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Form FWP ROYAL BANK OF CANADA Filed by: ROYAL BANK OF CANADA

September 2, 2022 1:26 PM EDT

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Filed Pursuant to Rule 433
Registration Statement No. 333-259205




The information in this preliminary terms supplement is not complete and may be changed.
 

Preliminary Terms Supplement
Subject to Completion:
Dated September 2, 2022
Pricing Supplement Dated September __, 2022 to the Product Prospectus Supplement ERN-EI-1, Prospectus Supplement, and Prospectus Each Dated September 14, 2021

$
Digital Notes with Barrier
Linked to the S&P 500® Index,
Due April 2, 2024
Royal Bank of Canada




Royal Bank of Canada is offering the Digital Notes with Barrier (the “Notes”) linked to the performance of the S&P 500® Index (the “Reference Asset”).

The CUSIP number for the Notes is 78016FTZ7. The Notes do not pay interest.
The Notes provide a fixed payment of [113.00% - 114.00%] of the principal amount (to be determined on the Trade Date) if the closing level of the Reference Asset on the Valuation Date is greater than or equal to 75% of its Initial Level (the "Barrier Level"). However, if the Final Level is less than the Barrier Level, investors will lose 1% of the principal amount of the Notes for each 1% decrease from the Initial Level to the Final Level Any payments on the Notes are subject to our credit risk.

Issue Date: September 30, 2022
Maturity Date: April 2, 2024

The Notes will not be listed on any securities exchange.

Investing in the Notes involves a number of risks. See “Selected Risk Considerations” beginning on page P-6 of this terms supplement, “Additional Risk Factors Specific to the Notes” beginning on page PS-4 of the product prospectus supplement dated September 14, 2021, and “Risk Factors” beginning on page S-2 of the prospectus supplement dated September 14, 2021.

The Notes will not constitute deposits insured by the Canada Deposit Insurance Corporation, the U.S. Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation or any other Canadian or U.S. government agency or instrumentality.
The Notes are not subject to conversion into our common shares under subsection 39.2(2.3) of the Canada Deposit Insurance Corporation Act.

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined that this terms supplement is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

Per Note

Total
Price to public(1)
100.00%

$
Underwriting discounts and commissions(1)
1.75%

$
Proceeds to Royal Bank of Canada
98.25%

$
(1) We or one of our affiliates may pay selling concessions of up to $17.50 per $1,000 in principal amount of the Notes in connection with the distribution of the Notes to other registered broker dealers. See “Supplemental Plan of Distribution (Conflicts of Interest)” below. Certain dealers who purchase the Notes for sale to certain fee-based advisory accounts may forego some or all of their underwriting discount or selling concessions. The public offering price for investors purchasing the Notes in these accounts may be between $982.50 and $1,000 per $1,000 in principal amount.
The initial estimated value of the Notes as of the Trade Date is expected to be between $916 and $966 per $1,000 in principal amount, and will be less than the price to public. The final pricing supplement relating to the Notes will set forth our estimate of the initial value of the Notes as of the Trade Date. The actual value of the Notes at any time will reflect many factors, cannot be predicted with accuracy, and may be less than this amount. We describe our determination of the initial estimated value in more detail below.

RBC Capital Markets, LLC






Digital Notes with Barrier
Linked to the S&P 500® Index

SUMMARY
The information in this “Summary” section is qualified by the more detailed information set forth in this terms supplement, the product prospectus supplement, the prospectus supplement, and the prospectus.
Issuer
Royal Bank of Canada (“Royal Bank”)
Underwriter:
RBC Capital Markets, LLC (“RBCCM”)
Reference Asset:
S&P 500® Index (SPX)
Currency:
U.S. Dollars
Minimum Investment:
$1,000 and minimum denominations of $1,000 in excess thereof
Trade Date (Pricing Date):
September 27, 2022
Issue Date:
September 30, 2022
Valuation Date:
March 27, 2024
Maturity Date:
April 2, 2024, subject to extension for market and other disruptions, as described in the product prospectus supplement dated September 14, 2021.
Payment at Maturity (if
held to maturity):
If the Final Level is greater than or equal to the Barrier Level (that is, the Percentage Change is greater than -25%), then the investor will receive an amount per $1,000 principal amount per Note equal to the sum of the principal amount and the Digital Payment.
The return on the Notes will not exceed the Digital Payment.
If the Final Level is less than the Barrier Level (that is, the Percentage Change is between -25.01% and -100%), then the investor will receive a cash payment equal to:
Principal Amount + (Principal Amount x Percentage Change)
In this case, you could lose all or a substantial portion of the principal amount.
Percentage Change:
The Percentage Change, expressed as a percentage, is calculated using the following formula:


