Form S-3 Viking Therapeutics,

July 28, 2021 4:52 PM EDT

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As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on July 28, 2021

Registration No. 333-

 

 

 

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549

__________________________

 

FORM S-3

 

REGISTRATION STATEMENT UNDER

THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933

__________________________

 

VIKING THERAPEUTICS, INC.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

 

Delaware

46-1073877

(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)

(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)

 

12340 El Camino Real, Suite 250

San Diego, CA 92130

(858) 704-4660

(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of registrant’s principal executive offices)

__________________________

 

Brian Lian, Ph.D.

President and Chief Executive Officer

Viking Therapeutics, Inc.

12340 El Camino Real, Suite 250

San Diego, CA 92130

(858) 704-4660

(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)

__________________________

 

With copies to:

 

Jeffrey T. Hartlin, Esq.
Samantha H. Eldredge, Esq.

Paul Hastings LLP

1117 S. California Avenue

Palo Alto, CA 94304

(650) 320-1800

__________________________

 

Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public: From time to time after this registration statement becomes effective.

 

If the only securities being registered on this Form are being offered pursuant to dividend or interest reinvestment plans, please check the following box.     

 

If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, other than securities offered only in connection with dividend or interest reinvestment plans, check the following box.     

 

 

If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the

 


 

same offering.     

 

If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.     

 

If this Form is a registration statement pursuant to General Instruction I.D. or a post-effective amendment thereto that shall become effective upon filing with the Commission pursuant to Rule 462(e) under the Securities Act, check the following box.     

 

If this Form is a post-effective amendment to a registration statement filed pursuant to General Instruction I.D. filed to register additional securities or additional classes of securities pursuant to Rule 413(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box.     

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer

 

Accelerated filer

 

 

 

 

Non-accelerated filer

 

Smaller reporting company

 

 

Emerging growth company

 

 

 

 

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of Securities Act.

 

CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE

 

Title of Each Class of Securities to be Registered

 

Amount to be Registered(1)

 

 

Proposed Maximum Offering Price Per Share(2)

 

 

Proposed Maximum Aggregate Offering Price

 

 

Amount of Registration Fee(3)

Common Stock, par value $0.00001 per share

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Preferred Stock, par value $0.00001 per share

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Debt Securities

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Warrants

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Units(4)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  $600,000,000

 

 

 

$65,460 (5)

 

 

(1)

There are being registered hereunder such indeterminate number of shares of common stock and preferred stock; such indeterminate principal amount of debt securities; such indeterminate number of warrants to purchase common stock, preferred stock and/or debt securities and such indeterminate number of units consisting of any combination of common stock, preferred stock, debt securities and/or warrants as may be sold by the Registrant as shall have an aggregate initial offering price not to exceed $600,000,000. Any securities registered hereunder may be sold separately or in combination with other securities registered hereunder. The proposed maximum offering price of the securities will be determined, from time to time, by the Registrant in connection with the issuance by the Registrant of the securities registered hereunder. If any debt securities are issued at an original issue discount, then the offering price of such debt securities shall be in such greater principal amount as shall result in an aggregate offering price not to exceed $600,000,000, less the aggregate dollar amount of all securities previously issued hereunder. The securities registered hereunder also include such indeterminate number of shares of common stock and preferred stock and amount of debt securities as may be issued upon conversion of or exchange for preferred stock or debt securities that provide for conversion or exchange, or upon exercise of warrants or units or pursuant to anti-dilution provisions of any such securities. In addition, pursuant to Rule 416 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), the shares of common stock and preferred stock being registered hereunder include such indeterminate number of shares of common stock and preferred stock as may be issuable with respect to such shares being registered hereunder as a result of stock splits, stock dividends or similar transactions, as applicable.

 

(2)

The proposed maximum aggregate offering price per class of security will be determined from time to time by the Registrant in connection with the issuance by the Registrant of the securities registered hereunder and is not specified as to each class of security pursuant to General Instruction II.D. of Form S-3 under the Securities Act.

 

 


 

(3)

Calculated pursuant to Rule 457(o) of the rules and regulations of the Securities Act.

 

(4)

Each unit will represent an interest in two or more other securities, which may or may not be separable from one another.

 

(5)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pursuant to Rule 457(p) under the Securities Act, the Registrant hereby offsets the total registration fee due under this Registration Statement by the amount of the filing fee associated with the unsold securities from the Registrant’s Form S-3 Registration Statement, filed with the Commission on July 11, 2018 (SEC File No. 333-226133), as amended (the “Prior Registration Statement”), which included $450,000,000 of shares of common stock, preferred stock, debt securities, warrants and units to be sold by the Registrant. The Registrant sold an aggregate of $175,750,000 of securities under the Prior Registration Statement, leaving a balance of $274,250,000 of unsold securities (the “Unsold Securities”). As a result, the Registrant is applying the balance of the registration fee of $34,144.13 previously paid for the Unsold Securities to the registration fee for this Registration Statement, with the remaining $31,315.87 paid herewith.

 

The Registrant hereby amends this Registration Statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the Registrant shall file a further amendment that specifically states that this Registration Statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or until this Registration Statement shall become effective on such date as the Securities and Exchange Commission, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.


 


 

 

EXPLANATORY NOTE

This registration statement contains two prospectuses:

 

 

a base prospectus which covers the offering, issuance and sale by us of up to $600,000,000 in the aggregate of the securities identified above from time to time in one or more offerings; and

 

 

a sales agreement prospectus covering the offering, issuance and sale by us of up to a maximum aggregate offering price of $125,000,000 of our common stock that may be issued and sold under a sales agreement with Stifel, Nicolaus & Company, Incorporated, Truist Securities, Inc. and H.C. Wainwright & Co., LLC.

The base prospectus immediately follows this explanatory note. The specific terms of any securities to be offered pursuant to the base prospectus will be specified in a prospectus supplement to the base prospectus. The sales agreement prospectus immediately follows the base prospectus. The $125,000,000 of common stock that may be offered, issued and sold under the sales agreement prospectus is included in the $600,000,000 of securities that may be offered, issued and sold by us under the base prospectus. Upon termination of the sales agreement with Stifel, Nicolaus & Company, Incorporated, Truist Securities, Inc. and H.C. Wainwright & Co., LLC, any portion of the $125,000,000 included in the sales agreement prospectus that is not sold pursuant to the sales agreement will be available for sale in other offerings pursuant to the base prospectus and a corresponding prospectus supplement, and if no shares are sold under the sales agreement, the full $125,000,000 of securities may be sold in other offerings pursuant to the base prospectus and a corresponding prospectus supplement.

 

 

 


 

 

The information in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and it is not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any state where the offer or sale is not permitted.

 

Subject to Completion, dated July 28, 2021

 

 

PROSPECTUS

 

 

Viking Therapeutics, Inc.

 

$600,000,000

 

Common Stock

Preferred Stock

Debt Securities

Warrants

Units

We may offer and sell, from time to time in one or more offerings, up to $600,000,000 in the aggregate of any combination of the securities identified above from time to time in one or more offerings, either individually or in combination with other securities. We may also offer common stock or preferred stock upon conversion of debt securities, common stock upon conversion of preferred stock, or common stock, preferred stock or debt securities upon the exercise of warrants.

Each time we offer and sell securities, we will provide a supplement to this prospectus that contains specific information about the offering and the amounts, prices and terms of the securities. We may also authorize one or more free writing prospectuses to be provided to you in connection with these offerings. The prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectuses may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus with respect to that offering. You should carefully read this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, as well as any documents incorporated by reference, before you invest in any of our securities.

We may offer and sell the securities described in this prospectus and any prospectus supplement to or through one or more underwriters, dealers and agents, or directly to purchasers, or through a combination of these methods. If any underwriters, dealers or agents are involved in the sale of any of the securities, their names and any applicable purchase price, fee, commission or discount arrangement between or among them will be set forth, or will be calculable from the information set forth, in the applicable prospectus supplement. See the sections of this prospectus entitled “About this Prospectus” and “Plan of Distribution” for more information. No securities may be sold without delivery of this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement describing the method and terms of the offering of such securities.

Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should review carefully the risks and uncertainties described under the heading “Risk Factors” on page 4 of this prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement and in any applicable free writing prospectuses, and under similar headings in the documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus.

Our common stock is currently listed on the Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “VKTX”.  On July 26, 2021, the last reported sales price for our common stock was $5.63 per share. Our stock price is subject to fluctuation. There has been no change recently in our financial condition or results of operations that is consistent with a recent change in our stock price. The applicable prospectus supplement will contain information, where applicable, as to any other listing on the Nasdaq Capital Market or any securities market or other exchange of the securities, if any, covered by the applicable prospectus supplement.

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

The date of this prospectus is                     , 2021.

 


 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

This prospectus is part of a registration statement on Form S-3 that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, utilizing a “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf registration process, we may offer and sell shares of our common stock and preferred stock, various series of debt securities, warrants to purchase any of such securities and/or units consisting of any combination of such securities, either individually or in combination with other securities, in one or more offerings, up to a total dollar amount of $600,000,000. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer.

Each time we offer securities under this prospectus, we will provide a prospectus supplement that will contain more specific information about the terms of that offering. We may also authorize one or more free writing prospectuses to be provided to you that may contain material information relating to these offerings. The prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus we have authorized for use in connection with a specific offering may also add, update or change any of the information contained in this prospectus or in the documents that we have incorporated by reference into this prospectus. We urge you to read carefully this prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement and any free writing prospectuses we have authorized for use in connection with a specific offering, together with the information incorporated herein by reference as described under the section entitled “Important Information Incorporated by Reference”, before buying any of the securities being offered.

This prospectus may not be used to consummate a sale of securities unless it is accompanied by a prospectus supplement.

You should rely only on the information contained in, or incorporated by reference into, this prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement and any free writing prospectuses, along with the information contained in any free writing prospectuses we have authorized for use in connection with a specific offering. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with different or additional information. This prospectus is an offer to sell only the securities offered hereby, but only under circumstances and in jurisdictions where it is lawful to do so.

The information appearing in this prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus is accurate only as of the date on the front of the document and any information we have incorporated by reference is accurate only as of the date of the document incorporated by reference, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus, or any sale of a security. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates.

 This prospectus contains summaries of certain provisions contained in some of the documents described herein, but reference is made to the actual documents for complete information. All of the summaries are qualified in their entirety by the actual documents. Copies of some of the documents referred to herein have been filed, will be filed or will be incorporated by reference as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, and you may obtain copies of those documents as described below under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information”.

 

 

 

 


 

 

SUMMARY

 

This summary highlights selected information that is presented in greater detail elsewhere in this prospectus or incorporated by reference in this prospectus. Because it is only a summary, it does not contain all of the information you should consider before investing in our common stock, preferred stock, debt securities, warrants or units, and it is qualified in its entirety by, and should be read in conjunction with, the more detailed information included elsewhere in this prospectus. Before you decide whether to purchase shares of our common stock or preferred stock, or our debt securities, warrants or units, you should read this entire prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free-writing prospectus carefully, including the risks of investing in our securities discussed under the heading “Risk Factors” contained in the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, and under similar headings in the other documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus. You should also carefully read the information incorporated by reference into this prospectus, including our financial statements, and the exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. Unless the context otherwise requires, the terms “Viking,” “the Company,” “we,” “us” and “our” in this prospectus refer to Viking Therapeutics, Inc.

 

The Company

We are a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company focused on the development of novel, first-in-class or best-in-class therapies for metabolic and endocrine disorders.

Our lead clinical program’s drug candidate, VK2809, is an orally available, tissue and receptor-subtype selective agonist of the thyroid hormone receptor beta, or TRß. In November 2019, we initiated the VOYAGE study, a Phase 2b clinical trial of VK2809 in patients with biopsy-confirmed non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, or NASH.

The VOYAGE study is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial designed to assess the efficacy, safety and tolerability of VK2809 in patients with biopsy-confirmed NASH and fibrosis ranging from stages F1 to F3. The study is targeting enrollment of approximately 340 patients across five treatment arms.  The primary endpoint of the study will evaluate the relative change in liver fat content, as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging, proton density fat fraction (MRI-PDFF), from baseline to week 12 in subjects treated with VK2809 as compared to placebo. Secondary objectives include evaluation of histologic changes assessed by hepatic biopsy after 52 weeks of dosing.

VK2809 has been evaluated in eight completed clinical studies, which enrolled more than 300 subjects. No serious adverse events, or SAEs, have been observed in subjects receiving VK2809 in these completed studies, and overall tolerability remains encouraging. In addition, the compound has been evaluated in chronic toxicity studies of up to 12 months in duration.

We are also developing VK0214, which is also an orally available, tissue and receptor-subtype selective agonist of TRß for X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy, or X-ALD, a rare X-linked, inherited neurological disorder characterized by a breakdown in the protective barriers surrounding brain and nerve cells. The disease, for which there is no approved treatment, is caused by mutations in a peroxisomal transporter of very long chain fatty acids, or VLCFA, known as ABCD1. As a result, transporter function is impaired and patients are unable to efficiently metabolize VLCFA. The TRß receptor is known to regulate expression of an alternative VLCFA transporter, known as ABCD2. Various preclinical models have demonstrated that increased expression of ABCD2 can lead to normalization of VLCFA metabolism. Preliminary data suggest that VK0214 stimulates ABCD2 expression in an in vitro model and reduces VLCFA levels in an in vivo model of X-ALD. In September 2020, we initiated a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled Phase 1 single ascending dose, or SAD, and multiple ascending dose, or MAD, clinical trial of VK0214 in healthy patients.  The primary objective of the study is to evaluate the safety and tolerability of VK0214 administered orally for up to 14 days.  The secondary objective is to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of VK0214 following single and multiple oral doses.  In June 2021, we announced the results of the study. The first portion of the study evaluated single doses of VK0214; in the second portion of the study, subjects received VK0214 once daily for 14 days.  Subsequent cohorts in both portions of the study received successively higher VK0214 doses.

VK0214 was shown to be safe and well-tolerated at all doses evaluated in this study.  No serious adverse events were reported, and no treatment or dose-related trends were observed for vital signs, gastrointestinal effects, cardiovascular measures or physical examinations.  VK0214 demonstrated dose-dependent exposures, no evidence of accumulation following multiple doses, and a half-life consistent with anticipated once-daily dosing regimens.

While the study's primary objective was to evaluate safety and tolerability, laboratory assessments included a lipid panel to determine potential pharmacodynamic effects following exposure to VK0214.  The results showed that subjects who received VK0214 experienced reductions in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, orLDL-C, triglycerides, and apolipoprotein B following 14

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days of treatment at all VK0214 doses.  Many of the observed lipid reductions achieved statistical significance, though the study was not powered to demonstrate statistical significance on laboratory assessments. 

% Change in Lipid Markers Following 14 Days of Treatment of VK0214

 

 

Placebo1

(n=11)

5 mg

(n=6)

10 mg

(n=6)

25 mg

(n=6)

50 mg

(n=6)

75 mg

(n=6)

100 mg

(n=6)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LDL-C

3.8%

-0.7%

-12.5%*

-21.4%**

-19.5%**

-19.1%***

-18.9%**

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Triglycerides

4.9%

-6.7%

-19.5%*

-1.7%

-36.8%**

-45.0%***

-39.1%**

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ApoB

4.4%

-5.7%

-12.5%**

-23.3%***

-24.0%***

-28.3%***

-28.2%***

(1) Excludes one placebo subject due to an anomalous triglyceride value (>7x higher than SD). *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001.

In June 2021, we initiated a Phase 1b clinical trial of VK0214 in patients with X-ALD. The Phase 1b trial is a multi-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in adult male patients with the adrenomyeloneuropathy, or AMN, form of X-ALD.  The study is initially targeting enrollment across three cohorts: placebo, VK0214 20 mg daily, and VK0214 40 mg daily.  Pending a blinded review of preliminary safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetic data, additional dosing cohorts may be pursued.

The primary objectives of the study are to evaluate the safety and tolerability of VK0214 administered once-daily over a 28-day dosing period, and to assess the efficacy of VK0214 at lowering plasma levels of very long chain fatty acids in patients with AMN.  Secondary objectives include an evaluation of the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of VK0214 following 28 days of dosing in this population.

Other clinical programs include VK5211, an orally available, non-steroidal selective androgen receptor modulator, or SARM. In November 2017, we announced positive top-line results from a Phase 2 proof-of-concept clinical trial in 108 patients recovering from non-elective hip fracture surgery. Top-line data showed that the trial achieved its primary endpoint, demonstrating statistically significant, dose dependent increases in lean body mass, less head, following treatment with VK5211 as compared to placebo. The study also achieved certain secondary endpoints, demonstrating statistically significant increases in appendicular lean body mass and total lean body mass for all doses of VK5211, compared to placebo. VK5211 demonstrated encouraging safety and tolerability in this study, with no drug-related SAEs reported. Our intent is to continue to pursue partnering or licensing opportunities prior to conducting additional clinical studies.

We were incorporated under the laws of the State of Delaware on September 24, 2012. Since our incorporation, we have devoted most of our efforts towards conducting certain clinical trials and preclinical studies related to our VK2809, VK0214 and VK5211 programs, as well as efforts towards raising capital and building infrastructure. We obtained exclusive worldwide rights to our VK2809, VK0214 and VK5211 programs and certain other assets pursuant to an exclusive license agreement with Ligand Pharmaceuticals Incorporated, or Ligand. The terms of this license agreement are detailed in the Master License Agreement with Ligand, which we entered into on May 21, 2014, as amended, or the Master License Agreement. A summary of the Master License Agreement can be found under the heading “Agreements with Ligand—Master License Agreement” under Part I, “Item 1. Business” of our Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, on February 17, 2021.

We are subject to risks and uncertainties as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. The extent of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business is highly uncertain and difficult to predict, as the responses that we, other businesses and governments are taking continue to evolve. Furthermore, capital markets and economies worldwide have also been negatively impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic, and it is possible that it could cause a local and/or global economic slowdown or recession. Policymakers around the globe have responded with fiscal policy actions to support the healthcare industry and economy as a whole. The magnitude and overall effectiveness of these actions still remains uncertain.

In addition, our clinical trials have been affected by and may continue to be affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. Clinical site initiation and patient enrollment have been, and may continue to be delayed due to prioritization of hospital resources toward the COVID-19 pandemic. Some patients have not been able and others may not be able to comply with clinical trial protocols if quarantines impede patient movement or interrupt healthcare services. Similarly, any inability to recruit and retain patients and principal investigators and site staff who, as healthcare providers, may have heightened exposure to COVID-19, may adversely impact our clinical trial operations.

The severity of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business will depend on a number of factors, including, but not limited to, the duration and severity of the pandemic and the extent and severity of the impact on our service providers, suppliers, contract research organizations, or CROs, and our clinical trials, all of which are uncertain and cannot be predicted, as well as the timing, rollout and availability of vaccines and the effectiveness thereof, and the willingness of the general population to be vaccinated. As of

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the date of this filing, the extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic may materially impact our financial condition, liquidity or results of operations is still uncertain.

Corporate Information

For a complete description of our business, financial condition, results of operations and other important information, we refer you to our filings with the SEC that are incorporated by reference in this prospectus, including our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020 and our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q for the quarters ended March 31, 2021 and June 30, 2021.  For instructions on how to find copies of these documents, see the section of this prospectus entitled “Where You Can Find More Information.

 


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RISK FACTORS

Investing in any securities offered pursuant to this prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus involves a high degree of risk. Before making an investment decision, you should carefully consider the risks described under “Risk Factors” in the applicable prospectus supplement, any related free writing prospectus and in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K, or any updates in our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, together with all of the other information appearing in or incorporated by reference into this prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, before deciding whether to purchase any of the securities being offered. Our business, financial condition or results of operations could be materially adversely affected by any of these risks. The occurrence of any of these risks might cause you to lose all or part of your investment in the offered securities. 


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DISCLOSURE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This prospectus, any accompanying prospectus supplement and the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus contain forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, which statements involve substantial risks and uncertainties. Forward-looking statements generally relate to future events or our future financial or operating performance. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements because they contain words such as “may,” “will,” “should,” “expects,” “plans,” “anticipates,” “could,” “intends,” “target,” “projects,” “contemplates,” “believes,” “estimates,” “predicts,” “potential” or “continue” or the negative of these words or other similar terms or expressions that concern our expectations, strategy, plans or intentions. Forward-looking statements contained in this prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus include, but are not limited to, statements about:

 

risks and uncertainties associated with our research and development activities, including our clinical trials and preclinical studies;

 

the timing or likelihood of regulatory filings and approvals or of alternative regulatory pathways for our drug candidates;

 

the potential market opportunities for commercializing our drug candidates;

 

our expectations regarding the potential market size and the size of the patient populations for our drug candidates, if approved for commercial use, and our ability to serve such markets;

 

the impacts that the COVID-19 global pandemic may have on our business, financial condition and results of operations, including disruptions to our operations and clinical trials, as well as disruptions or delays with respect to the operations of our service providers, suppliers and CROs;

 

estimates of our expenses, future revenue, capital requirements and our needs for additional financing;

 

our ability to develop, acquire and advance our drug candidates into, and successfully complete, clinical trials and preclinical studies, and obtain regulatory approvals;

 

the implementation of our business model and strategic plans for our business and drug candidates;

 

the initiation, cost, timing, progress and results of future and current preclinical studies and clinical trials, and our research and development programs;

 

new product candidates;

 

the terms of future licensing arrangements, and whether we can enter into such arrangements at all;

 

timing and receipt, or payments, of licensing and milestone revenues, if any;

 

the scope of protection we are able to establish and maintain for intellectual property rights covering our drug candidates, and our ability to operate our business without infringing the intellectual property rights of others;

 

regulatory developments in the United States and foreign countries;

 

the performance of our third-party suppliers and manufacturers;

 

our ability to maintain and establish collaborations or obtain additional funding;

 

the success of competing therapies that are currently or may become available;

 

our use of proceeds from the sale of securities under this prospectus;

 

our financial performance; and

 

developments and projections relating to our competitors and our industry.

