Form 497 Collaborative Investment

January 18, 2022 9:03 AM EST

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Rareview Systematic equity ETF

 

Ticker Symbol: RSEE

 

a series of Collaborative Investment Series Trust

 

PROSPECTUS

 

January 19, 2022

 

Investment Adviser

 

Rareview Capital LLC

 

1980 Festival Plaza Drive, Suite 300

 

Las Vegas, NV 89135

 

www.rareviewcapital.com

 

This Prospectus provides important information about the Fund that you should know before investing. Please read it carefully and keep it for future reference.

 

These securities have not been approved or disapproved by the Securities and Exchange Commission nor has the Securities and Exchange Commission passed upon the accuracy or adequacy of this Prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

Principal U.S. Listing Exchange: Cboe BZX Exchange, Inc.

 

 

 

Table of Contents

 

FUND SUMMARY - RAREVIEW SYSTEMATIC EQUITY ETF 1
ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ABOUT PRINCIPAL INVESTMENT STRATEGIES AND RELATED RISKS 6
Investment Objective 6
Principal Investment Strategies 6
Principal Investment Risks 7
Portfolio Holdings Disclosure 10
Cybersecurity 10
MANAGEMENT 10
Investment Adviser 10
Portfolio Manager 10
HOW SHARES ARE PRICED 11
HOW TO BUY AND SELL SHARES 12
FREQUENT PURCHASES AND REDEMPTIONS OF FUND SHARES 13
DISTRIBUTION AND SERVICE PLAN 13
DIVIDENDS, OTHER DISTRIBUTIONS AND TAXES 13
FUND SERVICE PROVIDERS 15
OTHER INFORMATION 15
FINANCIAL HIGHLIGHTS 16
Privacy Notice 17

 

 

 

 

FUND SUMMARY - RAREVIEW SYSTEMATIC EQUITY ETF

 

 

Investment Objective:

The Rareview Systematic Equity ETF seeks returns that exceed global developed and emerging markets equities.

 

Fees and Expenses of the Fund:

This table describes the fees and expenses that you may pay if you buy, hold, and sell shares of the Fund. Investors purchasing or selling shares of the Fund in the secondary market may be subject to costs (including customary brokerage commissions) charged by their broker. These costs are not included in the expense example below.

 

Annual Fund Operating Expenses  
(expenses that you pay each year
as a percentage of the value of your investment)
   
Management Fees 0.85%
Distribution and Service (12b-1) Fees 0.00%
Other Expenses(1) 0.15%
Acquired Fund Fees and Expenses(1, 2) 0.12%
Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses 1.12%
Fee Waiver and/or Expense Reimbursement(3) (0.03%)

Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses 

After Fee Waiver 

1.09%

 

(1)Based on estimates for the current fiscal year.

 

(2)Acquired Fund Fees and Expenses are the indirect costs of investing in other investment companies. The operating expenses in this fee table will not correlate to the expense ratio in the Fund’s financial highlights because the financial statements include only the direct operating expenses incurred by the Fund.

 

(3)Rareview Capital LLC (“Rareview,” or, the “Adviser”) has contractually agreed to waive a portion or all of its management fees and/or reimburse Fund expenses (excluding front-end or contingent deferred loads, Rule 12b-1 fees, shareholder servicing fees, acquired fund fees and expenses, taxes, leverage/borrowing interest, interest expense, dividends on securities sold short, brokerage or other transactional expenses and extraordinary expenses) in order to limit the Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses to 0.97% of average daily net assets of each share class of the Fund (the “Expense Cap”). The Expense Cap will remain in effect through at least January 31, 2023 and may be terminated at any time upon 60 days’ written notice by the Trust’s Board of Trustees (the “Board”) . The Adviser may request recoupment of previously waived fees and reimbursed expenses from the Fund for three years from the date they were waived or reimbursed, provided that after payment of the recoupment, the Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses do not exceed the lesser of the Expense Limitation Agreement: (i) in effect at the time of the waiver or reimbursement, or (ii) in effect at the time of recoupment.

 

Example:

This Example is intended to help you compare the cost of investing in the Fund with the cost of investing in mutual funds and other exchange traded funds.

 

The Example assumes that you invest $10,000 in the Fund for the time periods indicated and then redeem all of your shares at the end of those periods. The Example also assumes that your investment has a 5% return each year and that the Fund’s operating expenses remain the same. The Example further assumes that the Fund’s operating expense limitation agreement will only be in place for the term specified above. Although your actual costs may be higher or lower, based upon these assumptions your costs would be:

 

1 Year 3 Years
$111 $353

 

Portfolio Turnover:

The Fund pays transaction costs, such as commissions, when it buys and sells securities (or “turns over” its portfolio). A higher portfolio turnover rate may indicate higher transaction costs and may result in higher taxes when Fund shares are held in a taxable account. These costs, which are not reflected in annual fund operating expenses or in the Example, affect the Fund’s performance. Because the Fund commenced operation on or following the date of this prospectus, the Fund has no reportable portfolio turnover rate.

 

 

 

Principal Investment Strategies:

The Fund is an actively managed exchange-traded fund that seeks to achieve its investment objective by investing in exchange traded funds that primarily invest in equity securities of domestic, foreign or emerging market issuers of any market capitalization (“Underlying Equity ETFs”). Under normal circumstances, the Fund invests at least 80% of its net assets (plus any amounts of borrowings) in Underlying Equity ETFs.

 

In investing in Underlying Equity ETFs, the Fund seeks investment exposure to one or more of the following equity sub-strategies: (1) U.S Large Capitalization, (2) U.S. Small Capitalization, (3) Emerging Markets, or (4) Non-U.S. Developed Markets securities (each a “sub-strategy and collectively, the “sub-strategies”).

 

U.S. Large Capitalization. The Fund considers a large capitalization securities to be those companies with market capitalizations of $10 billion or more.

 

U.S. Small Capitalization. The Fund defines small capitalization companies as those at time of purchase with market capitalizations below $3 billion or in the range of those market capitalizations of companies included in the Russell 2000 Index at the time of purchase.

 

Emerging Markets. The Fund considers an emerging market country to include any country that is (1) generally recognized to be an emerging market country by the international financial community, including the World Bank; (2) classified by the United Nations as a developing country; or (3) included in the MSCI Emerging Markets Index. The adviser determines that an investment is tied economically to an emerging market if such investment satisfies one or more of the following conditions: (1) the issuer’s primary trading market is in an emerging market; (2) the issuer is organized under the laws of, derives at least 50% of its revenue from, or has at least 50% of its assets in emerging markets; (3) the investment is included in an index representative of emerging markets; and (4) the investment is exposed to the economic risks and returns of emerging markets.

 

Non U.S. Developed Markets. The Fund defines a developed ex-US ETF as one that is comprised of large-, mid-and small-capitalization developed market equities, excluding the U.S. and Canada.

 

In managing the Fund’s assets, the adviser utilizes the sub-adviser’s quantitative investment system. The sub-adviser’s proprietary system uses multiple data sets, including price, market volatility, and changes in U.S. credit markets and algorithms to determine how to allocate the Fund’s portfolio amongst the sub-strategies. When the sub-adviser’s quantitative investment system indicates a positive return for the strategy, the Fund will invest up to 133% of the Fund’s portfolio in the Underlying Equity ETFs and equity index futures contracts that represent the sub-strategies. When the sub-adviser’s quantitative investment system indicates a negative return, the adviser will use equity index futures contracts to provide short investment exposure to the applicable sub-strategy. There may be instances when the sub-adviser’s quantitative investment system indicates a negative return for all four sub-strategies, which will result in the Fund’s assets being primarily invested in cash or cash equivalents. The Fund will use futures to increase the Fund’s combined long and short exposure. The use of futures creates leverage, which can magnify the Fund’s potential for gain or loss and, therefore, may amplify the effects of market volatility on the Fund’s net asset value.

 

Principal Investment Risks:

 

As with all funds, there is the risk that you could lose money through your investment in the Fund. Many factors affect the Fund’s net asset value and price of shares and performance.

 

The following describes the risks the Fund bears with respect to its investments. As with any fund, there is no guarantee that the Fund will achieve its goal.

 

Active Management Risk. The Fund is actively managed using proprietary investment strategies and processes. There can be no guarantee that these strategies and processes will be successful.

 

Cash and Cash Equivalents. The Fund may hold cash or cash equivalents. Generally, such positions offer less potential for gain than other investments. Holding cash or cash equivalents, even strategically, may lead to missed investment opportunities. This is particularly true when the market for other investments in which the Fund may invest is rapidly rising. If the Fund holds cash uninvested it will be subject to the credit risk of the depositing institution holding the cash.

 

Derivatives Risk. The Fund may be subject to the risks of investing in derivative instruments. The value of a derivative may not move as expected relative to the value of the relevant underlying assets, rates, or indices. Derivatives can be highly volatile and illiquid and may entail investment exposure greater than the total value of the derivatives’ underlying assets (their “notional amount”).

 

 

 

Futures. Futures contracts markets are highly volatile and are influenced by a variety of factors, including national and international political and economic developments. Investing in futures usually exposes investors in a greater degree of leverage than other investments. As a result, a relatively small price movement in a futures contract may result in substantial losses to the Fund.

 

Early Close/Trading Halt Risk. An exchange or market may close or issue trading halts on specific securities, or the ability to buy or sell certain securities or financial instruments may be restricted, which may prevent the Fund from buying or selling certain securities or financial instruments. In these circumstances, the Fund may be unable to rebalance its portfolio, may be unable to accurately price its investments and may incur substantial trading losses.

 

Emerging Markets Risk. Investing in emerging markets involves not only the risks described below with respect to investing in foreign securities, but also other risks, including exposure to economic structures that are generally less diverse and mature, limited availability and reliability of information material to an investment decision, and exposure to political systems that can be expected to have less stability than those of developed countries. The market for the securities of issuers in emerging markets typically is small, and a low or nonexistent trading volume in those securities may result in a lack of liquidity and price volatility.

 

Equity Risk. The net asset value of the Fund will fluctuate based on changes in the value of the equity securities held by the Fund. Equity prices can fall rapidly in response to developments affecting a specific company or industry, or to changing economic, political or market conditions.

 

ETF Structure Risks. The Fund is structured as an ETF and as a result is subject to special risks, including:

 

Not Individually Redeemable. The Fund’s shares (“Shares”) are not redeemable by retail investors and may be redeemed only by Authorized Participants at net asset value (“NAV”) and only in Creation Units. A retail investor generally incurs brokerage costs when selling shares.

 

No Guarantee of Active Trading Market. While Shares are listed on the Exchange, there can be no assurance that an active trading market for the Shares will be maintained. Further, secondary markets may be subject to irregular trading activity, wide bid/ask spreads and extended trade settlement periods in times of market stress because market makers and APs may step away from making a market in the Shares and in executing creation and redemption orders, which could cause a material deviation in the Fund’s market price from its NAV.

 

Trading Issues. Trading in Shares on the CBOE BZX Exchange, Inc. (the “Exchange”) may be halted due to market conditions or for reasons that, in the view of the Exchange, make trading in Shares inadvisable, such as extraordinary market volatility. There can be no assurance that Shares will continue to meet the listing requirements of the Exchange which may result in the Shares being delisted. An active trading market for the Shares may not be developed or maintained. If the Shares are traded outside a collateralized settlement system, the number of financial institutions that can act as Authorized Participants that can post collateral on an agency basis is limited, which may limit the market for the Shares.

 

Market Price Variance Risk. The market prices of Shares will fluctuate in response to changes in NAV and supply and demand for Shares and will include a “bid-ask spread” charged by the exchange specialists, market makers or other participants that trade the Shares. There may be times when the market price and the NAV vary significantly. This means that Shares may trade at a discount to NAV.

 

In times of market stress, market makers may step away from their role market making in the Shares and in executing trades, which can lead to differences between the market value of the Shares and the Fund’s NAV.

 

The market price of the Shares may deviate from the Fund’s NAV, particularly during times of market stress, with the result that investors may pay significantly more or significantly less the Shares than the Fund’s NAV, which is reflected in the bid and ask price for the Shares or in the closing price.

 

In stressed market conditions, the market for the Shares may become less liquid in response to the deteriorating liquidity of the Fund’s portfolio. This adverse effect on the liquidity of the Shares may, in turn, lead to differences between the market value of the Shares and the Fund’s NAV.

 

 

 

Authorized Participant Risk. Only an Authorized Participant may engage in creation or redemption transactions directly with the Fund. The Fund has a limited number of institutions that may act as an Authorized Participant on an agency basis (i.e., on behalf of other market participants). To the extent that Authorized Participants exit the business or are unable to proceed with creation or redemption orders with respect to the Fund and no other Authorized Participant is able to step forward to create or redeem Creation Units, Fund shares may be more likely to trade at a premium or discount to net asset value and possibly face trading halts or delisting. Authorized Participant concentration risk may be heightened for securities or instruments that have lower trading volumes.

 

Foreign Investment Risk. The Fund may invest in securities domiciled in countries outside the U.S. and Canada that may experience more rapid and extreme changes in value than a fund that invests exclusively in securities of U.S. and Canadian companies. These companies may be subject to additional risks, including political and economic risks, civil conflicts and war, greater volatility, expropriation and nationalization risks, currency fluctuations, higher transaction costs, delayed settlement, and less stringent investor protection and disclosure standards than those of U.S. and Canadian markets. 

 

Large Capitalization Risk. Large-capitalization companies may be less able than smaller capitalization companies to adapt to changing market conditions. Large-capitalization companies may be more mature and subject to more limited growth potential compared with smaller capitalization companies. During different market cycles, the performance of large capitalization companies has trailed the overall performance of the broader securities markets.

 

Leverage Risk. The use of leverage by the Fund, such as the use of options, will cause the Fund to incur additional expenses and magnify the Fund’s gains or losses.

 

Management Style Risk. Different types of securities tend to shift into and out of favor with investors depending on market and economic conditions. The returns from the types of investments purchased by the Fund may at times be better or worse than the returns from other types of funds. Each type of investment tends to go through cycles of performing better or worse than the market in general. The performance of the Fund may thus be better or worse than the performance of funds that focus on other types of investments, or that have a broader investment style.

 

Market and Geopolitical Risk. The increasing interconnectivity between global economies and financial markets increases the likelihood that events or conditions in one region or financial market may adversely impact issuers in a different country, region or financial market. Securities in the Fund’s portfolios may underperform due to inflation (or expectations for inflation), interest rates, global demand for particular products or resources, natural disasters, pandemics, epidemics, terrorism, regulatory events and governmental or quasi-governmental actions. The occurrence of global events similar to those in recent years may result in market volatility and may have long term effects on both the U.S. and global financial markets. An outbreak of an infectious respiratory illness caused by a novel coronavirus known as COVID-19 has negatively affected the worldwide economy, as well as the economies of individual countries, including the United States, the financial health of consumers, borrowers, individual companies and the market in general in significant and unforeseen ways. The future impact of COVID-19 is currently unknown, and it may exacerbate other risks that apply to the Fund. Any such impact could adversely affect the Fund’s performance, and the performance, liquidity, credit quality and financial underpinnings of the securities in which the Fund invests, and may lead to losses on your investment in the Fund.

 

Model Risk. Like all quantitative analysis, the Adviser’s investment model carries a risk that the mathematical model used might be based on one or more incorrect assumptions. Rapidly changing and unforeseen market dynamics could also lead to a decrease in short term effectiveness of the adviser’s mathematical model. No assurance can be given that the fund will be successful under all or any market conditions.

 

Operational Risk. The Fund is exposed to operational risk arising from a number of factors, including, but not limited to, human error, processing and communication errors, errors of the Fund’s service providers, counterparties or other third parties, failed or inadequate processes and technology or system failures.