Final Level – Initial Level
 
 Initial Level
Initial Level:
The closing level of the Reference Asset on the Trade Date.
Final Level:
The closing level of the Reference Asset on the Valuation Date.
Digital Payment:
[113.00%-114.00%] (to be determined on the Trade Date) multiplied by the principal amount
Barrier Percentage:
25%
Barrier Level:
75% of the Initial Level.
Principal at Risk:
The Notes are NOT principal protected. You may lose all or a substantial portion of your principal amount at maturity if the Final Level is less than the Barrier Level.
Calculation Agent:
RBCCM
U.S. Tax Treatment:
By purchasing a Note, each holder agrees (in the absence of a change in law, an administrative determination or a judicial ruling to the contrary) to treat the Notes as a

P-2
RBC Capital Markets, LLC





Digital Notes with Barrier
Linked to the S&P 500® Index

 
pre-paid cash-settled derivative contract for U.S. federal income tax purposes. However, the U.S. federal income tax consequences of your investment in the Notes are uncertain and the Internal Revenue Service could assert that the Notes should be taxed in a manner that is different from that described in the preceding sentence. Please see the section below, “Supplemental Discussion of U.S. Federal Income Tax Consequences,” and the discussion (including the opinion of Ashurst LLP, our special U.S. tax counsel) in the product prospectus supplement dated September 14, 2021 under “Supplemental Discussion of U.S. Federal Income Tax Consequences,” which apply to the Notes.
Secondary Market:
RBCCM (or one of its affiliates), though not obligated to do so, may maintain a secondary market in the Notes after the issue date. The amount that you may receive upon sale of your Notes prior to maturity may be less than the principal amount of your Notes.
Listing:
The Notes will not be listed on any securities exchange.
Clearance and Settlement:
DTC global (including through its indirect participants Euroclear and Clearstream, Luxembourg as described under “Ownership and Book-Entry Issuance” in the prospectus dated September 14, 2021).
Terms Incorporated in the
Master Note:
All of the terms appearing above the item captioned “Secondary Market” on pages P-2 and P-3 of this terms supplement and the terms appearing under the captions “General Terms of the Notes” and “Supplemental Discussion of U.S. Federal Income Tax Consequences” in the product prospectus supplement dated September 14, 2021, as modified by this terms supplement.


The Trade Date, issue date and other dates set forth above are subject to change, and will be set forth in the final pricing supplement relating to the Notes.

P-3
RBC Capital Markets, LLC





Digital Notes with Barrier
Linked to the S&P 500® Index

ADDITIONAL TERMS OF YOUR NOTES
You should read this terms supplement together with the prospectus dated September 14, 2021, as supplemented by the prospectus supplement dated September 14, 2021 and the product prospectus supplement dated September 14, 2021, relating to our Senior Global Medium-Term Notes, Series I, of which these Notes are a part. Capitalized terms used but not defined in this terms supplement will have the meanings given to them in the product prospectus supplement. In the event of any conflict, this terms supplement will control. The Notes vary from the terms described in the product prospectus supplement in several important ways. You should read this terms supplement carefully.
This terms supplement, together with the documents listed below, contains the terms of the Notes and supersedes all prior or contemporaneous oral statements as well as any other written materials including preliminary or indicative pricing terms, correspondence, trade ideas, structures for implementation, sample structures, brochures or other educational materials of ours. You should carefully consider, among other things, the matters set forth in “Risk Factors” in the prospectus supplement dated September 14, 2021 and “Additional Risk Factors Specific to the Notes” in the product prospectus supplement dated September 14, 2021, as the Notes involve risks not associated with conventional debt securities. We urge you to consult your investment, legal, tax, accounting and other advisors before you invest in the Notes. You may access these documents on the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) website at www.sec.gov as follows (or if that address has changed, by reviewing our filings for the relevant date on the SEC website):
Product Prospectus Supplement ERN-EI-1 dated September 14, 2021:

Our Central Index Key, or CIK, on the SEC website is 1000275. As used in this terms supplement, “we,” “us,” or “our” refers to Royal Bank of Canada.
Royal Bank of Canada has filed a registration statement (including a product prospectus supplement, a prospectus supplement, and a prospectus) with the SEC for the offering to which this terms supplement relates.  Before you invest, you should read those documents and the other documents relating to this offering that we have filed with the SEC for more complete information about us and this offering.  You may obtain these documents without cost by visiting EDGAR on the SEC website at www.sec.gov.  Alternatively, Royal Bank of Canada, any agent or any dealer participating in this offering will arrange to send you the product prospectus supplement, the prospectus supplement and the prospectus if you so request by calling toll-free at 1-877-688-2301.

