processes, and controls may not prevent or detect all errors, omissions, or fraud. We may also experience difficulties in managing improvements to our systems, processes, and controls or in connection with third-party software licensed to help us with such improvements. Any future growth, particularly as we continue to expand internationally, would add complexity to our organization and require effective communication and coordination throughout our organization. Additionally, our productivity and the quality of our products and services may be adversely affected if we do not integrate and train our new employees quickly and effectively. If we fail to achieve the necessary level of efficiency in our organization as we grow, our business, results of operations and financial condition could be materially and adversely affected.
Support for smartphones and tablets are an integral part of our solutions. If we are unable to develop robust mobile applications that operate on mobile platforms that our customers use, our business and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.
Our solutions allow our customers to use and manage our cloud-based business communications solution on smart devices. As new smart devices and operating systems are released, we may encounter difficulties supporting these devices and services, and we may need to devote significant resources to the creation, support, and maintenance of our mobile applications. In addition, if we experience difficulties in the future integrating our mobile applications into smart devices or if problems arise with our relationships with providers of mobile operating systems, such as those of Apple Inc. or Alphabet Inc. (the parent company of Google Inc.), our future growth and our results of operations could suffer.
If we are unable to develop, license, or acquire new services or applications on a timely and cost-effective basis, our business, financial condition, and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.
The cloud-based business communications industry is an emerging market that is characterized by rapid changes in customer requirements, frequent introductions of new and enhanced services, and continuing and rapid technological advancement. We cannot predict the effect of technological changes on our business. To compete successfully in this emerging market, we must anticipate and adapt to technological changes and evolving industry standards, and continue to design, develop, manufacture, and

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sell new and enhanced services that provide increasingly higher levels of performance and reliability at lower cost. Currently, we derive a majority of our revenues from subscriptions to RingCentral Office, and we expect this will continue for the foreseeable future. However, our future success will also depend on our ability to introduce and sell new services, features, and functionality that enhance or are beyond the voice, video, team messaging, collaboration, conferencing, contact center, and fax subscriptions we currently offer, as well as to improve usability and support and increase customer satisfaction. Our failure to develop solutions that satisfy customer preferences in a timely and cost-effective manner may harm our ability to renew our subscriptions with existing customers and create or increase demand for our subscriptions, and may materially and adversely impact our results of operations.
The introduction of new services by competitors or the development of entirely new technologies to replace existing offerings could make our solutions obsolete or adversely affect our business and results of operations. Announcements of future releases and new services and technologies by our competitors or us could cause customers to defer purchases of our existing subscriptions, which also could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations. We may experience difficulties with software development, operations, design, or marketing that could delay or prevent our development, introduction, or implementation of new or enhanced services and applications. We have in the past experienced delays in the planned release dates of new features and upgrades, and have discovered defects in new services and applications after their introduction. We cannot assure you that new features or upgrades will be released according to schedule, or that, when released, they will not contain defects. Either of these situations could result in adverse publicity, loss of revenues, delay in market acceptance, or claims by customers brought against us, all of which could harm our reputation, business, results of operations, and financial condition. Moreover, the development of new or enhanced services or applications may require substantial investment, and we must continue to invest a significant amount of resources in our research and development efforts to develop these services and applications to remain competitive. We do not know whether these investments will be successful. If customers do not widely adopt any new or enhanced services and applications, we may not be able to realize a return on our investment. If we are unable to develop, license, or acquire new or enhanced services and applications on a timely and cost-effective basis, or if such new or enhanced services and applications do not achieve market acceptance, our business, financial condition, and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.
A cyber-attack, information security breach or denial of service event could delay or interrupt service to our customers, harm our reputation, or subject us to significant liability.