We caution you that the forward-looking statements highlighted above do not encompass all of the forward-looking statements made in this prospectus or in the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus.

We have based the forward-looking statements contained in this prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free-writing prospectus and in the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus primarily on our current expectations and projections about future events and trends that we believe may affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. The outcomes of the events described in these forward-looking statements are subject to risks, uncertainties and other factors that could cause actual results and experience to differ from those projected, including, but not limited to, the risk factors set forth in Part I - Item 1A, “Risk Factors”, in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020, as filed with the SEC on February 17, 2021, in our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2021, as filed with the SEC on April 28, 2021, in our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended June 30, 2021, as filed with the SEC on July 28, 2021, and elsewhere in the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus. Moreover, we operate in a very competitive and challenging environment. New risks and uncertainties emerge from time to time, and it is not possible for us to predict all risks and uncertainties that could have an impact on the forward-looking statements contained in this prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free-writing prospectus and in the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus. We cannot assure you that the results, events and circumstances reflected in the forward-looking statements will be achieved or occur, and actual results, events or circumstances could differ materially from those described in the forward-looking statements.

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The forward-looking statements contained in this prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free-writing prospectus and in the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus relate only to events as of the date on which the statements are made. We do not undertake any obligation to release publicly any revisions to such forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances after the date of this prospectus or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events. We may not actually achieve the plans, intentions or expectations disclosed in our forward-looking statements, and you should not place undue reliance on our forward-looking statements. Our forward-looking statements do not reflect the potential impact of any future acquisitions, mergers, dispositions, joint ventures, other strategic transactions or investments we may make.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

Except as described in the applicable prospectus supplement or in any free-writing prospectuses we have authorized for use in connection with a specific offering, we currently intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of securities under this prospectus, if any, for working capital and general corporate purposes, which may include, without limitation, supporting asset growth and engaging in acquisitions or other business combinations. We also may use a portion of the proceeds to repay debt.

The amounts and timing of our use of the net proceeds from the sale of securities under this prospectus will depend on a number of factors, such as the timing and progress of our research and development efforts, the timing and progress of any partnering and commercialization efforts, technological advances and the competitive environment for our products. As of the date of this prospectus, we cannot specify with certainty all of the particular uses for the net proceeds to us from the sale of securities under this prospectus or any applicable prospectus supplement. Accordingly, our management will have broad discretion in the timing and application of these proceeds. Pending application of the net proceeds as described above, we intend to temporarily invest the proceeds in short-term, interest-bearing instruments.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

General

The following description summarizes the most important terms of our capital stock. Because it is only a summary of the provisions of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws, it does not contain all of the information that may be important to you. For a complete description of the matters set forth in this “Description of Capital Stock,” you should refer to our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, amended and restated bylaws and the agreements described under the heading “—Registration Rights” below, each of which are included as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, and to the applicable provisions of Delaware law. Our authorized capital stock consists of 300,000,000 shares of common stock, $0.00001 par value per share, and 10,000,000 shares of undesignated preferred stock, $0.00001 par value per share.

As of June 30, 2021, there were 78,189,814 shares of our common stock outstanding, held by approximately four stockholders of record, not including beneficial holders whose shares are held in names other than their own. Our board of directors is authorized, without stockholder approval except as required by the rules and listings standards of The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC, to issue additional shares of our capital stock.

Common Stock

Dividend Rights

Subject to preferences that may apply to any shares of preferred stock outstanding at the time, the holders of our common stock are entitled to receive dividends out of funds legally available if our board of directors, in its discretion, determines to issue dividends and then only at the times and in the amounts that our board of directors may determine.

Voting Rights

Holders of our common stock are entitled to one vote for each share held on all matters submitted to a vote of stockholders. Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation does not provide for cumulative voting for the election of directors, and it establishes a classified board of directors that is divided into three classes with staggered three-year terms. Only the directors in one class will be subject to election at each annual meeting of our stockholders with the directors in the other classes continuing for the remainder of their respective three-year terms.

No Preemptive or Similar Rights

Our common stock is not entitled to preemptive rights and is not subject to conversion, redemption or sinking fund provisions.

Right to Receive Liquidation Distributions

If we become subject to a liquidation, dissolution or winding-up, the assets legally available for distribution to our stockholders would be distributable ratably among the holders of our common stock and any participating preferred stock outstanding at that time, subject to prior satisfaction of all outstanding debt and liabilities and the preferential rights of and the payment of liquidation preferences, if any, on any outstanding shares of preferred stock.

Fully Paid and Non-Assessable

All of the outstanding shares of our common stock are, and the shares of our common stock to be issued pursuant to this prospectus or which may be issued upon conversion of or exchange for preferred stock or debt securities that provide for conversion or exchange, or upon exercise of warrants or units to be issued pursuant to this prospectus, will be, fully paid and non-assessable.

Preferred Stock

Our board of directors is authorized, subject to limitations prescribed by Delaware law, to issue up to 10,000,000 shares of our preferred stock in one or more series, to establish from time to time the number of shares to be included in each series, and to fix the designation, powers, preferences, and rights of the shares of each series and any of its qualifications, limitations or restrictions, in each case without further vote or action by our stockholders. Our board of directors can also increase or decrease the number of shares of any series of preferred stock, but not below the number of shares of that series then outstanding, without any further vote or action by our stockholders. Our board of directors may authorize the issuance of preferred stock with voting or conversion rights that could adversely affect the voting power or other rights of the holders of our common stock. The issuance of preferred stock, while providing flexibility in connection with possible acquisitions and other corporate purposes, could, among other things, have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a change in control of our company and might adversely affect the market price of our common stock and the voting and other rights of the holders of our common stock.

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Equity Awards

As of June 30, 2021, options to purchase 3,917,509 shares of our common stock with a weighted-average exercise price of $5.62 per share were outstanding; restricted stock awards representing an aggregate of 183,095 shares of our common stock were unvested and outstanding; and restricted stock units representing 1,047,155 shares of our common stock were outstanding.

Outstanding Warrants

As of June 30, 2021, warrants to purchase an aggregate of 487,087 shares of our common stock with a weighted-average exercise price of $1.30 per share were outstanding.

Anti-Takeover Provisions

Certain provisions of Delaware law, along with certain provisions of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and our amended and restated bylaws, may have the effect of delaying, deferring or discouraging another person from acquiring control of our company. These provisions are expected to discourage coercive takeover practices and inadequate takeover bids. These provisions are also designed, in part, to encourage persons seeking to acquire control of our company to first negotiate with our board of directors. However, these provisions could have the effect of delaying, discouraging or preventing attempts to acquire us, which could deprive our stockholders of opportunities to sell their shares of common stock at prices higher than prevailing market prices.

Delaware Law

We are subject to the provisions of Section 203 of the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware, or the DGCL, regulating corporate takeovers. In general, those provisions prohibit a public Delaware corporation from engaging in any business combination with any interested stockholder for a period of three years following the date that the stockholder became an interested stockholder, unless:

 

 

the transaction is approved by the board of directors before the date the interested stockholder attained that status;

 

upon consummation of the transaction which resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder, the interested stockholder owned at least 85% of the voting stock of the corporation outstanding at the time the transaction commenced; or

 

on or after the date of the transaction, the transaction is approved by the board of directors and authorized at a meeting of stockholders, and not by written consent, by the affirmative vote of at least 66 2/3% of the outstanding voting stock that is not owned by the interested stockholder.

In general, Section 203 of the DGCL defines a business combination to include the following:

 

 

any merger or consolidation involving the corporation and the interested stockholder;

 

any sale, transfer, pledge or other disposition of 10% or more of the assets of the corporation involving the interested stockholder;

 

subject to certain exceptions, any transaction that results in the issuance or transfer by the corporation of any stock of the corporation to the interested stockholder;

 

any transaction involving the corporation that has the effect of increasing the proportionate share of the stock of any class or series of the corporation beneficially owned by the interested stockholder; or

 

the receipt by the interested stockholder of the benefit of any loans, advances, guarantees, pledges or other financial benefits provided by or through the corporation.

In general, Section 203 of the DGCL defines an interested stockholder as any entity or person beneficially owning, or who within three years prior to the time of determination of interested stockholder status did own, 15% or more of the outstanding voting stock of the corporation and any entity or person affiliated with or controlling or controlled by any such entity or person.

A Delaware corporation may opt out of this provision by express provision in its original certificate of incorporation or by amendment to its certificate of incorporation or bylaws approved by its stockholders. However, we have not opted out of, and do not currently intend to opt out of, this provision. The statute could prohibit or delay mergers or other takeover or change in control attempts and, accordingly, may discourage attempts to acquire our company.

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Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation and Amended and Restated Bylaws

 

Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and our amended and restated bylaws include a number of provisions that could deter hostile takeovers or delay or prevent changes relating to the control of our board of directors or management team, including the following:

 

 

Board of Directors Vacancies.  Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws authorize only our board of directors to fill vacant directorships, including newly created seats. In addition, the number of directors constituting our board of directors can be set only by a resolution adopted by a majority vote of our entire board of directors. These provisions would prevent a stockholder from increasing the size of our board of directors and then gaining control of our board of directors by filling the resulting vacancies with its own nominees. This makes it more difficult to change the composition of our board of directors and promotes continuity of management.

 

Classified Board.  Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws provide that our board of directors is classified into three classes of directors. A third party may be discouraged from making a tender offer or otherwise attempting to obtain control of our company as it is more difficult and time consuming for stockholders to replace a majority of the directors on a classified board of directors.

 

Stockholder Action; Special Meeting of Stockholders.  Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation provides that our stockholders may not take action by written consent, but may only take action at annual or special meetings of our stockholders. As a result, a holder controlling a majority of our capital stock would not be able to amend our amended and restated bylaws or remove directors without holding a meeting of our stockholders called in accordance with our amended and restated bylaws. Our amended and restated bylaws further provide that special meetings of our stockholders may be called only by a majority of our board of directors, the Chairperson of our board of directors, our Chief Executive Officer or our President, thus prohibiting a stockholder (in the capacity as a stockholder) from calling a special meeting. These provisions might delay the ability of our stockholders to force consideration of a proposal or for stockholders controlling a majority of our capital stock to take any action, including the removal of directors.

 

Advance Notice Requirements for Stockholder Proposals and Director Nominations.  Our amended and restated bylaws provide advance notice procedures for stockholders seeking to bring business before our annual meeting of stockholders or to nominate candidates for election as directors at our annual meeting of stockholders. Our amended and restated bylaws also specify certain requirements regarding the form and content of a stockholder’s notice. These provisions might preclude our stockholders from bringing matters before our annual meeting of stockholders or from making nominations for directors at our annual meeting of stockholders if the proper procedures are not followed. We expect that these provisions may also discourage or deter a potential acquirer from conducting a solicitation of proxies to elect the acquirer’s own slate of directors or otherwise attempting to obtain control of our company.

 

No Cumulative Voting.  The DGCL provides that stockholders may cumulate votes in the election of directors if the corporation’s certificate of incorporation allows for such mechanism. Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation does not provide for cumulative voting.

 

Directors Removed Only for Cause.  Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation provides that stockholders may remove directors only for cause.

 

Choice of Forum. Our amended and restated bylaws provide that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the Court of Chancery in the State of Delaware, or the Court of Chancery, shall be the sole and exclusive forum for any stockholder (including a beneficial owner) to bring (a) any derivative action or proceeding on behalf of us, (b) any action against asserting a claim of breach of fiduciary duty owed by any director, officer or other employee of the Company to us or our stockholders, (c) any action asserting a claim against us, our directors, officers or employees arising pursuant to our amended and restated bylaws, our amended and restated certificate of incorporation or the DGCL, (d) any action asserting a claim against us or our directors, officers or employees governed by the internal affairs doctrine, or (e) any action to interpret, apply, enforce or determine the validity of our amended and restated bylaws or our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, except for, as to each of clauses (a) through (e), any claim (i) as to which the Court of Chancery determines that there is an indispensable party not subject to the jurisdiction of the Court of Chancery (and the indispensable party does not consent to the personal jurisdiction of the Court of Chancery within 10 days following such determination), or (ii) for which the Court of Chancery does not have subject matter jurisdiction. This exclusive forum provision is not intended to apply to any actions brought under the Securities Act or the Exchange Act. Section 27 of the Exchange Act creates exclusive federal jurisdiction over all suits brought to enforce any duty or liability created by the Exchange Act or the rules and regulations thereunder. As a result, the exclusive forum provision will not apply to suits brought to enforce any duty or liability created by the Exchange Act

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or any other claim for which the federal courts have exclusive jurisdiction. However, our amended and restated bylaws do not relieve us of our duty to comply with federal securities laws and the rules and regulations thereunder, and our stockholders will not be deemed to have waived our compliance with these laws, rules and regulations. This exclusive forum provision in our amended and restated bylaws may limit a stockholder’s ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that it finds favorable for disputes with us or our directors, officers or other employees, which may discourage such lawsuits against us and our directors, officers and other employees. In addition, stockholders who do bring a claim in the Court of Chancery in the State of Delaware could face additional litigation costs in pursuing any such claim, particularly if they do not reside in or near Delaware. Furthermore, the enforceability of similar choice of forum provisions in other companies’ governing documents has been challenged in legal proceedings, and it is possible that a court could find these types of provisions to be inapplicable or unenforceable

 

Amendment of Charter Provisions.  Any amendment of the above provisions in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, with the exception of the ability of our board of directors to issue shares of preferred stock and designate any rights, preferences and privileges thereto, would require approval by the affirmative vote of the holders of at least 66 2/3% of our then outstanding common stock.

 

Issuance of Undesignated Preferred Stock.  Our board of directors has the authority, without further action by the stockholders, to issue up to 10,000,000 shares of undesignated preferred stock with rights and preferences, including voting rights, designated from time to time by our board of directors. The existence of authorized but unissued shares of preferred stock would enable our board of directors to render more difficult or to discourage an attempt to obtain control of our company by means of a merger, tender offer, proxy contest or other means.

Transfer Agent and Registrar

The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is American Stock Transfer & Trust Company, LLC. The transfer agent and registrar’s address is 6201 15th Avenue, Brooklyn, NY 11219.

Listing

Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “VKTX”.

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DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

We may issue debt securities from time to time, in one or more series, as either senior or subordinated debt or as senior or subordinated convertible debt. While the terms we have summarized below will apply generally to any debt securities that we may offer under this prospectus, we will describe the particular terms of any debt securities that we may offer in more detail in the applicable prospectus supplement. The terms of any debt securities offered under a prospectus supplement may differ from the terms described below. Unless the context requires otherwise, whenever we refer to the indenture, we also are referring to any supplemental indentures that specify the terms of a particular series of debt securities.

We will issue the debt securities under the indenture that we will enter into with the trustee named in the indenture. The indenture will be qualified under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, or the Trust Indenture Act. We have filed the form of indenture as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, and supplemental indentures and forms of debt securities containing the terms of the debt securities being offered will be filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part or will be incorporated by reference from reports that we file with the SEC.

The following summary of material provisions of the debt securities and the indenture is subject to, and qualified in its entirety by reference to, all of the provisions of the indenture applicable to a particular series of debt securities. We urge you to read the applicable prospectus supplements and any related free writing prospectuses we authorize for use in connection with a specific offering of debt securities, as well as the complete indenture that contains the terms of the debt securities.

General Matters

The indenture does not limit the amount of debt securities that we may issue. It provides that we may issue debt securities up to the principal amount that we may authorize and in any currency or currency unit that we may designate. Except for the limitations on consolidation, merger and sale of all or substantially all of our assets contained in the indenture, the terms of the indenture do not contain any covenants or other provisions designed to give holders of any debt securities protection against changes in our operations or financial condition or transactions involving us.

We may issue the debt securities issued under the indenture as “discount securities”, which means they may be sold at a discount below their stated principal amount. These debt securities, as well as other debt securities that are not issued at a discount, may be issued with “original issue discount”, or OID, for U.S. federal income tax purposes because of interest payment and other characteristics or terms of the debt securities. Material U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to debt securities issued with OID will be described in more detail in the applicable prospectus supplement.

        We will describe in the applicable prospectus supplement the terms of the series of debt securities being offered, including:

 

the title of the series of debt securities;

 

any limit upon the aggregate principal amount that may be issued;

 

the maturity date or dates;

 

the form of the debt securities of the series;

 

the applicability of any guarantees;

 

whether or not the debt securities will be secured or unsecured, and the terms of any secured debt;

 

whether the debt securities rank as senior debt, senior subordinated debt, subordinated debt or any combination thereof, and the terms of any subordination;

 

if the price (expressed as a percentage of the aggregate principal amount thereof) at which the debt securities will be issued is a price other than the principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount thereof payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof, or if applicable, the portion of the principal amount of such debt securities that is convertible into another security or the method by which any such portion shall be determined;

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the interest rate or rates, which may be fixed or variable, or the method for determining the rate and the date interest will begin to accrue, the dates interest will be payable and the regular record dates for interest payment dates or the method for determining such dates;

 

our right, if any, to defer payment of interest, and the maximum length of any such deferral period;

 

if applicable, the date or dates after which, or the period or periods during which, and the price or prices at which, we may, at our option, redeem the series of debt securities pursuant to any optional or provisional redemption provisions, and the terms of those redemption provisions;

 

the date or dates, if any, on which, and the price or prices at which we are obligated, pursuant to any mandatory sinking fund or analogous fund provisions or otherwise, to redeem, or at the holder’s option to purchase, the series of debt securities, and the currency or currency unit in which the debt securities are payable;

 

the denominations in which we will issue the series of debt securities, if other than denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof;

 

any and all terms, if applicable, relating to any auction or remarketing of the debt securities of that series and any security for our obligations with respect to such debt securities, and any other terms which may be advisable in connection with the marketing of debt securities of that series;

 

whether the debt securities of the series shall be issued in whole or in part in the form of a global security or securities; the terms and conditions, if any, upon which such global security or securities may be exchanged in whole or in part for other individual securities; and the depositary for such global security or securities;

 

if applicable, the provisions relating to conversion or exchange of any debt securities of the series, and the terms and conditions upon which such debt securities will be so convertible or exchangeable, including the conversion or exchange price, as applicable, or how it will be calculated and may be adjusted, any mandatory or optional (at our option or at the holders’ option) conversion or exchange features, the applicable conversion or exchange period and the manner of settlement for any conversion or exchange;

 

if other than the full principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount of debt securities of the series that shall be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof;

 

additions to or changes in the covenants applicable to the particular debt securities being issued, including, among others, the consolidation, merger or sale covenant;

 

additions to or changes in the events of default with respect to the securities, and any change in the right of the trustee or the holders to declare the principal, premium, if any, and interest, if any, with respect to such securities to be due and payable;

 

additions to or changes in or deletions of the provisions relating to covenant defeasance and legal defeasance;

 

additions to or changes in the provisions relating to satisfaction and discharge of the indenture;

 

additions to or changes in the provisions relating to the modification of the indenture both with and without the consent of the holders of the debt securities issued under the indenture;

 

the currency of payment of the debt securities if other than U.S. dollars, and the manner of determining the equivalent amount in U.S. dollars;

 

whether interest will be payable in cash or additional debt securities at our or the holders’ option, and the terms and conditions upon which the election may be made;

 

the terms and conditions, if any, upon which we will pay amounts in addition to the stated interest, premium, if any, and principal amounts of the debt securities of the series to any holder that is not a “United States person” for federal tax purposes;

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any restrictions on transfer, sale or assignment of the debt securities of the series; and

 

any other specific terms, preferences, rights or limitations of, or restrictions on the debt securities, any other additions or changes in the provisions of the indenture, and any terms that may be required by us or advisable under applicable laws or regulations.

Conversion or Exchange Rights

We will set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement the terms on which a series of debt securities may be convertible into or exchangeable for our common stock or our other securities. We will include provisions as to settlement upon conversion or exchange and whether conversion or exchange is mandatory, at the option of the holder or at our option. We may include provisions pursuant to which the number of shares of our common stock or our other securities that the holders of the series of debt securities receive would be subject to adjustment.

Consolidation, Merger or Sale

Unless we provide otherwise in the prospectus supplement applicable to a particular series of debt securities, the indenture will not contain any covenant that restricts our ability to merge or consolidate, or sell, convey, transfer or otherwise dispose of our assets as an entirety or substantially as an entirety. However, any successor to or acquirer of such assets (other than a subsidiary of ours) must assume all of our obligations under the indenture or the debt securities, as appropriate.

Events of Default under the Indenture

Unless we provide otherwise in the prospectus supplement applicable to a particular series of debt securities, the following are events of default under the indenture with respect to any series of debt securities that we may issue:

 

if we fail to pay any installment of interest on any series of debt securities, as and when the same shall become due and payable, and such default continues for a period of 90 days; provided, however, that a valid extension of an interest payment period by us in accordance with the terms of any indenture supplemental thereto shall not constitute a default in the payment of interest for this purpose;

 

if we fail to pay the principal of, or premium on, if any, any series of debt securities as and when the same shall become due and payable, whether at maturity, upon redemption, by declaration or otherwise, or in any payment required by any sinking or analogous fund established with respect to such series; provided, however, that a valid extension of the maturity of such debt securities in accordance with the terms of any indenture supplemental thereto shall not constitute a default in the payment of principal or premium, if any;

 

if we fail to observe or perform any other covenant or agreement contained in the debt securities or the indenture, other than a covenant specifically relating to another series of debt securities, and our failure continues for a period of 90 days after we receive written notice of such failure, requiring the same to be remedied and stating that such is a notice of default thereunder, from the trustee or holders of at least 25% of the aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of the applicable series; and

 

if specified events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization occur.