P-4
RBC Capital Markets, LLC





Digital Notes with Barrier
Linked to the S&P 500® Index

HYPOTHETICAL RETURNS
The examples set out below are included for illustration purposes only. The hypothetical Percentage Changes of the Reference Asset used to illustrate the calculation of the Payment at Maturity (rounded to two decimal places) are not estimates or forecasts of the Initial Level, the Final Level or the level of the Reference Asset on any trading day prior to the Maturity Date. All examples are based on the Barrier Percentage of 25% (the Barrier Level is 75% of the Initial Level) and a hypothetical Digital Payment of 113.50% of the principal amount (the midpoint of the range set forth on the cover page), and assume that a holder purchased Notes with an aggregate principal amount of $1,000 and that no market disruption event occurs on the Valuation Date.
Example 1 —
Calculation of the Payment at Maturity where the Percentage Change is positive, and exceeds the percentage represented by the Digital Payment.


Percentage Change:
25%


Payment at Maturity:
$1,000 + ($1,000 x 113.50%) = $1,135

On a $1,000 investment, a 25% Percentage Change results in a Payment at Maturity of $1,135, a 13.50% return on the Notes.  In this case, the return on the Notes is less than the Percentage Change of the Reference Asset.

Example 2 —
Calculation of the Payment at Maturity where the Percentage Change is negative (but not by more than the Barrier Percentage).


Percentage Change:
-8%


Payment at Maturity:
At maturity, if the Percentage Change is negative BUT not by more than the Barrier Percentage, then the Payment at Maturity will equal the sum of the principal amount and the Digital Payment

On a $1,000 investment, a -8% Percentage Change results in a Payment at Maturity of $1,135, an 13.50% return on the Notes.  In this case, the return on the Notes is positive, even though the Percentage Change is negative.

Example 3 —
Calculation of the Payment at Maturity where the Percentage Change is negative (by more than the Barrier Percentage).


Percentage Change:
-60%


Payment at Maturity:
$1,000 + [$1,000 x -60%] = $1,000 - $600 = $400

On a $1,000 investment, a -60% Percentage Change results in a Payment at Maturity of $400, a -60% return on the Notes.

P-5
RBC Capital Markets, LLC





Digital Notes with Barrier
Linked to the S&P 500® Index

SELECTED RISK CONSIDERATIONS
An investment in the Notes involves significant risks.  Investing in the Notes is not equivalent to investing directly in the Reference Asset. These risks are explained in more detail in the section “Additional Risk Factors Specific to the Notes” in the product prospectus supplement. In addition to the risks described in the prospectus supplement and the product prospectus supplement, you should consider the following:
Risks Relating to the Terms of the Notes

You May Not Receive the Full Principal Amount at Maturity – Investors in the Notes could lose all or a substantial portion of their principal amount if there is a decline in the level of the Reference Asset. If the Final Level is less than the Barrier Level, you will lose 1% of the principal amount of your Notes for each 1% that the Final Level is less than the Initial Level.

The Notes Do Not Pay Interest and Your Return May Be Lower than the Return on a Conventional Debt Security of Comparable Maturity – There will be no periodic interest payments on the Notes as there would be on a conventional fixed-rate or floating-rate debt security having the same maturity. The return that you will receive on the Notes, which could be negative, may be less than the return you could earn on other investments. Your return may be less than the return you would earn if you purchased one of our conventional senior interest bearing debt securities.

Your Potential Payment at Maturity Is Limited — The Notes will provide less opportunity to participate in the appreciation of the Reference Asset than an investment in a security linked to the Reference Asset providing full participation in the appreciation, because the payment at maturity will not exceed the sum of the principal amount and the Digital Payment. Accordingly, your return on the Notes may be less than your return would be if you made an investment in a security directly linked to the positive performance of the Reference Asset.