 

Small and Medium Capitalization Risk. The earnings and prospects of small and medium sized companies are more volatile than larger companies and may experience higher failure rates than larger companies. Small and medium sized companies normally have a lower trading volume than larger companies, which may tend to make their market price fall more disproportionately than larger companies in response to selling pressures and may have limited markets, product lines, or financial resources and lack management experience.

 

Underlying Fund Risk. ETFs in which the Fund invests are subject to investment advisory and other expenses, which will be indirectly paid by the Fund. As a result, the cost of investing in the Fund will be higher than the cost of investing directly in the ETFs and may be higher than other funds that invest directly in stocks and bonds. Each of the ETFs is subject to its own specific risks, but the adviser expects the principal investments risks of such ETFs will be similar to the risks of investing in the Fund.

 

 

 

Investment Adviser: Rareview Capital LLC (the “Adviser”).

 

Investment Sub-Adviser: GST Management, LLC (the “Sub-Adviser”).

 

Portfolio Managers: Neil Azous, Chief Investment Officer and Portfolio Manager of the Adviser, serves as the Fund’s Portfolio Manager and is primarily responsible for the day-to-day management of the Fund.

 

Purchase and Sale of Fund Shares: The Fund will issue and redeem Shares at NAV only in large blocks of 25,000 Shares (each block of Shares is called a “Creation Unit”). Creation Units are issued and redeemed primarily for in-kind for securities. Individual Shares may only be purchased and sold in secondary market transactions through brokers. Except when aggregated in Creation Units in transactions with Authorized Participants, the Shares are not redeemable securities of the Fund.

 

Shares of the Fund are listed for trading on the Exchange and trade at market prices rather than NAV. Shares of the Fund may trade at a price that is greater than, at, or less than NAV.

 

Tax Information: Dividends and capital gain distributions you receive from the Fund, whether you reinvest your distributions in additional Fund shares or receive them in cash, are taxable to you at either ordinary income or capital gains tax rates unless you are investing through a tax-free plan. If you are investing through a tax-free plan, you will be taxed upon withdrawal from your account.

 

Payments to Broker-Dealers and Other Financial Intermediaries: If you purchase the Fund through a broker-dealer or other financial intermediary (such as a bank), the Fund and its related companies may pay the intermediary for the sale of Fund shares and related services. These payments may create a conflict of interest by influencing the broker-dealer or other intermediary and your salesperson to recommend the Fund over another investment. Ask your salesperson or visit your financial intermediary’s website for more information.

 

 

 

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ABOUT PRINCIPAL INVESTMENT STRATEGIES AND RELATED RISKS

 

 

Investment Objective:

 

Fund Investment Objective
Rareview Systematic Equity ETF (the “Fund”) The Fund seeks returns that exceed global developed and emerging markets equities.

 

The Fund’s investment objective may be changed by the Board of Trustees upon 60 days’ written notice to shareholders. The Fund has adopted a non-fundamental policy to invest at least 80% of the Fund’s assets in equity securities. This non-fundamental policy may be changed upon 60 days’ written notice to shareholders.

 

Principal Investment Strategies:

 

The Fund is an actively managed exchange-traded fund that seeks to achieve its investment objective by investing in exchange traded funds that primarily invest in equity securities of domestic, foreign or emerging market issuers of any market capitalization (“Underlying Equity ETFs”). Under normal circumstances, the Fund invests at least 80% of its net assets (plus any amounts of borrowings) in Underlying Equity ETFs.

 

In investing in Underlying Equity ETFs, the Fund seeks investment exposure to one or more of the following equity sub-strategies: (1) U.S Large Capitalization, (2) U.S. Small Capitalization, (3) Emerging Markets, or (4) Non-U.S. Developed Markets securities (each a “sub-strategy and collectively, the “sub-strategies”).

 

U.S. Large Capitalization. The Fund considers a large capitalization securities to be those companies with market capitalizations of $10 billion or more.

 

U.S. Small Capitalization. The Fund defines small capitalization companies as those at time of purchase with market capitalizations below $3 billion or in the range of those market capitalizations of companies included in the Russell 2000 Index at the time of purchase.

 

Emerging Markets. The Fund considers an emerging market country to include any country that is (1) generally recognized to be an emerging market country by the international financial community, including the World Bank; (2) classified by the United Nations as a developing country; or (3) included in the MSCI Emerging Markets Index. The adviser determines that an investment is tied economically to an emerging market if such investment satisfies one or more of the following conditions: (1) the issuer’s primary trading market is in an emerging market; (2) the issuer is organized under the laws of, derives at least 50% of its revenue from, or has at least 50% of its assets in emerging markets; (3) the investment is included in an index representative of emerging markets; and (4) the investment is exposed to the economic risks and returns of emerging markets.

 

Non U.S. Developed Markets. The Fund defines a developed ex-US ETF as one that is comprised of large-, mid-and small-capitalization developed market equities, excluding the U.S. and Canada.

 

In managing the Fund’s assets, the adviser utilizes the sub-adviser’s quantitative investment system. The sub-adviser’s proprietary system uses multiple data sets, including price, market volatility, and changes in U.S. credit markets, and algorithms to determine how to allocate the Fund’s portfolio amongst the sub-strategies. When the sub-adviser’s quantitative investment system indicates a positive return for the strategy, the Fund will invest up to 133% of the Fund’s portfolio in the Underlying Equity ETFs and equity index futures contracts that represent the sub-strategies. When the sub-adviser’s quantitative investment system indicates a negative return, the adviser will use equity index futures contracts to provide short investment exposure to the applicable sub-strategy. There may be instances when the sub-adviser’s quantitative investment system indicates a negative return for all four sub-strategies, which will result in the Fund’s assets being primarily invested in cash or cash equivalents. The Fund will use futures to increase the Fund’s combined long and short exposure. The use of futures creates leverage, which can magnify the Fund’s potential for gain or loss and, therefore, may amplify the effects of market volatility on the Fund’s net asset value.

 

 

 

Principal Investment Risks:

 

The following describes the risks born by the Fund with respect to its investments.

 

Active Management Risk. The Fund is actively managed using proprietary investment strategies and processes. There can be no guarantee that these strategies and processes will be successful.

 

Cash and Cash Equivalents Risk. The Fund may hold cash or cash equivalents. Generally, such positions offer less potential for gain than other investments. Holding cash or cash equivalents, even strategically, may lead to missed investment opportunities. This is particularly true when the market for other investments in which the Fund may invest is rapidly rising. If the Fund holds cash uninvested it will be subject to the credit risk of the depositing institution holding the cash.

 

Derivatives Risk. Through its hedging strategies or through its investments in other funds, the Fund may be subject to the risks of investing in derivative securities. The use of derivatives involves the risk that their value may not move as expected relative to the value of the relevant underlying assets, rates, or indices. The Fund may invest in derivatives for hedging purposes. Hedging against a decline in the value of a portfolio position does not eliminate fluctuations in the values of portfolio positions or prevent losses if the values of such positions decline, but establishes other positions designed to gain from those same developments, thus potentially offsetting a decline in the portfolio position’s value. Such hedging transactions also limit the opportunity for gain if the value of the portfolio position should increase. Moreover, it may not be possible for the Fund to hedge against an exchange rate, interest rate or security price fluctuation that is so generally anticipated that the Fund is not able to enter into a hedging transaction at a price sufficient to protect its assets from the decline in value of the portfolio positions anticipated as a result of such fluctuations.

 

The Fund is not required to attempt to hedge portfolio positions and, for various reasons, may determine not to do so. Furthermore, the Fund may not anticipate a particular risk so as to hedge against it. While the Fund may enter into hedging transactions to seek to reduce risk, such transactions may result in a poorer overall performance for the Fund than if the Fund had not engaged in any such hedging transaction. In addition, the degree of correlation between price movements of the instruments used in a hedging strategy and price movements in the portfolio position being hedged may vary. For a variety of reasons, the Fund may not seek to establish a perfect correlation between such hedging instruments and the portfolio holdings being hedged. Such imperfect correlation may prevent the Fund from achieving the intended hedge or expose the Fund to risk of loss. The successful utilization of hedging and risk management transactions requires skills complementary to those needed in the selection of the Fund’s portfolio holdings.

 

Derivatives can be volatile. Volatility is defined as the characteristic of a security, an index or a market to fluctuate significantly in price within a short time period. Fluctuations in a derivative’s value may not correlate with the overall securities markets. Derivatives may be subject to liquidity and counterparty credit risk and may entail investment exposure greater than their notional amount. Future regulation of the derivatives markets may make derivatives more costly, may limit the availability of derivatives, or may otherwise adversely affect the value or performance of derivatives.

 

Futures. Futures contracts markets are highly volatile and are influenced by a variety of factors, including national and international political and economic developments. In addition, because of the low margin deposits normally required in futures trading, a high degree of leverage is typical of a futures trading account. As a result, a relatively small price movement in a futures contract may result in substantial losses to the Fund. Moreover, futures positions are marked to market each day and variation margin payment must be paid to or by the Fund. Positions in futures contracts may be closed out only on the exchange on which they were entered into or through a linked exchange, and no secondary market exists for such contracts. Although the Fund typically will enter into futures contracts only if an active market exists for the contracts, no assurance can be given that an active market will exist for the contracts at any particular time. Certain futures exchanges do not permit trading in particular futures contracts at prices that represent a fluctuation in price during a single day’s trading beyond certain set limits. If prices fluctuate during a single day’s trading beyond those limits, the Fund could be prevented from promptly liquidating unfavorable positions and thus be subjected to substantial losses.

 

Early Close/Trading Halt Risk. An exchange or market may close or issue trading halts on specific securities, or the ability to buy or sell certain securities or financial instruments may be restricted, which may prevent the Fund from buying or selling certain securities or financial instruments. In these circumstances, the Fund may be unable to rebalance its portfolio, may be unable to accurately price its investments and may incur substantial trading losses.

 

 

 

Emerging Markets Risk. The Fund may invest in countries with newly organized or less developed securities markets. Investments in emerging markets typically involves greater risks than investing in more developed markets. Generally, economic structures in these countries are less diverse and mature than those in developed countries and their political systems tend to be less stable. Emerging market countries may have different regulatory, accounting, auditing, and financial reporting and record keeping standards and may have material limitations on PCAOB inspection, investigation, and enforcement. Therefore, the availability and reliability of information, particularly financial information, material to an investment decision in emerging market companies may be limited in scope and reliability as compared to information provided by U.S. companies. Emerging market economies may be based on only a few industries. As a result, security issuers, including governments, may be more susceptible to economic weakness and more likely to default. Emerging market countries also may have relatively unstable governments, weaker economies, and less-developed legal systems with fewer security holder rights. Investments in emerging markets countries may be affected by government policies that restrict foreign investment in certain issuers or industries. The potentially smaller size of securities markets in emerging market countries and lower trading volumes can make investments relatively illiquid and potentially more volatile than investments in developed countries, and such securities may be subject to abrupt and severe price declines. Due to this relative lack of liquidity, the Fund may have to accept a lower price or may not be able to sell a portfolio security at all. An inability to sell a portfolio position can adversely affect the Fund’s value or prevent the Fund from being able to meet cash obligations or take advantage of other investment opportunities.

 

Equity Risk. Equity securities are susceptible to general stock market fluctuations and to volatile increases and decreases in value. The equity securities held by the Fund may experience sudden, unpredictable drops in value or long periods of decline in value. This may occur because of factors affecting securities markets generally, the equity securities of a particular sector, or a particular company.

 

ETF Structure Risks. The Fund is structured as an ETF and as a result is subject to special risks, including:

 

Not Individually Redeemable. The Fund’s shares (“Shares”) are not redeemable by retail investors and may be redeemed only by Authorized Participants at net asset value (“NAV”) and only in Creation Units. A retail investor generally incurs brokerage costs when selling shares.

 

No Guarantee of Active Trading Market. While Shares are listed on the Exchange, there can be no assurance that an active trading market for the Shares will be maintained. Further, secondary markets may be subject to irregular trading activity, wide bid/ask spreads and extended trade settlement periods in times of market stress because market makers and APs may step away from making a market in the Shares and in executing creation and redemption orders, which could cause a material deviation in the Fund’s market price from its NAV.

 

Trading Issues. Trading in Shares on the CBOE BZX Exchange, Inc. (the “Exchange”) may be halted due to market conditions or for reasons that, in the view of the Exchange, make trading in Shares inadvisable, such as extraordinary market volatility. There can be no assurance that Shares will continue to meet the listing requirements of the Exchange which may result in the Shares being delisted. An active trading market for the Shares may not be developed or maintained. If the Shares are traded outside a collateralized settlement system, the number of financial institutions that can act as Authorized Participants that can post collateral on an agency basis is limited, which may limit the market for the Shares.

 

Market Price Variance Risk. The market prices of Shares will fluctuate in response to changes in NAV and supply and demand for Shares and will include a “bid-ask spread” charged by the exchange specialists, market makers or other participants that trade the Shares. There may be times when the market price and the NAV vary significantly. This means that Shares may trade at a discount to NAV.

 

In times of market stress, market makers may step away from their role market making in the Shares and in executing trades, which can lead to differences between the market value of the Shares and the Fund’s NAV.

 

The market price of the Shares may deviate from the Fund’s NAV, particularly during times of market stress, with the result that investors may pay significantly more or significantly less the Shares than the Fund’s NAV, which is reflected in the bid and ask price for the Shares or in the closing price.

 

In stressed market conditions, the market for the Shares may become less liquid in response to the deteriorating liquidity of the Fund’s portfolio. This adverse effect on the liquidity of the Shares may, in turn, lead to differences between the market value of the Shares and the Fund’s NAV.

 

 

 

Authorized Participant Risk. Only an Authorized Participant may engage in creation or redemption transactions directly with the Fund. The Fund has a limited number of institutions that may act as an Authorized Participant on an agency basis (i.e., on behalf of other market participants). To the extent that Authorized Participants exit the business or are unable to proceed with creation or redemption orders with respect to the Fund and no other Authorized Participant is able to step forward to create or redeem Creation Units, Fund shares may be more likely to trade at a premium or discount to net asset value and possibly face trading halts or delisting. Authorized Participant concentration risk may be heightened for securities or instruments that have lower trading volumes.

 

Foreign Investment Risk. The Fund may invest in securities domiciled in countries outside the U.S. and Canada that may experience more rapid and extreme changes in value than a fund that invests exclusively in securities of U.S. and Canadian companies. These companies may be subject to additional risks, including political and economic risks, civil conflicts and war, greater volatility, expropriation and nationalization risks, currency fluctuations, higher transaction costs, delayed settlement, and less stringent investor protection and disclosure standards than those of U.S. and Canadian markets. The potential departure of one or more other countries from the European Union could have significant political and financial consequences for global markets. 

 

Large Capitalization Risk. Large-capitalization companies may be less able than smaller capitalization companies to adapt to changing market conditions. Large-capitalization companies may be more mature and subject to more limited growth potential compared with smaller capitalization companies. During different market cycles, the performance of large capitalization companies has trailed the overall performance of the broader securities markets.

 

Leverage Risk. Using derivatives can create leverage, which can amplify the effects of market volatility on the Fund’s share price and make the Fund’s returns more volatile. The use of leverage may cause the Fund to liquidate portfolio positions when it would not be advantageous to do so in order to satisfy its obligations. The use of leverage may also cause the Fund to have higher expenses than those of other funds that do not use such techniques.

 

Management Style Risk. Different types of securities tend to shift into and out of favor with investors depending on market and economic conditions. The returns from the types of investments purchased by the Fund may at times be better or worse than the returns from other types of funds. Each type of investment tends to go through cycles of performing better or worse than the market in general. The performance of the Fund may thus be better or worse than the performance of funds that focus on other types of investments, or that have a broader investment style.