If an event of default with respect to debt securities of any series occurs and is continuing, other than certain specified events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization, the trustee or the holders of at least 25% of the aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series, by notice to us in writing, and to the trustee if notice is given by such holders, may declare the unpaid principal, premium, if any, and accrued interest, if any, of such series of debt securities immediately due and payable. If certain specified events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization occur with respect to us, the principal amount and accrued interest, if any, of each issue of debt securities then outstanding shall be due and payable without any notice or other action on the part of the trustee or any holder.

The holders of a majority of the principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of an affected series may waive any default or event of default with respect to the series and its consequences except defaults or events of default regarding payment of principal, premium, if any, or interest, unless we have cured the default or event of default in accordance with the indenture. Any waiver shall cure the default or event of default.

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Subject to the terms of the indenture, if an event of default under an indenture shall occur and be continuing, the trustee will be under no obligation to exercise any of its rights or powers under such indenture at the request or direction of any of the holders of the applicable series of debt securities unless such holders have offered the trustee reasonable indemnity. The holders of a majority of the principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series will have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred on the trustee with respect to the debt securities of that series, provided that:

 

the direction so given by the holder is not in conflict with any law or the applicable indenture; and

 

subject to its duties under the Trust Indenture Act, the trustee need not take any action that might involve it in personal liability or might be unduly prejudicial to the holders not involved in the proceeding.

        A holder of the debt securities of any series will have the right to institute a proceeding under the indenture or to appoint a receiver or trustee, or to seek other remedies, only if:

 

the holder has given written notice to the trustee of a continuing event of default with respect to that series;

 

the holders of at least 25% of the aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series have made a written request;

 

such holders have offered to the trustee indemnity satisfactory to it against the costs, expenses and liabilities to be incurred by the trustee in compliance with the request; and

 

the trustee does not institute the proceeding, and does not receive from the holders of a majority of the aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series other conflicting directions within 90 days after the notice, request and offer.

These limitations do not apply to a suit instituted by a holder of debt securities if we default in the payment of the principal of, or the premium, if any, or interest on, the debt securities.

We will periodically file statements with the trustee regarding our compliance with specified covenants in the indenture.

Modification of Indenture; Waiver

Unless we provide otherwise in the prospectus supplement applicable to a particular series of debt securities, we and the trustee may change an indenture without the consent of any holders with respect to specific matters, including, but not limited to, the following:

 

to cure any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency in the indenture or in the debt securities of any series;

 

to comply with the provisions described above under “—Consolidation, Merger or Sale”;

 

to provide for uncertificated debt securities in addition to or in place of certificated debt securities;

 

to add to our covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions such new covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions for the benefit of the holders of all or any series of debt securities, to make the occurrence, or the occurrence and the continuance, of a default in any such additional covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions an event of default or to surrender any right or power conferred upon us in the indenture;

 

to add to, delete from or revise the conditions, limitations and restrictions on the authorized amount, terms or purposes of issue, authentication and delivery of debt securities, as set forth in the indenture;

 

to make any change that does not adversely affect the interests of any holder of debt securities of any series in any material respect;

 

to provide for the issuance of, and to establish the form and terms and conditions of, the debt securities of any series as provided above under “—General Matters”, to establish the form of any certifications required to be furnished pursuant

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to the terms of the indenture or any series of debt securities, or to add to the rights of the holders of any series of debt securities;

 

to evidence and provide for the acceptance of appointment under any indenture by a successor trustee; or

 

to comply with any requirements of the SEC in connection with the qualification of any indenture under the Trust Indenture Act.

In addition, under the indenture, the rights of holders of a series of debt securities may be changed by us and the trustee with the written consent of the holders of at least a majority of the aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of each series that is affected. However, unless we provide otherwise in the prospectus supplement applicable to a particular series of debt securities, we and the trustee may make the following changes only with the consent of each holder of any outstanding debt securities affected:

 

extending the fixed maturity of any debt securities of any series;

 

reducing the principal amount, reducing the rate of or extending the time of payment of interest, or reducing any premium payable upon the redemption of any series of debt securities; or

 

reducing the percentage of debt securities, the holders of which are required to consent to any amendment, supplement, modification or waiver.

Discharge

The indenture provides that we can elect to be discharged from our obligations with respect to one or more series of debt securities, except for specified obligations, including, but not limited to, the following obligations to:

 

provide for payment;

 

register the transfer or exchange of debt securities of the series;

 

replace stolen, lost or mutilated debt securities of the series;

 

pay principal of and premium and interest on any debt securities of the series;

 

maintain paying agencies;

 

hold monies for payment in trust;

 

recover excess money held by the trustee;

 

compensate and indemnify the trustee; and

 

appoint any successor trustee.

In order to exercise our rights to be discharged, we must deposit with the trustee money or government obligations sufficient to pay all the principal of, and any premium, if any, and interest on, the debt securities of the series on the dates payments are due.

Form, Exchange and Transfer

We will issue the debt securities of each series only in fully registered form without coupons and, unless we provide otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, in denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof. The indenture provides that we may issue debt securities of a series in temporary or permanent global form and as book-entry securities that will be deposited with, or on behalf of, The Depository Trust Company, New York, New York, known as DTC, or another depositary named by us and identified in the applicable prospectus supplement with respect to that series. To the extent the debt securities of a series are issued in global form and as book-entry, a description of terms relating to any book-entry securities will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.

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At the option of the holder, subject to the terms of the indenture and the limitations applicable to global securities described in the applicable prospectus supplement, the holder of the debt securities of any series can exchange the debt securities for other debt securities of the same series, in any authorized denomination and of like tenor and aggregate principal amount.

Subject to the terms of the indenture and the limitations applicable to global securities set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement, holders of the debt securities may present the debt securities for exchange or for registration of transfer, duly endorsed or with the form of transfer endorsed thereon duly executed if so required by us or the security registrar, at the office of the security registrar or at the office of any transfer agent designated by us for this purpose. Unless otherwise provided in the debt securities that the holder presents for transfer or exchange, we will impose no service charge for any registration of transfer or exchange, but we may require payment of any taxes or other governmental charges.

We will name in the applicable prospectus supplement the security registrar, and any transfer agent in addition to the security registrar, that we initially designate for any debt securities. We may at any time designate additional transfer agents or rescind the designation of any transfer agent or approve a change in the office through which any transfer agent acts, except that we will be required to maintain a transfer agent in each place of payment for the debt securities of each series.

If we elect to redeem the debt securities of any series, we will not be required to:

 

issue, register the transfer of, or exchange any debt securities of that series during a period beginning at the opening of business 15 days before the date of mailing of a notice of redemption of any debt securities that may be selected for redemption and ending at the close of business on the date of the mailing; or

 

register the transfer of or exchange any debt securities so selected for redemption, in whole or in part, except for the unredeemed portion of any debt securities we are redeeming in part.

Information Concerning the Trustee

The trustee, other than during the occurrence and continuance of an event of default under an indenture, undertakes to perform only those duties as are specifically set forth in the applicable indenture. Upon an event of default under an indenture, the trustee must use the same degree of care as a prudent person would exercise or use in the conduct of his or her own affairs. Subject to this provision, the trustee is under no obligation to exercise any of the powers given to it by the indenture at the request of any holder of debt securities unless it is offered reasonable security and indemnity against the costs, expenses and liabilities that it might incur.

Payment and Paying Agents

Unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will make payment of the interest on any debt securities on any interest payment date to the person in whose name the debt securities, or one or more predecessor securities, are registered at the close of business on the regular record date for the interest.

We will pay principal of and any premium and interest on the debt securities of a particular series at the office of the paying agents designated by us, except that, unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will make interest payments by check that we will mail to the holder or by wire transfer to certain holders. Unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will designate the corporate trust office of the trustee as our sole paying agent for payments with respect to debt securities of each series. We will name in the applicable prospectus supplement any other paying agents that we initially designate for the debt securities of a particular series. We will maintain a paying agent in each place of payment for the debt securities of a particular series.

All money we pay to a paying agent or the trustee for the payment of the principal of, or any premium or interest on, any debt securities that remains unclaimed at the end of two years after such principal, premium or interest has become due and payable will be repaid to us, and the holder of the debt security thereafter may look only to us for payment thereof.

Governing Law

The indenture and the debt securities, and any claim, controversy or dispute arising under or related to the indenture or the debt securities, will be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the State of New York, except to the extent that the Trust Indenture Act is applicable.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

The following description, together with the additional information we may include in the applicable prospectus supplements and free-writing prospectuses we have authorized for use in connection with a specific offering, summarizes the material terms and provisions of the warrants that we may offer under this prospectus, which may consist of warrants to purchase common stock, preferred stock or debt securities and may be issued in one or more series.

Warrants may be issued independently or together with common stock, preferred stock or debt securities offered by any prospectus supplement, and may be attached to or separate from those securities. While the terms we have summarized below will apply generally to any warrants that we may offer under this prospectus, we will describe the particular terms of any series of warrants that we may offer in more detail in the applicable prospectus supplement and any applicable free writing prospectus we authorize for use in connection with the specific offering. The terms of any warrants offered under a prospectus supplement may differ from the terms described below.

        We will file as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or we will incorporate by reference from reports that we file with the SEC, the form of warrant agreement, if any, including a form of warrant certificate, that describes the terms of the particular series of warrants we are offering. The following summaries of material provisions of the warrants and the warrant agreements are subject to, and qualified in their entirety by reference to, all the provisions of the warrant agreement and warrant certificate applicable to the particular series of warrants that we may offer under this prospectus. We urge you to read the applicable prospectus supplements related to the particular series of warrants that we may offer under this prospectus, as well as any related free-writing prospectuses we have authorized for use in connection with a specific offering, and the complete warrant agreements and warrant certificates that contain the terms of the warrants.

General Matters

We will describe in the applicable prospectus supplement the terms relating to a series of warrants being offered, including:

 

the title of such securities;

 

the offering price or prices and aggregate number of warrants offered;

 

the currency or currencies for which the warrants may be purchased;

 

if applicable, the designation and terms of the securities with which the warrants are issued and the number of warrants issued with each such security or each principal amount of such security;

 

if applicable, the date on and after which the warrants and the related securities will be separately transferable;

 

if applicable, the minimum or maximum amount of such warrants which may be exercised at any one time;

 

in the case of warrants to purchase debt securities, the principal amount of debt securities purchasable upon exercise of one warrant and the price at which, and currency in which, this principal amount of debt securities may be purchased upon such exercise;

 

in the case of warrants to purchase common stock or preferred stock, the number of shares of common stock or preferred stock, as the case may be, purchasable upon the exercise of one warrant and the price at which, and the currency in which, these shares may be purchased upon such exercise;

 

the effect of any merger, consolidation, sale or other disposition of our business on the warrant agreements and the warrants;

 

the terms of any rights to redeem or call the warrants;

 

the terms of any rights to force the exercise of the warrants;

 

any provisions for changes to or adjustments in the exercise price or number of securities issuable upon exercise of the warrants;

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the dates on which the right to exercise the warrants will commence and expire;

 

the manner in which the warrant agreements and warrants may be modified;

 

a discussion of any material or special United States federal income tax consequences of holding or exercising the warrants;

 

the terms of the securities issuable upon exercise of the warrants; and

 

any other specific terms, preferences, rights or limitations of or restrictions on the warrants.

Before exercising their warrants, holders of warrants will not have any of the rights of holders of the securities purchasable upon such exercise, including:

 

in the case of warrants to purchase debt securities, the right to receive payments of principal of, or premium, if any, or interest on, the debt securities purchasable upon exercise or to enforce covenants in the applicable indenture; or

 

in the case of warrants to purchase common stock or preferred stock, the right to receive dividends, if any, or, payments upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up or to exercise voting rights, if any.

Exercise of Warrants

Each warrant will entitle the holder to purchase the securities that we specify in the applicable prospectus supplement at the exercise price that we describe in the applicable prospectus supplement. Unless we otherwise specify in the applicable prospectus supplement, holders of the warrants may exercise the warrants at any time up to the specified time on the expiration date that we set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. After the close of business on the expiration date, unexercised warrants will become void.

 

Unless we otherwise specify in the applicable prospectus supplement, holders of the warrants may exercise the warrants by delivering the warrant certificate representing the warrants to be exercised together with specified information, and paying the required amount to the warrant agent in immediately available funds, as provided in the applicable prospectus supplement. We will set forth on the reverse side of the warrant certificate and in the applicable prospectus supplement the information that the holder of the warrant will be required to deliver to the warrant agent in connection with the exercise of the warrant.

 

Upon receipt of the required payment and the warrant certificate properly completed and duly executed at the corporate trust office of the warrant agent or any other office indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will issue and deliver the securities purchasable upon such exercise. If fewer than all of the warrants represented by the warrant certificate are exercised, then we will issue a new warrant certificate for the remaining amount of warrants. If we so indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, holders of the warrants may surrender securities as all or part of the exercise price for warrants.

Governing Law

Unless we provide otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, the warrants and warrant agreements, and any claim, controversy or dispute arising under or related to the warrants or warrant agreements, will be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the State of New York.

Enforceability of Rights by Holders of Warrants

Each warrant agent will act solely as our agent under the applicable warrant agreement and will not assume any obligation or relationship of agency or trust with any holder of any warrant. A single bank or trust company may act as warrant agent for more than one issue of warrants. A warrant agent will have no duty or responsibility in case of any default by us under the applicable warrant agreement or warrant, including any duty or responsibility to initiate any proceedings at law or otherwise, or to make any demand upon us. Any holder of a warrant may, without the consent of the related warrant agent or the holder of any other warrant, enforce by appropriate legal action its right to exercise, and receive the securities purchasable upon exercise of, its warrants.

Warrant Agreement Will Not Be Qualified Under Trust Indenture Act

No warrant agreement will be qualified as an indenture, and no warrant agent will be required to qualify as a trustee, under the Trust Indenture Act.  Therefore, holders of warrants issued under a warrant agreement will not have the protection of the Trust Indenture Act with respect to their warrants.

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Calculation Agent

Calculations relating to warrants may be made by a calculation agent, an institution that we appoint as our agent for this purpose.  The prospectus supplement for a particular warrant will name the institution that we have appointed to act as the calculation agent for that warrant as of the original issue date for that warrant. We may appoint a different institution to serve as calculation agent from time to time after the original issue date without the consent or notification of the holders.

 

The calculation agent’s determination of any amount of money payable or securities deliverable with respect to a warrant will be final and binding in the absence of manifest error.

 

Outstanding Warrants

As of June 30, 2021, warrants to purchase an aggregate of 487,087 shares of our common stock with a weighted-average exercise price of $1.30 per share were outstanding. All of the outstanding warrants are currently exercisable, and all outstanding warrants contain provisions for the adjustment of the exercise price in the event of stock dividends, stock splits, reorganizations, reclassifications or mergers. In addition, all of the outstanding warrants contain a “cashless exercise” feature that allows the holders thereof to exercise the warrants without a cash payment to us under certain circumstances.  

 

 

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DESCRIPTION OF UNITS

We may issue units consisting of any combination of the other types of securities offered under this prospectus in one or more series. We may evidence each series of units by unit certificates that we will issue under a separate agreement. We may enter into unit agreements with a unit agent. Each unit agent will be a bank or trust company that we select. We will indicate the name and address of the unit agent in the applicable prospectus supplement relating to a particular series of units.

The following description, together with the additional information included in the applicable prospectus supplement, summarizes the general features of the units that we may offer under this prospectus. You should read any prospectus supplement and any free-writing prospectus we authorize for use in connection with a specific offering of units, as well as the complete unit agreements that contain the terms of the units. Specific unit agreements will contain additional important terms and provisions, and we will file as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or we will incorporate by reference from another report that we file with the SEC, the form of each unit agreement relating to units offered under this prospectus.

If we offer any units, certain terms of that series of units will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement, including, without limitation, the following, as applicable:

 

the title of the series of units;

 

identification and description of the separate constituent securities comprising the units;

 

the price or prices at which the units will be issued;

 

the date, if any, on and after which the constituent securities comprising the units will be separately transferable;

 

a discussion of certain U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to the units; and

 

any other terms of the units and their constituent securities.

 

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LEGAL OWNERSHIP OF SECURITIES

We can issue securities in registered form or in the form of one or more global securities. We describe global securities in greater detail below. We refer to those persons who have securities registered in their own names on the books that we or any applicable trustee or depositary maintain for this purpose as the “holders” of those securities. These persons are the legal holders of the securities. We refer to those persons who, indirectly through others, own beneficial interests in securities that are not registered in their own names, as “indirect holders” of those securities. As we discuss below, indirect holders are not legal holders, and investors in securities issued in book-entry form or in street name will be indirect holders.

Book-Entry Holders

We may issue securities in book-entry form only, as we will specify in the applicable prospectus supplement. This means securities may be represented by one or more global securities registered in the name of a financial institution that holds them as depositary on behalf of other financial institutions that participate in the depositary’s book-entry system. These participating institutions, which are referred to as participants, in turn, hold beneficial interests in the securities on behalf of themselves or their customers.

Only the person in whose name a security is registered is recognized as the holder of that security. Global securities will be registered in the name of the depositary or its participants. Consequently, for global securities, we will recognize only the depositary as the holder of the securities, and we will make all payments on the securities to the depositary. The depositary passes along the payments it receives to its participants, which in turn pass the payments along to their customers who are the beneficial owners. The depositary and its participants do so under agreements they have made with one another or with their customers; they are not obligated to do so under the terms of the securities.

As a result, investors in a global security will not own securities directly. Instead, they will own beneficial interests in a global security, through a bank, broker or other financial institution that participates in the depositary’s book-entry system or holds an interest through a participant. As long as the securities are issued in global form, investors will be indirect holders, and not legal holders, of the securities.

Street Name Holders

We may terminate a global security in certain situations, as described under “—Special Situations When a Global Security Will Be Terminated”, or issue securities that are not issued in global form. In these cases, investors may choose to hold their securities in their own names or in “street name”. Securities held by an investor in street name would be registered in the name of a bank, broker or other financial institution that the investor chooses, and the investor would hold only a beneficial interest in those securities through an account he or she maintains at that institution.

For securities held in street name, we or any applicable trustee or depositary will recognize only the intermediary banks, brokers and other financial institutions in whose names the securities are registered as the holders of those securities, and we or any such trustee or depositary will make all payments on those securities to them. These institutions pass along the payments they receive to their customers who are the beneficial owners but only because they agree to do so in their customer agreements or because they are legally required to do so. Investors who hold securities in street name will be indirect holders, not holders, of those securities.

Legal Holders

Our obligations, as well as the obligations of any applicable trustee or third party employed by us or a trustee, run only to the legal holders of the securities. We do not have obligations to investors who hold beneficial interests in global securities, in street name or by any other indirect means. This will be the case whether an investor chooses to be an indirect holder of a security or has no choice because we are issuing the securities only in global form.

For example, once we make a payment or give a notice to the legal holder, we have no further responsibility for the payment or notice even if that legal holder is required, under agreements with its participants or customers or by law, to pass the payment or notice along to the indirect holders but does not do so. Similarly, we may want to obtain the approval of the holders to amend an indenture, to relieve us of the consequences of a default or of our obligation to comply with a particular provision of an indenture, or for other purposes. In such an event, we would seek approval only from the legal holders, and not the indirect holders, of the securities. Whether and how the legal holders contact the indirect holders is up to the legal holders.

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Special Considerations for Indirect Holders

 If you hold securities through a bank, broker or other financial institution, either in book-entry form because the securities are represented by one or more global securities or in street name, you should check with your own institution to find out:

 

how it handles securities payments and notices;

 

whether it imposes fees or charges;

 

how it would handle a request for the holders’ consent, if ever required;

 

whether and how you can instruct it to send you securities registered in your own name so you can be a holder, if that is permitted in the future;

 

how it would exercise rights under the securities if there were a default or other event triggering the need for holders to act to protect their interests; and

 

if the securities are in book-entry form, how the depositary’s rules and procedures will affect these matters.

Global Securities

A global security is a security that represents one or any other number of individual securities held by a depositary. Generally, all securities represented by the same global securities will have the same terms.

Each security issued in book-entry form will be represented by a global security that we issue to, deposit with and register in the name of a financial institution or its nominee that we select. The financial institution that we select for this purpose is called the depositary. Unless we specify otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, The Depository Trust Company, New York, New York, known as DTC, will be the depositary for all securities issued in book-entry form.

A global security may not be transferred to or registered in the name of anyone other than the depositary, its nominee or a successor depositary, unless special termination situations arise. We describe those situations below under “—Special Situations When a Global Security Will Be Terminated”. As a result of these arrangements, the depositary, or its nominee, will be the sole registered owner and legal holder of all securities represented by a global security, and investors will be permitted to own only beneficial interests in a global security. Beneficial interests must be held by means of an account with a broker, bank or other financial institution that in turn has an account with the depositary or with another institution that does. Thus, an investor whose security is represented by a global security will not be a legal holder of the security, but only an indirect holder of a beneficial interest in the global security.

If the prospectus supplement for a particular security indicates that the security will be issued as a global security, then the security will be represented by a global security at all times unless and until the global security is terminated. If termination occurs, we may issue the securities through another book-entry clearing system or decide that the securities may no longer be held through any book-entry clearing system.