Payments on the Notes Are Subject to Our Credit Risk, and Changes in Our Credit Ratings Are Expected to Affect the Market Value of the Notes — The Notes are our senior unsecured debt securities. As a result, your receipt of the amount due on the maturity date is dependent upon our ability to repay our obligations at that time. This will be the case even if the level of the Reference Asset increases after the Trade Date. No assurance can be given as to what our financial condition will be at the maturity of the Notes.
Risks Relating to the Secondary Market for the Notes

There May Not Be an Active Trading Market for the Notes—Sales in the Secondary Market May Result in Significant Losses — There may be little or no secondary market for the Notes. The Notes will not be listed on any securities exchange. RBCCM and our other affiliates may make a market for the Notes; however, they are not required to do so. RBCCM or any of our other affiliates may stop any market-making activities at any time. Even if a secondary market for the Notes develops, it may not provide significant liquidity or trade at prices advantageous to you. We expect that transaction costs in any secondary market would be high. As a result, the difference between bid and asked prices for your Notes in any secondary market could be substantial.
Risks Relating to the Initial Estimated Value of the Notes

The Initial Estimated Value of the Notes Will Be Less than the Price to the Public — The initial estimated value of the Notes that will be set forth on the cover page of the final pricing supplement for the Notes will not represent a minimum price at which we, RBCCM or any of our affiliates would be willing to purchase the Notes in any secondary market (if any exists) at any time. If you attempt to sell the Notes prior to maturity, their market value may be lower than the price you paid for them and the initial estimated value. This is due to, among other things, changes in the level of the Reference Asset, the borrowing rate we pay to issue securities of this kind, and the inclusion in the price to the public of the underwriting discount and the estimated costs relating to our hedging of the Notes. These factors, together with various credit, market and economic factors over the term of the Notes, are expected to reduce the price at which you may be able to sell the Notes in any secondary market and will affect the value of the Notes in complex and unpredictable ways. Assuming no change in market conditions or any other relevant factors, the price, if any, at which you may be able to sell your Notes prior to maturity may be

P-6
RBC Capital Markets, LLC





Digital Notes with Barrier
Linked to the S&P 500® Index

less than your original purchase price, as any such sale price would not be expected to include the underwriting discount or the hedging costs relating to the Notes. In addition to bid-ask spreads, the value of the Notes determined for any secondary market price is expected to be based on the secondary rate rather than the internal funding rate used to price the Notes and determine the initial estimated value. As a result, the secondary price will be less than if the internal funding rate was used. The Notes are not designed to be short-term trading instruments. Accordingly, you should be able and willing to hold your Notes to maturity.

The Initial Estimated Value of the Notes that We Will Provide in the Final Pricing Supplement Will Be an Estimate Only, Calculated as of the Time the Terms of the Notes Are Set — The initial estimated value of the Notes will be based on the value of our obligation to make the payments on the Notes, together with the mid-market value of the derivative embedded in the terms of the Notes. See “Structuring the Notes” below. Our estimate will be based on a variety of assumptions, including our credit spreads, expectations as to dividends, interest rates and volatility, and the expected term of the Notes. These assumptions are based on certain forecasts about future events, which may prove to be incorrect. Other entities may value the Notes or similar securities at a price that is significantly different than we do.

The value of the Notes at any time after the Trade Date will vary based on many factors, including changes in market conditions, and cannot be predicted with accuracy. As a result, the actual value you would receive if you sold the Notes in any secondary market, if any, should be expected to differ materially from the initial estimated value of your Notes.
Risks Relating to Conflicts of Interest and Our Trading Activities

Our Business Activities May Create Conflicts of Interest — We and our affiliates expect to engage in trading activities related to the Reference Asset that are not for the account of holders of the Notes or on their behalf. These trading activities may present a conflict between the holders’ interests in the Notes and the interests we and our affiliates will have in their proprietary accounts, in facilitating transactions, including options and other derivatives transactions, for their customers and in accounts under their management. These trading activities, if they influence the level of the Reference Asset, could be adverse to the interests of the holders of the Notes. We and one or more of our affiliates may, at present or in the future, engage in business with companies included in the Reference Asset, including making loans to or providing advisory services. These services could include investment banking and merger and acquisition advisory services. These activities may present a conflict between our or one or more of our affiliates’ obligations and your interests as a holder of the Notes. Moreover, we, and our affiliates may have published, and in the future expect to publish, research reports with respect to the Reference Asset. This research is modified from time to time without notice and may express opinions or provide recommendations that are inconsistent with purchasing or holding the Notes. Any of these activities by us or one or more of our affiliates may affect the level of the Reference Asset, and, therefore, the market value of the Notes.
Risks Relating to the Reference Asset

You Will Not Have Any Rights to the Securities Included in the Reference Asset — As a holder of the Notes, you will not have voting rights or rights to receive cash dividends or other distributions or other rights that holders of securities included in the Reference Asset would have. The Final Level will not reflect any dividends paid on the securities included in the Reference Asset, and accordingly, any positive return on the Notes may be less than the potential positive return on those securities.

The Payments on the Notes Are Subject to Postponement Due to Market Disruption Events and Adjustments — The payment at maturity and the Valuation Date are subject to adjustment as described in the product prospectus supplement. For a description of what constitutes a market disruption event as well as the consequences of that market disruption event, see “General Terms of the Notes-Market Disruption Events” in the product prospectus supplement.