 

Market and Geopolitical Risk. The increasing interconnectivity between global economies and financial markets increases the likelihood that events or conditions in one region or financial market may adversely impact issuers in a different country, region or financial market. Securities in the Fund’s portfolio may underperform due to inflation (or expectations for inflation), interest rates, global demand for particular products or resources, natural disasters, pandemics, epidemics, terrorism, regulatory events and governmental or quasi-governmental actions. The occurrence of global events similar to those in recent years may result in market volatility and may have long term effects on both the U.S. and global financial markets. An outbreak of an infectious respiratory illness caused by a novel coronavirus known as COVID-19 has negatively affected the worldwide economy, as well as the economies of individual countries, including the United States, the financial health of consumers, borrowers, individual companies and the market in general in significant and unforeseen ways. The future impact of COVID-19 is currently unknown, and it may exacerbate other risks that apply to the Fund. Any such impact could adversely affect the Fund’s performance, and the performance, liquidity, credit quality and financial underpinnings of the securities in which the Fund invests, and may lead to losses on your investment in the Fund.

 

Model Risk. Like all quantitative analysis, the Adviser’s investment model carries a risk that the mathematical model used might be based on one or more incorrect assumptions. Rapidly changing and unforeseen market dynamics could also lead to a decrease in short term effectiveness of the adviser’s mathematical model. No assurance can be given that the fund will be successful under all or any market conditions.

 

Operational Risk. The Fund is exposed to operational risk arising from a number of factors, including, but not limited to, human error, processing and communication errors, errors of the Fund’s service providers, counterparties or other third parties, failed or inadequate processes and technology or system failures.

 

Small and Medium Capitalization Risk. The stocks of small and medium capitalization companies involve substantial risk. These companies may have limited product lines, markets or financial resources, and they may be dependent on a limited management group. Stocks of these companies may be subject to more abrupt or erratic market movements than those of larger, more established companies or the market averages in general.

 

 

 

Underlying Fund Risk. ETFs in which the Fund invests are subject to investment advisory and other expenses, which will be indirectly paid by the Fund. As a result, the cost of investing in the Fund will be higher than the cost of investing directly in the Underlying Funds and may be higher than other funds that invest directly in stocks and bonds. Each of the ETFs is subject to its own specific risks, but the adviser expects the principal investments risks of such ETFs will be similar to the risks of investing in the Fund.

 

TEMPORARY DEFENSIVE POSITIONS: The Fund may, from time to time, take temporary or defensive positions that are inconsistent with the Fund’s principal investment strategies in an attempt to respond to adverse or unstable market, economic, political, or other conditions, when the Adviser deems it appropriate to do so. During such an unusual set of circumstances, the Fund may hold up to 100% of its portfolio in cash or cash equivalent positions. Cash equivalents are highly liquid, short-term securities, such as commercial paper, time deposits, certificates of deposit, short-term notes and short-term U.S. Government obligations. When the Fund takes a temporary or defensive position, the Fund may not be able to pursue or achieve its investment objective and could miss favorable market developments.

 

Portfolio Holdings Disclosure: A description of the Fund’s policies and procedures regarding the release of portfolio holdings information is available in the Fund’s Statement of Additional Information (“SAI”).

 

Cybersecurity: The computer systems, networks and devices used by the Fund and its service providers to carry out routine business operations employ a variety of protections designed to prevent damage or interruption from computer viruses, network failures, computer and telecommunication failures, infiltration by unauthorized persons and security breaches. Despite the various protections utilized by the Fund and its service providers, systems, networks, or devices potentially can be breached. The Fund and its shareholders could be negatively impacted as a result of a cybersecurity breach.

 

Cybersecurity breaches can include unauthorized access to systems, networks, or devices; infection from computer viruses or other malicious software code; and attacks that shut down, disable, slow, or otherwise disrupt operations, business processes, or website access or functionality. Cybersecurity breaches may cause disruptions and impact the Fund’s business operations, potentially resulting in financial losses; interference with the Fund’s ability to calculate its NAV; impediments to trading; the inability of the Fund, the Adviser, and other service providers to transact business; violations of applicable privacy and other laws; regulatory fines, penalties, reputational damage, reimbursement or other compensation costs, or additional compliance costs; as well as the inadvertent release of confidential information.

 

Similar adverse consequences could result from cybersecurity breaches affecting issuers of securities in which the Fund invests; counterparties with which the Fund engages in transactions; governmental and other regulatory authorities; exchange and other financial market operators, banks, brokers, dealers, insurance companies, and other financial institutions (including financial intermediaries and service providers for the Fund’s shareholders); and other parties. In addition, substantial costs may be incurred by these entities in order to prevent any cybersecurity breaches in the future.

 

MANAGEMENT

 

 

Investment Adviser: Rareview Capital LLC, located at 1980 Festival Plaza Drive, Suite 300, Las Vegas, NV 89135. The Adviser is an SEC-registered investment advisory firm formed in 2016, and as of September 30, 2021 had approximately $145 million in assets under management.

 

Subject to the oversight of the Board, the Adviser is responsible for the day-to-day management of the Fund in accordance with the Fund’s investment objective and policies. The Adviser also furnishes the Fund with office space and certain administrative services and provides most of the personnel needed to fulfill its obligations under its investment advisory agreement. For its services, the Fund pays the Adviser a monthly management fee that is calculated at the annual rate of 0.85% of the Fund’s average daily net assets.

 

In addition, the Adviser has contractually agreed to waive a portion or all of its management fees and/or reimburse the Fund’s expenses until at least January 31, 2023, to ensure that Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses after fee waiver and/or expense reimbursement (excluding front-end or contingent deferred loads, Rule 12b-1 fees, shareholder servicing fees, acquired fund fees and expenses, taxes, leverage/borrowing interest, interest expense, dividends on securities sold short, brokerage or other transactional expenses and extraordinary expenses) will not exceed 0.97% of the daily average net assets of the Fund (the “Expense Cap”). The Expense Cap will remain in effect through at least January 31, 2023, and may be terminated at any time upon 60 days’ written notice by the Board of Trustees (the “Board”). The Adviser may request recoupment of previously waived fees and reimbursed Fund expenses from the applicable Fund for three years from the date they were waived or reimbursed, provided that after payment of the recoupment, the Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses do not exceed the lesser of the Expense Cap: (i) in effect at the time of the waiver or reimbursement; or (ii) in effect at the time of recoupment.

 

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A discussion regarding the Board’s approval of the Adviser’s management agreement will be available in the Fund’s semi-annual report to shareholders dated March 31, 2022.

 

Investment SUB-Adviser:

 

GST Management, LLC (the “Sub-Adviser”), located at 9 East 96th Street, 9B, New York, NY 10128, serves as sub-adviser to the Fund. Subject to the oversight of the Board and Adviser, the Sub-Adviser is responsible for providing proprietary signals to the Adviser. The Sub-Adviser was established in 2017 for the purpose of creating model portfolios. The Sub-Adviser is paid by the Adviser, not the Fund.

 

Portfolio Manager

 

The Fund’s portfolio is managed on a day-to-day basis by Neil Azous, who has served as the portfolio manager of the Fund since its inception in January 2022.

 

Mr. Azous is the Founder, Managing Member, and Chief Investment Officer of Rareview Capital LLC, which was formed in 2016. Neil heads the firm’s investment team and oversees all portfolio and risk management activities. Neil also serves as the Portfolio Manager to Rareview Funds. Neil is also the Founder and Managing Member of Rareview Macro LLC, an independent research and consulting firm formed in 2013. Before founding Rareview Macro, Neil was a Managing Director at Navigate Advisors where he specialized in constructing portfolios and advising on risk. On Wall Street, his career included roles at UBS Investment Bank and Donaldson Lufkin & Jenrette, where his responsibilities comprised of trading derivatives, hedging solutions, asset allocation, and fundamental securities analysis. He began his career at Goldman Sachs in Fixed Income, after completing both the firm’s Analyst and Associate training programs. Neil completed graduate-level coursework for an MS in Real Estate at New York University and received his BA in Business Administration from the University of Washington, where he is a member of the University of Washington Bothell Board of Advisors and was the recipient of the Bothell Business School 2013 Distinguished Undergraduate Alumnus Award. He is active in various charity and community organizations.

 

The SAI provides additional information about the Portfolio Manager’s compensation, other accounts managed and ownership of Fund shares.

 

HOW SHARES ARE PRICED

 

 

The NAV of the Fund is determined at the close of regular trading (normally 4:00 p.m. Eastern Time) on each day the Exchange is open for business. NAV is computed by determining, the aggregate market value of all assets of the Fund, less its liabilities, divided by the total number of shares outstanding ((assets-liabilities)/number of shares = NAV). The Exchange is closed on weekends and New Year’s Day, Martin Luther King, Jr. Day, Presidents’ Day, Good Friday, Memorial Day, Independence Day, Labor Day, Thanksgiving Day and Christmas Day (“Exchange Close”). The NAV takes into account, the expenses and fees of the Fund, including management, administration, and distribution fees, which are accrued daily. The determination of NAV for the Fund for a particular day is applicable to all applications for the purchase of shares, as well as all requests for the redemption of creation units, received by the Fund (or an authorized broker or agent, or its authorized designee) before the close of trading on the Exchange on that day.

 

Generally, the Fund’s portfolio securities, including securities issued by ETFs, are valued each day at the last quoted sales price on each security’s primary exchange. Securities traded or dealt in upon one or more securities exchanges (whether domestic or foreign) for which market quotations are readily available and not subject to restrictions against resale shall be valued at the last quoted sales price on the primary exchange or, in the absence of a sale on the primary exchange, at the mean between the current bid and ask prices on such exchange. Securities primarily traded in the National Association of Securities Dealers’ Automated Quotation System (“NASDAQ”) National Market System for which market quotations are readily available shall be valued using the NASDAQ Official Closing Price. Securities that are not traded on any securities exchange (whether domestic or foreign) and for which over-the-counter market quotations are readily available generally shall be valued at the last sale price or, in the absence of a sale, at the mean between the current bid and ask price on such over-the-counter market. Debt securities not traded on an exchange may be valued at prices supplied by a pricing agent(s) based on broker or dealer supplied valuations or matrix pricing, a method of valuing securities by reference to the value of other securities with similar characteristics, such as rating, interest rate and maturity.

 

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If market quotations are not readily available, securities will be valued at their fair market value as determined using the “fair value” procedures approved by the Board. Fair value pricing involves subjective judgments and it is possible that the fair value determined for a security may be materially different than the value that could be realized upon the sale of that security. The fair value prices can differ from market prices when they become available or when a price becomes available. The Board has delegated execution of these procedures to a fair value committee composed of one or more representatives from each of the (i) Trust, (ii) administrator, and (iii) Adviser. The committee may also enlist third party consultants such as an audit firm or financial officer of a security issuer on an as-needed basis to assist in determining a security-specific fair value. The Board reviews and ratifies the execution of this process and the resultant fair value prices at least quarterly to assure the process produces reliable results.

 

The Fund may use independent pricing services to assist in calculating the value of the Fund’s portfolio securities. In addition, market prices for foreign securities are not determined at the same time of day as the NAV for the Fund.

 

In computing the NAV, the Fund values foreign securities held by the Fund at the latest closing price on the exchange in which they are traded immediately prior to closing of the Exchange. Prices of foreign securities quoted in foreign currencies are translated into U.S. dollars at current rates. If events materially affecting the value of a security in the Fund’s portfolio, particularly foreign securities, occur after the close of trading on a foreign market but before the Fund prices its shares, the security will be valued at fair value. For example, if trading in a portfolio security is halted and does not resume before the Fund calculates its NAV, the Adviser may need to price the security using the Fund’s fair value pricing guidelines. Without a fair value price, short-term traders could take advantage of the arbitrage opportunity and dilute the NAV of long-term investors. Fair valuation of the Fund’s portfolio securities can serve to reduce arbitrage opportunities available to short-term traders, but there is no assurance that fair value pricing policies will prevent dilution of the Fund’s NAV by short term traders. The determination of fair value involves subjective judgments. As a result, using fair value to price a security may result in a price materially different from the prices used by other mutual funds to determine NAV, or from the price that may be realized upon the actual sale of the security.

 

HOW TO BUY AND SELL SHARES

 

 

Shares of the Fund are listed for trading on the Exchange under the symbol RSEE. Share prices are reported in dollars and cents per Share. Shares can be bought and sold on the secondary market throughout the trading day like other publicly traded shares, and Shares typically trade in blocks of less than a Creation Unit. There is no minimum investment required. Shares may only be purchased and sold on the secondary market when the Exchange is open for trading. The Exchange is open for trading Monday through Friday and is closed on weekends and the following holidays, as observed: New Year’s Day, Martin Luther King, Jr. Day, Presidents’ Day, Good Friday, Memorial Day, Juneteenth, Independence Day, Labor Day, Thanksgiving Day and Christmas Day.

 

When buying or selling Shares through a broker, you will incur customary brokerage commissions and charges, and you may pay some or all of the spread between the bid and the offered price in the secondary market on each leg of a round trip (purchase and sale) transaction.

 

Authorized Participants that have entered into a contract with the Fund’s distributor may acquire Shares from the Fund, and Authorized Participants may tender their Shares for redemption directly to the Fund, at NAV per Share only in large blocks, or Creation Units, of 25,000 Shares. Purchases and redemptions directly with the Fund must follow the Fund’s procedures, which are described in the SAI.

 

The Fund may liquidate and terminate at any time without shareholder approval.

 

Book Entry

 

Shares are held in book entry form, which means that no stock certificates are issued. The Depository Trust Company (“DTC”) or its nominee is the record owner of all outstanding Shares and is recognized as the owner of all Shares for all purposes.

 

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Investors owning Shares are beneficial owners as shown on the records of DTC or its participants. DTC serves as the securities depository for all Shares. Participants in DTC include securities brokers and dealers, banks, trust companies, clearing corporations and other institutions that directly or indirectly maintain a custodial relationship with DTC. As a beneficial owner of Shares, you are not entitled to receive physical delivery of stock certificates or to have Shares registered in your name, and you are not considered a registered owner of Shares. Therefore, to exercise any right as an owner of Shares, you must rely upon the procedures of DTC and its participants. These procedures are the same as those that apply to any other securities that you hold in book entry or “street name” form.

 

FREQUENT PURCHASES AND REDEMPTIONS OF FUND SHARES

 

 

Shares can only be purchased and redeemed directly from the Fund in Creation Units by Authorized Participants that have entered into a contract with the Fund’s distributor. The vast majority of trading in Shares occurs on the secondary market. Because the secondary market trades do not directly involve the Fund, it is unlikely those trades would cause the harmful effects of market timing, including dilution, disruption of portfolio management, increases in the Fund’s trading costs and the realization of capital gains. With regard to the purchase or redemption of Creation Units directly with the Fund, to the extent effected in-kind (i.e., for securities), those trades do not cause the harmful effects that may result from frequent cash trades. To the extent trades are effected in whole or in part in cash, those trades could result in dilution to the Fund and increased transaction costs, which could negatively impact the Fund’s ability to achieve its investment objective. However, direct trading by Authorized Participants is critical to ensuring that Shares trade at or close to NAV. The Fund also employs fair valuation pricing to minimize potential dilution from market timing. In addition, the Fund imposes transaction fees on purchases and redemptions of Shares to cover the custodial and other costs incurred by the Fund in effecting trades. These fees increase if an investor substitutes cash in part or in whole for securities, reflecting the fact that the Fund’s trading costs increase in those circumstances. Given this structure, the Trust has determined that it is not necessary to adopt policies and procedures to detect and deter market timing of the Shares.