Special Considerations for Global Securities

As an indirect holder, an investor’s rights relating to a global security will be governed by the account rules of the investor’s financial institution and of the depositary, as well as general laws relating to securities transfers. We do not recognize an indirect holder as a holder of securities and instead deal only with the depositary that holds the global security.

If securities are issued only as global securities, an investor should be aware of the following:

 

an investor cannot cause the securities to be registered in his or her name, and cannot obtain non-global certificates for his or her interest in the securities, except in the special situations described below;

 

an investor will be an indirect holder and must look to his or her own bank or broker for payments on the securities and protection of his or her legal rights relating to the securities, as described above;

 

an investor may not be able to sell interests in the securities to some insurance companies and to other institutions that are required by law to own their securities in non-book-entry form;

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an investor may not be able to pledge his or her interest in the global security in circumstances where certificates representing the securities must be delivered to the lender or other beneficiary of the pledge in order for the pledge to be effective;

 

the depositary’s policies, which may change from time to time, will govern payments, transfers, exchanges and other matters relating to an investor’s interest in the global security;

 

we and any applicable trustee have no responsibility for any aspect of the depositary’s actions or for its records of ownership interests in the global security, nor will we or any applicable trustee supervise the depositary in any way;

 

the depositary may, and we understand that DTC will, require that those who purchase and sell interests in the global security within its book-entry system use immediately available funds, and your broker or bank may require you to do the same; and

 

financial institutions that participate in the depositary’s book-entry system, and through which an investor holds its interest in the global security, may also have their own policies affecting payments, notices and other matters relating to the securities.

There may be more than one financial intermediary in the chain of ownership for an investor. We do not monitor and are not responsible for the actions of any of those intermediaries.

Special Situations When a Global Security Will Be Terminated

In a few special situations described below, a global security will terminate and interests in it will be exchanged for physical certificates representing those interests. After that exchange, the choice of whether to hold securities directly or in street name will be up to the investor. Investors must consult their own banks or brokers to find out how to have their interests in securities transferred to their own names, so that they will be direct holders. The rights of holders and street name investors are described above.

A global security will terminate when the following special situations occur:

 

if the depositary notifies us that it is unwilling, unable or no longer qualified to continue as depositary for that global security and we do not appoint another institution to act as depositary within 90 days;

 

if we notify any applicable trustee that we wish to terminate that global security; or

 

if an event of default has occurred with regard to securities represented by that global security and has not been cured or waived.

The applicable prospectus supplement may also list additional situations for terminating a global security that would apply only to the particular series of securities covered by the prospectus supplement. When a global security terminates, the depositary, and neither we nor any applicable trustee, is responsible for deciding the names of the institutions that will be the initial direct holders.

 

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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

We may sell the securities from time to time pursuant to underwritten public offerings, direct sales to the public, “at the market” offerings, negotiated transactions, block trades or a combination of these methods. We may sell the securities to or through underwriters or dealers, through agents, or directly to one or more purchasers. We may distribute securities from time to time in one or more transactions:

 

 

at a fixed price or prices, which may be changed;

 

at market prices prevailing at the time of sale;

 

at prices related to such prevailing market prices; or

 

at negotiated prices.

A prospectus supplement or supplements (and any related free writing prospectus that we may have authorized for use in connection with a specific offering) will describe the terms of the offering of the securities, including, to the extent applicable:

 

 

the name or names of the underwriters, if any;

 

the purchase price of the securities or other consideration therefor, and the proceeds, if any, we will receive from the sale;

 

any over-allotment options under which underwriters may purchase additional securities from us;

 

any agency fees or underwriting discounts and other items constituting agents’ or underwriters’ compensation;

 

any public offering price;

 

any discounts or concessions allowed or re-allowed or paid to dealers; and

 

any securities exchange or market on which the securities may be listed.

Only underwriters named in the prospectus supplement will be underwriters of the securities offered by the prospectus supplement.

If underwriters are used in the sale, they will acquire the securities for their own account and may resell the securities from time to time in one or more transactions at a fixed public offering price or at varying prices determined at the time of sale. The obligations of the underwriters to purchase the securities will be subject to the conditions set forth in the applicable underwriting agreement. We may offer the securities to the public through underwriting syndicates represented by managing underwriters or by underwriters without a syndicate. Subject to certain conditions, the underwriters will be obligated to purchase all of the securities offered by the prospectus supplement, other than securities covered by any over-allotment option. Any public offering price and any discounts or concessions allowed or re-allowed or paid to dealers may change from time to time. We may use underwriters with whom we have a material relationship. We will describe in the prospectus supplement, naming the underwriter, the nature of any such relationship.

We may sell securities directly or through agents we designate from time to time. We will name any agent involved in the offering and sale of securities and we will describe any commissions we will pay the agent in the prospectus supplement. Unless the prospectus supplement states otherwise, our agent will act on a best-efforts basis for the period of its appointment.

We may authorize agents or underwriters to solicit offers by certain types of institutional investors to purchase securities from us at the public offering price set forth in the prospectus supplement pursuant to delayed delivery contracts providing for payment and delivery on a specified date in the future. We will describe the conditions to these contracts and the commissions we must pay for solicitation of these contracts in the prospectus supplement.

We may provide agents and underwriters with indemnification against civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act, or contribution with respect to payments that the agents or underwriters may make with respect to these liabilities. Agents and underwriters may engage in transactions with, or perform services for, us in the ordinary course of business.

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All securities we may offer, other than common stock, will be new issues of securities with no established trading market. Any underwriters may make a market in these securities, but they will not be obligated to do so and may discontinue any market making at any time without notice. We cannot guarantee the liquidity of the trading markets for any securities.

Any underwriter may engage in over-allotment, stabilizing transactions, short-covering transactions and penalty bids in accordance with Regulation M under the Exchange Act. Over-allotment involves sales in excess of the offering size, which create a short position. Stabilizing transactions permit bids to purchase the underlying security so long as the stabilizing bids do not exceed a specified maximum price. Syndicate-covering or other short-covering transactions involve purchases of the securities, either through exercise of the over-allotment option or in the open market after the distribution is completed, to cover short positions. Penalty bids permit the underwriters to reclaim a selling concession from a dealer when the securities originally sold by the dealer are purchased in a stabilizing or covering transaction to cover short positions. Those activities may cause the price of the securities to be higher than it would otherwise be. If commenced, the underwriters may discontinue any of the activities at any time.

Any underwriters that are qualified market makers on the Nasdaq Capital Market may engage in passive market making transactions in the common stock on the Nasdaq Capital Market in accordance with Regulation M under the Exchange Act, during the business day prior to the pricing of the offering, before the commencement of offers or sales of the common stock. Passive market makers must comply with applicable volume and price limitations and must be identified as passive market makers. In general, a passive market maker must display its bid at a price not in excess of the highest independent bid for such security; if all independent bids are lowered below the passive market maker’s bid, however, the passive market maker’s bid must then be lowered when certain purchase limits are exceeded. Passive market making may stabilize the market price of the securities at a level above that which might otherwise prevail in the open market and, if commenced, may be discontinued at any time.

In compliance with guidelines of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, or FINRA, the maximum consideration or discount to be received by any FINRA member or independent broker dealer may not exceed 8% of the aggregate amount of the securities offered pursuant to this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

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LEGAL MATTERS

Unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, the validity of the securities offered by this prospectus, and any supplement thereto, will be passed upon for us by Paul Hastings LLP, Palo Alto, California.

EXPERTS

Marcum LLP, our independent, registered public accounting firm, has audited our financial statements included in our annual report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020, which is incorporated by reference into this prospectus and elsewhere in the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. Our financial statements are incorporated by reference in reliance on Marcum LLP’s report, given on their authority as experts in accounting and auditing.

 

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

We are a reporting company and file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. We have filed with the SEC a registration statement on Form S-3 under the Securities Act with respect to the securities being offered under this prospectus. This prospectus does not contain all of the information set forth in the registration statement and the exhibits to the registration statement. For further information with respect to us and the securities being offered under this prospectus, we refer you to the registration statement and the exhibits and schedules filed as a part of the registration statement. For further information with respect to us and the securities being offered under this prospectus, we refer you to the registration statement and the exhibits and schedules filed as a part of the registration statement. The SEC maintains an Internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC, including Viking Therapeutics, Inc. The SEC’s Internet site can be found at http://www.sec.gov.

 

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IMPORTANT INFORMATION INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” information into this prospectus, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to another document filed separately with the SEC. The documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus contain important information that you should read about us.

The following documents are incorporated by reference into this prospectus:

 

(a)

Our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020, filed with the SEC on February 17, 2021;

 

(b)

The information specifically incorporated by reference into our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020 from our Definitive Proxy Statement on Schedule 14A, filed with the SEC on April 8, 2021;

 

(c)

Our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2021, filed with the SEC on April 28, 2021;

 

(d)

Our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended June 30, 2021, filed with the SEC on July 28, 2021;

 

(e)

Our Current Reports on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on (i) January 6, 2021, and (ii) May 21, 2021; and

 

(f)

The description of our common stock set forth in our Registration Statement on Form 8-A (File No. 001-37355), filed with the SEC on April 23, 2015, including any amendments or reports filed for the purpose of updating such description.

We also incorporate by reference any future filings (other than current reports furnished under Item 2.02 or Item 7.01 of Form 8-K and exhibits filed on such form that are related to such items unless such Form 8-K expressly provides to the contrary) made with the SEC pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act, including those made after the date of the initial filing of the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part and prior to effectiveness of such registration statement, until we file a post-effective amendment that indicates the termination of the offering of the securities made by this prospectus and will become a part of this prospectus from the respective dates that such documents are filed with the SEC. Any statement contained herein or in a document incorporated, or deemed to be incorporated, by reference herein shall be deemed to be modified or superseded to the extent that a statement contained herein or in any other subsequently filed document that also is, or is deemed to be, incorporated by reference herein modifies or supersedes such statement. Any such statement so modified or superseded shall not be deemed, except as so modified or superseded, to constitute a part of this prospectus.

Documents incorporated by reference are available from us, without charge. You may obtain documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus by requesting them in writing or by telephone at the following address:

Viking Therapeutics, Inc.

Attn: Secretary

12340 El Camino Real, Suite 250

San Diego, CA 92130

Telephone Number: (858) 704-4660

 

 

 

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The information in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and it is not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.

 

 

 

SUBJECT TO COMPLETION, DATED JULY 28, 2021

PROSPECTUS

Viking Therapeutics, Inc.

Up to $125,000,000
Common Stock

____________________

We have entered into an At-the-Market Equity Offering Sales Agreement, or the Sales Agreement, with Stifel, Nicolaus & Company, Incorporated, or Stifel, Truist Securities, Inc., or Truist, and H.C. Wainwright & Co., LLC, or Wainwright, each of whom we refer to as an Agent, and together as the Agents, to offer and sell up to $125.0 million of our common stock, $0.00001 par value per share, offered by this prospectus.

In accordance with the terms of the Sales Agreement, we may offer and sell shares of our common stock at any time and from time to time through or to the Agents as sales agent or principal. Sales of our common stock, if any, will be made at market prices by any method that is deemed to be an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act.

The aggregate compensation payable to the Agents shall be equal to 3.0% of the gross sales price of the shares sold through the Agents pursuant to the Sales Agreement. In connection with the sale of the common stock on our behalf, each of the Agents will be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act, and the compensation of the Agents will be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts.

Subject to the terms and conditions of the Sales Agreement, the Agents will use their commercially reasonable efforts consistent with their normal trading and sales practices to sell on our behalf any shares to be offered by us under the Sales Agreement. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in any escrow, trust or similar arrangement.

Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “VKTX.” On July 26, 2021, the closing price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Capital Market was $5.63 per share.

____________________

Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. See “Risk Factors” beginning on page S-7 of this prospectus and under similar headings in the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus for a discussion of certain risks you should consider before investing in shares of our common stock.

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

____________________

Stifel

Truist Securities

H.C. Wainwright & Co.


The date of this prospectus is                 , 2021

 

 


 

 

Prospectus

 

Page

About this Prospectus

 

 

S-1

 

Prospectus Summary

 

 

S-2

 

The Offering

 

 

S-5

 

Risk Factors

 

 

S-7

 

Disclosure Regarding Forward-Looking Statements

 

 

S-9

 

Market and Industry Data

 

 

S-11

 

Use of Proceeds

 

 

S-12

 

Dilution

 

 

S-13

 

Plan of Distribution

 

 

S-15

 

Legal Matters

 

 

S-15

 

Experts

 

 

S-15

 

Information Incorporated by Reference; Where You Can Find More Information

 

 

S-17

 

  

 

i

 


 

 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

This prospectus is part of a “shelf” registration statement on Form S-3 that we filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, using a “shelf” registration process. This prospectus describes the specific terms of this offering. This prospectus relates only to an offering of up to $125.0 million of shares of our common stock through the Agents. These sales, if any, will be made pursuant to the terms of the Sales Agreement entered into among us and the Agents on July 28, 2021, a copy of which is filed as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part.

We urge you to carefully read this prospectus, the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein and the additional information in the section of this prospectus entitled “Incorporation by Reference; Where You Can Find More Information” before buying any of the securities being offered under this prospectus. These documents contain information you should consider when making your investment decision. To the extent that any statement that we make in this prospectus is inconsistent with statements made in any documents incorporated by reference, the statements made in this prospectus will be deemed to modify or supersede those made in such documents incorporated by reference.

You should rely only on the information contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus, the documents incorporated by reference herein and any free-writing prospectus we may provide you. We have not, and the Agents have not, authorized anyone to provide you with different information. If anyone provides you with different or inconsistent information, you should not rely on it.

You should not assume that the information contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus is accurate on any date subsequent to the date set forth on the front cover of this prospectus or on any date subsequent to the date of the document incorporated by reference, as applicable. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates.

We are offering to sell, and seeking offers to buy, the securities described in this prospectus only in jurisdictions where offers and sales are permitted. The distribution of this prospectus and the offering of the securities in certain jurisdictions may be restricted by law. Persons outside the United States who come into possession of this prospectus must inform themselves about, and observe any restrictions relating to, the offering of the securities and the distribution of this prospectus outside the United States. This prospectus does not constitute, and may not be used in connection with, an offer to sell, or a solicitation of an offer to buy, any securities offered by this prospectus by any person in any jurisdiction in which it is unlawful for such person to make such an offer or solicitation.

We further note that the representations, warranties and covenants made by us in any agreement that is filed as an exhibit to any document that is incorporated by reference into this prospectus were made solely for the benefit of the parties to such agreement, including, in some cases, for the purpose of allocating risk among the parties to such agreements, and should not be deemed to be a representation, warranty or covenant to you. Moreover, such representations, warranties or covenants were accurate only as of the date when made. Accordingly, such representations, warranties and covenants should not be relied on as accurately representing the current state of our affairs.

In this prospectus, unless otherwise indicated or required by the context, the terms “Viking,” “we,” “our,” “us” and the “Company” refer to Viking Therapeutics, Inc.

 

S-1

 


 

PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

This summary contains basic information about us and this offering. This summary highlights selected information contained elsewhere in, or incorporated by reference into, this prospectus. This summary is not complete and may not contain all of the information that may be important to you and that you should consider before deciding whether or not to invest in our securities. For a more complete understanding of Viking and this offering, you should carefully read this prospectus, including the information incorporated by reference into this prospectus, in its entirety. Investing in our securities involves risks that are described in the section of this prospectus entitled “Risk Factors,” under the heading “Item 1A. Risk Factors” in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020, our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2021, and our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended June 30, 2021 as updated by our subsequent annual, quarterly and other reports and documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus, and in our other filings with the SEC.

The Company

We are a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company focused on the development of novel, first-in-class or best-in-class therapies for metabolic and endocrine disorders.

Our lead clinical program’s drug candidate, VK2809, is an orally available, tissue and receptor-subtype selective agonist of the thyroid hormone receptor beta, or TRß. In November 2019, we initiated the VOYAGE study, a Phase 2b clinical trial of VK2809 in patients with biopsy-confirmed non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, or NASH.

The VOYAGE study is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial designed to assess the efficacy, safety and tolerability of VK2809 in patients with biopsy-confirmed NASH and fibrosis ranging from stages F1 to F3. The study is targeting enrollment of approximately 340 patients across five treatment arms.  The primary endpoint of the study will evaluate the relative change in liver fat content, as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging, proton density fat fraction (MRI-PDFF), from baseline to week 12 in subjects treated with VK2809 as compared to placebo. Secondary objectives include evaluation of histologic changes assessed by hepatic biopsy after 52 weeks of dosing.

VK2809 has been evaluated in eight completed clinical studies, which enrolled more than 300 subjects. No serious adverse events, or SAEs, have been observed in subjects receiving VK2809 in these completed studies, and overall tolerability remains encouraging. In addition, the compound has been evaluated in chronic toxicity studies of up to 12 months in duration.

 We are also developing VK0214, which is also an orally available, tissue and receptor-subtype selective agonist of TRß for X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy, or X-ALD, a rare X-linked, inherited neurological disorder characterized by a breakdown in the protective barriers surrounding brain and nerve cells. The disease, for which there is no approved treatment, is caused by mutations in a peroxisomal transporter of very long chain fatty acids, or VLCFA, known as ABCD1. As a result, transporter function is impaired and patients are unable to efficiently metabolize VLCFA. The TRß receptor is known to regulate expression of an alternative VLCFA transporter, known as ABCD2. Various preclinical models have demonstrated that increased expression of ABCD2 can lead to normalization of VLCFA metabolism. Preliminary data suggest that VK0214 stimulates ABCD2 expression in an in vitro model and reduces VLCFA levels in an in vivo model of X-ALD. In September 2020, we initiated a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled Phase 1 single ascending dose, or SAD, and multiple ascending dose, or MAD, clinical trial of VK0214 in healthy patients. The primary objective of the study is to evaluate the safety and tolerability of VK0214 administered orally for up to 14 days.  The secondary objective is to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of VK0214 following single and multiple oral doses.  In June 2021, we announced the results of the study. The first portion of the study evaluated single doses of VK0214; in the second portion of the study, subjects received VK0214 once daily for 14 days.  Subsequent cohorts in both portions of the study received successively higher VK0214 doses.

S-2

 


 

VK0214 was shown to be safe and well-tolerated at all doses evaluated in this study.  No serious adverse events were reported, and no treatment or dose-related trends were observed for vital signs, gastrointestinal effects, cardiovascular measures or physical examinations.  VK0214 demonstrated dose-dependent exposures, no evidence of accumulation following multiple doses, and a half-life consistent with anticipated once-daily dosing regimens.

While the study's primary objective was to evaluate safety and tolerability, laboratory assessments included a lipid panel to determine potential pharmacodynamic effects following exposure to VK0214.  The results showed that subjects who received VK0214 experienced reductions in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or LDL-C, triglycerides, and apolipoprotein B following 14 days of treatment at all VK0214 doses.  Many of the observed lipid reductions achieved statistical significance, though the study was not powered to demonstrate statistical significance on laboratory assessments. 

% Change in Lipid Markers Following 14 Days of Treatment of VK0214

 

 

Placebo1

(n=11)

5 mg

(n=6)

10 mg

(n=6)

25 mg

(n=6)

50 mg

(n=6)

75 mg

(n=6)

100 mg

(n=6)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LDL-C

3.8%

-0.7%

-12.5%*

-21.4%**

-19.5%**

-19.1%***

-18.9%**

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Triglycerides

4.9%

-6.7%

-19.5%*

-1.7%

-36.8%**

-45.0%***

-39.1%**

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ApoB

4.4%

-5.7%

-12.5%**

-23.3%***

-24.0%***

-28.3%***

-28.2%***

(1) Excludes one placebo subject due to an anomalous triglyceride value (>7x higher than SD). *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001.

In June 2021, we initiated a Phase 1b clinical trial of VK0214 in patients with X-ALD. The Phase 1b trial is a multi-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in adult male patients with the adrenomyeloneuropathy, or AMN, form of X-ALD.  The study is initially targeting enrollment across three cohorts: placebo, VK0214 20 mg daily, and VK0214 40 mg daily.  Pending a blinded review of preliminary safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetic data, additional dosing cohorts may be pursued.

The primary objectives of the study are to evaluate the safety and tolerability of VK0214 administered once-daily over a 28-day dosing period, and to assess the efficacy of VK0214 at lowering plasma levels of very long chain fatty acids in patients with AMN.  Secondary objectives include an evaluation of the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of VK0214 following 28 days of dosing in this population.

Other clinical programs include VK5211, an orally available, non-steroidal selective androgen receptor modulator, or SARM. In November 2017, we announced positive top-line results from a Phase 2 proof-of-concept clinical trial in 108 patients recovering from non-elective hip fracture surgery. Top-line data showed that the trial achieved its primary endpoint, demonstrating statistically significant, dose dependent increases in lean body mass, less head, following treatment with VK5211 as compared to placebo. The study also achieved certain secondary endpoints, demonstrating statistically significant increases in appendicular lean body mass and total lean body mass for all doses of VK5211, compared to placebo. VK5211 demonstrated encouraging safety and tolerability in this study, with no drug-related SAEs reported. Our intent is to continue to pursue partnering or licensing opportunities prior to conducting additional clinical studies.

We were incorporated under the laws of the State of Delaware on September 24, 2012. Since our incorporation, we have devoted most of our efforts towards conducting certain clinical trials and preclinical studies related to our VK2809, VK0214 and VK5211 programs, as well as efforts towards raising capital and building infrastructure. We obtained exclusive worldwide rights to our VK2809, VK0214 and VK5211 programs and certain other assets pursuant to an exclusive license agreement with Ligand Pharmaceuticals Incorporated, or Ligand. The terms of this license agreement are detailed in the Master License Agreement with Ligand, which we entered into on May 21, 2014, as amended, or the Master License Agreement. A summary of the Master License Agreement can be found under the heading “Agreements with Ligand—Master License Agreement” under Part I, “Item 1. Business” of our Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, on February 17, 2021.