Our operations depend on our ability to protect our production and corporate information technology services from interruption or damage from unauthorized entry, computer malware or other events beyond our control. We have from time to time been subject to communications fraud and cyber-attacks by malicious actors, and denial of service (“DoS/DDoS”) events, and we may be subject to similar attacks in the future. We cannot assure you that our backup systems, regular data backups, security controls and other procedures currently in place, or that may be in place in the future, will be adequate to prevent significant damage, system failure, service outages, data breach or data loss. Also, our subscriptions are web-based. The amount of data we store for our users on our servers has been increasing as our business has grown. We now host services, which includes hosting customer data, both in co-located data centers and in multiple public cloud services, and some of our products allow users to store files, tasks, calendar events, and messages indefinitely on our service.  We also maintain sensitive data related to our technology and business, and that of our employees, strategic partners, and customers, including intellectual property, proprietary business information and personally identifiable information (also called personal data) on our own systems and also in multiple vendors’ cloud services. As a result of maintaining larger volumes of data and user files and/or as a result of our continued movement up market, or movement into new customer segments and acquisition of larger and more recognized customers, we may become more of a target for hackers, nation states and other malicious actors. In addition, we use third-party vendors which in some cases have access to our data and our customers’ data. We employ layered security measures and have a means of working with third parties who report vulnerabilities to us. Despite the implementation of security measures by us or our vendors, our computing devices, infrastructure or networks, or our vendors’ computing devices, infrastructure or networks may be vulnerable to hackers, computer viruses, worms, other malicious software programs or similar disruptive problems that are caused by or through a security weakness or vulnerability in our or our vendors’ infrastructure, network or business practices, or our or our vendors’ customers, employees, business partners, consultants or other Internet users who attempt to invade our or our vendors’ corporate and personal computers, tablets, mobile devices, software, data networks, or voice networks. If there is a security weakness or vulnerability in our or our vendors’ infrastructure, networks or business practices that is successfully targeted, we could face increased costs, liability claims, including contractual liability claims relating to security obligations in agreements with our customers, fines, reduced revenue, or harm to our reputation or competitive position. In addition, even if not targeted, in strengthening our security controls or in remediating security vulnerabilities we could incur increased costs and capital expenditures.
Further, in some cases we do not have in place disaster recovery facilities for certain ancillary services, such as email delivery of messages. We rely on encryption and authentication technology to ensure secure transmission of and access to confidential information, including customer credit card numbers, debit card numbers, direct debit information, customer communications,

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and files uploaded by our customers. Advances in computer capabilities, new discoveries in the field of cryptography, discovery of software bugs or vulnerabilities, discovery of hardware bugs or vulnerabilities, social engineering activities, or other developments may result in a compromise or breach of the technology we use to protect our data and our customer data, or of the data itself.
Additionally, third parties have attempted in the past, and may attempt in the future, to fraudulently induce domestic and international employees, consultants, or customers into disclosing sensitive information, such as user names, provisioning data, customer proprietary network information (“CPNI”) or other information in order to gain access to our customers’ user accounts or data, or to our data. CPNI includes information such as the phone numbers called by a customer, the frequency, duration, and timing of such calls, and any services purchased by the consumer, such as call waiting, call forwarding, and caller ID, in addition to other information that may appear on a customer’s bill. Third parties may also attempt to induce employees, consultants, or customers into disclosing sensitive information regarding our intellectual property and other confidential business information, our customers, the customer information we hold, or our information technology systems. In addition, the techniques used to obtain unauthorized access, to perform hacking, phishing and social engineering, or to sabotage systems, change and evolve frequently and may not be recognized until launched against a target, may be new and previously unknown or little-known, or may not be detected or understood until well after such actions are conducted. We may be unable to anticipate these techniques or to implement adequate preventative measures, and any security breach or other incident may take longer than expected to remediate and otherwise address. Any system failure or security breach that causes interruptions or data loss in our operations or in the computer systems of our customers or leads to the misappropriation of our or our customers’ confidential or personal information could result in significant liability to us, loss of our intellectual property, cause our subscriptions to be perceived as not being secure, cause considerable harm to us and our reputation (including requiring notification to customers, regulators or the media), and deter current and potential customers from using our subscriptions. Any of these events could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, and financial condition.