 

DISTRIBUTION AND SERVICE PLAN

 

 

No distribution or service fees are currently paid by the Fund and will not be paid by the Fund unless authorized by the Board. There are no current plans to impose these fees. In the event Rule 12b-1 fees were charged, over time they would increase the cost of an investment in the Fund.

 

DIVIDENDS, OTHER DISTRIBUTIONS AND TAXES

 

 

Shares are traded throughout the day in the secondary market on a national securities exchange on an intra-day basis and are created and redeemed in-kind and/or for cash in Creation Units at each day’s next calculated NAV. In-kind arrangements are designed to protect ongoing shareholders from the adverse effects on the Fund’s portfolio that could arise from frequent cash redemption transactions. In a conventional mutual fund, redemptions can have an adverse tax impact on taxable shareholders if the mutual fund needs to sell portfolio securities to obtain cash to meet net fund redemptions.

 

Ordinarily, dividends from net investment income, if any, are declared and paid monthly by the Fund. The Fund distributes their net realized capital gains, if any, to shareholders annually. The Fund may also pay a special distribution at the end of a calendar year to comply with federal tax requirements.

 

No dividend reinvestment service is provided by the Fund. Broker-dealers may make available the DTC book-entry Dividend Reinvestment Service for use by beneficial owners of the Fund for reinvestment of their dividend distributions. Beneficial owners should contact their broker to determine the availability and costs of the service and the details of participation therein. Brokers may require beneficial owners to adhere to specific procedures and timetables. If this service is available and used, dividend distributions of both income and realized gains will be automatically reinvested in additional whole shares of the Fund purchased in the secondary market.

 

Distributions in cash may be reinvested automatically in additional whole Shares only if the broker through whom you purchased Shares makes such option available.

 

Taxes

 

As with any investment, you should consider how your investment in Shares will be taxed. The tax information in this Prospectus is provided as general information. You should consult your own tax professional about the tax consequences of an investment in Shares.

 

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Unless your investment in Shares is made through a tax-exempt entity or tax-deferred retirement account, such as an individual retirement account, you need to be aware of the possible tax consequences when:

 

The Fund makes distributions,

 

You sell your Shares listed on the Exchange, and

 

You purchase or redeem Creation Units.

 

Taxes on Distributions

 

Distributions from the Fund’s net investment income, including net short-term capital gains, if any, are taxable to you as ordinary income, except that the Fund’s dividends attributable to its “qualified dividend income” (i.e., dividends received on stock of most domestic and certain foreign corporations with respect to which the Fund satisfies certain holding period and other restrictions), if any, generally are subject to federal income tax for non-corporate shareholders who satisfy those restrictions with respect to their Shares at the rate for net capital gain. A part of the Fund’s dividends also may be eligible for the dividends-received deduction allowed to corporations -- the eligible portion may not exceed the aggregate dividends the Fund receives from domestic corporations subject to federal income tax (excluding Real Estate Investment Trusts) and excludes dividends from foreign corporations -- subject to similar restrictions.

 

In general, your distributions are subject to federal income tax when they are paid, whether you take them in cash or reinvest them in the Fund (if that option is available). Distributions reinvested in additional Shares through the means of a dividend reinvestment service, if available, will be taxable to shareholders acquiring the additional Shares to the same extent as if such distributions had been received in cash. Distributions of net long-term capital gains, if any, in excess of net short-term capital losses are taxable as long-term capital gains, regardless of how long you have held the Shares.

 

Distributions in excess of the Fund’s current and accumulated earnings and profits are treated as a tax-free return of capital to the extent of your basis in the Shares and as capital gain thereafter. A distribution will reduce the Fund’s NAV per Share and may be taxable to you as ordinary income or capital gain (as described above) even though, from an investment standpoint, the distribution may constitute a return of capital.

 

By law, the Fund are required to withhold 28% of your distributions and redemption proceeds if you have not provided the Fund with a correct Social Security number or other taxpayer identification number and in certain other situations.

 

Taxes on Exchange-Listed Share Sales

 

Any capital gain or loss realized upon a sale of Shares is generally treated as long-term capital gain or loss if the Shares have been held for more than one year and as short-term capital gain or loss if the Shares have been held for one year or less. The ability to deduct capital losses from sales of Shares may be limited.

 

Taxes on Purchase and Redemption of Creation Units

 

An Authorized Participant who exchanges securities for Creation Units generally will recognize a gain or a loss equal to the difference between the market value of the Creation Units at the time of the exchange and the sum of the exchanger’s aggregate basis in the securities surrendered plus any Cash Component it pays. An Authorized Participant who exchanges Creation Units for securities will generally recognize a gain or loss equal to the difference between the exchanger’s basis in the Creation Units and the sum of the aggregate market value of the securities received plus any cash equal to the difference between the NAV of the Shares being redeemed and the value of the securities. The Internal Revenue Service (“Service”), however, may assert that a loss realized upon an exchange of securities for Creation Units cannot be deducted currently under the rules governing “wash sales” or for other reasons. Persons exchanging securities should consult their own tax advisor with respect to whether wash sale rules apply and when a loss might be deductible.

 

Any capital gain or loss realized upon redemption of Creation Units is generally treated as long-term capital gain or loss if the Shares have been held for more than one year and as short-term capital gain or loss if the Shares have been held for one year or less.

 

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If you purchase or redeem Creation Units, you will be sent a confirmation statement showing how many Shares you purchased or sold and at what price. See “Tax Status” in the SAI for a description of the basis determination methods applicable to Share redemptions and the Fund’s obligation to report basis information to the Service.

 

The foregoing discussion summarizes some of the possible consequences under current federal tax law of an investment in the Fund. It is not a substitute for personal tax advice. Consult your personal tax advisor about the potential tax consequences of an investment in the Shares under all applicable tax laws. See “Tax Status” in the SAI for more information.

 

FUND SERVICE PROVIDERS

 

 

Citi Fund Services Ohio, Inc. is the Fund’s administrator, transfer agent, and fund accountant. It has its principal office at 4400 Easton Commons, Suite 200, Columbus, Ohio 43219, and is primarily in the business of providing administrative, fund accounting and transfer agent services to retail and institutional mutual funds.

 

Citibank N.A., 388 Greenwich Street, New York, NY 10048, is the Fund’s custodian.

 

Foreside Fund Services, LLC (the “Distributor”), Three Canal Plaza, Suite 100, Portland, ME 04101, is the distributor for the shares of the Fund. The Distributor is a registered broker-dealer and member of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (“FINRA”).

 

Thompson Hine LLP, 41 South High Street, 17th Floor, Columbus, Ohio 43215, serves as legal counsel to the Trust.

 

Cohen & Company, Ltd., located at 342 North Water Street, Suite 830, Milwaukee, WI 53202, serves as the Fund’s independent registered public accounting firm. The independent registered public accounting firm is responsible for auditing the annual financial statements of the Fund.

 

OTHER INFORMATION

 

 

Continuous Offering

 

The method by which Creation Units of Shares are created and traded may raise certain issues under applicable securities laws. Because new Creation Units of Shares are issued and sold by the Fund on an ongoing basis, a “distribution,” as such term is used in the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), may occur at any point. Broker-dealers and other persons are cautioned that some activities on their part may, depending on the circumstances, result in their being deemed participants in a distribution in a manner which could render them statutory underwriters and subject them to the prospectus delivery requirement and liability provisions of the Securities Act.

 

For example, a broker-dealer firm or its client may be deemed a statutory underwriter if it takes Creation Units after placing an order with the Distributor, breaks them down into constituent Shares and sells the Shares directly to customers or if it chooses to couple the creation of a supply of new Shares with an active selling effort involving solicitation of secondary market demand for Shares. A determination of whether one is an underwriter for purposes of the Securities Act must take into account all the facts and circumstances pertaining to the activities of the broker-dealer or its client in the particular case, and the examples mentioned above should not be considered a complete description of all the activities that could lead to a characterization as an underwriter.

 

Broker dealers who are not “underwriters” but are participating in a distribution (as contrasted to ordinary secondary trading transactions), and thus dealing with Shares that are part of an “unsold allotment” within the meaning of Section 4(3)(C) of the Securities Act, would be unable to take advantage of the prospectus delivery exemption provided by Section 4(3) of the Securities Act. This is because the prospectus delivery exemption in Section 4(3) of the Securities Act is not available in respect of such transactions as a result of Section 24(d) of the 1940 Act. As a result, broker dealer firms should note that dealers who are not underwriters but are participating in a distribution (as contrasted with ordinary secondary market transactions) and thus dealing with Shares that are part of an overallotment within the meaning of Section 4(3)(A) of the Securities Act would be unable to take advantage of the prospectus delivery exemption provided by Section 4(3) of the Securities Act. Firms that incur a prospectus delivery obligation with respect to Shares are reminded that, under Rule 153 of the Securities Act, a prospectus delivery obligation under Section 5(b)(2) of the Securities Act owed to an exchange member in connection with a sale on the Exchange is satisfied by the fact that the prospectus is available at the Exchange upon request. The prospectus delivery mechanism provided in Rule 153 is only available with respect to transactions on an exchange.

 

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Dealers effecting transactions in the Shares, whether or not participating in this distribution, are generally required to deliver a Prospectus. This is in addition to any obligation of dealers to deliver a Prospectus when acting as underwriters.

 

FINANCIAL HIGHLIGHTS

 

 

Because the Fund has not yet commenced investment operations, no financial highlights are available for the Fund at this time. In the future, financial highlights will be presented in this section of the Prospectus.

 

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PRIVACY NOTICE

 

Collaborative Investment Series Trust

 

Rev. November 2017

 

FACTS WHAT DOES COLLABORATIVE INVESTMENT SERIES TRUST DO WITH YOUR PERSONAL INFORMATION?

 

Why? Financial companies choose how they share your personal information. Federal law gives consumers the right to limit some, but not all sharing. Federal law also requires us to tell you how we collect, share, and protect your personal information. Please read this notice carefully to understand what we do.

 

What?

The types of personal information we collect and share depends on the product or service that you have with us. This information can include: 

●         Social Security number and wire transfer instructions 

●         account transactions and transaction history 

●         investment experience and purchase history 

When you are no longer our customer, we continue to share your information as described in this notice. 

 

How? All financial companies need to share customers’ personal information to run their everyday business. In the section below, we list the reasons financial companies can share their customers’ personal information; the reasons Collaborative Investment Series Trust chooses to share; and whether you can limit this sharing.

 

Reasons we can share your personal information: Does Collaborative Investment Series Trust share information? Can you limit this sharing?
For our everyday business purposes - such as to process your transactions, maintain your account(s), respond to court orders and legal investigations, or report to credit bureaus. YES NO
For our marketing purposes - to offer our products and services to you. NO We don’t share
For joint marketing with other financial companies. NO We don’t share
For our affiliates’ everyday business purposes - information about your transactions and records. NO We don’t share
For our affiliates’ everyday business purposes - information about your credit worthiness. NO We don’t share
For nonaffiliates to market to you NO We don’t share

 

QUESTIONS?   Call 1-800-595-4866

 

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PRIVACY NOTICE

 

Collaborative Investment Series Trust

 

What we do:

How does Collaborative Investment Series Trust protect my personal information?

 

To protect your personal information from unauthorized access and use, we use security measures that comply with federal law. These measures include computer safeguards and secured files and buildings.

 

Our service providers are held accountable for adhering to strict policies and procedures to prevent any misuse of your nonpublic personal information. 

How does Collaborative Investment Series Trust collect my personal information?

 

We collect your personal information, for example, when you

 

●    open an account or deposit money

 

●    direct us to buy securities or direct us to sell your securities

 

●    seek advice about your investments

 

We also collect your personal information from others, such as credit bureaus, affiliates, or other companies. 

Why can’t I limit all sharing?

 

Federal law gives you the right to limit only:

 

●    sharing for affiliates’ everyday business purposes – information about your creditworthiness.

 

●    affiliates from using your information to market to you.

 

●    sharing for nonaffiliates to market to you.

 

State laws and individual companies may give you additional rights to limit sharing. 

 

Definitions
Affiliates

Companies related by common ownership or control. They can be financial and nonfinancial companies. 

 

●      Collaborative Investment Series Trust does not share with our affiliates. 

Nonaffiliates

Companies not related by common ownership or control. They can be financial and nonfinancial companies. 

 

●     Collaborative Investment Series Trust does not share with nonaffiliates so they can market to you. 

Joint marketing

A formal agreement between nonaffiliated financial companies that together market financial products or services to you. 

 

●    Collaborative Investment Series Trust doesn’t jointly market

 

18 

 

 

Adviser

Rareview Capital LLC
1980 Festival Plaza Drive, Suite 300 

Las Vegas, NV 89135 

Distributor Foreside Fund Services, LLC
Three Canal Plaza, Suite 100,
Portland, ME 04101
Custodian Citibank, N.A.
388 Greenwich Street, New York, NY 10048
Legal Counsel Thompson Hine LLP
41 South High Street, Suite 1700
Columbus, OH  43215
Administrator & Transfer Agent Citi Fund Services Ohio, Inc.
4400 Easton Commons, Suite 200,
Columbus, Ohio 43219
Independent Registered Public Accountant

Cohen & Company, Ltd. 

342 North Water Street, Suite 830, Milwaukee, WI 53202 

 

Additional information about the Fund is included in the Fund’s SAI dated January 19, 2022. The SAI is incorporated into this Prospectus by reference (i.e., legally made a part of this Prospectus). The SAI provides more details about the Fund’s policies and management. Additional information about the Fund’s investments will also be available in the Fund’s Annual and Semi-Annual Reports to Shareholders. In the Fund’s Annual Report, you will find a discussion of the market conditions and investment strategies that significantly affected the Fund’s performance during the last fiscal year.

 

To obtain a free copy of the SAI and the Annual and Semi-Annual Reports to Shareholders, or other information about the Fund, or to make shareholder inquiries about the Fund, please call 1-888-783-8637.

 

Reports and other information about the Fund is available on the EDGAR Database on the SEC’s Internet site at http://www.sec.gov.

 

Investment Company Act File # 811-23306

 

19 

 

 

Rareview systematic equity etf

 

Ticker Symbol: rsee

 

a series of Collaborative Investment Series Trust

 

STATEMENT OF ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

 

January 19, 2022

 

This Statement of Additional Information (“SAI”) is not a prospectus and should be read in conjunction with the combined Prospectus of the Rareview Systematic Equity ETF (the “Fund”) dated January 19, 2022. The Fund’s Prospectus is hereby incorporated by reference, which means it is legally part of this document. You can obtain copies of the Fund’s Prospectus, annual or semiannual reports without charge by contacting the Fund’s Distributor, Foreside Fund Services, LLC, Three Canal Plaza, Suite 100, Portland, ME 04191 or by calling 1-888-783-8637. You may also obtain a Prospectus by visiting the Fund’s website at www.rareviewcapital.com.

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

THE FUND 1
TYPES OF INVESTMENTS 2
INVESTMENT RESTRICTIONS 20
POLICIES AND PROCEDURES FOR DISCLOSURE OF PORTFOLIO HOLDINGS 21
MANAGEMENT 23
CONTROL PERSONS AND PRINCIPAL HOLDERS 28
INVESTMENT ADVISER 28
THE DISTRIBUTOR 30
PORTFOLIO MANAGER 31
ALLOCATION OF PORTFOLIO BROKERAGE 32
PORTFOLIO TURNOVER 33
OTHER SERVICE PROVIDERS 33
DESCRIPTION OF SHARES 34
ANTI-MONEY LAUNDERING PROGRAM 34
PURCHASE, REDEMPTION AND PRICING OF SHARES 35
TAX STATUS 45
INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM 50
LEGAL COUNSEL 50
FINANCIAL STATEMENTS 50
APPENDIX A – PROXY VOTING POLICIES AND PROCEDURES A-1

 

 

 

 

THE FUND

 

 

The Fund is a non-diversified series of Collaborative Investment Series Trust, a Delaware statutory trust organized on July 26, 2017 (the “Trust”). The Trust is registered as an open-end management investment company. The Trust is governed by its Board of Trustees (the “Board” or “Trustees”).