P-7
RBC Capital Markets, LLC





Digital Notes with Barrier
Linked to the S&P 500® Index

INFORMATION REGARDING THE REFERENCE ASSET
All disclosures contained in this document regarding the Reference Asset, including, without limitation, its make-up, method of calculation, and changes in its components, have been derived from publicly available sources. The information reflects the policies of, and is subject to change by, S&P Dow Jones Indices LLC (“S&P”). S&P, which owns the copyright and all other rights to the Reference Asset, has no obligation to continue to publish, and may discontinue publication of, the Reference Asset. The consequences of S&P discontinuing publication of the Reference Asset are discussed in the section of the product prospectus supplement entitled “General Terms of the Notes— Unavailability of the Level of the Reference Asset.” Neither we nor RBCCM accepts any responsibility for the calculation, maintenance or publication of the Reference Asset or any successor index.

The Reference Asset is intended to provide an indication of the pattern of price movements among large-cap U.S. stocks. The calculation of the level of the Reference Asset is based on the relative value of the aggregate market value of the common stocks of 500 companies as of a particular time compared to the aggregate average market value of the common stocks of 500 similar companies during the base period of the years 1941 through 1943.

S&P calculates the Reference Asset by reference to the prices of the constituent stocks of the Reference Asset without taking account of the value of dividends paid on those stocks. As a result, the return on the Notes will not reflect the return you would realize if you actually owned the Reference Asset constituent stocks and received the dividends paid on those stocks.

Effective with the September 2015 rebalance, consolidated share class lines will no longer be included in the Reference Asset. Each share class line will be subject to public float and liquidity criteria individually, but the company’s total market capitalization will be used to evaluate each share class line. This may result in one listed share class line of a company being included in the Reference Asset while a second listed share class line of the same company is excluded.

Computation of the Reference Asset

While S&P currently employs the following methodology to calculate the Reference Asset, no assurance can be given that S&P will not modify or change this methodology in a manner that may affect the Payment at Maturity.

Historically, the market value of any component stock of the Reference Asset was calculated as the product of the market price per share and the number of then outstanding shares of such component stock. In March 2005, S&P began shifting the Reference Asset halfway from a market capitalization weighted formula to a float-adjusted formula, before moving the Reference Asset to full float adjustment on September 16, 2005. S&P’s criteria for selecting stocks for the Reference Asset did not change with the shift to float adjustment. However, the adjustment affects each company’s weight in the Reference Asset.

Under float adjustment, the share counts used in calculating the Reference Asset reflect only those shares that are available to investors, not all of a company’s outstanding shares. Float adjustment excludes shares that are closely held by control groups, other publicly traded companies or government agencies.

In September 2012, all shareholdings representing more than 5% of a stock’s outstanding shares, other than holdings by “block owners,” were removed from the float for purposes of calculating the Reference Asset. Generally, these “control holders” will include officers and directors, private equity, venture capital and special equity firms, other publicly traded companies that hold shares for control, strategic partners, holders of restricted shares, ESOPs, employee and family trusts, foundations associated with the company, holders of unlisted share classes of stock, government entities at all levels (other than government retirement/pension funds) and any individual person who controls a 5% or greater stake in a company as reported in regulatory filings. However, holdings by block owners, such as depositary banks, pension funds, mutual funds and ETF providers, 401(k) plans of the company, government retirement/pension funds, investment funds of insurance companies, asset managers and investment funds, independent foundations and savings and investment plans, will ordinarily be considered part of the float.

P-8
RBC Capital Markets, LLC





Digital Notes with Barrier
Linked to the S&P 500® Index

Treasury stock, stock options, equity participation units, warrants, preferred stock, convertible stock, and rights are not part of the float. Shares held in a trust to allow investors in countries outside the country of domicile, such as depositary shares and Canadian exchangeable shares are normally part of the float unless those shares form a control block.

For each stock, an investable weight factor (“IWF”) is calculated by dividing the available float shares by the total shares outstanding. Available float shares are defined as the total shares outstanding less shares held by control holders. This calculation is subject to a 5% minimum threshold for control blocks. For example, if a company’s officers and directors hold 3% of the company’s shares, and no other control group holds 5% of the company’s shares, S&P would assign that company an IWF of 1.00, as no control group meets the 5% threshold. However, if a company’s officers and directors hold 3% of the company’s shares and another control group holds 20% of the company’s shares, S&P would assign an IWF of 0.77, reflecting the fact that 23% of the company’s outstanding shares are considered to be held for control. As of July 31, 2017, companies with multiple share class lines are no longer eligible for inclusion in the Reference Asset. Constituents of the Reference Asset prior to July 31, 2017 with multiple share class lines were grandfathered in and continue to be included in the Reference Asset. If a constituent company of the Reference Asset reorganizes into a multiple share class line structure, that company will remain in the Reference Asset at the discretion of the S&P Index Committee in order to minimize turnover.