It is critical to our business that our information and our employees’, strategic partners’, and customers’ sensitive information remains secure and that our customers perceive that this information is secure. An information security incident could result in unauthorized access to, loss of, or unauthorized disclosure of such information. A cybersecurity breach could expose us to litigation, indemnity obligations, government investigations, contractual liability relating to contractual security obligations and other possible liabilities. Additionally, a cyber-attack or other information security incident, whether actual or perceived, could result in negative publicity which could harm our reputation and reduce our customers’ confidence in the effectiveness of our solutions, which could materially and adversely affect our business and operating results. A breach of our security systems could also expose us to increased costs including remediation costs, disruption of operations, or increased cybersecurity protection costs that may have a material adverse effect on our business. In addition, a cybersecurity breach of our customers’ systems can also result in exposure of their authentication credentials, unauthorized access to their accounts, exposure of their account information and data (including CPNI), and fraudulent calls on their accounts, which can subsequently have similar actual or perceived impacts to us as described above. A cybersecurity breach of our partners’ or vendors’ systems can result in similar actual or perceived impacts.
While we maintain cybersecurity insurance, our insurance may be insufficient to cover all liabilities incurred by privacy or security incidents. We also cannot be certain that our insurance coverage will be adequate for data handling or data security liabilities actually incurred, that insurance will continue to be available to us on economically reasonable terms, or at all, or that an insurer will not deny coverage as to any future claim. The successful assertion of one or more large claims against us that exceed available insurance coverage, or the occurrence of changes in our insurance policies, including premium increases or the imposition of large deductible or co-insurance requirements, could have a material adverse effect on our business, including our financial condition, operating results, and reputation.
Laws, regulations, and enforcement actions relating to security and privacy information continue to evolve. We have incurred and expect to continue to incur significant expenses to prevent security incidents. It is possible that, in order to support changes to applicable laws and to support our expansion of sales into new geographic areas or into new industry segments, we will need to increase or change our cybersecurity systems and expenditures. Further, it is possible that changes to laws and regulations relating to security and privacy may make it more expensive to operate in certain jurisdictions and may increase the risk of our not being in compliance with such changing laws and regulations.
We rely on third parties, including third parties outside the U.S., for some of our software development, quality assurance, operations, and customer support.
We currently depend on various third parties for some of our software development efforts, quality assurance, operations, and customer support services. Specifically, we outsource some of our software development and design, quality assurance, and operations activities to third-party contractors that have employees and consultants located in St. Petersburg, Russia, Odessa, Ukraine, and Manila, the Philippines. In addition, we outsource a portion of our customer support, inside sales and network

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operation control functions to third-party contractors located in Manila, the Philippines. Our dependence on third-party contractors creates a number of risks, in particular, the risk that we may not maintain service quality, control or effective management with respect to these business operations. In addition, the political and military events in the Ukraine over the last few years, including political demonstrations, the annexation of the Crimea region of Ukraine by Russia, the hostile relations between Russia and the Ukraine, and disruptions caused by pro-Russian separatists in the Ukraine, could have an adverse impact on our third-party software development and quality assurance operations in Odessa, Ukraine. Further, the poor relations between the U.S. and Russia and sanctions by the U.S. and the European Union (“EU”) against Russia could adversely impact our third-party software development and quality assurance operations in St. Petersburg, Russia.
Our agreements with these third-party contractors are either not terminable by them (other than at the end of the term or upon an uncured breach by us) or require at least 60 days’ prior written notice of termination. If we experience problems with our third-party contractors, the costs charged by our third-party contractors increase or our agreements with our third-party contractors are terminated, we may not be able to develop new solutions, enhance or operate existing solutions, or provide customer support in an alternate manner that is equally or more efficient and cost-effective.
We anticipate that we will continue to depend on these and other third-party relationships in order to grow our business for the foreseeable future. If we are unsuccessful in maintaining existing and, if needed, establishing new relationships with third parties, our ability to efficiently operate existing services or develop new services and provide adequate customer support could be impaired, and, as a result, our competitive position or our results of operations could suffer.