We are subject to risks and uncertainties as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. The extent of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business is highly uncertain and difficult to predict, as the responses that we, other businesses and governments are taking continue to evolve. Furthermore, capital markets and economies worldwide

S-3

 


 

have also been negatively impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic, and it is possible that it could cause a local and/or global economic slowdown or recession. Policymakers around the globe have responded with fiscal policy actions to support the healthcare industry and economy as a whole. The magnitude and overall effectiveness of these actions still remains uncertain.

In addition, our clinical trials have been affected by and may continue to be affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. Clinical site initiation and patient enrollment have been, and may continue to be delayed due to prioritization of hospital resources toward the COVID-19 pandemic. Some patients have not been able and others may not be able to comply with clinical trial protocols if quarantines impede patient movement or interrupt healthcare services. Similarly, any inability to recruit and retain patients and principal investigators and site staff who, as healthcare providers, may have heightened exposure to COVID-19, may adversely impact our clinical trial operations.

The severity of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business will depend on a number of factors, including, but not limited to, the duration and severity of the pandemic and the extent and severity of the impact on our service providers, suppliers, contract research organizations, or CROs, and our clinical trials, all of which are uncertain and cannot be predicted, as well as the timing, rollout and availability of vaccines and the effectiveness thereof, and the willingness of the general population to be vaccinated. As of the date of this filing, the extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic may materially impact our financial condition, liquidity or results of operations is still uncertain.

Corporate Information

We were incorporated under the laws of the State of Delaware on September 24, 2012. Our principal executive offices are located at 12340 El Camino Real, Suite 250, San Diego, CA 92130, and our telephone number is (858) 704-4660. Our website address is www.vikingtherapeutics.com. We do not incorporate the information on, or accessible through, our website into this prospectus, and you should not consider any information on, or accessible through, our website as part of this prospectus. We have included our website address in this prospectus solely as an inactive textual reference.


S-4

 


 

 

The Offering

 

Common stock offered by us

Up to an aggregate of $125,000,000 of shares of our common stock pursuant to the Sales Agreement through or to Stifel, Truist and Wainwright, as sales agent or principal. See “Plan of Distribution” beginning on page S-15 of this prospectus.

Common stock to be outstanding immediately after this offering

Up to 100,392,301 shares (as more fully described in the notes following this table), assuming sales of 22,202,487 shares of our common stock in this offering at an assumed offering price of $5.63 per share, the last reported sale price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Capital Market on July 26, 2021. The actual number of shares issued will vary depending on the sales price under this offering

Manner of offering

“At the market offering” made from time to time through or to the Agents, as sales agent or principal. See the section of this prospectus entitled “Plan of Distribution” beginning on page S-15 for additional detail.

Use of proceeds

We currently intend to use the net proceeds of this offering for the continued development of our VK2809 and VK0214 programs and for general research and development, working capital and general corporate purposes. See the section of this prospectus entitled “Use of Proceeds” beginning on page S-12 for additional detail.

Trading symbol

Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “VKTX.”

Risk factors

Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. See “Risk Factors” beginning on page S-7 and other information included or incorporated in this prospectus for a discussion of factors you should carefully consider before investing in our securities.

The number of shares of our common stock that will be outstanding immediately after this offering is based on 78,189,814 shares of common stock outstanding as of June 30, 2021, and excludes:

 

3,917,509 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of options outstanding as of June 30, 2021 with a weighted-average exercise price of $5.62 per share;

 

1,047,155 shares of our common stock reserved for future issuance in connection with service-based restricted stock units outstanding as of June 30, 2021 with a weighted-average grant date fair value of $6.71 per share;

 

5,514,166 shares of our common stock reserved as of June 30, 2021 for future issuance under our 2014 Equity Incentive Plan, which contains provisions that may increase its share reserve each year;

 

2,991,824 shares of our common stock reserved as of June 30, 2021 for future issuance under our 2014 Employee Stock Purchase Plan, which contains provisions that may increase its share reserve each year; and

S-5

 


 

 

487,087 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of outstanding warrants as of June 30, 2021, at a weighted-average exercise price of $1.30 per share.

S-6

 


 

RISK FACTORS

Our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020, our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2021, and our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended June 30, 2021 which are incorporated by reference into this prospectus, as updated by our subsequent annual, quarterly and other reports and documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus, as well as our other filings with the SEC, include material risk factors relating to our business. Those risks and uncertainties and the risks and uncertainties described below are not the only risks and uncertainties that we face. Additional risks and uncertainties that are not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial or that are not specific to us, such as general economic conditions, may also materially and adversely affect our business and operations. If any of those risks and uncertainties or the risks and uncertainties described below actually occurs, our business, financial condition or results of operations could be harmed substantially. In such a case, you may lose all or part of your investment. You should carefully consider the risks and uncertainties described below and those risks and uncertainties incorporated by reference into this prospectus, as well as the other information included in this prospectus, before making an investment decision with respect to our common stock.

Risks Related to this Offering

We will have broad discretion in the use of the net proceeds from this offering and may not use them effectively.

We currently intend to use the net proceeds of this offering for the continued development of our VK2809 and VK0214 programs and for general research and development, working capital and general corporate purposes, as further described in the section of this prospectus entitled “Use of Proceeds.” We will have broad discretion in the application of the net proceeds in the category of other working capital and general corporate purposes and investors will be relying on the judgment of our management regarding the application of the proceeds of this offering.

The precise amount and timing of the application of these proceeds will depend upon a number of factors, such as the timing and progress of our research and development efforts, the timing and progress of any partnering and commercialization efforts, our funding requirements and the availability and costs of other funds. As of the date of this prospectus, we cannot specify with certainty all of the particular uses for the net proceeds to us from this offering. Depending on the outcome of our efforts and other unforeseen events, our plans and priorities may change and we may apply the net proceeds of this offering in different manners than we currently anticipate.

The failure by our management to apply these funds effectively could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations. Pending their use, we may invest the net proceeds from this offering in short-term, interest-bearing instruments. These investments may not yield a favorable return to our stockholders.

You may experience immediate and substantial dilution.

The offering price per share in this offering may exceed the net tangible book value per share of our common stock outstanding prior to this offering. Assuming that an aggregate of 22,202,487 shares of our common stock are sold during the term of the Sales Agreement with the Agents at a price of $5.63 per share, the last reported sale price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Capital Market on July 26, 2021, for aggregate gross proceeds of approximately $125.0 million, after deducting commissions and estimated aggregate offering expenses payable by us you will experience immediate dilution of $2.18 per share, representing the difference between the assumed offering price per share and our as adjusted net tangible book value per share as of July 26, 2021 after giving effect to this offering. The exercise of outstanding stock options and warrants may result in further dilution of your investment. See the section of this prospectus entitled “Dilution” for a more detailed illustration of the dilution you would incur if you participate in this offering.

The shares of common stock will be sold in “at the market” offerings, and investors who buy shares at different times will likely pay different prices.

Investors who purchase shares in this offering at different times will likely pay different prices, and so may experience different outcomes in their investment results. We will have discretion, subject to market demand, to

S-7

 


 

vary the timing, prices, and numbers of shares sold, and there is no minimum or maximum sales price. Investors may experience a decline in the value of their shares as a result of share sales made at prices lower than the prices they paid.

The actual number of shares we will issue under the Sales Agreement with the Agents, at any one time or in total, is uncertain.

Subject to certain limitations in the Sales Agreement with the Agents and compliance with applicable law, we have the discretion to deliver placement notices to the Agents at any time throughout the term of the Sales Agreement. The number of shares that are sold by the Agents after delivering a placement notice will fluctuate based on the market price of the common stock during the sales period and limits we set with the Agents.

You may experience future dilution as a result of future equity offerings.

In order to raise additional capital, we may in the future offer additional shares of our common stock or other securities convertible into or exchangeable for our common stock at prices that may not be the same as the price per share in this offering. We may sell shares or other securities in any other offering at a price per share that is less than the price per share paid by investors in this offering, and investors purchasing shares or other securities in the future could have rights superior to existing stockholders. The price per share at which we sell additional shares of our common stock, or securities convertible or exchangeable into common stock, in future transactions may be higher or lower than the price per share paid by investors in this offering.

We do not expect to pay dividends in the foreseeable future. As a result, you must rely on stock appreciation for any return on your investment.

We do not anticipate paying cash dividends on our common stock in the foreseeable future. Any payment of cash dividends will also depend on our financial condition, results of operations, capital requirements and other factors and will be at the discretion of our board of directors. Accordingly, you will have to rely on capital appreciation, if any, to earn a return on your investment in our common stock.

 


S-8

 


 

 

DISCLOSURE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus contain forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, which statements involve substantial risks and uncertainties. Forward-looking statements generally relate to future events or our future financial or operating performance. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements because they contain words such as “may,” “will,” “should,” “expects,” “plans,” “anticipates,” “could,” “intends,” “target,” “projects,” “contemplates,” “believes,” “estimates,” “predicts,” “potential” or “continue” or the negative of these words or other similar terms or expressions that concern our expectations, strategy, plans or intentions. Forward-looking statements contained in this prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus include, but are not limited to, statements about:

 

risks and uncertainties associated with our research and development activities, including our clinical trials and preclinical studies;

 

the timing or likelihood of regulatory filings and approvals or of alternative regulatory pathways for our drug candidates;

 

the potential market opportunities for commercializing our drug candidates;

 

our expectations regarding the potential market size and the size of the patient populations for our drug candidates, if approved for commercial use, and our ability to serve such markets;

 

the impacts that the COVID-19 global pandemic may have on our business, financial condition and results of operations, including disruptions to our operations and clinical trials, as well as disruptions or delays with respect to the operations of our service providers, suppliers and CROs;

 

estimates of our expenses, future revenue, capital requirements and our needs for additional financing;

 

our ability to develop, acquire and advance our drug candidates into, and successfully complete, clinical trials and preclinical studies, and obtain regulatory approvals;

 

the implementation of our business model and strategic plans for our business and drug candidates;

 

the initiation, cost, timing, progress and results of future and current preclinical studies and clinical trials, and our research and development programs;

 

new product candidates;

 

the terms of future licensing arrangements, and whether we can enter into such arrangements at all;

 

timing and receipt, or payments, of licensing and milestone revenues, if any;

 

the scope of protection we are able to establish and maintain for intellectual property rights covering our drug candidates, and our ability to operate our business without infringing the intellectual property rights of others;

 

regulatory developments in the United States and foreign countries;

 

the performance of our third-party suppliers and manufacturers;

 

our ability to maintain and establish collaborations or obtain additional funding;

 

the success of competing therapies that are currently or may become available;

 

our use of proceeds from this offering;

 

our financial performance; and

 

developments and projections relating to our competitors and our industry.

We caution you that the forward-looking statements highlighted above do not encompass all of the forward-looking statements made in this prospectus or in the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus.

S-9

 


 

We have based the forward-looking statements contained in this prospectus and in the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus primarily on our current expectations and projections about future events and trends that we believe may affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. The outcomes of the events described in these forward-looking statements are subject to risks, uncertainties and other factors that could cause actual results and experience to differ from those projected, including, but not limited to, the risk factors described herein and the risk factors set forth in Part I - Item 1A, “Risk Factors”, in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020, as filed with the SEC on February 17, 2021, in our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2021, as filed with the SEC on April 28, 2021, and in our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended June 30, 2021, as filed with the SEC on July 28, 2021, as updated by our subsequent annual, quarterly and other reports and documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus, and elsewhere in the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus. Moreover, we operate in a very competitive and challenging environment. New risks and uncertainties emerge from time to time, and it is not possible for us to predict all risks and uncertainties that could have an impact on the forward-looking statements contained in this prospectus and in the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus. We cannot assure you that the results, events and circumstances reflected in the forward-looking statements will be achieved or occur, and actual results, events or circumstances could differ materially from those described in the forward-looking statements.

The forward-looking statements contained in this prospectus and in the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus relate only to events as of the date on which the statements are made. We do not undertake any obligation to release publicly any revisions to such forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances after the date of this prospectus or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events. We may not actually achieve the plans, intentions or expectations disclosed in our forward-looking statements and you should not place undue reliance on our forward-looking statements. Our forward-looking statements do not reflect the potential impact of any future acquisitions, mergers, dispositions, joint ventures, other strategic transactions or investments we may make.

MARKET AND INDUSTRY DATA

This prospectus and the information incorporated by reference herein contain statistical data, estimates, forecasts, projections and other information concerning our industry, our business and the markets for certain diseases, including data regarding the estimated size of those markets and the incidence and prevalence of certain medical conditions. Information that is based on statistical data, estimates, forecasts, projections, market research or similar methodologies is inherently subject to uncertainties and actual events or circumstances may differ materially from events and circumstances reflected in this information. Unless otherwise expressly stated, we obtained this industry, business, market and other data from reports, research surveys, medical and general publications, government data, studies and similar data prepared by market research firms and other third parties. These third parties may, in the future, alter the manner in which they conduct surveys and studies regarding the markets in which we operate our business. The market and other estimates included in this prospectus and the information incorporated by reference herein, as they relate to projections, involve numerous assumptions, are subject to risks and uncertainties, and are subject to change based on various factors, including those discussed in the section of this prospectus entitled “Risk Factors” and in the other information contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus.


S-10

 


 

 

USE OF PROCEEDS

We may issue and sell shares of our common stock having aggregate sales proceeds of up to $125.0 million from time to time. Because there is no minimum offering amount required as a condition to close this offering, the actual total public offering amount, commissions and proceeds to us, if any, are not determinable at this time. There can be no assurance that, in the future, we will sell any shares under or fully utilize the Sales Agreement with the Agents as a source of financing.

We intend to use the net proceeds, if any, from this offering for the continued development of our VK2809 and VK0214 programs and for general research and development, working capital and general corporate purposes.  

The precise amount and timing of the application of these proceeds will depend upon a number of factors, such as the timing and progress of our research and development efforts, our funding requirements and the availability and costs of other funds. As of the date of this prospectus, we cannot specify with certainty all of the particular uses for the net proceeds to us from this offering. Depending on the outcome of our efforts and other unforeseen events, our plans and priorities may change and we may apply the net proceeds of this offering in different manners than we currently anticipate. Accordingly, our management will have broad discretion in the timing and application of these proceeds. Pending application of the net proceeds as described above, we intend to temporarily invest the proceeds in money market funds, certificates of deposit and corporate debt securities.


S-11

 


 

 

DILUTION

If you purchase our common stock in this offering, your interest will be diluted to the extent of the difference between the public offering price per share of common stock and the net tangible book value per share of common stock immediately after this offering.

Our net tangible book value as of June 30, 2021 was approximately $225.0 million, or $2.88 per share of common stock. Net tangible book value per share is determined by dividing the net of total tangible assets less total liabilities, by the aggregate number of shares of our common stock outstanding as of June 30, 2021.  After giving effect to the sale of our common stock during the term of the Sales Agreement with the Agents in the aggregate amount of $125.0 million at an assumed offering price of $5.63 per share, the last reported sale price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Capital Market on July 26, 2021, and after deducting commissions and estimated aggregate offering expenses payable by us, our as adjusted net tangible book value as of June 30, 2021 would have been approximately $346.0 million, or $3.45 per share of common stock. This represents an immediate increase in the net tangible book value of $0.57 per share to our existing stockholders and an immediate dilution in net tangible book value of $2.18 per share to new investors.

The following table illustrates this per share dilution:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Assumed public offering price per share of common stock

 

 

 

 

 

$                5.63

 

Net tangible book value per share as of June 30, 2021

 

$

2.88

 

 

 

 

Increase in net tangible book value per share attributable to this offering

 

$

0.57

 

 

 

 

As adjusted net tangible book value per share after this offering

 

 

 

 

 

$                3.45

 

Dilution per share to investors participating in this offering

 

 

 

 

 

$                2.18

 

The table above assumes for illustrative purposes that an aggregate of 22,202,487 shares of our common stock are sold during the term of the Sales Agreement with the Agents at a price of $5.63 per share, the last reported sale price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Capital Market on July 26, 2021, for aggregate net proceeds of approximately $121.0 million, after deducting commissions and estimated aggregate offering expenses payable by us. The as adjusted information is illustrative only and will adjust based on the actual price to the public, the actual number of shares sold and other terms of the offering determined at the time shares of our common stock are sold pursuant to this prospectus. The shares pursuant to the Sales Agreement with the Agents are being sold from time to time at various prices. An increase of $1.00 per share in the price at which the shares are sold from the assumed offering price of $5.63 per share shown in the table above, assuming all of our common stock in the aggregate amount of $125.0 million during the term of the Sales Agreement with the Agents is sold at that price, would increase our as adjusted net tangible book value per share after the offering to $3.57 per share and would increase the dilution in net tangible book value per share to new investors in this offering to $3.06 per share, after deducting commissions and estimated aggregate offering expenses payable by us. A decrease of $1.00 per share in the price at which the shares are sold from the assumed offering price of $5.63 per share shown in the table above, assuming all of our common stock in the aggregate amount of $125.0 million during the term of the Sales Agreement with the Agents is sold at that price, would decrease our as adjusted net tangible book value per share after the offering to $3.29 per share and would decrease the dilution in net tangible book value per share to new investors in this offering to $1.34 per share, after deducting commissions and estimated aggregate offering expenses payable by us. This information is supplied for illustrative purposes only.

The above table is based on 78,189,814 shares of our common stock outstanding as of June 30, 2021, and excludes:

 

3,917,509 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of options outstanding as of June 30, 2021 with a weighted-average exercise price of $5.62 per share;

 

1,047,155 shares of our common stock reserved for future issuance in connection with service-based restricted stock units outstanding as of June 30, 2021 with a weighted-average grant date fair value of $6.71 per share;

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5,514,166 shares of our common stock reserved as of June 30, 2021 for future issuance under our 2014 Equity Incentive Plan, which contains provisions that may increase its share reserve each year;

 

2,991,824 shares of our common stock reserved as of June 30, 2021 for future issuance under our 2014 Employee Stock Purchase Plan, which contains provisions that may increase its share reserve each year; and

 

487,087 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of outstanding warrants as of June 30, 2021, at a weighted-average exercise price of $1.30 per share.

To the extent that options or warrants are exercised, new options are issued under our equity incentive plans, or we issue additional shares of common stock in the future, there may be further dilution to investors participating in this offering. Moreover, we may choose to raise additional capital because of market conditions or strategic considerations even if we believe that we have sufficient funds for our current or future operating plans. If we raise additional capital through the sale of equity or convertible debt securities, the issuance of these securities could result in further dilution to our stockholders.


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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

We have entered into the Sales Agreement, dated July 28, 2021, with Stifel, Truist and Wainwright under which we may offer and sell shares of our common stock, from time to time, having an aggregate gross sales price of up to $125.0 million from time to time through or to the Agents, as sales agent or principal.

Upon delivery of a placement notice and subject to the terms and conditions of the Sales Agreement, the Agents may sell our common stock by any method permitted by law deemed to be an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415 promulgated under the Securities Act. We may instruct the Agents not to sell common stock if the sales cannot be effected at or above the price designated by us from time to time. We or the Agents may suspend the offering of common stock upon notice and subject to other conditions.

We will pay the Agents commissions, in cash, for their services in acting as agent in the sale of our common stock. The Agents will be entitled to compensation at a commission rate equal to 3.0% of the aggregate gross proceeds from each sale of our common stock. Because there is no minimum offering amount required as a condition to close this offering, the actual total public offering amount, commissions and proceeds to us, if any, are not determinable at this time. We have also agreed to reimburse the Agents for certain expenses incurred in connection with the offering of our common stock pursuant to the Sales Agreement, up to a maximum of $50,000. We estimate that the total expenses for the offering, excluding compensation and reimbursements payable to the Agents under the terms of the Sales Agreement, will be approximately $220,000.

Settlement for sales of common stock will occur on the second business day, or such earlier day as is industry practice for regular-way trading, following the date on which any sales are made, or on some other date that is agreed upon by us and the Agents in connection with a particular transaction, in return for payment of the net proceeds to us. Sales of our common stock as contemplated in this prospectus will be settled through the facilities of The Depository Trust Company or by such other means as we and the Agents may agree upon. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in an escrow, trust or similar arrangement.

Subject to the terms and conditions of the Sales Agreement, the Agents will use their commercially reasonable efforts consistent with their normal trading and sales practices to sell on our behalf any shares to be offered by us under the Sales Agreement. In connection with the sale of the common stock on our behalf, each of the Agents will be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act and the compensation of the Agents will be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts. We have agreed to provide indemnification and contribution to the Agents against certain civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act.

The offering of our common stock pursuant to the Sales Agreement will terminate upon the earlier of (i) the sale of all of our common stock subject to the Sales Agreement, or (ii) the termination of the Sales Agreement as permitted therein. We and the Agents may each terminate the Sales Agreement at any time upon written notice.

The Agents and their affiliates have in the past and may in the future provide various investment banking, commercial banking and other financial services for us and our affiliates, for which services they may in the future receive customary fees. To the extent required by Regulation M, the Agents will not engage in any market making activities involving our common stock while the offering is ongoing under this prospectus.

LEGAL MATTERS

The validity of the issuance of the common stock offered by this prospectus will be passed upon for us by Paul Hastings LLP, Palo Alto, California. Duane Morris LLP, New York, New York, is acting as counsel for the Agents in connection with this offering.

EXPERTS

Marcum LLP, our independent, registered public accounting firm, has audited our financial statements included in our annual report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020, which is incorporated by reference into this

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prospectus and elsewhere in the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. Our financial statements are incorporated by reference in reliance on Marcum LLP’s report, given on their authority as experts in accounting and auditing.