The Reference Asset is calculated using a base-weighted aggregate methodology. The level of the Reference Asset reflects the total market value of all 500 component stocks relative to the base period of the years 1941 through 1943. An indexed number is used to represent the results of this calculation in order to make the level easier to use and track over time. The actual total market value of the component stocks during the base period of the years 1941 through 1943 has been set to an indexed level of 10. This is often indicated by the notation 1941-43 = 10. In practice, the daily calculation of the Reference Asset is computed by dividing the total market value of the component stocks by the “index divisor.” By itself, the index divisor is an arbitrary number. However, in the context of the calculation of the Reference Asset, it serves as a link to the original base period level of the Reference Asset. The index divisor keeps the Reference Asset comparable over time and is the manipulation point for all adjustments to the Reference Asset, which is index maintenance.

Index Maintenance

Index maintenance includes monitoring and completing the adjustments for company additions and deletions, share changes, stock splits, stock dividends, and stock price adjustments due to company restructuring or spinoffs. Some corporate actions, such as stock splits and stock dividends, require changes in the common shares outstanding and the stock prices of the companies in the Reference Asset, and do not require index divisor adjustments.

To prevent the level of the Reference Asset from changing due to corporate actions, corporate actions which affect the total market value of the Reference Asset require an index divisor adjustment. By adjusting the index divisor for the change in market value, the level of the Reference Asset remains constant and does not reflect the corporate actions of individual companies in the Reference Asset. Index divisor adjustments are made after the close of trading and after the calculation of the Reference Asset closing level.

Changes in a company’s total shares outstanding of 5% or more due to public offerings are made as soon as reasonably possible. Other changes of 5% or more (for example, due to tender offers, Dutch auctions, voluntary exchange offers, company stock repurchases, private placements, acquisitions of private companies or non-index companies that do not trade on a major exchange, redemptions, exercise of options, warrants, conversion of preferred stock, notes, debt, equity participations, at-the-market stock offerings or other recapitalizations) are made weekly, and are generally announced on Fridays for implementation after the close of trading the following Friday (one week later). If a 5% or more share change causes a company’s IWF to change by five percentage points or more, the IWF is updated at the same time as the share change. IWF changes resulting from partial tender offers are considered on a case-by-case basis.

P-9
RBC Capital Markets, LLC





Digital Notes with Barrier
Linked to the S&P 500® Index

License Agreement

S&P® is a registered trademark of Standard & Poor’s Financial Services LLC and Dow Jones® is a registered trademark of Dow Jones Trademark Holdings LLC (“Dow Jones”). These trademarks have been licensed for use by S&P. “Standard & Poor’s®”, “S&P 500®” and “S&P®” are trademarks of Standard & Poor’s Financial Services LLC. These trademarks have been sublicensed for certain purposes by us. The Reference Asset is a product of S&P and/or its affiliates and has been licensed for use by us.

The Notes are not sponsored, endorsed, sold or promoted by S&P Dow Jones Indices LLC, Standard & Poor’s Financial Services LLC or any of their respective affiliates (collectively, “S&P Dow Jones Indices”). S&P Dow Jones Indices make no representation or warranty, express or implied, to the holders of the Notes or any member of the public regarding the advisability of investing in securities generally or in the Notes particularly or the ability of the Reference Asset to track general market performance. S&P Dow Jones Indices’ only relationship to us with respect to the Reference Asset is the licensing of the Reference Asset and certain trademarks, service marks and/or trade names of S&P Dow Jones Indices and/or its third party licensors. The Reference Asset is determined, composed and calculated by S&P Dow Jones Indices without regard to us or the Notes. S&P Dow Jones Indices have no obligation to take our needs or the needs of holders of the Notes into consideration in determining, composing or calculating the Reference Asset. S&P Dow Jones Indices are not responsible for and have not participated in the determination of the prices, and amount of the Notes or the timing of the issuance or sale of the Notes or in the determination or calculation of the equation by which the Notes are to be converted into cash. S&P Dow Jones Indices have no obligation or liability in connection with the administration, marketing or trading of the Notes. There is no assurance that investment products based on the Reference Asset will accurately track index performance or provide positive investment returns. S&P Dow Jones Indices LLC and its subsidiaries are not investment advisors. Inclusion of a security or futures contract within an index is not a recommendation by S&P Dow Jones Indices to buy, sell, or hold such security or futures contract, nor is it considered to be investment advice. Notwithstanding the foregoing, CME Group Inc. and its affiliates may independently issue and/or sponsor financial products unrelated to the Notes currently being issued by us, but which may be similar to and competitive with the Notes. In addition, CME Group Inc. and its affiliates may trade financial products which are linked to the performance of the Reference Asset. It is possible that this trading activity will affect the value of the Notes.