Accusations of infringement of third-party intellectual property rights could materially and adversely affect our business.
There has been substantial litigation in the areas in which we operate regarding intellectual property rights. For instance, we have recently and in the past been sued by third parties claiming infringement of their intellectual property rights and we may be sued for infringement from time to time in the future. Also, in some instances, we have agreed to indemnify our customers, resellers, and carriers for expenses and liability resulting from claimed intellectual property infringement by our products. From time to time, we have received requests for indemnification in connection with allegations of intellectual property infringement and we may choose, or be required to, assume the defense and/or reimburse our customers and/or resellers and carriers for their expenses, settlement and/or liability. In the past, we have settled infringement litigation brought against us; however, we cannot assure you that we will be able to settle any future claims or, if we are able to settle any such claims, that the settlement will be on terms favorable to us. Our broad range of technology may increase the likelihood that third parties will claim that we, or our customers and/or resellers, and carriers, infringe their intellectual property rights.
We have in the past received, and may in the future receive, notices of claims of infringement, misappropriation or misuse of other parties’ proprietary rights. Furthermore, regardless of their merits, accusations and lawsuits like these, whether against us or our customers, resellers, and carriers, may require significant time and expense to defend, may negatively affect customer relationships, may divert management’s attention away from other aspects of our operations and, upon resolution, may have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition, and cash flows.
Certain technology necessary for us to provide our subscriptions may, in fact, be patented by other parties either now or in the future. If such technology were validly patented by another person, we would have to negotiate a license for the use of that technology. We may not be able to negotiate such a license at a price that is acceptable to us or at all. The existence of such a patent, or our inability to negotiate a license for any such technology on acceptable terms, could force us to cease using the technology and cease offering subscriptions incorporating the technology, which could materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations.
If we, or any of our products, were found to be infringing on the intellectual property rights of any third-party, we could be subject to liability for such infringement, which could be material. We could also be prohibited from using or selling certain subscriptions, prohibited from using certain processes, or required to redesign certain subscriptions, each of which could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.
These and other outcomes may:
result in the loss of a substantial number of existing customers or prohibit the acquisition of new customers;
cause us to pay license fees for intellectual property we are deemed to have infringed;
cause us to incur costs and devote valuable technical resources to redesigning our subscriptions;
cause our cost of revenues to increase;
cause us to accelerate expenditures to preserve existing revenues;
cause existing or new vendors to require pre-payments or letters of credit;
materially and adversely affect our brand in the marketplace and cause a substantial loss of goodwill;

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cause us to change our business methods or subscriptions;
require us to cease certain business operations or offering certain subscriptions or features; and
lead to our bankruptcy or liquidation.
Our limited ability to protect our intellectual property rights could materially and adversely affect our business.
We rely, in part, on patent, trademark, copyright, and trade secret law to protect our intellectual property in the U.S. and abroad. We seek to protect our technology, software, documentation and other information under trade secret and copyright law, which afford only limited protection. For example, we typically enter into confidentiality agreements with our employees, consultants, third-party contractors, customers, and vendors in an effort to control access to use and distribution of our technology, software, documentation, and other information. These agreements may not effectively prevent unauthorized use or disclosure of confidential information and may not provide an adequate remedy in the event of such unauthorized use or disclosure, and it may be possible for a third-party to legally reverse engineer, copy or otherwise obtain and use our technology without authorization. In addition, improper disclosure of trade secret information by our current or former employees, consultants, third-party contractors, customers, or vendors to the public or others who could make use of the trade secret information would likely preclude that information from being protected as a trade secret.