 

The Fund may issue an unlimited number of shares of beneficial interest. All shares of the Fund have equal rights and privileges. Each share of the Fund is entitled to one vote on all matters as to which shares are entitled to vote. In addition, each share of the Fund is entitled to participate equally with other shares (i) in dividends and distributions declared by the Fund and (ii) on liquidation to its proportionate share of the assets remaining after satisfaction of outstanding liabilities. Shares of the Fund are fully paid, non-assessable and fully transferable when issued and have no pre-emptive, conversion or exchange rights. Fractional shares have proportionately the same rights, including voting rights, as are provided for a full share.

 

The Fund’s investment objective, restrictions and policies are more fully described here and in the Prospectus. The Board may start other series and offer shares of a new fund under the Trust at any time. The Fund is an exchange-traded fund, which is a registered open-end management company that issues (and redeems) creation units (“Creation Units”) to (and from) authorized participants (“Authorized Participants”) in exchange for a basket and a cash balancing amount (if any) and the shares of which are listed on a national securities exchange and traded at market-determined prices. An Authorized Participant is a financial institution that is a member or participant of a clearing agency registered with the SEC, which has a written agreement with the Fund or one of its service providers that allows the financial institution to place orders for the purchase and redemption of Creation Units. Creation Units are a specified number of the Fund’s shares (e.g., 25,000) that the Fund will issue to (or redeem from) an Authorized Participant in exchange for the deposit (or delivery) of a basket and a cash balancing amount if any.

 

The Fund will issue and redeem Creation Units principally in exchange for an in-kind deposit of a basket of designated securities (the “Deposit Securities”), together with the deposit of a specified cash payment (the “Cash Component”), plus a transaction fee.  The Fund is expected to be approved for listing, subject to notice of issuance, on CBOE BZX Exchange, Inc. (the “Exchange”).  Shares will trade on an Exchange at market prices that may be below, at, or above NAV.  In the event of the liquidation of the Fund, a share split, reverse split or the like, the Trust may revise the number of Shares in a Creation Unit.

 

The Fund reserves the right to offer creations and redemptions of Shares for cash.  In addition, Shares may be issued in advance of receipt of Deposit Securities subject to various conditions, including a requirement to maintain on deposit with the Trust cash equal to up to 115% of the market value of the missing Deposit Securities.  In each instance of such cash creations or redemptions, transaction fees, may be imposed and may be higher than the transaction fees associated with in-kind creations or redemptions.  See PURCHASE, REDEMPTION AND PRICING OF SHARES below.  

 

 1

 

 

TYPES OF INVESTMENTS

 

 

The investment objective of the Fund and the descriptions of the Fund’s principal investment strategies are set forth under “Investment Objective” and Principal Investment Strategies” in the Prospectus. The Fund’s investment objectives are not fundamental and may be changed without the approval of a majority of the outstanding voting securities of the Trust.

 

The following pages contain more detailed information about the types of instruments in which the Fund may invest directly or indirectly as a principal or non-principal investment strategy. These instruments include other investment companies and strategies Rareview Capital LLC (the “Adviser”) employs in pursuit of the Fund’s investment objective and a summary of related risks.

 

Securities of Other Investment Companies

 

The Fund may invest in securities of other investment companies, including closed-end funds (“CEFs”) and exchange-traded funds (“ETFs”). The Fund’s investments in such securities involve certain additional expenses and certain tax results, which would not be present in a direct investment in such underlying funds. Due to legal limitations, the Fund will be prevented from: 1) purchasing more than 3% of an investment company’s - outstanding shares; 2) investing more than 5% of the Fund’s assets in any single such investment company, and 3) investing more than 10% of the Fund’s assets in investment companies overall; unless: (i) the underlying investment company and/or the Fund has received an order for exemptive relief from such limitations from the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”); and (ii) the underlying investment company and the Fund take appropriate steps to comply with any conditions in such order. In the alternative, the Fund may rely on Rule 12d1-3, which allows unaffiliated mutual funds to exceed the 5% limitation and the 10% limitation, provided the aggregate sales loads any investor pays (i.e., the combined distribution expenses of both the acquiring fund and the acquired underlying fund) does not exceed the limits on sales loads established by Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (“FINRA”) for funds of funds. In addition to ETFs, the Fund may invest in other investment companies such as open-end mutual funds or closed-end funds, within the limitations described above. Each investment company is subject to specific risks, depending on the nature of the Fund. Underlying ETFs, CEFs, and mutual funds may employ leverage, which magnifies the changes in the underlying stock or other index upon which they are based.

 

Open-End Investment Companies

 

The Fund and any “affiliated persons,” as defined by the 1940 Act, may purchase in the aggregate only up to 3% of the total outstanding securities of any underlying fund. Accordingly, when affiliated persons hold shares of any of the underlying fund, the Fund’s ability to invest fully in shares of those funds is restricted, and the Adviser must then, in some instances, select alternative investments that would not have been its first preference. The 1940 Act also provides that an underlying fund whose shares are purchased by the Fund will be obligated to redeem shares held by the Fund only in an amount up to 1% of the underlying fund’s outstanding securities during any period of less than 30 days. Shares held by the Fund in excess of 1% of an underlying fund’s outstanding securities therefore, will be considered not readily marketable securities, which, together with other such securities, may not exceed 15% of the Fund’s total assets.

 

 2

 

 

Under certain circumstances an underlying fund may determine to make payment of a redemption by the Fund wholly or partly by a distribution in kind of securities from its portfolio, in lieu of cash, in conformity with the rules of the SEC. In such cases, the Fund may hold securities distributed by an underlying fund until the Adviser determines that it is appropriate to dispose of such securities.

 

Investment decisions by the investment advisers of the underlying fund(s) are made independently of the Fund and the Adviser. Therefore, the investment adviser of one underlying fund may be purchasing shares of the same issuer whose shares are being sold by the investment adviser of another such fund. The result would be an indirect expense to the Fund without accomplishing any investment purpose.

 

Exchange Traded Funds (“ETFs”)

 

ETFs are generally passive funds that track their related index and have the flexibility of trading like a security. They are managed by professionals and typically provide the investor with diversification, cost and tax efficiency, liquidity, marginability, are useful for hedging, have the ability to go long and short, and some provide quarterly dividends. Additionally, some ETFs are unit investment trusts (“UITs”). Under certain circumstances, the adviser may invest in ETFs, known as “inverse funds,” which are designed to produce results opposite to market trends. Inverse ETFs are funds designed to rise in price when stock prices are falling.

 

ETFs typically have two markets. The primary market is where institutions swap “creation units” in block-multiples of, for example, 50,000 shares for in-kind securities and cash. Unlike mutual funds, the primary market for ETFs exists between the Fund and Authorized Participants. The secondary market is where individual investors can trade as little as a single share during trading hours on the exchange. This is different from open-ended mutual funds that are traded at net asset value (“NAV”), which is calculated at the end of a trading day. ETFs share many similar risks with open-end and closed-end funds.

 

Foreign Securities

 

Investing in securities of foreign companies and countries involves certain considerations and risks that are not typically associated with investing in U.S. government securities and securities of domestic companies. There may be less publicly available information about a foreign issuer than a domestic one, and foreign companies are not generally subject to uniform accounting, auditing and financial standards and requirements comparable to those applicable to U.S. companies. There may also be less government supervision and regulation of foreign securities exchanges, brokers and listed companies than exists in the United States. Interest and dividends paid by foreign issuers may be subject to withholding and other foreign taxes, which may decrease the net return on such investments as compared to dividends and interest paid to the Fund by domestic companies or the U.S. government. There may be the possibility of expropriations, seizure or nationalization of foreign deposits, confiscatory taxation, political, economic or social instability or diplomatic developments that could affect assets of the Fund held in foreign countries.  Finally, the establishment of exchange controls or other foreign governmental laws or restrictions could adversely affect the payment of obligations.

 

 3

 

 

To the extent currency exchange transactions do not fully protect the Fund against adverse changes in currency exchange rates, decreases in the value of currencies of the foreign countries in which the Fund will invest relative to the U.S. dollar will result in a corresponding decrease in the U.S. dollar value of the Fund’s assets denominated in those currencies (and possibly a corresponding increase in the amount of securities required to be liquidated to meet distribution requirements). Conversely, increases in the value of currencies of the foreign countries in which the Fund invests relative to the U.S. dollar will result in a corresponding increase in the U.S. dollar value of the Fund’s assets (and possibly a corresponding decrease in the amount of securities to be liquidated).

 

Initial Public Offering

 

The Fund may purchase shares issued as part of, or a short period after, a company’s initial public offering (“IPO”), and may at times dispose of those shares shortly after their acquisition. An IPO is the first sale of stock by a private company to the public. The Fund’s purchase of shares issued in an IPO exposes it to the risks associated with companies that have little operating history as public companies, as well as to the risks inherent in those sectors of the market where these new issuers operate. The market for IPO issuers may be volatile, and share prices of newly public companies may fluctuate up and down significantly over short periods of time.

 

Short Sales

 

The Fund may sell securities short as an outright investment strategy and to offset potential declines in long positions in similar securities. A short sale is a transaction in which the Fund sells a security it does not own or have the right to acquire (or that it owns but does not wish to deliver) in anticipation that the market price of that security will decline.

 

When the Fund makes a short sale, the broker-dealer through which the short sale is made must borrow the security sold short and deliver it to the party purchasing the security. The Fund is required to make a margin deposit in connection with such short sales; the Fund may have to pay a fee to borrow particular securities and will often be obligated to pay over any dividends and accrued interest on borrowed securities.

 

If the price of the security sold short increases between the time of the short sale and the time the Fund covers its short position, the Fund will incur a loss; conversely, if the price declines, the Fund will realize a capital gain. Any gain will be decreased, and any loss increased, by the transaction costs described above. The successful use of short selling may be adversely affected by imperfect correlation between movements in the price of the security sold short and the securities being hedged.

 

To the extent the Fund sells securities short, it will provide collateral to the broker-dealer and (except in the case of short sales “against the box”) will maintain additional asset coverage in the form of cash, U.S. government securities or other liquid securities with its custodian in a segregated account in an amount at least equal to the difference between the current market value of the securities sold short and any amounts required to be deposited as collateral with the selling broker. A short sale is “against the box” to the extent the Fund contemporaneously owns, or has the right to obtain at no added cost, securities identical to those sold short.

 

 4

 

 

Equity Securities

 

Equity securities include common stocks, preferred stocks and securities convertible into common stocks, such as convertible bonds, warrants, rights and options. The value of equity securities varies in response to many factors, including the activities and financial condition of individual companies, the business market in which individual companies compete and general market and economic conditions. Equity securities fluctuate in value, often based on factors unrelated to the value of the issuer of the securities, and such fluctuations can be significant.

 

Common Stock

 

Common stock represents an equity (ownership) interest in a company, and usually possesses voting rights and earns dividends. Dividends on common stock are not fixed but are declared at the discretion of the issuer. Common stock generally represents the riskiest investment in a company. In addition, common stock generally has the greatest appreciation and depreciation potential because increases and decreases in earnings are usually reflected in a company’s stock price.

 

Preferred Stock

 

Preferred stock is a class of stock having a preference over common stock as to the payment of dividends and the recovery of investment should a company be liquidated, although preferred stock is usually junior to the debt securities of the issuer. Preferred stock typically does not possess voting rights and its market value may change based on changes in interest rates.

 

A fundamental risk of investing in common and preferred stock is the risk that the value of the stock might decrease. Stock values fluctuate in response to the activities of an individual company or in response to general market and/or economic conditions. Historically, common stocks have provided greater long-term returns and have entailed greater short-term risks than preferred stocks, fixed-income securities and money market investments. The market value of all securities, including common and preferred stocks, is based upon the market’s perception of value and not necessarily the book value of an issuer or other objective measures of a company’s worth.

 

Convertible Securities

 

Convertible securities include fixed income securities that may be exchanged or converted into a predetermined number of shares of the issuer’s underlying common stock at the option of the holder during a specified period. Convertible securities may take the form of convertible preferred stock, convertible bonds or debentures, units consisting of “usable” bonds and warrants or a combination of the features of several of these securities. Convertible securities are senior to common stocks in an issuer’s capital structure, but are usually subordinated to similar non-convertible securities. While providing a fixed-income stream (generally higher in yield than the income derivable from common stock but lower than that afforded by a similar nonconvertible security), a convertible security also gives an investor the opportunity, through its conversion feature, to participate in the capital appreciation of the issuing company depending upon a market price advance in the convertible security’s underlying common stock.

 

 5

 

 

Real Estate Investment Trusts

 

The Fund may invest in securities of real estate investment trusts (“REITs”). REITs are publicly traded corporations or trusts that specialize in acquiring, holding and managing residential, commercial or industrial real estate. A REIT is not taxed at the entity level on income distributed to its shareholders or unitholders if it distributes to shareholders or unitholders at least 95% of its taxable income for each taxable year and complies with regulatory requirements relating to its organization, ownership, assets and income.

 

REITs generally can be classified as “Equity REITs”, “Mortgage REITs” and “Hybrid REITs.” An Equity REIT invests the majority of its assets directly in real property and derives its income primarily from rents and from capital gains on real estate appreciation, which are realized through property sales. A Mortgage REIT invests the majority of its assets in real estate mortgage loans and services its income primarily from interest payments. A Hybrid REIT combines the characteristics of an Equity REIT and a Mortgage REIT. Although the Fund can invest in all three kinds of REITs, its emphasis is expected to be on investments in Equity REITs.

 

Investments in the real estate industry involve particular risks. The real estate industry has been subject to substantial fluctuations and declines on a local, regional and national basis in the past and may continue to be in the future. Real property values and income from real property continue to be in the future. Real property values and income from real property may decline due to general and local economic conditions, overbuilding and increased competition, increases in property taxes and operating expenses, changes in zoning laws, casualty or condemnation losses, regulatory limitations on rents, changes in neighborhoods and in demographics, increases in market interest rates, or other factors. Factors such as these may adversely affect companies that own and operate real estate directly, companies that lend to such companies, and companies that service the real estate industry.

 

Investments in REITs also involve risks. Equity REITs will be affected by changes in the values of and income from the properties they own, while Mortgage REITs may be affected by the credit quality of the mortgage loans they hold. In addition, REITs are dependent on specialized management skills and on their ability to generate cash flow for operating purposes and to make distributions to shareholders or unitholders REITs may have limited diversification and are subject to risks associated with obtaining financing for real property, as well as to the risk of self-liquidation. REITs also can be adversely affected by their failure to qualify for tax-free pass-through treatment of their income under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, or their failure to maintain an exemption from registration under the 1940 Act. By investing in REITs indirectly through the Fund, a shareholder bears not only a proportionate share of the expenses of the Fund, but also may indirectly bear similar expenses of some of the REITs in which it invests.

 

Warrants

 

Warrants are options to purchase common stock at a specific price (usually at a premium above the market value of the optioned common stock at issuance) valid for a specific period of time. Warrants may have a life ranging from less than one year to twenty years, or they may be perpetual. However, most warrants have expiration dates after which they are worthless. In addition, a warrant is worthless if the market price of the common stock does not exceed the warrant’s exercise price during the life of the warrant. Warrants have no voting rights, pay no dividends, and have no rights with respect to the assets of the corporation issuing them. The percentage increase or decrease in the market price of the warrant may tend to be greater than the percentage increase or decrease in the market price of the optioned common stock.