S-15

 


 

 

INFORMATION INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE; WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

The SEC allows us to incorporate by reference the information and reports we file with it, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to these documents. The information incorporated by reference is an important part of this prospectus. We are incorporating by reference the documents listed below, which we have already filed with the SEC:

 

 

The information specifically incorporated by reference into our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020 from our Definitive Proxy Statement on Schedule 14A, filed with the SEC on April 8, 2021;

 

Our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2021, filed with the SEC on April 28, 2021;

 

 

Our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended June 30, 2021, filed with the SEC on July 28, 2021;

 

 

Our Current Reports on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on (i) January 6, 2021, and (ii) May 21, 2021; and

 

 

The description of our common stock set forth in our Registration Statement on Form 8-A (File No. 001-37355), filed with the SEC on April 23, 2015, including any amendments or reports filed for the purpose of updating such description.

All documents we file pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act on or after the date of this prospectus and before the later of (1) the completion of the offering of the securities described in this prospectus, and (2) if applicable, the date the Agents stop offering securities pursuant to this prospectus will also be incorporated by reference in this prospectus from the date of filing of such documents. Upon request, we will provide to each person, including any beneficial owner, to whom a prospectus is delivered a copy of any or all of the information that has been incorporated by reference in this prospectus but not delivered with this prospectus.

Notwithstanding the preceding, unless specifically stated to the contrary, none of the information that we disclose under Items 2.02 or 7.01 or, if related to Items 2.02 or 7.01, Item 9.01 of any Current Report on Form 8-K that we may, from time to time, furnish to the SEC will be incorporated by reference into, or otherwise included in, this prospectus. The information contained in each of the documents incorporated by reference speaks only as of the date of such document. Any statement contained in a document incorporated by reference or deemed to be incorporated by reference herein, or contained in this prospectus, shall be deemed to be modified or superseded for purposes of this prospectus to the extent that a statement contained herein or in any subsequently filed document or report that also is incorporated by reference or is deemed to be incorporated by reference herein modifies or supersedes such statement. Any such statement so modified or superseded shall not be deemed, except as so modified or superseded, to constitute a part of this prospectus.

We file annual, quarterly and other reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. Our SEC filings are available to the public over the Internet at the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov. These filings will be available as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to, the SEC.

We have filed with the SEC a registration statement under the Securities Act relating to the offering of these securities. The registration statement, including the attached exhibits, contains additional relevant information about us and the securities. This prospectus does not contain all of the information set forth in the registration statement. You can obtain a copy of the registration statement from the SEC at the address listed above. The registration statement and the documents referred to above are also available on our corporate website at www.vikingtherapeutics.com.

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Unless specifically listed above, the information contained on the SEC website or our website is not incorporated by reference into this prospectus and you should not consider that information a part of this prospectus.  You may obtain a copy of any of these documents at no cost, by writing or telephoning us at the following address:

 

Viking Therapeutics, Inc.

12340 El Camino Real, Suite 250

San Diego, California 92130

Telephone: (858) 704-4660

This prospectus may contain information that updates, modifies or is contrary to information in one or more of the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus. You should rely only on the information incorporated by reference or provided in this prospectus. We have not authorized anyone else to provide you with different information. You should not assume that the information in this prospectus is accurate as of any date other than the date of this prospectus or the date of the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus.

 

 

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Up to $125,000,000

  

 
 

Common Stock

 

Stifel

Truist Securities

H.C. Wainwright & Co.

 

 

 

 

, 2021

  
 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

PART II

INFORMATION NOT REQUIRED IN PROSPECTUS

Item 14. Other Expenses of Issuance and Distribution

The following is an estimate of the fees and expenses, other than underwriting discounts or commissions, payable by the Registrant in connection with the issuance and distribution of the securities being registered. All the amounts shown are estimates except for the registration fee. All of the expenses below will be paid by the Registrant.

SEC registration fee

 

$

65,460

 

FINRA filing fee

 

$

(1)

 

Transfer agent’s fees and expenses

 

$

(1)

 

Legal fees and expenses

 

$

(1)

 

Accounting fees and expenses

 

$

(1)

 

Trustee fees and expenses

 

$

(1)

 

Printing fees and expenses

 

$

(1)

 

Miscellaneous fees and expenses

 

$

(1)

 

Total

 

$

(1)

 

 

__________________

(1) These fees are calculated based on the securities offered and the number of issuances and accordingly cannot be estimated at this time.

 

Item 15. Indemnification of Directors and Officers

Section 145 of the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware, or the DGCL, authorizes a corporation’s board of directors to grant, and authorizes a court to award, indemnity to officers, directors and other corporate agents.

The Registrant’s amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws contain provisions that limit the liability of the Registrant’s directors for monetary damages to the fullest extent permitted by Delaware law. Consequently, the Registrant’s directors are not personally liable to the Registrant or the Registrant’s stockholders for monetary damages for any breach of fiduciary duties as directors, except liability for the following:

 

 

any breach of their duty of loyalty to the Registrant or the Registrant’s stockholders;

 

 

 

any act or omission not in good faith or that involves intentional misconduct or a knowing violation of law;

 

 

 

unlawful payments of dividends or unlawful stock repurchases or redemptions as provided in Section 174 of the DGCL; or

 

 

 

any transaction from which they derived an improper personal benefit.

Any amendment to, or repeal of, these provisions will not eliminate or reduce the effect of these provisions in respect of any act, omission or claim that occurred or arose prior to that amendment or repeal. If the DGCL is amended to provide for further limitations on the personal liability of directors of corporations, then the personal liability of the Registrant’s directors will be further limited to the greatest extent permitted by the DGCL.

The Registrant’s amended and restated certificate of incorporation provides that the Registrant will, under certain circumstances, indemnify any director, officer, employee or agent of the Registrant, subject to any provisions contained in the Registrant’s amended and restated bylaws. The Registrant’s amended and restated bylaws provide that the Registrant will indemnify, to the fullest extent permitted by law, each person who was or is made a party or is threatened to be made a party to, or is otherwise involved in, any action, suit or proceeding, whether civil, criminal, administrative or investigative, by reason of the fact that he or she, or a person for whom he or she is the legal representative, is or was a director or officer of the Registrant, or is or was serving at the request of the Registrant, as a director, officer, employee or agent of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise, against all expense, liability and loss (including, among other things, attorney’s fees and amounts paid in settlement) reasonably incurred or suffered by such director, officer, employee or agent in connection therewith, subject to certain conditions. The Registrant’s amended and restated bylaws also provide the Registrant with the power to, to the extent authorized by the Registrant’s board of directors, grant rights to indemnification and to advancement of expenses to any employee or agent of the Registrant to the fullest extent indemnification may be granted to the Registrant’s directors and officers. In addition, the Registrant’s amended and restated bylaws provide that the Registrant

II-1

 


 

must advance expenses incurred by or on behalf of a director or officer in advance of the final disposition of any action or proceeding, subject to certain exceptions.

The Registrant has indemnification agreements with each of its directors and executive officers that may be broader than the specific indemnification provisions contained in the DGCL. These indemnification agreements require the Registrant, among other things, to indemnify its directors and executive officers against liabilities that may arise by reason of their status or service. These indemnification agreements also require the Registrant to advance all expenses incurred by the directors and executive officers in investigating or defending any such action, suit or proceeding, subject to certain exceptions. The Registrant believes that these agreements are necessary to attract and retain qualified individuals to serve as directors and executive officers.

The limitation of liability and indemnification provisions that are included in the Registrant’s amended and restated certificate of incorporation, amended and restated bylaws and indemnification agreements with its directors and executive officers may discourage stockholders from bringing a lawsuit against the Registrant’s directors and executive officers for breach of their fiduciary duties. They may also reduce the likelihood of derivative litigation against the Registrant’s directors and executive officers even though an action, if successful, might benefit the Registrant and other stockholders. Further, a stockholder’s investment may be adversely affected to the extent that the Registrant pays the costs of settlement and damage awards against directors and executive officers as required by these indemnification provisions. At present, the Registrant is not aware of any pending litigation or proceeding involving any person who is or was one of its directors, officers, employees or other agents or is or was serving at its request as a director, officer, employee or agent of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise, for which indemnification is sought, and the Registrant is not aware of any threatened litigation that may result in claims for indemnification.

The Registrant’s amended and restated bylaws provide that the Registrant may purchase and maintain insurance, at its expense, to protect itself and any person who is or was a director, officer, employee or agent of the Registrant or is or was serving at its request as a director, officer, employee or agent of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise against any expense, liability or loss, whether or not the Registrant would have the power to indemnify such person against such expense, liability or loss under the DGCL. The Registrant maintains insurance under which, subject to the limitations of the insurance policies, coverage is provided to the Registrant’s directors and executive officers against loss arising from claims made by reason of breach of fiduciary duty or other wrongful acts as a director or executive officer, including claims relating to public securities matters, and to the Registrant with respect to payments that may be made by the Registrant to these directors and executive officers pursuant to the Registrant’s indemnification obligations or otherwise as a matter of law.

Item 16. Exhibits

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Exhibit

Number    

 

Description

 

 

  

Registrant’s
Form

  

Date Filed with the
SEC

  

Exhibit
Number

  1.1†

 

Form of Underwriting Agreement.

 

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1.2*

 

At-The-Market Equity Offering Sales Agreement, dated as of July 28, 2021, by and among Viking Therapeutics, Inc., Stifel, Nicolaus & Company, Incorporated, Truist Securities, Inc. and H.C. Wainwright & Co., LLC

 

 

  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  3.1

 

Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation.

 

 

  

S-1

  

7/1/2014

  

3.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

  3.2

 

Amended and Restated Bylaws.

 

 

  

S-1

  

7/1/2014

  

3.4

 

 

 

 

 

 

  4.1

 

Form of Common Stock Certificate.

 

 

  

S-1

  

7/1/2014

  

4.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

  4.2

 

Form of Common Stock Warrant issued by Viking Therapeutics, Inc. to purchasers in the July 2017 offering.

 

 

 

8-K

  

6/19/2017

  

4.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  4.3

 

Registration Rights Agreement, dated May 21, 2014, by and among Viking Therapeutics, Inc., Metabasis Therapeutics, Inc. and Ligand Pharmaceuticals Incorporated.

 

 

 

S-1

 

7/1/2014

  

10.16

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  4.4

 

First Amendment to Registration Rights Agreement, dated January 22, 2016, by and between Viking Therapeutics, Inc. and Ligand Pharmaceuticals Incorporated.

 

 

  

8-K

 

1/25/2016

  

10.2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  4.5

 

Registration Rights Agreement, dated as of September 28, 2017, by and between the Company and Lincoln Park Capital Fund, LLC.

 

 

 

8-K

 

9/29/2017

 

10.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  4.6*

 

Form of Indenture, between the Registrant and one or more trustees to be named.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  4.7†

 

Form of Common Stock Warrant Agreement and Warrant Certificate.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  4.8†

 

Form of Preferred Stock Warrant Agreement and Warrant Certificate.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  4.9†

 

Form of Debt Securities Warrant Agreement and Warrant Certificate.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  4.10†

 

Form of Debt Securities.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  4.11†

 

Form of Unit Agreement.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  4.12†

 

Specimen Preferred Stock Certificate and Form of Certificate of Designation of Preferred Stock.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  5.1*

 

Opinion of Paul Hastings LLP.

 

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  23.1*

 

Consent of Marcum LLP, Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  23.2*

 

Consent of Paul Hastings LLP (included in Exhibit 5.1).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  24.1*

 

Power of Attorney (included on the signature page to this Registration Statement).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  25.1+

 

Statement of Eligibility of Trustee under the Indenture.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

To be filed by amendment or as an exhibit to a Current Report on Form 8-K and incorporated herein by reference, if applicable.

*

Filed herewith.

+

To be filed separately under the electronic form type 305B2, if applicable.

 

Item 17. Undertakings

The undersigned Registrant hereby undertakes:

(1) To file, during any period in which offers or sales are being made, a post-effective amendment to this registration statement:

(i) To include any prospectus required by section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act of 1933;

(ii) To reflect in the prospectus any facts or events arising after the effective date of the registration statement (or the most recent post-effective amendment thereof) which, individually or in the aggregate, represent a fundamental change in the information set forth in the registration statement. Notwithstanding the foregoing, any increase or decrease in volume of securities offered (if the total dollar value of securities offered would not exceed that which was registered) and any deviation from the low or high end of the estimated maximum offering range may be reflected in the form of prospectus filed with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) if, in the aggregate, the changes in volume and price represent no more than a 20 percent change in the maximum aggregate offering price set forth in the “Calculation of Registration Fee” table in the effective registration statement.

(iii) To include any material information with respect to the plan of distribution not previously disclosed in the registration statement or any material change to such information in the registration statement;

Provided, however, that:

Paragraphs (1)(i), (1)(ii) and (1)(iii) of this section do not apply if the information required to be included in a post-effective amendment by those paragraphs is contained in reports filed with or furnished to the Commission by the registrant pursuant to section 13 or section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 that are incorporated by reference in the registration statement, or is contained in a form of prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) that is part of the registration statement.

(2) That, for the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each such post-effective amendment shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

(3) To remove from registration by means of a post-effective amendment any of the securities being registered which remain unsold at the termination of the offering.

(4) That, for the purpose of determining liability under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser:

(i) Each prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3) shall be deemed to be part of the registration statement as of the date the filed prospectus was deemed part of and included in the registration statement; and

(ii) Each prospectus required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(2), (b)(5), or (b)(7) as part of a registration statement in reliance on Rule 430B relating to an offering made pursuant to Rule 415(a)(1)(i), (vii), or (x) for the purpose of providing the information required by section 10(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 shall be deemed to be part of and included in the registration statement as of the earlier of the date such form of prospectus is first used after effectiveness or the date of the first contract of sale of securities in the offering described in the prospectus. As provided in Rule 430B, for liability purposes of the issuer and any person that is at that date an underwriter, such date shall be deemed to be a new effective date of the registration statement relating to the securities in the registration

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statement to which that prospectus relates, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof. Provided, however, that no statement made in a registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement or made in a document incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference into the registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement will, as to a purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such effective date, supersede or modify any statement that was made in the registration statement or prospectus that was part of the registration statement or made in any such document immediately prior to such effective date.

(5) That, for the purpose of determining liability of the registrant under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser in the initial distribution of the securities, the undersigned registrant undertakes that in a primary offering of securities of the undersigned registrant pursuant to this registration statement, regardless of the underwriting method used to sell the securities to the purchaser, if the securities are offered or sold to such purchaser by means of any of the following communications, the undersigned registrant will be a seller to the purchaser and will be considered to offer or sell such securities to such purchaser:

(i) Any preliminary prospectus or prospectus of the undersigned registrant relating to the offering required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424;

(ii) Any free writing prospectus relating to the offering prepared by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant or used or referred to by the undersigned registrant;

(iii) The portion of any other free writing prospectus relating to the offering containing material information about the undersigned registrant or its securities provided by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant; and

(iv) Any other communication that is an offer in the offering made by the undersigned registrant to the purchaser.

(6) That, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each filing of the registrant’s annual report pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (and, where applicable, each filing of an employee benefit plan’s annual report pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934) that is incorporated by reference in the registration statement shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

(7) That, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933:

(i) the information omitted from the form of prospectus filed as part of this registration statement in reliance upon Rule 430A and contained in a form of prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(l) or (4) or 497(h) under the Securities Act of 1933 shall be deemed to be a part of this registration statement as of the time it was declared effective; and

(ii) each post-effective amendment that contains a form of prospectus shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

(8) To file an application for the purpose of determining the eligibility of the trustee to act under subsection (a) of Section 310 of the Trust Indenture Act in accordance with the rules and regulations prescribed by the Commission under Section 305(b)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act.

Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act of 1933 may be permitted to directors, officers and controlling persons of the registrant pursuant to the foregoing provisions, or otherwise, the registrant has been advised that in the opinion of the Securities and Exchange Commission such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act of 1933 and is, therefore, unenforceable. In the event that a claim for indemnification against such liabilities (other than the payment by the registrant of expenses incurred or paid by a director, officer or controlling person of the registrant in the successful defense of any action, suit or proceeding) is asserted by such director, officer or controlling person in connection with the securities being registered, the registrant will, unless in the opinion of its counsel the matter has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question whether such indemnification by it is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act of 1933 and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue.

 

 

 

II-4

 


 

 

SIGNATURES

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, the Registrant certifies that it has reasonable grounds to believe that it meets all of the requirements for filing on Form S-3 and has duly caused this Registration Statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, in the City of San Diego, State of California, on July 28, 2021.

 

 

VIKING THERAPEUTICS, INC.

 

 

 

 

 

 

By:

/s/ Brian Lian, Ph.D.

 

 

 

 Brian Lian, Ph.D.

 President and Chief Executive Officer

 

 

POWER OF ATTORNEY

Know All Persons By These Presents, that each person whose signature appears below constitutes and appoints Brian Lian, Ph.D. and Greg Zante, and each or any one of them, his or her true and lawful attorney-in-fact and agent, with full power of substitution and resubstitution, for him or her and in his or her name, place and stead, in any and all capacities, to sign any and all amendments (including post-effective amendments) to this Registration Statement, and to file the same, with all exhibits thereto, and other documents in connection therewith, with the Securities and Exchange Commission, granting unto said attorneys-in-fact and agents, and each of them, full power and authority to do and perform each and every act and thing requisite and necessary to be done in connection therewith, as fully to all intents and purposes as he or she might or could do in person, hereby ratifying and confirming all that said attorneys-in-fact and agents, or any of them, or their or his or her substitutes or substitute, may lawfully do or cause to be done by virtue hereof.

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, this Registration Statement has been signed by the following persons in the capacities and on the dates indicated.

Signature

 

Title

 

Date

 

 

 

 

 

/s/ Brian Lian, Ph.D.

 

President, Chief Executive Officer, and Director

 

July 28, 2021

Brian Lian, Ph.D.

 

(Principal Executive Officer)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

/s/ Greg Zante

 

Chief Financial Officer

 

July 28, 2021

Greg Zante

 

(Principal Financial and Accounting Officer)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

/s/ Lawson Macartney, DVM, Ph.D.

 

Director

 

July 28, 2021

Lawson Macartney, DVM, Ph.D.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

/s/ Matthew W. Foehr

 

Director

 

July 28, 2021

Matthew W. Foehr

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

/s/ Charles A. Rowland, Jr.

 

Director

 

July 28, 2021

Charles A. Rowland, Jr.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

/s/ J. Matthew Singleton

 

Director

 

July 28, 2021

J. Matthew Singleton

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

/s/ S. Kathy Rouan, Ph.D.

 

Director

 

July 28, 2021

S. Kathy Rouan, Ph.D.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

II-5

 

 

Exhibit 1.2

Execution Version

 

VIKING THERAPEUTICS, INC.

 

Common Stock
($0.00001 par value per share)

 

AT-THE-MARKET EQUITY OFFERING SALES AGREEMENT

 

 

July 28, 2021

 

STIFEL, NICOLAUS & COMPANY, INCORPORATED

One South Street, 15th Floor

Baltimore, Maryland 21202

 

TRUIST SECURITIES, INC.

3333 Peachtree Road NE, 11th Floor

Atlanta, Georgia 30326

 

H.C. WAINWRIGHT & CO., LLC

430 Park Avenue

New York, NY 10022

 

Ladies and Gentlemen:

 

Viking Therapeutics, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), proposes, subject to the terms and conditions stated herein, to issue and sell from time to time to or through Stifel, Nicolaus & Company, Incorporated (“Stifel”), Truist Securities, Inc. (“Truist”) and H.C. Wainwright & Co., LLC (“HCW”; each an “Agent” and together the “Agents”) as sales agent and/or principal, shares (the “Shares”) of the Company’s common stock, $0.00001 par value per share (the “Common Stock”), having an aggregate offering price of up to $125,000,000 on the terms set forth in Section 2 of this At-The-Market Equity Offering Sales Agreement (the “Agreement”).  The Company agrees that whenever it determines to sell Shares directly to an Agent as principal, it will enter into a separate agreement with such Agent (each, a “Terms Agreement”) in substantially the form of Annex I hereto, relating to such sale in accordance with Section 3 of this Agreement.

 

Section 1.  Representations and Warranties.  The Company represents and warrants to the Agents that, unless such representation or warranty specifies otherwise, as of the date of this Agreement, any applicable Registration Statement Amendment Date (as defined in Section 3 below), each Company Periodic Report Date (as defined in Section 3 below), each Applicable Time (as defined in Section 1(c) below) and each Settlement Date (as defined in Section 2 below):

 

(a)Compliance with Registration Requirements.  The Company has filed or shall file with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “Commission”) a registration statement under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “1933 Act”), on Form S-3, in respect of the Company’s Common Stock (including the Shares) (collectively, the “Securities”) not declared effective by the Commission earlier than three years prior to the date hereof; such registration statement, and any post-effective amendment thereto, has or will become effective prior to the sale of Shares; and no stop order suspending the effectiveness of such registration statement or any part thereof has been issued and no proceeding for that purpose has been initiated or, to the knowledge of the Company, threatened by the Commission; the base prospectus filed as part of such registration statement, in the form in which it has most recently been filed with the Commission on or prior to the date of this Agreement, is hereinafter called the “Basic Prospectus”; the various parts of such registration statement, including all exhibits thereto and any prospectus supplement relating to the Shares that is filed with the Commission and deemed by virtue of Rule 430B to be part of such registration statement, each as amended at the time such part of the registration statement became effective, are hereinafter collectively called the “Registration Statement”; the prospectus or prospectus supplement

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specifically relating to the Shares prepared and filed with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) under the 1933 Act is hereinafter called the “ATM Prospectus”; the Basic Prospectus, as may be amended or supplemented by the ATM Prospectus, is hereinafter called the “Prospectus”; any reference herein to the Basic Prospectus, the ATM Prospectus or the Prospectus shall be deemed to refer to and include the documents incorporated by reference therein pursuant to Item 12 of Form S-3 under the 1933 Act; any reference to any amendment or supplement to the Basic Prospectus, the ATM Prospectus or the Prospectus shall be deemed to refer to and include any post-effective amendment to the Registration Statement, any prospectus supplement relating to the Shares filed with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) under the 1933 Act and any documents filed under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “1934 Act”), and the rules and regulations of the Commission thereunder (the “1934 Act Regulations”), and incorporated therein, in each case after the date of the Basic Prospectus, the ATM Prospectus or the Prospectus, as the case may be; any reference to any amendment to the Registration Statement shall be deemed to refer to and include any annual report of the Company filed pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the 1934 Act after the effective date of the Registration Statement that is incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement; and any “issuer free writing prospectus” as defined in Rule 433 under the 1933 Act relating to the Shares is hereinafter called an “Issuer Free Writing Prospectus”.