We also rely, in part, on patent law to protect our intellectual property in the U.S. and internationally. Our intellectual property portfolio includes 161 issued U.S. utility patents, which expire between 2025 and 2038. We also have 46 patent applications pending examination in the U.S. and 14 patent applications pending examination in foreign jurisdictions, all of which are related to U.S. applications. We cannot predict whether such pending patent applications will result in issued patents or whether any issued patents will effectively protect our intellectual property. Even if a pending patent application results in an issued patent, the patent may be circumvented or its validity may be challenged in various proceedings in United States District Court or before the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, such as Post Grant Review or Inter Partes Review, which may require legal representation and involve substantial costs and diversion of management time and resources. In addition, we cannot assure you that every significant feature of our solutions is protected by our patents, or that we will mark our products with any or all patents they embody. As a result, we may be prevented from seeking injunctive relief or damages, in whole or in part for infringement of our patents.
The unlicensed use of our brand, including domain names, by third parties could harm our reputation, cause confusion among our customers and impair our ability to market our products and subscriptions. To that end, we have registered numerous trademarks and service marks and have applied for registration of additional trademarks and service marks and have acquired a large number of domain names in and outside the U.S. to establish and protect our brand names as part of our intellectual property strategy. If our applications receive objections or are successfully opposed by third parties, it will be difficult for us to prevent third parties from using our brand without our permission. Moreover, successful opposition to our applications might encourage third parties to make additional oppositions or commence trademark infringement proceedings against us, which could be costly and time consuming to defend against. If we are not successful in protecting our trademarks, our trademark rights may be diluted and subject to challenge or invalidation, which could materially and adversely affect our brand.
Despite our efforts to implement our intellectual property strategy, we may not be able to protect or enforce our proprietary rights in the U.S. or internationally (where effective intellectual property protection may be unavailable or limited). For example, we have entered into agreements containing confidentiality and invention assignment provisions in connection with the outsourcing of certain software development and quality assurance activities to third-party contractors located in St. Petersburg, Russia and Odessa, Ukraine. We have also entered into an agreement containing a confidentiality provision with a third-party contractor located in Manila, the Philippines, where we have outsourced a significant portion of our customer support function. We cannot assure you that agreements with these third-party contractors or their agreements with their employees and contractors will adequately protect our proprietary rights in the applicable jurisdictions and foreign countries, as their respective laws may not protect proprietary rights to the same extent as the laws of the U.S. In addition, our competitors may independently develop technologies that are similar or superior to our technology, duplicate our technology in a manner that does not infringe our intellectual property rights or design around any of our patents. Furthermore, detecting and policing unauthorized use of our intellectual property is difficult and resource-intensive. Moreover, litigation may be necessary in the future to enforce our intellectual property rights, to determine the validity and scope of the proprietary rights of others, or to defend against claims of infringement or invalidity. Such litigation, whether successful or not, could result in substantial costs and diversion of management time and resources and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Our success depends on the public acceptance of our products and applications.
Our future success depends on our ability to significantly increase revenues generated from our cloud-based business communications solutions. The market for cloud-based business communications is evolving rapidly and is characterized by rapid development of and changes in the technology and solutions offered. As is typical of a new and rapidly evolving industry, the

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demand for, and market acceptance of, these solutions is uncertain. If the market for cloud-based business communications fails to develop, develops more slowly than we anticipate, or develops in a manner different than we expect, our products could fail to achieve market acceptance, which in turn could materially and adversely affect our business.
Our growth depends on the continued use of voice communications by businesses, as compared to email and other data-based methods. A decline in the overall rate of voice communications by businesses would harm our business. Furthermore, our continued growth depends on future demand for and adoption of Internet voice communications systems and services. Although the number of broadband subscribers worldwide has grown significantly in recent years, a small percentage of businesses have adopted Internet voice communications services to date. For demand and adoption of Internet voice communications services by businesses to increase, Internet voice communications networks must improve the quality of their service for real-time communications by managing the effects of and reducing packet loss, packet delay and packet jitter, as well as unreliable bandwidth, so that toll-quality service can be consistently provided. Additionally, the cost and feature benefits of Internet voice communications must be sufficient to cause customers to switch from traditional phone service providers. We must devote substantial resources to educate customers and their end users about the benefits of Internet voice communications solutions, in general, and our subscriptions in particular. If any or all of these factors fail to occur, our business may be materially and adversely affected.