S&P DOW JONES INDICES DO NOT GUARANTEE THE ADEQUACY, ACCURACY, TIMELINESS AND/OR THE COMPLETENESS OF THE REFERENCE ASSET OR ANY DATA RELATED THERETO OR ANY COMMUNICATION, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO, ORAL OR WRITTEN COMMUNICATION (INCLUDING ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATIONS) WITH RESPECT THERETO. S&P DOW JONES INDICES SHALL NOT BE SUBJECT TO ANY DAMAGES OR LIABILITY FOR ANY ERRORS, OMISSIONS, OR DELAYS THEREIN. S&P DOW JONES INDICES MAKE NO EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, AND EXPRESSLY DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES, OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE OR USE OR AS TO RESULTS TO BE OBTAINED BY US, HOLDERS OF THE NOTES, OR ANY OTHER PERSON OR ENTITY FROM THE USE OF THE REFERENCE ASSET OR WITH RESPECT TO ANY DATA RELATED THERETO. WITHOUT LIMITING ANY OF THE FOREGOING, IN NO EVENT WHATSOEVER SHALL S&P DOW JONES INDICES BE LIABLE FOR ANY INDIRECT, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL, PUNITIVE, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO, LOSS OF PROFITS, TRADING LOSSES, LOST TIME OR GOODWILL, EVEN IF THEY HAVE BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, TORT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR OTHERWISE. THERE ARE NO THIRD PARTY BENEFICIARIES OF ANY AGREEMENTS OR ARRANGEMENTS BETWEEN S&P DOW JONES INDICES AND US, OTHER THAN THE LICENSORS OF S&P DOW JONES INDICES.

P-10
RBC Capital Markets, LLC





Digital Notes with Barrier
Linked to the S&P 500® Index

Historical Information
The graph below sets forth the information relating to the historical performance of the Reference Asset for the period from January 1, 2012 through September 1, 2022. We obtained the information in the graph from Bloomberg Financial Markets.
We have not independently verified the accuracy or completeness of the information obtained from Bloomberg Financial Markets. The historical performance of the Reference Asset should not be taken as an indication of its future performance, and no assurance can be given as to the Final Level of the Reference Asset. We cannot give you assurance that the performance of the Reference Asset will result in any positive return on your initial investment.
S&P 500® Index (“SPX”)

PAST PERFORMANCE IS NOT INDICATIVE OF FUTURE RESULTS.

P-11
RBC Capital Markets, LLC





Digital Notes with Barrier
Linked to the S&P 500® Index

SUPPLEMENTAL DISCUSSION OF U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSEQUENCES
The following disclosure supplements, and to the extent inconsistent supersedes, the discussion in the product prospectus supplement dated September 14, 2021 under “Supplemental Discussion of U.S. Federal Income Tax Consequences.”

Under Section 871(m) of the Code, a “dividend equivalent” payment is treated as a dividend from sources within the United States. Such payments generally would be subject to a 30% U.S. withholding tax if paid to a non-U.S. holder.  Under U.S. Treasury Department regulations, payments (including deemed payments) with respect to equity-linked instruments (“ELIs”) that are “specified ELIs” may be treated as dividend equivalents if such specified ELIs reference, directly or indirectly, an interest in an “underlying security,” which is generally any interest in an entity taxable as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes if a payment with respect to such interest could give rise to a U.S. source dividend. However, the IRS has issued guidance that states that the U.S. Treasury Department and the IRS intend to amend the effective dates of the U.S. Treasury Department regulations to provide that withholding on dividend equivalent payments will not apply to specified ELIs that are not delta-one instruments and that are issued before January 1, 2025. Based on our determination that the Notes are not delta-one instruments, non-U.S. holders should not be subject to withholding on dividend equivalent payments, if any, under the Notes. However, it is possible that the Notes could be treated as deemed reissued for U.S. federal income tax purposes upon the occurrence of certain events affecting the Reference Asset or the Notes (for example, upon the Reference Asset rebalancing), and following such occurrence the Notes could be treated as subject to withholding on dividend equivalent payments. Non-U.S. holders that enter, or have entered, into other transactions in respect of the Reference Asset or the Notes should consult their tax advisors as to the application of the dividend equivalent withholding tax in the context of the Notes and their other transactions. If any payments are treated as dividend equivalents subject to withholding, we (or the applicable withholding agent) would be entitled to withhold taxes without being required to pay any additional amounts with respect to amounts so withheld.