 

 6

 

 

Depositary Receipts

 

Sponsored and unsponsored American Depositary Receipts (“ADRs”), are receipts issued by an American bank or trust company evidencing ownership of underlying securities issued by a foreign issuer. ADRs, in registered form, are designed for use in U.S. securities markets. Unsponsored ADRs may be created without the participation of the foreign issuer. Holders of these ADRs generally bear all the costs of the ADR facility, whereas foreign issuers typically bear certain costs in a sponsored ADR. The bank or trust company depositary of an unsponsored ADR may be under no obligation to distribute shareholder communications received from the foreign issuer or to pass through voting rights. Many of the risks described below regarding foreign securities apply to investments in ADRs.

 

Exchange Traded Notes (“ETNs”)

 

ETNs are typically unsecured and unsubordinated notes. ETN returns are based upon the performance of one or more underlying indicators and typically, no periodic coupon payments are distributed and no principal protections exists, even at maturity.  ETNs are listed on an exchange and traded in the secondary market. An ETN can be held until maturity, at which time the issuer pays the investor a cash amount equal to the principal amount, subject to the day’s market benchmark or strategy factor. When the Fund invests in ETNs, it will bear its proportionate share of any fees and expenses borne by the ETN. Because fees reduce the amount of return at maturity or upon redemption, if the value of the underlying indicator decreases or does not increase significantly, the Fund may receive less than the principal amount of its investment at maturity or upon redemption. In addition, the value of an ETN also may be influenced by time to maturity, level of supply and demand for the ETN, volatility and lack of liquidity in underlying indicator, changes in the applicable interest rates, and economic, legal, political, or geographic events that affect the underlying indicator. Some ETNs that use leverage can, at times, be relatively illiquid, and thus they may be difficult to purchase or sell at a fair price. Leveraged ETNs are subject to the same risk as other instruments that use leverage in any form. There may be restrictions on the Fund’s right to redeem its investment in an ETN, which are generally meant to be held until maturity. A decision by the Fund to sell ETN holdings may be limited by the availability of a secondary market. In addition, although an ETN may be listed on an exchange, the issuer may not be required to maintain the listing, and there can be no assurance that a secondary market will exist for an ETN.

 

Emerging Markets Securities

 

Investing in emerging market securities imposes risks different from, or greater than, risks of investing in foreign developed countries. These risks include: smaller market capitalization of securities markets, which may suffer periods of relative illiquidity; significant price volatility; restrictions on foreign investment; possible repatriation of investment income and capital. In addition, foreign investors may be required to register the proceeds of sales; future economic or political crises could lead to price controls, forced mergers, expropriation or confiscatory taxation, seizure, nationalization, or creation of government monopolies. The currencies of emerging market countries may experience significant declines against the U.S. dollar, and devaluation may occur subsequent to investments in these currencies by the Fund. Inflation and rapid fluctuations in inflation rates have had, and may continue to have, negative effects on the economies and securities markets of certain emerging market countries.

 

 7

 

 

Additional risks of emerging markets securities may include: greater social, economic and political uncertainty and instability; more substantial governmental involvement in the economy; less governmental supervision and regulation; unavailability of currency hedging techniques; companies that are newly organized and small; differences in auditing and financial reporting standards, which may result in unavailability of material information about issuers; and less developed legal systems. In addition, emerging securities markets may have different clearance and settlement procedures, which may be unable to keep pace with the volume of securities transactions or otherwise make it difficult to engage in such transactions. Settlement problems may cause the Fund to miss attractive investment opportunities, hold a portion of its assets in cash pending investment, or be delayed in disposing of a portfolio security. Such a delay could result in possible liability to a purchaser of the security.

 

Certificates of Deposit and Bankers’ Acceptances

 

Certificates of deposit are receipts issued by a depository institution in exchange for the deposit of funds. The issuer agrees to pay the amount deposited plus interest to the bearer of the receipt on the date specified on the certificate. The certificate usually can be traded in the secondary market prior to maturity. Bankers’ acceptances typically arise from short-term credit arrangements designed to enable businesses to obtain funds to finance commercial transactions. Generally, an acceptance is a time draft drawn on a bank by an exporter or an importer to obtain a stated amount of funds to pay for specific merchandise. The draft is then “accepted” by a bank that, in effect, unconditionally guarantees to pay the face value of the instrument on its maturity date. The acceptance may then be held by the accepting bank as an earning asset or it may be sold in the secondary market at the going rate of discount for a specific maturity. Although maturities for acceptances can be as long as 270 days, most acceptances have maturities of six months or less.

 

Commercial Paper

 

Commercial paper consists of short-term (usually from 1 to 270 days) unsecured promissory notes issued by corporations in order to finance their current operations. It may be secured by letters of credit, a surety bond or other forms of collateral. Commercial paper is usually repaid at maturity by the issuer from the proceeds of the issuance of new commercial paper. As a result, investment in commercial paper is subject to the risk the issuer cannot issue enough new commercial paper to satisfy its outstanding commercial paper, also known as rollover risk. Commercial paper may become illiquid or may suffer from reduced liquidity in certain circumstances. Like all fixed income securities, commercial paper prices are susceptible to fluctuations in interest rates. If interest rates rise, commercial paper prices will decline. The short-term nature of a commercial paper investment makes it less susceptible to interest rate risk than many other fixed income securities because interest rate risk typically increases as maturity lengths increase. Commercial paper tends to yield smaller returns than longer-term corporate debt because securities with shorter maturities typically have lower effective yields than those with longer maturities. As with all fixed income securities, there is a chance that the issuer will default on its commercial paper obligation.

 

Information on Time Deposits and Variable Rate Notes

 

Time deposits are issued by a depository institution in exchange for the deposit of funds. The issuer agrees to pay the amount deposited plus interest to the depositor on the date specified with respect to the deposit. Time deposits do not trade in the secondary market prior to maturity. However, some time deposits may be redeemable prior to maturity and may be subject to withdrawal penalties.

 

 8

 

 

The commercial paper obligations are typically unsecured and may include variable rate notes. The nature and terms of a variable rate note (i.e., a “Master Note”) permit the Fund to invest fluctuating amounts at varying rates of interest pursuant to a direct arrangement between the Fund and the issuer. It permits daily changes in the amounts invested. The Fund, typically, has the right at any time to increase, up to the full amount stated in the note agreement, or to decrease the amount outstanding under the note. The issuer may prepay at any time and without penalty any part of or the full amount of the note. The note may or may not be backed by one or more bank letters of credit. Because these notes are direct investment arrangements between the Fund and the issuer, it is not generally contemplated that they will be traded; moreover, there is currently no secondary market for them. Except as specifically provided in the Prospectus, there is no limitation on the type of issuer from whom these notes may be purchased; however, in connection with such purchase and on an ongoing basis, the Adviser will consider the earning power, cash flow and other liquidity ratios of the issuer, and its ability to pay principal and interest on demand, including a situation in which all holders of such notes made demand simultaneously. Variable rate notes are subject to the Fund’s investment restriction on illiquid securities unless such notes can be put back to the issuer (redeemed) on demand within seven days.

 

Insured Bank Obligations

 

The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (“FDIC”) insures the deposits of federally insured banks and savings and loan associations (collectively referred to as “banks”) up to $250,000. The Fund may elect to purchase bank obligations in small amounts so as to be fully insured as to principal by the FDIC. Currently, to remain fully insured as to principal, these investments must be limited to $250,000 per bank; if the principal amount and accrued interest together exceed $250,000, the excess principal and accrued interest will not be insured. Insured bank obligations may have limited marketability.

 

Closed-End Investment Companies

 

The Fund may invest its assets in closed-end investment companies (or “closed-end funds”), subject to the investment restrictions set forth above. Shares of closed-end funds are typically offered to the public in a one-time initial public offering by a group of underwriters who retain a spread or underwriting commission of between 4% or 6% of the initial public offering price. Such securities are then listed for trading on the New York Stock Exchange, the National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotation System (commonly known as “NASDAQ”) or, in some cases, may be traded in other over-the-counter markets. Because the shares of closed-end funds cannot be redeemed upon demand to the issuer like the shares of an open-end investment company (such as the Fund), investors seek to buy and sell shares of closed-end funds in the secondary market.

 

The Fund generally will purchase shares of closed-end funds only in the secondary market. The Fund will incur normal brokerage costs on such purchases similar to the expenses the Fund would incur for the purchase of securities of any other type of issuer in the secondary market. The Fund may, however, also purchase securities of a closed-end fund in an initial public offering when, in the opinion of the Adviser, based on a consideration of the nature of the closed-end fund’s proposed investments, the prevailing market conditions and the level of demand for such securities, they represent an attractive opportunity for growth of capital. The initial offering price typically will include a dealer spread, which may be higher than the applicable brokerage cost if the Fund purchased such securities in the secondary market.

 

 9

 

 

The shares of many closed-end funds, after their initial public offering, frequently trade at a price per share, which is less than the net asset value per share, the difference representing the “market discount” of such shares. This market discount may be due in part to the investment objective of long-term appreciation, which is sought by many closed-end funds, as well as to the fact that the shares of closed-end funds are not redeemable by the holder upon demand to the issuer at the next determined net asset value but rather are subject to the principles of supply and demand in the secondary market. A relative lack of secondary market purchasers of closed-end fund shares also may contribute to such shares trading at a discount to their net asset value.

 

The Fund may invest in shares of closed-end funds that are trading at a discount to net asset value or at a premium to net asset value. There can be no assurance that the market discount on shares of any closed-end fund purchased by the Fund will ever decrease. In fact, it is possible that this market discount may increase and the Fund may suffer realized or unrealized capital losses due to further decline in the market price of the securities of such closed-end funds, thereby adversely affecting the net asset value of the Fund’s shares. Similarly, there can be no assurance that any shares of a closed-end fund purchased by the Fund at a premium will continue to trade at a premium or that the premium will not decrease subsequent to a purchase of such shares by the Fund.

 

Closed-end funds may issue senior securities (including preferred stock and debt obligations) for the purpose of leveraging the closed-end fund’s common shares in an attempt to enhance the current return to such closed-end fund’s common shareholders. The Fund’s investment in the common shares of closed-end funds that are financially leveraged may create an opportunity for greater total return on its investment, but at the same time may be expected to exhibit more volatility in market price and net asset value than an investment in shares of investment companies without a leveraged capital structure.

 

United States Government Obligations

 

These consist of various types of marketable securities issued by the United States Treasury, i.e., bills, notes and bonds. Such securities are direct obligations of the United States government and differ mainly in the length of their maturity. Treasury bills, the most frequently issued marketable government security, have a maturity of up to one year and are issued on a discount basis.

 

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United States Government Agencies

 

These consist of debt securities issued by agencies and instrumentalities of the United States government, including the various types of instruments currently outstanding or which may be offered in the future. Agencies include, among others, the Federal Housing Administration, Government National Mortgage Association (“Ginnie Mae”), Farmer’s Home Administration, Export-Import Bank of the United States, Maritime Administration, and General Services Administration. Instrumentalities include, for example, each of the Federal Home Loan Banks, the National Bank for Cooperatives, the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (“Freddie Mac”), the Farm Credit Banks, the Federal National Mortgage Association (“Fannie Mae”), and the United States Postal Service. These securities are either: (i) backed by the full faith and credit of the United States government (e.g., United States Treasury Bills); (ii) guaranteed by the United States Treasury (e.g., Ginnie Mae mortgage-backed securities); (iii) supported by the issuing agency’s or instrumentality’s right to borrow from the United States Treasury (e.g., Fannie Mae Discount Notes); or (iv) supported only by the issuing agency’s or instrumentality’s own credit (e.g., Tennessee Valley Association). 

 

Government-related guarantors (i.e. not backed by the full faith and credit of the United States Government) include Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. Fannie Mae is a government-sponsored corporation owned entirely by private stockholders. It is subject to general regulation by the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development. Fannie Mae purchases conventional (i.e., not insured or guaranteed by any government agency) residential mortgages from a list of approved seller/servicers which include state and federally chartered savings and loan associations, mutual savings banks, commercial banks and credit unions and mortgage bankers. Pass-through securities issued by Fannie Mae are guaranteed as to timely payment of principal and interest by Fannie Mae but are not backed by the full faith and credit of the United States Government.

 

Freddie Mac was created by Congress in 1970 for the purpose of increasing the availability of mortgage credit for residential housing. It is a government-sponsored corporation formerly owned by the twelve Federal Home Loan Banks and now owned entirely by private stockholders. Freddie Mac issues PCs, which represent interests in conventional mortgages from Freddie Mac’s national portfolio. Freddie Mac guarantees the timely payment of interest and ultimate collection of principal, but PCs are not backed by the full faith and credit of the United States Government. Commercial banks, savings and loan institutions, private mortgage insurance companies, mortgage bankers and other secondary market issuers also create pass-through pools of conventional residential mortgage loans. Such issuers may, in addition, be the originators and/or servicers of the underlying mortgage loans as well as the guarantors of the mortgage-related securities. Pools created by such nongovernmental issuers generally offer a higher rate of interest than government and government-related pools because there are no direct or indirect government or agency guarantees of payments in the former pools. However, timely payment of interest and principal of these pools may be supported by various forms of insurance or guarantees, including individual loan, title, pool and hazard insurance and letters of credit. The insurance and guarantees are issued by governmental entities, private insurers and the mortgage poolers.

 

On September 7, 2008, the U.S. Treasury Department and the Federal Housing Finance Authority (the “FHFA”) announced that Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac had been placed into conservatorship, a statutory process designed to stabilize a troubled institution with the objective of returning the entity to normal business operations. The U.S. Treasury Department and the FHFA at the same time established a secured lending facility and a Secured Stock Purchase Agreement with both Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac to ensure that each entity had the ability to fulfill its financial obligations. The FHFA announced that it does not anticipate any disruption in pattern of payments or ongoing business operations of Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac.

 

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Securities Options

 

The Fund may purchase and write (i.e., sell) put and call options. Such options may relate to particular securities or stock indices, and may or may not be listed on a domestic or foreign securities exchange and may or may not be issued by the Options Clearing Corporation. Options trading is a highly specialized activity that entails greater than ordinary investment risk. Options may be more volatile than the underlying instruments, and therefore, on a percentage basis, an investment in options may be subject to greater fluctuation than an investment in the underlying instruments themselves.

 

A call option for a particular security gives the purchaser of the option the right to buy, and the writer (seller) the obligation to sell, the underlying security at the stated exercise price at any time prior to the expiration of the option, regardless of the market price of the security. The premium paid to the writer is in consideration for undertaking the obligation under the option contract. A put option for a particular security gives the purchaser the right to sell the security at the stated exercise price at any time prior to the expiration date of the option, regardless of the market price of the security.

 

Stock index options are put options and call options on various stock indices. In most respects, they are identical to listed options on common stocks. The primary difference between stock options and index options occurs when index options are exercised. In the case of stock options, the underlying security, common stock, is delivered. However, upon the exercise of an index option, settlement does not occur by delivery of the securities comprising the index. The option holder who exercises the index option receives an amount of cash if the closing level of the stock index upon which the option is based is greater than, in the case of a call, or less than, in the case of a put, the exercise price of the option. This amount of cash is equal to the difference between the closing price of the stock index and the exercise price of the option expressed in dollars times a specified multiple. A stock index fluctuates with changes in the market value of the stocks included in the index. For example, some stock index options are based on a broad market index, such as the Standard & Poor’s 500® Index or the Value Line Composite Index or a narrower market index, such as the Standard & Poor’s 100®. Indices may also be based on an industry or market segment, such as the NYSE Arca Oil and Gas Index or the Computer and Business Equipment Index. Options on stock indices are currently traded on the Chicago Board Options Exchange, the New York Stock Exchange and the NASDAQ PHLX.