Interruptions in our services caused by undetected errors, failures or bugs in our subscriptions could harm our reputation, result in significant costs to us, and impair our ability to sell our subscriptions.
Due to the fact our subscriptions are complex and we have incorporated a variety of new computer hardware, as well as software that is developed in-house or licensed or acquired from third-party vendors, our subscriptions may have errors or defects that customers identify after they begin using them that could result in unanticipated interruptions of service. Internet-based services frequently contain undetected errors and bugs when first introduced or when new versions or enhancements are released. While the substantial majority of our customers are small and medium-sized businesses, the use of our subscriptions in complicated, large-scale network environments may increase our exposure to undetected errors, failures, or bugs in our subscriptions. Although we test our subscriptions to detect and correct errors and defects before their general release, we have from time to time experienced significant interruptions in our subscriptions as a result of such errors or defects and may experience future interruptions of service if we fail to detect and correct these errors and defects. The costs incurred in correcting such defects or errors may be substantial and could harm our results of operations. In addition, we rely on hardware purchased or leased and software licensed from third parties to offer our subscriptions.
Any defects in, or unavailability of, our or third-party software or hardware that cause interruptions of our subscriptions could, among other things:
cause a reduction in revenues or delay in market acceptance of our subscriptions;
require us to pay penalties or issue credits or refunds to our customers, resellers, or carriers, or expose us to claims for damages;
cause us to lose existing customers and make it more difficult to attract new customers;
divert our development resources or require us to make extensive changes to our software, which would increase our expenses and slow innovation;
increase our technical support costs; and
harm our reputation and brand.
If we fail to continue to develop our brand or our reputation is harmed, our business may suffer.
We believe that continuing to strengthen our current brand will be critical to achieving widespread acceptance of our subscriptions and will require continued focus on active marketing efforts. The demand for and cost of online and traditional advertising have been increasing and may continue to increase. Accordingly, we may need to increase our investment in, and devote greater resources to, advertising, marketing, and other efforts to create and maintain brand loyalty among users. Brand promotion activities may not yield increased revenues, and even if they do, any increased revenues may not offset the expenses incurred in building our brand. If we fail to promote and maintain our brand, or if we incur substantial expense in an unsuccessful attempt to promote and maintain our brands, our business could be materially and adversely affected.
Our services, as well as those of our competitors, are regularly reviewed and commented upon by online and social media sources, as well as computer and other business publications. Negative reviews, or reviews in which our competitors’ products and services are rated more highly than our software solutions, could negatively affect our brand and reputation. From time to time, our customers have expressed dissatisfaction with our services, including dissatisfaction with our customer support, our billing policies and the way our subscriptions operate. If we do not handle customer complaints effectively, our brand and reputation may suffer, we may lose our customers’ confidence, and they may choose to terminate, reduce or not to renew their subscriptions. In addition, many of our customers participate in social media and online blogs about Internet-based software solutions, including

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our subscriptions, and our success depends in part on our ability to minimize negative and generate positive customer feedback through such online channels where existing and potential customers seek and share information. If actions we take or changes we make to our subscriptions upset these customers, their blogging could negatively affect our brand and reputation. Complaints or negative publicity about our subscriptions or customer service could materially and adversely impact our ability to attract and retain customers and our business, financial condition and results of operations.
If we experience excessive fraudulent activity or cannot meet evolving credit card association merchant standards, we could incur substantial costs and lose the right to accept credit cards for payment, which could cause our customer base to decline significantly.