P-12
RBC Capital Markets, LLC





Digital Notes with Barrier
Linked to the S&P 500® Index

SUPPLEMENTAL PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION (CONFLICTS OF INTEREST)
We expect that delivery of the Notes will be made against payment for the Notes on or about September 30, 2022, which is the third (3rd) business day following the Trade Date (this settlement cycle being referred to as “T+3”). See “Plan of Distribution” in the prospectus dated September 14, 2021. For additional information as to the relationship between us and RBCCM, please see the section “Plan of Distribution—Conflicts of Interest” in the prospectus dated September 14, 2021.
We expect to deliver the Notes on a date that is greater than two business days following the Trade Date. Under Rule 15c6-1 of the Exchange Act, trades in the secondary market generally are required to settle in two business days, unless the parties to any such trade expressly agree otherwise. Accordingly, purchasers who wish to trade the Notes more than two business days prior to the original issue date will be required to specify alternative settlement arrangements to prevent a failed settlement.
In the initial offering of the Notes, they will be offered to investors at a purchase price equal to par, except with respect to certain accounts as indicated on the cover page of this document. In addition to the underwriting discount set forth on the cover page, we or one of our affiliates may also pay an expected fee to a broker-dealer that is unaffiliated with us for providing certain electronic platform services with respect to this offering.
The value of the Notes shown on your account statement may be based on RBCCM’s estimate of the value of the Notes if RBCCM or another of our affiliates were to make a market in the Notes (which it is not obligated to do). That estimate will be based upon the price that RBCCM may pay for the Notes in light of then prevailing market conditions, our creditworthiness and transaction costs. For a period of approximately 3 months after the issue date of the Notes, the value of the Notes that may be shown on your account statement may be higher than RBCCM’s estimated value of the Notes at that time. This is because the estimated value of the Notes will not include the underwriting discount or our hedging costs and profits; however, the value of the Notes shown on your account statement during that period may initially be a higher amount, reflecting the addition of RBCCM’s underwriting discount and our estimated costs and profits from hedging the Notes. This excess is expected to decrease over time until the end of this period. After this period, if RBCCM repurchases your Notes, it expects to do so at prices that reflect their estimated value.
We may use this terms supplement in the initial sale of the Notes. In addition, RBCCM or another of our affiliates may use this terms supplement in a market-making transaction in the Notes after their initial sale. Unless we or our agent informs the purchaser otherwise in the confirmation of sale, this terms supplement is being used in a market-making transaction.

P-13
RBC Capital Markets, LLC





Digital Notes with Barrier
Linked to the S&P 500® Index

STRUCTURING THE NOTES
The Notes are our debt securities, the return on which is linked to the performance of the Reference Asset.  As is the case for all of our debt securities, including our structured notes, the economic terms of the Notes reflect our actual or perceived creditworthiness at the time of pricing.  In addition, because structured notes result in increased operational, funding and liability management costs to us, we typically borrow the funds under these Notes at a rate that is more favorable to us than the rate that we might pay for a conventional fixed or floating rate debt security of comparable maturity.  Using this relatively lower implied borrowing rate rather than the secondary market rate, is a factor that is likely to reduce the initial estimated value of the Notes at the time their terms are set. Unlike the estimated value that will be included in the final pricing supplement, any value of the Notes determined for purposes of a secondary market transaction may be based on a different funding rate, which may result in a lower value for the Notes than if our initial internal funding rate were used.
In order to satisfy our payment obligations under the Notes, we may choose to enter into certain hedging arrangements (which may include call options, put options or other derivatives) on the issue date with RBCCM or one of our other subsidiaries.  The terms of these hedging arrangements take into account a number of factors, including our creditworthiness, interest rate movements, the volatility of the Reference Asset, and the tenor of the Notes.  The economic terms of the Notes and their initial estimated value depend in part on the terms of these hedging arrangements.
The lower implied borrowing rate is a factor that reduces the economic terms of the Notes to you. The initial offering price of the Notes also reflects the underwriting discount and our estimated hedging costs. These factors result in the initial estimated value for the Notes on the Trade Date being less than their public offering price. See “Selected Risk Considerations—The Initial Estimated Value of the Notes Will Be Less than the Price to the Public” above.


P-14
RBC Capital Markets, LLC



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