 

The Fund’s obligation to sell an instrument subject to a call option written by it, or to purchase an instrument subject to a put option written by it, may be terminated prior to the expiration date of the option by the Fund’s execution of a closing purchase transaction, which is effected by purchasing on an exchange an option of the same series (i.e., same underlying instrument, exercise price and expiration date) as the option previously written. A closing purchase transaction will ordinarily be effected to realize a profit on an outstanding option, to prevent an underlying instrument from being called, to permit the sale of the underlying instrument or to permit the writing of a new option containing different terms on such underlying instrument. The cost of such a liquidation purchase plus transactions costs may be greater than the premium received upon the original option, in which event the Fund will have paid a loss in the transaction. There is no assurance that a liquid secondary market will exist for any particular option. An option writer unable to effect a closing purchase transaction will not be able to sell the underlying instrument or liquidate the assets held in a segregated account, as described below, until the option expires or the optioned instrument is delivered upon exercise. In such circumstances, the writer will be subject to the risk of market decline or appreciation in the instrument during such period.

 

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If an option purchased by the Fund expires unexercised, the Fund realizes a loss equal to the premium paid. If the Fund enters into a closing sale transaction on an option purchased by it, the Fund will realize a gain if the premium received by the Fund on the closing transaction is more than the premium paid to purchase the option, or a loss if it is less. If an option written by the Fund expires on the stipulated expiration date or if the Fund enters into a closing purchase transaction, it will realize a gain (or loss if the cost of a closing purchase transaction exceeds the net premium received when the option is sold). If an option written by the Fund is exercised, the proceeds of the sale will be increased by the net premium originally received and the Fund will realize a gain or loss.

 

Certain Risks Regarding Options

 

There are several risks associated with transactions in options. For example, there are significant differences between the securities and options markets that could result in an imperfect correlation between these markets, causing a given transaction not to achieve its objectives. In addition, a liquid secondary market for particular options, whether traded over-the-counter or on an exchange, may be absent for reasons which include the following: there may be insufficient trading interest in certain options; restrictions may be imposed by an exchange on opening transactions or closing transactions or both; trading halts, suspensions or other restrictions may be imposed with respect to particular classes or series of options or underlying securities or currencies; unusual or unforeseen circumstances may interrupt normal operations on an exchange; the facilities of an exchange or the Options Clearing Corporation may not at all times be adequate to handle current trading value; or one or more exchanges could, for economic or other reasons, decide or be compelled at some future date to discontinue the trading of options (or a particular class or series of options), in which event the secondary market on that exchange (or in that class or series of options) would cease to exist, although outstanding options that had been issued by the Options Clearing Corporation as a result of trades on that exchange would continue to be exercisable in accordance with their terms.

 

Successful use by the Fund of options on stock indices will be subject to the ability of the Adviser to correctly predict movements in the directions of the stock market. This requires different skills and techniques than predicting changes in the prices of individual securities. In addition, the Fund’s ability to effectively hedge all or a portion of the securities in its portfolio, in anticipation of or during a market decline, through transactions in put options on stock indices, depends on the degree to which price movements in the underlying index correlate with the price movements of the securities held by the Fund. Inasmuch as the Fund’s securities will not duplicate the components of an index, the correlation will not be perfect. Consequently, the Fund bears the risk that the prices of its securities being hedged will not move in the same amount as the prices of its put options on the stock indices. It is also possible that there may be a negative correlation between the index and the Fund’s securities that would result in a loss on both such securities and the options on stock indices acquired by the Fund.

 

The hours of trading for options may not conform to the hours during which the underlying securities are traded. To the extent that the options markets close before the markets for the underlying securities, significant price and rate movements can take place in the underlying markets that cannot be reflected in the options markets. The purchase of options is a highly specialized activity that involves investment techniques and risks different from those associated with ordinary portfolio securities transactions. The purchase of stock index options involves the risk that the premium and transaction costs paid by the Fund in purchasing an option will be lost as a result of unanticipated movements in prices of the securities comprising the stock index on which the option is based.

 

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There is no assurance that a liquid secondary market on an options exchange will exist for any particular option, or at any particular time, and for some options no secondary market on an exchange or elsewhere may exist. If the Fund is unable to close out a call option on securities that it has written before the option is exercised, the Fund may be required to purchase the optioned securities in order to satisfy its obligation under the option to deliver such securities. If the Fund is unable to effect a closing sale transaction with respect to options on securities that it has purchased, it would have to exercise the option in order to realize any profit and would incur transaction costs upon the purchase and sale of the underlying securities.

 

Cover for Options Positions

 

Transactions using options (other than options that the Fund has purchased) expose the Fund to an obligation to another party. The Fund will not enter into any such transactions unless it owns either (i) an offsetting (“covered”) position in securities or other options or (ii) cash or liquid securities with a value sufficient at all times to cover its potential obligations not covered as provided in (i) above. The Fund will comply with SEC guidelines regarding cover for these instruments and, if the guidelines so require, set aside cash or liquid securities in a segregated account with the Fund’s custodian in the prescribed amount. Under current SEC guidelines, the Fund will segregate assets to cover transactions in which the Fund writes or sells options.

 

Assets used as cover or held in a segregated account cannot be sold while the position in the corresponding option is open, unless they are replaced with similar assets. As a result, the commitment of a large portion of the Fund’s assets to cover or segregated accounts could impede portfolio management or the Fund’s ability to meet redemption requests or other current obligations.

 

Options on Futures Contracts

 

The Fund may purchase and sell options on the same types of futures in which it may invest. Options on futures are similar to options on underlying instruments except that options on futures give the purchaser the right, in return for the premium paid, to assume a position in a futures contract (a long position if the option is a call and a short position if the option is a put), rather than to purchase or sell the futures contract, at a specified exercise price at any time during the period of the option. Upon exercise of the option, the delivery of the futures position by the writer of the option to the holder of the option will be accompanied by the delivery of the accumulated balance in the writer’s futures margin account which represents the amount by which the market price of the futures contract, at exercise, exceeds (in the case of a call) or is less than (in the case of a put) the exercise price of the option on the futures contract. Purchasers of options who fail to exercise their options prior to the exercise date suffer a loss of the premium paid.

 

Dealer Options

 

The Fund may engage in transactions involving dealer options as well as exchange-traded options. Certain additional risks are specific to dealer options. While the Fund might look to a clearing corporation to exercise exchange-traded options, if the Fund were to purchase a dealer option it would need to rely on the dealer from which it purchased the option to perform if the option were exercised. Failure by the dealer to do so would result in the loss of the premium paid by the Fund as well as loss of the expected benefit of the transaction.

 

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Exchange-traded options generally have a continuous liquid market while dealer options may not. Consequently, the Fund may generally be able to realize the value of a dealer option it has purchased only by exercising or reselling the option to the dealer who issued it. Similarly, when the Fund writes a dealer option, it may generally be able to close out the option prior to its expiration only by entering into a closing purchase transaction with the dealer to whom the Fund originally wrote the option. While the Fund will seek to enter into dealer options only with dealers who will agree to and which are expected to be capable of entering into closing transactions with the Fund, there can be no assurance that the Fund will at any time be able to liquidate a dealer option at a favorable price at any time prior to expiration. Unless the Fund, as a covered dealer call option writer, is able to effect a closing purchase transaction, it will not be able to liquidate securities (or other assets) used as cover until the option expires or is exercised. In the event of insolvency of the other party, the Fund may be unable to liquidate a dealer option. With respect to options written by the Fund, the inability to enter into a closing transaction may result in material losses to the Fund. For example, because the Fund must maintain a secured position with respect to any call option on a security it writes, the Fund may not sell the assets, which it has segregated to secure the position while it is obligated under the option. This requirement may impair the Fund’s ability to sell portfolio securities at a time when such sale might be advantageous.

 

The Staff of the SEC has taken the position that purchased dealer options are illiquid securities. The Fund may treat the cover used for written dealer options as liquid if the dealer agrees that the Fund may repurchase the dealer option it has written for a maximum price to be calculated by a predetermined formula. In such cases, the dealer option would be considered illiquid only to the extent the maximum purchase price under the formula exceeds the intrinsic value of the option. Accordingly, the Fund will treat dealer options as subject to the Fund’s limitation on illiquid securities. If the SEC changes its position on the liquidity of dealer options, the Fund will change its treatment of such instruments accordingly.

 

Spread Transactions

 

The Fund may purchase covered spread options from securities dealers. These covered spread options are not presently exchange-listed or exchange-traded. The purchase of a spread option gives the Fund the right to put securities that it owns at a fixed dollar spread or fixed yield spread in relationship to another security that the Fund does not own, but which is used as a benchmark. The risk to the Fund, in addition to the risks of dealer options described above, is the cost of the premium paid as well as any transaction costs. The purchase of spread options will be used to protect the Fund against adverse changes in prevailing credit quality spreads, i.e., the yield spread between high quality and lower quality securities. This protection is provided only during the life of the spread options.

 

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Repurchase Agreements

 

The Fund may enter into repurchase agreements. In a repurchase agreement, an investor (such as the Fund) purchases a security (known as the “underlying security”) from a securities dealer or bank. Any such dealer or bank must be deemed creditworthy by the Adviser. At that time, the bank or securities dealer agrees to repurchase the underlying security at a mutually agreed upon price on a designated future date. The repurchase price may be higher than the purchase price, the difference being income to the Fund, or the purchase and repurchase prices may be the same, with interest at an agreed upon rate due to the Fund on repurchase. In either case, the income to the Fund generally will be unrelated to the interest rate on the underlying securities. Repurchase agreements must be “fully collateralized,” in that the market value of the underlying securities (including accrued interest) must at all times be equal to or greater than the repurchase price. Therefore, a repurchase agreement can be considered a loan collateralized by the underlying securities.

 

Repurchase agreements are generally for a short period of time, often less than a week, and will generally be used by the Fund to invest excess cash or as part of a temporary defensive strategy. Repurchase agreements that do not provide for payment within seven days will be treated as illiquid securities. In the event of a bankruptcy or other default by the seller of a repurchase agreement, the Fund could experience both delays in liquidating the underlying security and losses. These losses could result from: (a) possible decline in the value of the underlying security while the Fund is seeking to enforce its rights under the repurchase agreement; (b) possible reduced levels of income or lack of access to income during this period; and (c) expenses of enforcing its rights.

 

Trading in Futures Contracts

 

A futures contract provides for the future sale by one party and purchase by another party of a specified amount of a specific financial instrument (e.g., units of a stock index) for a specified price, date, time and place designated at the time the contract is made. Brokerage fees are paid when a futures contract is bought or sold and margin deposits must be maintained. Entering into a contract to buy is commonly referred to as buying or purchasing a contract or holding a long position. Entering into a contract to sell is commonly referred to as selling a contract or holding a short position.

 

Unlike when the Fund purchases or sells a security, no price would be paid or received by the Fund upon the purchase or sale of a futures contract. Upon entering into a futures contract, and to maintain the Fund’s open positions in futures contracts, the Fund would be required to deposit with its custodian or futures broker in a segregated account in the name of the futures broker an amount of cash, U.S. government securities, suitable money market instruments, or other liquid securities, known as “initial margin.” The margin required for a particular futures contract is set by the exchange on which the contract is traded, and may be significantly modified from time to time by the exchange during the term of the contract. Futures contracts are customarily purchased and sold on margins that may range upward from less than 5% of the value of the contract being traded.

 

If the price of an open futures contract changes (by increase in underlying instrument or index in the case of a sale or by decrease in the case of a purchase) so that the loss on the futures contract reaches a point at which the margin on deposit does not satisfy margin requirements, the broker will require an increase in the margin. However, if the value of a position increases because of favorable price changes in the futures contract so that the margin deposit exceeds the required margin, the broker will pay the excess to the Fund.

 

These subsequent payments, called “variation margin,” to and from the futures broker, are made on a daily basis as the price of the underlying assets fluctuate making the long and short positions in the futures contract more or less valuable, a process known as “marking to the market.” The Fund expects to earn interest income on margin deposits.

 

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Although certain futures contracts, by their terms, require actual future delivery of and payment for the underlying instruments, in practice most futures contracts are usually closed out before the delivery date. Closing out an open futures contract purchase or sale is effected by entering into an offsetting futures contract sale or purchase, respectively, for the same aggregate amount of the identical underlying instrument or index and the same delivery date. If the offsetting purchase price is less than the original sale price, the Fund realizes a gain; if it is more, the Fund realizes a loss. Conversely, if the offsetting sale price is more than the original purchase price, the Fund realizes a gain; if it is less, the Fund realizes a loss. The transaction costs must also be included in these calculations. There can be no assurance, however, that the Fund will be able to enter into an offsetting transaction with respect to a particular futures contract at a particular time. If the Fund is not able to enter into an offsetting transaction, the Fund will continue to be required to maintain the margin deposits on the futures contract.

 

For example, one contract in the Financial Times Stock Exchange 100 Index future is a contract to buy 25 pounds sterling multiplied by the level of the UK Financial Times 100 Share Index on a given future date. Settlement of a stock index futures contract may or may not be in the underlying instrument or index. If not in the underlying instrument or index, then settlement will be made in cash, equivalent over time to the difference between the contract price and the actual price of the underlying asset at the time the stock index futures contract expires.

 

When-Issued, Forward Commitments and Delayed Settlements

 

The Fund may purchase and sell securities on a when-issued, forward commitment or delayed settlement basis. In this event, the Custodian (as defined under the section entitled “Custodian”) will segregate liquid assets equal to the amount of the commitment in a separate account. Normally, the Custodian will set aside portfolio securities to satisfy a purchase commitment. In such a case, the Fund may be required subsequently to segregate additional assets in order to assure that the value of the account remains equal to the amount of the Fund’s commitment. It may be expected that the Fund’s net assets will fluctuate to a greater degree when it sets aside portfolio securities to cover such purchase commitments than when it sets aside cash.

 

The Fund does not intend to engage in these transactions for speculative purposes but only in furtherance of its investment objectives. Because the Fund will segregate liquid assets to satisfy purchase commitments in the manner described, the Fund’s liquidity and the ability of the Adviser to manage them may be affected in the event the Fund’s forward commitments, commitments to purchase when-issued securities and delayed settlements ever exceeded 15% of the value of its net assets.

 

The Fund will purchase securities on a when-issued, forward commitment or delayed settlement basis only with the intention of completing the transaction. If deemed advisable as a matter of investment strategy, however, the Fund may dispose of or renegotiate a commitment after it is entered into, and may sell securities it has committed to purchase before those securities are delivered to the Fund on the settlement date. In these cases the Fund may realize a taxable capital gain or loss. When the Fund engages in when-issued, forward commitment and delayed settlement transactions, it relies on the other party to consummate the trade. Failure of such party to do so may result in the Fund incurring a loss or missing an opportunity to obtain a price credited to be advantageous.

 

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The market value of the securities underlying a when-issued purchase, forward commitment to purchase securities, or a delayed settlement and any subsequent fluctuations in their market value is taken into account when determining the market value of the Fund starting on the day the Fund agrees to purchase the securities. The Fund does not earn interest on the securities it has committed to purchase until it has paid for and delivered on the settlement date.

 

Illiquid and Restricted Securities

 

The Fund may invest up to 15% of its net assets in illiquid securities. Illiquid securities include securities subject to contractual or legal restrictions on resale (e.g., because they have not been registered under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”)) and securities that are otherwise not readily marketable (e.g., because trading in the security is suspended or because market makers do not exist or will not entertain bids or offers). Securities that have not been registered under the Securities Act are referred to as private placements or restricted securities and are purchased directly from the issuer or in the secondary market. Foreign securities that are freely tradable in their principal markets are not considered to be illiquid.