Most of our customers authorize us to bill their credit card accounts directly for service fees that we charge. If customers pay for our subscriptions with stolen credit cards, we could incur substantial third-party vendor costs for which we may not be reimbursed. Further, our customers provide us with credit card billing information online or over the phone, and we do not review the physical credit cards used in these transactions, which increases our risk of exposure to fraudulent activity. We also incur charges, which are referred to in the industry as chargebacks, from the credit card companies from claims that the customer did not authorize the credit card transaction to purchase our subscription. If the number of chargebacks becomes excessive, we could be assessed substantial fines or be charged higher transaction fees, and we could lose the right to accept credit cards for payment. In addition, credit card issuers may change merchant and / or service provider standards, including data protection standards, required to utilize their services from time to time. We are compliant with the Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (“PCI DSS”) in the United States, Canada, and the U.K. If we fail to maintain compliance with current merchant standards, such as PCI DSS, or fail to meet new standards, the credit card associations could fine us or terminate their agreements with us, and we would be unable to accept credit cards as payment for our subscriptions. If we fail to maintain compliance with current service provider standards, such as PCI DSS, or fail to meet new standards, customers may choose not to use our services for certain types of communication they have with their customers. If such a failure to comply with relevant standards occurs, we may also face legal liability if we are found to not comply with applicable laws that incorporate, by reference or by adoption of substantially similar provisions, merchant or service provider standards, including PCI DSS. Our subscriptions may also be subject to fraudulent usage, including but not limited to revenue share fraud, domestic traffic pumping, subscription fraud, premium text message scams, and other fraudulent schemes. Although our customers are required to set passwords and personal identification numbers (“PINs”) to protect their accounts and may configure to which destinations international calling is enabled from their extensions, third parties have in the past and may in the future be able to access and use their accounts through fraudulent means. This usage can result in, among other things, substantial bills from our vendors, for which we would be responsible, for terminating fraudulent call traffic. In addition, third parties may have attempted in the past, and may attempt in the future, to induce employees, sub-contractors or consultants into disclosing customer credentials and other account information. Communications fraud can result in unauthorized access to customer accounts and customer data, unauthorized use of customers’ services, charges to customers for fraudulent usage and costs that we must pay to carriers. We may be required to pay for these costs with no reimbursement from the customer, and our reputation may be harmed if our subscriptions are subject to fraudulent usage. Although we implement multiple fraud prevention and detection controls, we cannot assure you that these controls will be adequate to protect against fraud. Substantial losses due to fraud or our inability to accept credit card payments, which could cause our paid customer base to significantly decrease, could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition, and ability to grow our business.
Potential problems with our information systems could interfere with our business and operations.
We rely on our information systems and those of third parties for processing customer orders, distribution of our subscriptions, billing our customers, processing credit card transactions, customer relationship management, supporting financial planning and analysis, accounting functions and financial statement preparation and otherwise running our business. Information systems may experience interruptions, including interruptions of related services from third-party providers, which may be beyond our control. Such business interruptions could cause us to fail to meet customer requirements. All information systems, both internal and external, are potentially vulnerable to damage or interruption from a variety of sources, including without limitation, computer viruses, security breaches, energy blackouts, natural disasters, terrorism, war and telecommunication failures, employee or other theft, and third-party provider failures. In addition, since telecommunications billing is inherently complex and requires highly sophisticated information systems to administer, our billing system may experience errors or we may improperly operate the system, which could result in the system incorrectly calculating the fees owed by our customers for our subscriptions or related taxes and administrative fees. Any such errors in our customer billing could harm our reputation and cause us to violate truth in billing laws and regulations. Any errors or disruption in our information systems and those of the third parties upon which we rely could have a significant impact on our business.
In the future, we intend to implement a billing system or internally develop an enhanced billing system, to replace and upgrade our current internally developed billing system and enable automation of certain manual billing processes. Our current

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internally developed billing system requires us to process an increasing number of invoices manually, which could result in billing errors. We may also implement further and enhanced information systems in the future to meet the demands resulting from our growth and to provide additional capabilities and functionality. The implementation of new systems and enhancements is frequently disruptive to the underlying business of an enterprise, and can be time-consuming and expensive, increase management responsibilities, and divert management attention. Any disruptions relating to our systems enhancements or any problems with the implementation, particularly any disruptions impacting our operations or our ability to accurately report our financial performance on a timely basis during the implementation period, could materially and adversely affect our business. Even if we do not encounter these material and adverse effects, the implementation of these enhancements may be much more costly than we anticipated. If we are unable to successfully implement the information systems enhancements as planned, our financial position, results of operations and cash flows could be negatively impacted.