 

No order preventing or suspending the use of the Basic Prospectus, the ATM Prospectus, the Prospectus or any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus has been issued by the Commission, and the Basic Prospectus and the ATM Prospectus, at the time of filing thereof, conformed in all material respects to the requirements of the 1933 Act and the rules and regulations of the Commission thereunder (the “1933 Act Regulations”) and did not contain an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading.

 

For the purposes of this Agreement, the “Applicable Time” means, with respect to any Shares, the time of sale of such Shares pursuant to this Agreement; the Prospectus and the applicable Issuer Free Writing Prospectus(es) issued at or prior to such Applicable Time, taken together (collectively, and, with respect to any Shares, together with the public offering price of such Shares, the “General Disclosure Package”) as of each Applicable Time and each Settlement Date, will not include any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state any material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading; and each applicable Issuer Free Writing Prospectus will not conflict with the information contained in the Registration Statement, the ATM Prospectus or the Prospectus and each such Issuer Free Writing Prospectus, as supplemented by and taken together with the General Disclosure Package as of such Applicable Time, will not include any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state any material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading.  

 

(b)Incorporation of Documents by Reference.  The documents incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, when they became effective or were filed with the Commission, as the case may be, complied in all material respects with the requirements of the 1934 Act and the 1934 Act Regulations, and, when read together with the other information in the Prospectus, (i) at the time the Registration Statement became effective, (ii) at the time the Prospectus was issued and (iii) on the date of this Agreement, did not contain an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading.

 

(c)Independent Accountants.  The accountants who certified the financial statements and supporting schedules included in the Registration Statement are independent public accountants as required by the 1933 Act and the 1933 Act Regulations.

 

(d)Financial Statements.  The financial statements included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement, the General Disclosure Package and the Prospectus, together with the related schedules and notes, present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company and its consolidated Subsidiaries (as defined below), if any, at the dates indicated and the statement of operations, stockholders’ equity and cash flows of the Company and its consolidated Subsidiaries for the periods specified; said financial statements have been prepared in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States (“GAAP”) applied on a consistent basis throughout the periods involved, except as may be set forth in the notes included or incorporated by reference and except that unaudited financial statements may not contain footnotes required by GAAP.  The

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supporting schedules, if any, present fairly, in all material respects, in accordance with GAAP the information required to be stated therein.  The selected financial data and the summary financial information (if any) included in the Prospectus present fairly, in all material respects, the information shown therein and have been compiled on a basis consistent with that of the audited financial statements included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement.  Except as included therein, no historical or pro forma financial statements or supporting schedules are required to be included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement, the General Disclosure Package or the Prospectus under the 1933 Act or the 1933 Act Regulations.  All disclosures contained in the Registration Statement, the General Disclosure Package or the Prospectus, or incorporated by reference therein, regarding “non-GAAP financial measures” (as such term is defined by the rules and regulations of the Commission) comply in all material respects with Regulation G of the 1934 Act and Item 10 of Regulation S-K of the 1933 Act, to the extent applicable.

 

(e)No Material Adverse Change in Business.  Since the respective dates as of which information is given in the Registration Statement, the General Disclosure Package or the Prospectus, except as otherwise stated therein, (i) there has been no material adverse change, or any development that could reasonably be expected to result in a material adverse change, in the condition, financial or otherwise, or in the earnings, business affairs or business prospects of the Company and its Subsidiaries considered as one enterprise, whether or not arising in the ordinary course of business (a “Material Adverse Effect”), (ii) there have been no transactions entered into by the Company or any of its Subsidiaries, other than those in the ordinary course of business, which are material with respect to the Company and its Subsidiaries considered as one enterprise, and (iii) there has been no dividend or distribution of any kind declared, paid or made by the Company on any class of its capital stock.

 

(f)Good Standing of the Company.  The Company has been duly organized and is validly existing as a corporation in good standing under the laws of the jurisdiction of its organization and has corporate power and authority to own, lease and operate its properties and to conduct its business as described in the Prospectus and to enter into and perform its obligations under this Agreement; and the Company is duly qualified as a foreign corporation to transact business and is in good standing in each other jurisdiction in which such qualification is required, whether by reason of the ownership or leasing of property or the conduct of business, except where the failure so to qualify or to be in good standing would not result in a Material Adverse Effect.

 

(g)Good Standing of Subsidiaries.  Each subsidiary listed in Exhibit 21.1 to the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the most recently ended fiscal year (each a “Subsidiary” and, collectively, the “Subsidiaries”), if any, has been duly organized and is validly existing as a business entity and, if applicable, is in good standing under the laws of the jurisdiction in which it is organized, has requisite power and authority to own, lease and operate its properties and to conduct its business as described in the Prospectus and is duly qualified as a foreign entity to transact business and is in good standing in each jurisdiction in which such qualification is required, whether by reason of the ownership or leasing of property or the conduct of business, except where the failure so to qualify or to be in good standing would not result in a Material Adverse Effect; except as otherwise disclosed in the Registration Statement, all of the issued and outstanding equity interests of each such Subsidiary have been duly authorized and validly issued, is fully paid and non‑assessable and is owned by the Company, directly or through subsidiaries, free and clear of any security interest, mortgage, pledge, lien, encumbrance, claim or equity; none of the outstanding equity interests of any Subsidiary was issued in violation of the preemptive or similar rights of any securityholder of such Subsidiary.  As of the date hereof, the Company does not have any direct or indirect subsidiaries.

 

(h)Capitalization.  The shares of issued and outstanding Common Stock have been duly authorized and validly issued and are fully paid and non-assessable; none of the outstanding shares of capital stock was issued in violation of the preemptive or other similar rights of any securityholder of the Company.  The Company’s Common Stock has been registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the 1934 Act and is listed on the Nasdaq Capital Market (“Nasdaq”), and the Company has not taken any action to terminate the registration or listing of the Common Stock from Nasdaq, nor has the Company received any notification that the Commission or Nasdaq is contemplating terminating such registration or listing.

 

(i)Authorization of Agreements.  This Agreement has been and any applicable Terms Agreement shall be duly authorized by the Company.  This Agreement has been, and any applicable Terms Agreement will be, executed and delivered by the Company.

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(j)Authorization and Description of Securities.  The Shares have been duly authorized and reserved for issuance and sale pursuant to this Agreement and, when issued and delivered by the Company pursuant to this Agreement or any applicable Terms Agreement against payment of the consideration set forth herein (or therein), will be validly issued and fully paid and non‑assessable; the Common Stock conforms in all material respects to all statements relating thereto contained in the Prospectus and such description conforms to the rights set forth in the instruments defining the same; and the issuance of the Shares is not subject to the preemptive or other similar rights of any securityholder of the Company.

 

(k)Absence of Defaults and Conflicts.  (i) Neither the Company nor any of its Subsidiaries is in violation of its charter or by-laws or in default in the performance or observance of any obligation, agreement, covenant or condition contained in any contract, indenture, mortgage, deed of trust, loan or credit agreement, note, lease or other agreement or instrument to which the Company or any of its Subsidiaries is a party or by which it or any of them may be bound, or to which any of the property or assets of the Company is subject (collectively, “Agreements and Instruments”) except for such violations and defaults as would not have a Material Adverse Effect; and (ii)(A) the execution, delivery and performance of this Agreement or of any applicable Terms Agreement and the consummation of the transactions contemplated herein or in any applicable Terms Agreement and in the Registration Statement (including the issuance and sale of the Shares and the use of the proceeds from the sale of the Shares as described in the Prospectus under the caption “Use of Proceeds”) and compliance by the Company with its obligations hereunder have been duly authorized by all necessary corporate action and do not and will not, whether with or without the giving of notice or passage of time or both, conflict with or constitute a breach of, or default or Repayment Event (as defined below) under, or result in the creation or imposition of any lien, charge or encumbrance upon any property or assets of the Company or any Subsidiary pursuant to, the Agreements and Instruments, (B) nor will such action result in any violation of the provisions of the charter or by‑laws of the Company or any Subsidiary, and (C) nor will such action result in any violation of any applicable law, statute, rule, regulation, judgment, order, writ or decree of any government, government instrumentality or court, domestic or foreign, having jurisdiction over the Company or any Subsidiary or any of their assets, properties or operations (each, a “Governmental Entity”), except in the case of clauses (ii)(A) and (ii)(C), such violation or default as would not reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect.  As used herein, a “Repayment Event” means any event or condition which gives the holder of any note, debenture or other evidence of indebtedness (or any person acting on such holder’s behalf) the right to require the repurchase, redemption or repayment of all or a portion of such indebtedness by the Company or any Subsidiary.

 

(l)Absence of Labor Dispute.  No labor dispute with the employees of the Company or any Subsidiary which would reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect exists or, to the knowledge of the Company, is imminent, and the Company is not aware of any existing or imminent labor disturbance by the employees of any of its or any Subsidiary’s principal suppliers, manufacturers, customers or contractors which would reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect.

(m)Absence of Proceedings.  There is no action, suit, proceeding, inquiry or investigation before or brought by any Governmental Entity, now pending, or, to the knowledge of the Company, threatened, against or affecting the Company or any Subsidiary, which is required to be disclosed in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus (other than as disclosed therein), or which would reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect, or materially and adversely affect the properties or assets thereof or the consummation of the transactions contemplated in this Agreement or any applicable Terms Agreement or the performance by the Company of its obligations hereunder or thereunder; the aggregate of all pending legal or governmental proceedings to which the Company or any Subsidiary is a party or of which any of their respective property or assets is the subject which are not described in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, including ordinary routine litigation incidental to the business, would not reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect.

 

(n)Accuracy of Exhibits.  There are no contracts or documents which are required to be described in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus or the documents incorporated by reference therein or to be filed as exhibits thereto which have not been so described and filed as required.

 

(o)Possession of Intellectual Property.  Except as would not reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect, the Company and its Subsidiaries own or possess, or can acquire on reasonable terms,

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adequate patents, patent rights, licenses, inventions, copyrights, know‑how (including trade secrets and other unpatented and/or unpatentable proprietary or confidential information, systems or procedures), trademarks, service marks, trade names or other intellectual property (collectively, “Intellectual Property”) necessary to carry on the business now operated by them, and neither the Company nor any of its Subsidiaries has received any written notice or is otherwise aware of any infringement of or conflict with asserted rights of others with respect to any Intellectual Property or of any facts or circumstances which would render any Intellectual Property invalid or inadequate to protect the interest of the Company or any of its Subsidiaries therein.

 

(p)Compliance with Health Care Laws. Except as described in the Prospectus, the Company: (i) is and for the past three (3) years has been in compliance with applicable Health Care Laws, except for such noncompliance as would not, singly or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect; (ii) has not received any unresolved FDA Form 483, notice of adverse finding, warning letter, untitled letter or other written correspondence or notice from any Governmental Entity alleging or asserting noncompliance with any Health Care Laws which has not been remedied by the Company, except for such noncompliance as would not, singly or in the aggregate, be reasonably expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect; (iii) possesses all licenses, certificates, approvals, clearances, authorizations, registrations, permits (and supplements or amendments thereto) required by any Health Care Laws (“Authorizations”), such Authorizations are valid and in full force and effect, and the Company is not in violation of any term of any such Authorizations, except for such failure, invalidity or violation as would not reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect; (iv) has not received written notice of any claim, action, suit, proceeding, hearing, enforcement, investigation, arbitration or other action from any Governmental Entity or third party alleging that any product, operation or activity is in violation of any Health Care Laws or Authorizations, and does not have knowledge that any such Governmental Entity or third party is considering any such claim, litigation, arbitration, action, suit, investigation or proceeding, except for such violations as would not reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect; (v) has not received written notice that any Governmental Entity has taken, is taking or intends to take action to limit, suspend, modify or revoke any Authorizations and the Company has no knowledge that any such Governmental Entity is considering such action, except for such limitations, suspensions, modifications or revocations as would not reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect; and (vi) has filed, obtained, maintained or submitted all reports, documents, forms, notices, applications, records, claims, submissions (and supplements or amendments thereto) as required by any Health Care Laws or Authorizations, and all such reports, documents, forms, notices, applications, records, claims, submissions (and supplements or amendments thereto) were complete and correct in all material respects on the date filed (or were corrected or supplemented by a subsequent submission), except where the failure to file, obtain, maintain or submit such documents would not reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect.

 

As used herein, “Health Care Laws” means: (i) the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act and the regulations promulgated thereunder; (ii) all applicable federal, state, local and all applicable foreign health care related fraud and abuse law, including the U.S. Anti-Kickback Statute (42 U.S.C. Section 1320a-7b(b)), the Physician Self-Referral Law (commonly known as the Stark law) (42 U.S.C. Section 1395nn), the civil False Claims Act (31 U.S.C. Section 3729 et seq.), the administrative False Claims Law (42 U.S.C. Section 1320a-7b(a)), the Civil Monetary Penalties Law (42 U.S.C. Section 1320a-7a), the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (42 U.S.C. Section 1320d et seq.), as amended by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act of 2009 (collectively, “HIPAA”), the exclusion laws (42 U.S.C. Section 1320a-7), and the Physician Payments Sunshine Act (42 U.S.C. Section 1320a-7h); (iii) all criminal laws relating to health care fraud and abuse, including 18 U.S.C. Sections 286 and 287, and the health care fraud criminal provisions under HIPAA, Medicare (Title XVIII of the Social Security Act), and Medicaid (Title XIX of the Social Security Act); and (iv) the regulations promulgated pursuant to such laws, and comparable state laws.

 

(q)Clinical Studies. The studies, tests and preclinical and clinical trials conducted by or on behalf of the Company as described in the Prospectus (the “Clinical Studies”), were, and if still pending are, in all material respects, being conducted in accordance with experimental protocols, procedures and controls pursuant to accepted professional and scientific standards and all applicable Health Care Laws and Authorizations; the descriptions of the results of such studies, tests and trials contained in the Registration Statement, the General Disclosure Package and the Prospectus are accurate and complete in all material respects and fairly present the data derived from such studies, tests and trials; except to the extent disclosed in the Registration Statement, the General Disclosure Package and the Prospectus, the Company has no knowledge of any studies, tests or trials the results of which the Company believes reasonably call into question the study, test, or trial results described or referred to in the Registration

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Statement, the General Disclosure Package and the Prospectus when viewed in the context in which such results are described and the clinical state of development; and the Company has not received any written notices or correspondence from any Governmental Entity requiring the termination, suspension or material modification of any Clinical Studies, except where any such termination, suspension or modification would not reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect.

 

(r)Manufacturing Practices. All manufacturing operations performed by or on behalf of the Company are being conducted in compliance with the Quality System regulation of the FDA and, to the extent applicable, counterpart regulations in the European Union and all other countries where compliance is required, except to the extent that the failure to be in compliance would not reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect. The Company and its subsidiaries are in compliance with all reporting requirements under Health Care Laws, including, but not limited to, medical device reports (as defined by 21 C.F.R. Part 803), reports of corrections and removals (as defined by 21 C.F.R. Part 806), and the reporting and recordkeeping requirements under the Quality System regulation of the FDA, and counterpart regulations in other countries where compliance is required, except to the extent that the failure to be in compliance would not reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect.

 

(s)Absence of Further Requirements.  No filing with, or authorization, approval, consent, license, order, registration, qualification or decree of, any Governmental Entity is necessary or required for the performance by the Company of its obligations hereunder, in connection with the offering, issuance or sale of the Securities hereunder or the consummation of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement or any applicable Terms Agreement, except such as have been already obtained or as may be required under the 1933 Act or the 1933 Act Regulations or state securities laws or by the rules of Nasdaq.

 

(t)Absence of Manipulation.Neither the Company nor any affiliate of the Company has taken, nor will the Company take, directly or indirectly, any action which is designed to or which has constituted or which would be expected to cause or result in stabilization or manipulation of the price of any security of the Company to facilitate the sale or resale of the Shares.

(u)Possession of Licenses and Permits.  (i) The Company and its Subsidiaries possess such permits, licenses, approvals, consents and other authorizations (collectively, “Governmental Licenses”) issued by the appropriate federal, state, local or foreign regulatory agencies or bodies necessary to conduct the business now operated by them; (ii) the Company and its Subsidiaries are in compliance with the terms and conditions of all such Governmental Licenses; (iii) all of the Governmental Licenses are valid and in full force and effect; and (iv) neither the Company nor any of its Subsidiaries has received any written notice of proceedings relating to the revocation or material modification of any such Governmental Licenses, except in the case of clauses (i) through (iii), for such failures, noncompliance or invalidity as would not reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect.

 

(v)Title to Property.  The Company and its Subsidiaries have good and marketable title to all real property owned by the Company and its Subsidiaries and good title to all other properties owned by them, in each case, free and clear of all mortgages, pledges, liens, security interests, claims, restrictions or encumbrances of any kind except such as (i) are described in the Prospectus, (ii) do not, singly or in the aggregate, materially affect the value of such property and do not interfere with the use made and proposed to be made of such property by the Company or any of its Subsidiaries or (iii) would not reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect; and all of the leases and subleases material to the business of the Company and its Subsidiaries, considered as one enterprise, and under which the Company or any of its Subsidiaries holds properties described in the Prospectus, are in full force and effect, and neither the Company nor any Subsidiary has any written notice of any material claim that has been asserted by anyone adverse to the rights of the Company or any Subsidiary under any of the leases or subleases mentioned above, or affecting or questioning the rights of the Company or such Subsidiary to the continued possession of the leased or subleased premises under any such lease or sublease.

 

(w)Investment Company Act.  The Company is not required, and upon the issuance and sale of the Shares as herein contemplated and the application of the net proceeds therefrom as described in the Prospectus will not be required, to register as an “investment company” within the meaning of the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended.

 

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(x)Environmental Laws.  Except as described in the Prospectus, (i) neither the Company nor any of its Subsidiaries is in violation of any federal, state, local or foreign statute, law, rule, regulation, ordinance, code, policy or rule of common law or any judicial or administrative interpretation thereof, including any judicial or administrative order, consent, decree or judgment, relating to pollution or protection of human health, the environment (including, without limitation, ambient air, surface water, groundwater, land surface or subsurface strata) or wildlife, including, without limitation, laws and regulations relating to the release or threatened release of chemicals, pollutants, contaminants, wastes, toxic substances, hazardous substances, petroleum or petroleum products, asbestos-containing materials or mold (collectively, “Hazardous Materials”) or to the manufacture, processing, distribution, use, treatment, storage, disposal, transport or handling of Hazardous Materials (collectively, “Environmental Laws”), (ii) the Company and its Subsidiaries have all permits, authorizations and approvals required under any applicable Environmental Laws and are each in compliance with their requirements; (iii) there are no pending or, to the Company’s knowledge, threatened administrative, regulatory or judicial actions, suits, demands, demand letters, claims, liens, notices of noncompliance or violation, investigation or proceedings relating to any Environmental Law against the Company or any of its Subsidiaries, and (iv) there are no events or circumstances of which the Company is aware that would reasonably be expected to form the basis of an order for clean-up or remediation, or an action, suit or proceeding by any private party or Governmental Entity, against or affecting the Company or any of its Subsidiaries relating to Hazardous Materials or any Environmental Laws, except, in the case of any of clauses (i), (ii), (iii) or (iv) above, for any violation, failure to have permits, authorization and approvals, events or circumstances that would not reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect.

 

(y)Registration Rights.  Except as described in the Prospectus, there are no persons with registration rights or other similar rights to have any securities registered pursuant to the Registration Statement or otherwise registered by the Company under the 1933 Act.

 

(z)Accounting Controls and Disclosure Controls.  The Company and each of its Subsidiaries maintain a system of internal accounting controls sufficient to provide reasonable assurances that (i) transactions are executed in accordance with management’s general or specific authorization; (ii) transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP and to maintain accountability for assets; (iii) access to assets is permitted only in accordance with management’s general or specific authorization; and (iv) the recorded accountability for assets is compared with the existing assets at reasonable intervals and appropriate action is taken with respect to any differences.  Except as described in the Prospectus, since the end of the Company’s most recent audited fiscal year, there has been (A) no material weakness in the Company’s internal control over financial reporting (whether or not remediated) and (B) no change in the Company’s internal control over financial reporting that has materially affected, or is reasonably likely to materially affect, the Company’s internal control over financial reporting.