Our use of open source technology could impose limitations on our ability to commercialize our subscriptions.
We use open source software in our platform on which our subscriptions operate. There is a risk that the owners of the copyrights in such software may claim that such licenses impose unanticipated conditions or restrictions on our ability to market or provide our subscriptions. If such owners prevail in such claim, we could be required to make the source code for our proprietary software (which contains our valuable trade secrets) generally available to third parties, including competitors, at no cost, to seek licenses from third parties in order to continue offering our subscriptions, to re-engineer our technology, or to discontinue offering our subscriptions in the event re-engineering cannot be accomplished on a timely basis or at all, any of which could cause us to discontinue our subscriptions, harm our reputation, result in customer losses or claims, increase our costs or otherwise materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations.
We are in the process of expanding our international operations, which exposes us to significant risks.
To date, we have not generated significant revenues from outside of the U.S., Canada, and the U.K. However, we already have significant operations outside these countries, including software development and information technology operations in Russia and China, software development and quality assurance operations in Ukraine, and sales and marketing operations in the Philippines. In addition, Dimelo, our recently acquired digital customer engagement platform provider, is based in France. We have also recently begun selling our solutions to customers in other countries in the EU and in Australia, and we expect to grow our international presence in the future, including through the expansion of our Global Office solution and sales of our solutions to customers internationally. The future success of our business will depend, in part, on our ability to expand our operations and customer base worldwide. Operating in international markets requires significant resources and management attention and will subject us to regulatory, economic, and political risks that are different from those in the U.S. Due to our limited experience with international operations and developing and managing sales and distribution channels in international markets, our international expansion efforts may not be successful. In addition, we will face risks in doing business internationally that could materially and adversely affect our business, including:
our ability to comply with differing and evolving technical and environmental standards, data protection and telecommunications regulations, and certification requirements outside the U.S.;
difficulties and costs associated with staffing and managing foreign operations;
potentially greater difficulty collecting accounts receivable and longer payment cycles;
the need to adapt and localize our subscriptions for specific countries;
the need to offer customer care in various native languages;
reliance on third parties over which we have limited control, including TELUS, BT, and other international resellers, for marketing and reselling our subscriptions;
availability of reliable broadband connectivity and wide area networks in targeted areas for expansion;
lower levels of adoption of credit or debit card usage for Internet related purchases by foreign customers and compliance with various foreign regulations related to credit or debit card processing and data protection requirements;
difficulties in understanding and complying with local laws, regulations, and customs in foreign jurisdictions;
restrictions on travel to or from countries in which we operate or inability to access certain areas;
export controls and economic sanctions administered by the Department of Commerce Bureau of Industry and Security and the Treasury Department’s Office of Foreign Assets Control;
changes in diplomatic and trade relationships, including tariffs and other non-tariff barriers, such as quotas and local content rules;
tariffs imposed by the U.S. on goods from other countries and tariffs imposed by other countries on U.S. goods, including the tariffs recently implemented and additional tariffs that have been proposed by the U.S. government on various imports from China, Canada, Mexico and the EU, and by the governments of these jurisdictions on certain U.S. goods, and any other possible tariffs that may be imposed on services such as ours or the phones that we sell, the scope and duration of which, if implemented, remain uncertain;

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U.S. government trade restrictions, including those which may impose restrictions, including prohibitions, on the exportation, reexportation, sale, shipment or other transfer of programming, technology, components, and/or services to foreign persons;
our ability to comply with the European General Data Protection Regulation (the “GDPR”) and other data privacy and data protection laws, rules and regulations;