The Company and its consolidated Subsidiaries employ disclosure controls and procedures that are designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by the Company in the reports that it files or submits under the 1934 Act is recorded, processed, summarized and reported, within the time periods specified in the Commission’s rules and forms, and is accumulated and communicated to the Company’s management, including its principal executive officer or officers and principal financial officer or officers, as appropriate, to allow timely decisions regarding disclosure.

(aa)S-3 Eligibility.  (i)(A) At the time of filing the Registration Statement and (B) at the time of the most recent amendment thereto for the purposes of complying with Section 10(a)(3) of the 1933 Act (whether such amendment was by post-effective amendment, incorporated report filed pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the 1934 Act or form of prospectus), the Company met the then applicable requirements for use of Form S-3 under the 1933 Act and (ii) at the earliest time after the filing of the Registration Statement that the Company or another offering participant made a bona fide offer (within the meaning of Rule 164(h)(2) under the 1933 Act) of the Shares, the Company was not an “ineligible issuer” as defined in Rule 405 under the 1933 Act.

 

(bb)No Commissions.  Neither the Company nor any of its Subsidiaries is a party to any contract, agreement or understanding with any person (other than as contemplated by this Agreement or any applicable Terms Agreement) that would give rise to a valid claim against the Company or any of its Subsidiaries or the Agents for a brokerage commission, finder’s fee or like payment in connection with the offering and sale of the Shares.

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(cc)Deemed Representation.  Any certificate signed by any officer of the Company delivered to the Agents or to counsel for the Agents pursuant to or in connection with this Agreement or any applicable Terms Agreement shall be deemed a representation and warranty by the Company to the Agents as to the matters covered thereby as of the date or dates indicated in such certificate.

 

(dd)Compliance with the Sarbanes-Oxley Act.  There is and has been no failure on the part of the Company or any of the Company’s directors or officers, in their capacities as such, to comply in all material respects with any provision of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and the rules and regulations promulgated in connection therewith (the “Sarbanes-Oxley Act”), including Section 402 related to loans and Sections 302 and 906 related to certifications.  

(ee)Payment of Taxes.  Subject to any permitted extensions, all United States federal income tax returns of the Company and its Subsidiaries required by law to be filed have been filed and all taxes shown by such returns or otherwise assessed, which are due and payable, have been paid, except assessments against which appeals have been or will be promptly taken and as to which adequate reserves have been provided and except where the failure to do so would not reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect.  The United States federal income tax returns of the Company through the fiscal year ended December 31, 2016 have been settled and no assessment in connection therewith has been made against the Company. The Company and its Subsidiaries have filed all other tax returns that are required to have been filed by them pursuant to applicable foreign, state, local or other law and have paid all taxes due pursuant to such returns or pursuant to any assessment received by the Company and its Subsidiaries, except for such taxes, if any, as are being contested in good faith and as to which adequate reserves have been provided and except where the failure to do so would reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect. The charges, accruals and reserves on the books of the Company in respect of any income and corporation tax liability for any years not finally determined are adequate to meet any assessments or re-assessments for additional income tax for any years not finally determined.

(ff)Insurance.  The Company and its Subsidiaries carry or are entitled to the benefits of insurance, with insurers believed to be financially sound and reputable, in such amounts and covering such risks as is generally maintained by companies of established repute engaged in the same or similar business, and all such insurance is in full force and effect.  The Company has no reason to believe that it or any Subsidiary will not be able (i) to renew its existing insurance coverage as and when such policies expire or (ii) to obtain comparable coverage from similar institutions as may be necessary or appropriate to conduct its business as now conducted and at a cost that would not result in a Material Adverse Effect.  Neither of the Company nor any Subsidiary has been denied any insurance coverage which it has sought or for which it has applied.

(gg)Statistical and Market-Related Data.  Any statistical and market-related data included in the Registration Statement, the General Disclosure Package and the Prospectus are based on or derived from sources that the Company believes to be reliable and accurate, and, where required, the Company has obtained the written consent to the use of such data from such sources.

(hh)Foreign Corrupt Practices Act.  Neither the Company nor, to the knowledge of the Company, any director, officer, agent, employee, affiliate or other person acting on behalf of the Company or any of its Subsidiaries is aware of or has taken any action, directly or indirectly, that would result in a violation by such persons of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, as amended, and the rules and regulations thereunder (the “FCPA”), including, without limitation, making use of the mails or any means or instrumentality of interstate commerce corruptly in furtherance of an offer, payment, promise to pay or authorization of the payment of any money, or other property, gift, promise to give, or authorization of the giving of anything of value to any “foreign official” (as such term is defined in the FCPA) or any foreign political party or official thereof or any candidate for foreign political office, in contravention of the FCPA and the Company and, to the knowledge of the Company, its affiliates have conducted their businesses in compliance with the FCPA and have instituted and maintain policies and procedures designed to ensure, and which are reasonably expected to continue to ensure, continued compliance therewith.

(ii)Money Laundering Laws.  The operations of the Company are and have been conducted at all times in material compliance with applicable financial recordkeeping and reporting requirements of the Currency

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and Foreign Transactions Reporting Act of 1970, as amended, the money laundering statutes of all applicable jurisdictions, the rules and regulations thereunder and any related or similar rules, regulations or guidelines, issued, administered or enforced by any Governmental Entity (collectively, the “Money Laundering Laws”) and no action, suit or proceeding by or before any Governmental Entity or any arbitrator involving the Company with respect to the Money Laundering Laws is pending or, to the best knowledge of the Company, threatened.

(jj)OFAC.  Neither the Company nor, to the knowledge of the Company, any director, officer, agent, employee, affiliate or other person acting on behalf of the Company is currently subject to any U.S. sanctions administered by the Office of Foreign Assets Control of the U.S. Treasury Department (“OFAC”); and the Company will not directly or indirectly use the proceeds of the offering, or lend, contribute or otherwise make available such proceeds to any Subsidiary, joint venture partner or other person or entity, for the purpose of financing the activities of any person currently subject to any U.S. sanctions administered by OFAC.

(hh)IT Systems. (i)(x) To the knowledge of Company, there has been no security breach or other compromise of any Company’s information technology and computer systems, networks, hardware, software, data (including the data of their respective customers, employees, suppliers, vendors and any third party data maintained by or on behalf of them), equipment or technology (collectively, “IT Systems and Data”) and (y) the Company has not been notified of, and have no knowledge of any event or condition that would reasonably be expected to result in, any security breach or other compromise to their IT Systems and Data; (ii) the Company is presently in material compliance with all applicable laws or statutes and all judgments, orders, rules and regulations of any court or arbitrator or governmental or regulatory authority, internal policies and contractual obligations relating to the privacy and security of IT Systems and Data and to the protection of such IT Systems and Data from unauthorized use, access, misappropriation or modification, except as would not, in the case of this clause (ii), individually or in the aggregate, have a Material Adverse Effect; and (iii) the Company has implemented backup and disaster recovery technology consistent with industry standards and practices.

(ii)FINRA Exemption. To enable the Agents to rely on Rule 5110(h)(1)(C) of FINRA, the Company represents that the Company (i) has a non-affiliate, public common equity float of at least $150 million or a non-affiliate, public common equity float of at least $100 million and annual trading volume of at least three million shares and (ii) has been subject to the Exchange Act reporting requirements for a period of at least 36 months.

Section 2.  Sale and Delivery of Shares.

 

(a)Subject to the terms and conditions set forth herein, the Company agrees to issue and sell exclusively through an Agent (the “Designated Agent”) acting as sales agent or directly to an Agent acting as principal from time to time, and the Designated Agent agrees to use its commercially reasonable efforts to sell as sales agent for the Company, the Shares.  Nothing contained herein restricts, nor may be deemed to restrict, the Company from undertaking another offering of its securities pursuant to a separate registration under the 1933 Act (or any exemption from such registration), or another offering under the Registration Statement, provided the Company complies with Section 3(o) hereof. Sales of the Shares, if any, through a Designated Agent acting as sales agent or directly to the Agent acting as principal may be made in transactions that are deemed to be “at the market offerings” as defined in Rule 415 under the 1933 Act. Notwithstanding the provisions of Section 3(m), the Agent shall not purchase the Shares sold pursuant to this Agreement for its own account as principal unless expressly authorized in writing to do so by the Company.

  

(b)The Shares are to be sold on a daily basis or otherwise as shall be agreed to by the Company and the Designated Agent on that trading day (other than a day on which Nasdaq is scheduled to close prior to its regular weekday closing time, each, a “Trading Day”) that the Company has satisfied its obligations under Section 6 of this Agreement and that the Company has instructed the Designated Agent to make such sales.  For the avoidance of doubt, the foregoing limitation shall not apply to sales solely to employees or security holders of the Company or its Subsidiaries, or to a trustee or other person acquiring such securities for the accounts of such persons in which such Designated Agent is acting for the Company in a capacity other than as Designated Agent under this Agreement.  On any Trading Day, the Company may instruct the Designated Agent by telephone (confirmed promptly by email by any of the individuals from the Company set forth on Schedule 1 and shall be addressed to each of the individuals from the Designated Agent set forth on Schedule 1, which confirmation will be promptly acknowledged by the Designated Agent) as to the maximum aggregate dollar value or number of Shares to

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be sold by the Designated Agent on such day (in any event not in excess of the number available for issuance under the Prospectus and the currently effective Registration Statement) and the minimum price per Share at which such Shares may be sold.  Subject to the terms and conditions hereof, the Designated Agent shall use its commercially reasonable efforts to sell as sales agent all of the Shares so designated by the Company and in the manner and on the terms so designated by the Company.  The Company and the Designated Agent each acknowledge and agree that (i) there can be no assurance that the Designated Agent will be successful in selling the Shares, (ii) the Designated Agent will incur no liability or obligation to the Company or any other person or entity if they do not sell Shares for any reason other than a failure by the Designated Agent to use its commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices and applicable law and regulations to sell such Shares as required by this Agreement, and (iii) the Designated Agent shall be under no obligation to purchase Shares on a principal basis except as otherwise specifically agreed by each of the Designated Agent and the Company pursuant to a Terms Agreement.  In the event of a conflict between the terms of this Agreement and the terms of a Terms Agreement, the terms of such Terms Agreement will control.

 

(c)  Notwithstanding the foregoing, the Company shall not authorize the issuance and sale of, and the Designated Agent as sales agent shall not be obligated to use its commercially reasonable efforts to sell, any Shares pursuant to this Agreement (i) at a price lower than the minimum price therefor authorized from time to time, or (ii) in a number in excess of the number or maximum aggregate dollar value of Shares, in each case, authorized from time to time to be issued and sold under this Agreement, in each case, by the Company’s board of directors, or a duly authorized committee thereof, and notified to the Designated Agent in writing.  In addition, the Company may, upon notice to the Designated Agent, suspend the offering of the Shares or the Designated Agent may, upon notice to the Company, suspend the offering of the Shares with respect to which the Designated Agent is acting as sales agent for any reason and at any time; provided, however, that such suspension or termination shall not affect or impair the parties’ respective obligations with respect to the Shares sold hereunder prior to the giving of such notice.  Any notice given pursuant to the preceding sentence may be given by telephone (confirmed promptly by email and shall be addressed to each of the individuals from the Agents set forth on Schedule 1, which confirmation will be promptly acknowledged).

 

(d)  The gross sales price of any Shares sold pursuant to this Agreement by the Designated Agent acting as sales agent of the Company shall be the market price prevailing at the time of sale for shares of the Company’s Common Stock sold by the Designated Agent on Nasdaq or otherwise, at prices relating to prevailing market prices or at negotiated prices.  The compensation payable to the Designated Agent for sales of Shares with respect to which the Designated Agent acts as sales agent shall be equal to 3.0% of the gross sales price of the Shares for amounts of Shares sold pursuant to this Agreement.  The Company may sell Shares to an Agent, acting as principal, at a price agreed upon with such Agent at the relevant Applicable Time and pursuant to a separate Terms Agreement.  The remaining proceeds, after further deduction for any transaction fees imposed by any governmental, regulatory or self-regulatory organization in respect of such sales, shall constitute the net proceeds to the Company for such Shares (the “Net Proceeds”).  Such Agent shall notify the Company as promptly as practicable if any deduction referenced in the preceding sentence will be required.  

 

(e)  If acting as a sales agent hereunder, the Designated Agent shall provide written confirmation to the Company promptly following the close of trading on Nasdaq, each day in which Shares are sold under this Agreement setting forth the number of Shares sold on such day, the aggregate gross sales proceeds of the Shares, the Net Proceeds to the Company and the compensation payable by the Company to such Designated Agent with respect to such sales.

 

(f)  Under no circumstances shall the aggregate offering price or number, as the case may be, of Shares sold pursuant to this Agreement and any applicable Terms Agreement exceed the aggregate offering price or number, as the case may be, of Shares of Common Stock (i) set forth in the preamble paragraph of this Agreement, (ii) available for issuance under the Prospectus and the then currently effective Registration Statement or (iii) authorized from time to time to be issued and sold under this Agreement or any applicable Terms Agreement by the Company’s board of directors, or a duly authorized committee thereof, and notified to the Designated Agent in writing. In addition, under no circumstances shall any Shares with respect to which the Designated Agent acts as sales agent be sold at a price lower than the minimum price therefor authorized from time to time by the Company’s board of directors, or a duly authorized committee thereof, and notified to the Designated Agent in writing.

 

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(g)Settlement for sales of Shares pursuant to this Section 2 will occur on the second business day that is also a Trading Day following the trade date on which such sales are made, unless another date shall be agreed to by the Company and the Designated Agent (each such day, a “Settlement Date”).  On each Settlement Date, the Shares sold through the Designated Agent for settlement on such date shall be delivered by the Company to the Designated Agent against payment of the Net Proceeds from the sale of such Shares.  Settlement for all Shares shall be effected by book-entry delivery of Shares to the Designated Agent’s account at The Depository Trust Company against payments by the Designated Agent of the Net Proceeds from the sale of such Shares in same day funds delivered to an account designated by the Company.  If the Company shall default on its obligation to deliver Shares on any Settlement Date, the Company shall (i) indemnify and hold the Designated Agent harmless against any loss, claim or damage arising from or as a result of such default by the Company and (ii) pay the Designated Agent any commission to which it would otherwise be entitled absent such default.  

 

(h)Notwithstanding any other provision of this Agreement, the Company and the Designated Agent agree that no sales of Shares shall take place, and the Company shall not request the sale of any Shares that would be sold, and the Designated Agent shall not be obligated to sell, during any period in which the Company’s insider trading policy, as it exists on the date of the Agreement and as such may be amended from time to time, would prohibit the purchases or sales of the Company’s Common Stock by its officers or directors, or during any other period in which the Company is, or could be deemed to be, in possession of material non-public information; provided that, unless otherwise agreed between the Company and the Designated Agent, for purposes of this Section 2(h), such period shall be deemed to end on the second trading day after the date on which the Company’s next subsequent Annual Report on Form 10-K or Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, as the case may be, is filed with the Commission.

 

(i)Any obligation of the Designated Agent to use its commercially reasonable efforts to sell the Shares on behalf of the Company as sales agent shall be subject to the continuing accuracy of the representations and warranties of the Company herein, to the performance by the Company of its obligations hereunder and to the continuing satisfaction of the additional conditions specified in Section 6 of this Agreement.

 

(j)The Company agrees that any offer to sell, any solicitation of an offer to buy, or any sales of Shares pursuant to this Agreement shall only be effected by or through an Agent, and only a single Agent, on any single given date, and in no event shall the Company request that more than one Agent sell securities on the same day; provided however that (i) the foregoing limitation shall not apply to (A) exercise, vesting or settlement of any option, restricted stock unit, warrant, right or any conversion privilege set forth in the instruction governing such securities, (B) sales solely to employees, directors or security holders of the Company or its subsidiaries, or to a trustee or other person acquiring such securities for the accounts of such person, (C) grants of options, shares of Common Stock and other awards to purchase or receive shares of Common Stock under the Company’s stock option, stock bonus or other stock plans or arrangements that are in effect or (D) issuances of any shares of Common Stock related to the filing by the Company of any registration statement on Form S-8 or a successor form thereto relating to shares of Common Stock granted under any equity compensation plan or employee stock purchase plan and (ii) such limitation shall not apply (Y) on any day during which no sales are made pursuant to this Agreement or (Z) during a period in which the Company has notified the Agents that it will not sell Common Stock under this Agreement and (1) no Company instruction to sell Shares is pending or (2) after a Company instruction to sell Shares has been withdrawn.

 

Section 3.  Covenants.   The Company agrees with the Agents:

 

(a)During any period when the delivery of a prospectus is required in connection with the offering or sale of Shares pursuant to this Agreement (whether physically or through compliance with Rule 153 or 172, or in lieu thereof, a notice referred to in Rule 173(a) under the 1933 Act), (i) to make no further amendment or any supplement to the Registration Statement or the Prospectus (other than an amendment or supplement relating to an offering of the Company’s securities which is unrelated to the offering of the Shares hereunder) prior to any Settlement Date which shall be disapproved by the Agents promptly after reasonable notice thereof and to advise the Agents, promptly after it receives notice thereof, of the time when any amendment to the Registration Statement has been filed or becomes effective or any amendment or supplement to the Prospectus (other than an amendment or supplement relating to an offering of the Company’s securities which is unrelated to the offering of the Shares hereunder) has been filed and to furnish the Agents with copies thereof, (ii) to file promptly all other material

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required to be filed by the Company with the Commission pursuant to Rule 433(d) under the 1933 Act, (iii) to file promptly all reports and any definitive proxy or information statements required to be filed by the Company with the Commission pursuant to Section 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the 1934 Act, (iv) to advise the Agents, promptly after it receives notice thereof, of the issuance by the Commission of any stop order or of any order preventing or suspending the use of the Prospectus or other prospectus in respect of the Shares, of the suspension of the qualification of the Shares for offering or sale in any jurisdiction, of the initiation or threatening of any proceeding for any such purpose, or of any request by the Commission for the amending or supplementing of the form of the Registration Statement or the Prospectus or for additional information, and (v) in the event of the issuance of any such stop order or of any such order preventing or suspending the use of the Prospectus in respect of the Shares or suspending any such qualification, to promptly use its commercially reasonable efforts to obtain the withdrawal of such order; and in the event of any such issuance of a notice of objection, promptly to take such commercially reasonable steps as may be necessary to permit offers and sales of the Shares by the Agents, which may include, without limitation, amending the Registration Statement or filing a new registration statement, at the Company’s expense (references herein to the Registration Statement shall include any such amendment or new registration statement). Notwithstanding the foregoing, the Company shall not be required to furnish any document to the extent such document is available on the Commission’s Electronic Data-Gathering, Analysis, and Retrieval System (“EDGAR”).

 

(b)Promptly from time to time to take such action as the Agents may reasonably request to qualify the Shares for offering and sale under the securities laws of such jurisdictions as the Agents may request and to comply with such laws so as to permit the continuance of sales and dealings therein in such jurisdictions for as long as may be necessary to complete the sale of the Shares, provided that in connection therewith the Company shall not be required to qualify as a foreign corporation or to file a general consent to service of process in any jurisdiction; and to promptly advise the Agents of the receipt by the Company of any notification with respect to the suspension of the qualification of the Shares for offer or sale in any jurisdiction or the initiation or threatening of any proceeding for such purpose.

 

(c)During any period when the delivery of a prospectus is required (whether physically or through compliance with Rules 153 or 172, or in lieu thereof, a notice referred to in Rule 173(a) under the 1933 Act) in connection with the offering or sale of Shares, the Company will make available to the Agents, as soon as practicable after the execution of this Agreement, and thereafter from time to time furnish to the Agents, copies of the most recent Prospectus in such quantities and at such locations as the Agents may reasonably request for the purposes contemplated by the 1933 Act.  During any period when the delivery of a prospectus is required (whether physically or through compliance with Rules 153 or 172, or in lieu thereof, a notice referred to in Rule 173(a) under the 1933 Act) in connection with the offering or sale of Shares, and if at such time any event shall have occurred as a result of which the Prospectus as then amended or supplemented would include an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state any material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made when such Prospectus is delivered, not misleading, or, if for any other reason it shall be necessary during such same period to amend or supplement the Prospectus or to file under the 1934 Act any document incorporated by reference in the Prospectus in order to comply with the 1933 Act or the 1934 Act, to notify the Agents and to file such document and to prepare and furnish without charge to the Agents as many written and electronic copies as the Agents may from time to time reasonably request of an amended Prospectus or a supplement to the Prospectus which will correct such statement or omission or effect such compliance. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the Company shall not be required to furnish any document to the extent such document is available on EDGAR.

 

(d)To make generally available to its securityholders as soon as practicable, but in any event not later than sixteen months after the effective date of the Registration Statement (as defined in Rule 158(c) under the 1933 Act), an earnings statement of the Company and its Subsidiaries (which need not be audited) complying with Section 11(a) of the 1933 Act and the rules and regulations of the Commission thereunder (including, at the option of the Company, Rule 158).

 

(e)To pay the required Commission filing fees relating to the Shares within the time required by Rule 456(b)(1) under the 1933 Act without regard to the proviso therein and otherwise in accordance with Rules 456(b) and 457(r) under the 1933 Act.

 

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(f)To use the Net Proceeds received by it from the sale of the Shares pursuant to this Agreement and any Terms Agreement in the manner specified in the General Disclosure Package.

 

(g)In connection with the offering and sale of the Shares, the Company will file with The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC all documents and notices, and make all certifications, required by The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC of companies that have securities that are listed or quoted on Nasdaq and will use commercially reasonable efforts to maintain such listings or quotations.

 

(h)To not take, directly or indirectly, and to use commercially reasonable efforts to cause its affiliates to refrain from taking, any action designed to cause or result in, or that has constituted or might reasonably be expe