 

Restricted and other illiquid securities may be subject to the potential for delays on resale and uncertainty in valuation. The Fund might be unable to dispose of illiquid securities promptly or at reasonable prices and might thereby experience difficulty in satisfying redemption requests from shareholders. The Fund might have to register restricted securities in order to dispose of them, resulting in additional expense and delay. Adverse market conditions could impede such a public offering of securities.

 

A large institutional market exists for certain securities that are not registered under the Securities Act, including foreign securities. The fact that there are contractual or legal restrictions on resale to the general public or to certain institutions may not be indicative of the liquidity of such investments. Rule 144A under the Securities Act allows such a broader institutional trading market for securities otherwise subject to restrictions on resale to the general public. Rule 144A establishes a “safe harbor” from the registration requirements of the Securities Act for resale of certain securities to qualified institutional buyers. Rule 144A has produced enhanced liquidity for many restricted securities, and market liquidity for such securities may continue to expand as a result of this regulation and the consequent existence of the PORTAL system, which is an automated system for the trading, clearance and settlement of unregistered securities of domestic and foreign issuers sponsored by NASDAQ.

 

Under guidelines adopted by the Board, the Fund’s Adviser may determine that particular Rule 144A securities, and commercial paper issued in reliance on the private placement exemption from registration afforded by Section 4(a)(2) of the Securities Act, are liquid even though they are not registered. A determination of whether such a security is liquid or not is a question of fact. In making this determination, the Adviser will consider, as it deems appropriate under the circumstances and among other factors: (1) the frequency of trades and quotes for the security; (2) the number of dealers willing to purchase or sell the security; (3) the number of other potential purchasers of the security; (4) dealer undertakings to make a market in the security; (5) the nature of the security (e.g., debt or equity, date of maturity, terms of dividend or interest payments, and other material terms) and the nature of the marketplace trades (e.g., the time needed to dispose of the security, the method of soliciting offers, and the mechanics of transfer); and (6) the rating of the security and the financial condition and prospects of the issuer. In the case of commercial paper, the Adviser will also determine that the paper (1) is not traded flat or in default as to principal and interest, and (2) is rated in one of the two highest rating categories by at least two National Statistical Rating Organizations (“NRSROs”) or, if only one NRSRO rates the security, by that NRSRO, or, if the security is unrated, the Adviser determines that it is of equivalent quality.

 

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Rule 144A securities and Section 4(a)(2) commercial paper that have been deemed liquid as described above will continue to be monitored by the Adviser to determine if the security is no longer liquid as the result of changed conditions. Investing in Rule 144A securities or Section 4(a)(2) commercial paper could have the effect of increasing the amount of the Fund’s assets invested in illiquid securities if institutional buyers are unwilling to purchase such securities.

 

Lending Portfolio Securities

 

For the purpose of achieving income, the Fund may lend its portfolio securities, provided (1) the loan is secured continuously by collateral consisting of U.S. Government securities or cash or cash equivalents (cash, U.S. Government securities, negotiable certificates of deposit, bankers’ acceptances or letters of credit) maintained on a daily mark-to-market basis in an amount at least equal to the current market value of the securities loaned, (2) the Fund may at any time call the loan and obtain the return of securities loaned, (3) the Fund will receive any interest or dividends received on the loaned securities, and (4) the aggregate value of the securities loaned will not at any time exceed one-third of the total assets of the Fund.

 

TEMPORARY DEFENSIVE POSITION

 

 

The Fund may from time to time, take temporary defensive positions that are inconsistent with the Fund’s investment objective and principal investment strategies in an attempt to respond to adverse or unstable market, economic, political, or other conditions when the Adviser deems it appropriate to do so. During such an unusual set of circumstances, the Fund may hold up to 100% of its portfolios in cash or cash equivalent positions (e.g., money market securities, U.S. Government securities, and/or similar securities). When the Fund takes a temporary or defensive position, the Fund may not be able to pursue or achieve its investment objective.

 

Regulation as a Commodity Pool Operator

 

The Adviser, on behalf of the Fund, has filed with the National Futures Association, a notice claiming an exclusion from the definition of the term “commodity pool operator” under the Commodity Exchange Act, as amended, and the rules of the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (“CFTC”) promulgated thereunder, with respect to the Fund’s operations. Accordingly, the Fund is not currently subject to registration or regulation as a commodity pool operator.

 

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INVESTMENT RESTRICTIONS

 

 

The Fund has adopted the following investment restrictions that may not be changed without approval by a “majority of the outstanding shares” of the Fund, which, as used in this SAI, means the vote of the lesser of (a) 67% or more of the shares of the Fund represented at a meeting, if the holders of more than 50% of the outstanding shares of the Fund are present or represented by proxy, or (b) more than 50% of the outstanding shares of the Fund. The Fund may not:

 

1. Issue senior securities, except as otherwise permitted under the 1940 Act, and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder;

 

2. Borrow money, except (a) from a bank, provided that immediately after such borrowing there is an asset coverage of 300% for all borrowings of the Fund; or (b) from a bank or other persons for temporary purposes only, provided that such temporary borrowings are in an amount not exceeding 5% of the Fund’s total assets at the time when the borrowing is made. This limitation does not preclude the Fund from entering into reverse repurchase transactions, provided that the Fund has an asset coverage of 300% for all borrowings and repurchase commitments of the Fund pursuant to reverse repurchase transactions;

 

3. Purchase securities on margin, participate on a joint or joint and several basis in any securities trading account, or underwrite securities. (Does not preclude the Fund from obtaining such short-term credit as may be necessary for the clearance of purchases and sales of its portfolio securities, and except to the extent that the Fund may be deemed an underwriter under the Securities Act, by virtue of disposing of portfolio securities);

 

4. Purchase or sell real estate or interests in real estate. This limitation is not applicable to investments in marketable securities that are secured by or represent interests in real estate.  This limitation does not preclude the Fund from investing in mortgage-related securities or investing in companies engaged in the real estate business or that have a significant portion of their assets in real estate (including real estate investment trusts);

 

5. Invest more than 25% of the market value of its assets in the securities of companies engaged in any one industry or group of industries. (Does not apply to investment in the securities of the U.S. Government, its agencies or instrumentalities.);

 

6. Purchase or sell commodities (unless acquired as a result of ownership of securities or other investments) or commodity futures contracts, except that the Fund may purchase and sell futures contracts and options to the full extent permitted under the 1940 Act, sell foreign currency contracts in accordance with any rules of the Commodity Futures Trading Commission, invest in securities or other instruments backed by commodities, and invest in companies that are engaged in a commodities business or have a significant portion of their assets in commodities; or

 

7. Make loans to others, except that the Fund may, in accordance with its investment objective and policies, (i) lend portfolio securities, (ii) purchase and hold debt securities or other debt instruments, including but not limited to loan participations and sub-participations, assignments, and structured securities, (iii) make loans secured by mortgages on real property, (iv) enter into repurchase agreements, (v) enter into transactions where each loan is represented by a note executed by the borrower, and (vi) make time deposits with financial institutions and invest in instruments issued by financial institutions. For purposes of this limitation, the term “loans” shall not include the purchase of a portion of an issue of publicly distributed bonds, debentures or other securities.

 

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If a restriction on the Fund’s investments is adhered to at the time an investment is made, a subsequent change in the percentage of Fund assets invested in certain securities or other instruments of the Fund’s investment portfolio, resulting from changes in the value of the Fund’s total assets, will not be considered a violation of the restriction; provided, however, that the asset coverage requirement applicable to borrowings shall be maintained in the manner contemplated by applicable law.

 

With respect to fundamental investment limitation 2 above, if the Fund’s asset coverage falls below 300%, the Fund will reduce borrowing within 3 days in order to ensure that the Fund has 300% asset coverage.

 

With respect to Fundamental Investment Restriction #5, if the Fund invests in one or more investment companies that concentrates its investments in a particular industry, the Fund will examine its other investment company holdings to ensure that the Fund is not indirectly concentrating its investments in a particular industry.

 

Although fundamental investment restriction #7 reserves for the Fund the ability to make loans, there is no present intent to loan money or portfolio securities and additional disclosure will be provided if such a strategy is implemented in the future.

 

Non-Fundamental Policies

 

Under normal circumstances, the Fund will invest at least 80% of the Fund’s portfolio (including any borrowings for investment purposes) in equity securities primarily by investing in exchange traded funds.

 

POLICIES AND PROCEDURES FOR DISCLOSURE OF PORTFOLIO HOLDINGS

 

 

The Trust has adopted a policy regarding the disclosure of information about the Fund’s portfolio holdings. The Fund and its service providers may not receive compensation or any other consideration (which includes any agreement to maintain assets in the Fund or in other investment companies or accounts managed by the Adviser or any affiliated person of the Adviser) in connection with the disclosure of portfolio holdings information of the Fund. The Trust’s policy is implemented and overseen by the Chief Compliance Officer of the Trust, subject to the oversight of the Board. Periodic reports regarding these procedures will be provided to the Board. The Trust, the Adviser and the Distributor will not disseminate non-public information concerning the Trust. The Board must approve all material amendments to this policy.

 

Each business day, the Fund’s portfolio holdings information will generally be provided for dissemination through the facilities of the National Securities Clearing Corporation (“NSCC”) and/or other fee-based subscription services to NSCC members and/or subscribers to those other fee-based subscription services, including Authorized Participants (as defined below), and to entities that publish and/or analyze such information in connection with the process of purchasing or redeeming Creation Units or trading shares of the Fund in the secondary market. This information typically reflects the Fund’s anticipated holdings as of the next Business Day. Access to information concerning the Fund’s portfolio holdings may be permitted to personnel of third party service providers, including the Fund’s custodian, transfer agent, auditors and counsel, as may be necessary to conduct business in the ordinary course in a manner consistent with such service providers’ agreements with the Trust on behalf of the Fund.

 

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The Fund discloses on the Adviser’s website at www.rareviewcapital.com at the start of each Business a table/chart showing the number of days the Fund’s shares traded at a premium or discount during the most recently completed calendar year and calendar quarters of the current year; in certain instances disclosure that the premium or discount was greater than 2% along with a discussion of the factors that materially contributed to the premium or discount; and median bid-ask spread over the most recent thirty calendar days.

 

Quarterly Portfolio Schedule. The Trust is required to disclose, after its first and third fiscal quarters, the complete schedule of the Fund’s portfolio holdings with the SEC on Form N-PORT. The Trust will also disclose a complete schedule of the Fund’s portfolio holdings with the SEC on Form N-CSR after its second and fourth quarters.

 

Form N-PORT and Form N-CSR for the Fund will be available on the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov. The Fund’s Form N-PORT and Form N-CSR will be available without charge, upon request, by calling 1-888-783-8637.

 

The Adviser & Sub-Adviser. Personnel of the Adviser and Sub-Adviser, including personnel responsible for managing the Fund’s portfolio, may have full daily access to Fund’s portfolio holdings since that information is necessary in order for the Adviser and Sub-Adviser to provide its management, administrative, and investment services to the Fund. As required for purposes of analyzing the impact of existing and future market changes on the prices, availability, as demand and liquidity of such securities, as well as for the assistance of portfolio managers in the trading of such securities, Adviser and Sub-Adviser personnel may also release and discuss certain portfolio holdings with various broker-dealers.

 

Collaborative Fund Services, LLC, is the Fund’s administrator and provides compliance services to the Fund. Its personnel have daily access to the Fund’s portfolio holdings in order to provide the agreed upon-services to the Trust.

 

Citi Fund Services Ohio, Inc. is the Fund’s accountant and sub-administrator; therefore, its personnel have full daily access to the Fund’s portfolio holdings since that information is necessary in order for them to provide the agreed-upon services for the Trust.

 

Citibank N.A. is custodian for the Fund; therefore, its personnel have full daily access to the Fund’s portfolio holdings since that information is necessary in order for them to provide the agreed-upon services for the Trust.

 

Cohen & Company, Ltd. is the Fund’s independent registered public accounting firm; therefore, its personnel have access to the Fund’s portfolio holdings in connection with auditing of the Fund’s annual financial statements and providing assistance and consultation in connection with SEC filings.

 

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Thompson Hine LLP is counsel to the Trust; therefore, its personnel have access to the Fund’s portfolio holdings in connection with review of the Fund’s annual and semi-annual shareholder reports and SEC filings.

 

Additions to List of Approved Recipients

 

The Trust’s Chief Compliance Officer is the person responsible, and whose prior approval is required, for any disclosure of the Fund’s portfolio securities at any time or to any persons other than those described above. In such cases, the recipient must have a legitimate business need for the information and must be subject to a duty to keep the information confidential. There are no ongoing arrangements in place with respect to the disclosure of portfolio holdings. In no event shall the Fund, the Adviser, or any other party receive any direct or indirect compensation in connection with the disclosure of information about the Fund’s portfolio holdings.

 

Compliance with Portfolio Holdings Disclosure Procedures

 

The Trust’s Chief Compliance Officer will report periodically to the Board with respect to compliance with the Fund’s portfolio holdings disclosure procedures, and from time to time will provide the Board any updates to the portfolio holdings disclosure policies and procedures.

 

There is no assurance that the Trust’s policies on disclosure of portfolio holdings will protect the Fund from the potential misuse of holdings information by individuals or firms in possession of that information.

 

MANAGEMENT  

 

The business of the Trust is managed under the direction of the Board in accordance with the Agreement and Declaration of Trust and the Trust’s By-laws (the “Governing Documents”), which have been filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission and are available upon request. The Board consists of five (5) individuals, four of whom are not “interested persons” (as defined under the 1940 Act) of the Trust or any investment adviser to any series of the Trust (“Independent Trustees”). Pursuant to the Governing Documents of the Trust, the Trustees shall elect officers including a President, a Secretary, a Treasurer, a Principal Executive Officer and a Principal Accounting Officer. The Board retains the power to conduct, operate and carry on the business of the Trust and has the power to incur and pay any expenses, which, in the opinion of the Board, are necessary or incidental to carry out any of the Trust’s purposes. The Trustees, officers, employees and agents of the Trust, when acting in such capacities, shall not be subject to any personal liability except for his or her own bad faith, willful misfeasance, gross negligence or reckless disregard of his or her duties.

 

Board Leadership Structure

 

The Trust is led by Mr. Gregory Skidmore, who has served as the Chairman of the Board since September 30, 2021. Mr. Skidmore is considered an “Interested” Trustees as defined in the 1940 Act, because of his ownership interest in Collaborative Fund Services, LLC (“CFS”). CFS is the administrator to the Trust. The Board is comprised of Mr. Skidmore and four other Trustees, none of whom are an interested person (“Independent Trustees”). The Independent Trustees have not selected a Lead Independent Trustee. Additionally, under certain 1940 Act governance guidelines that apply to the Trust, the Independent Trustees will meet in executive session, at least quarterly. Under the Trust’s Agreement and Declaration of Trust and By-Laws, the Chairman of the Board is responsible for (a) presiding at board meetings, (b) calling special meetings on an as-needed basis, and, more generally, in-practice (c) execution and administration of Trust policies including (i) setting the agendas for board meetings and (ii) providing information to board members in advance of each board meeting and between board meetings. Generally, the Trust believes it best to have a single leader who is seen by shareholders, business partners and other stakeholders as providing strong leadership. The Trust believes that its Chairman together with the Audit Committee and the full Board, provide effective leadership that is in the best interests of the Trust and the Fund’s shareholders because of the Board’s collective business acumen and understanding of the regulatory framework under which investment companies must operate.

 

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Board Risk Oversight

 

The Board of Trustees is comprised of Mr. Gregory Skidmore, an Interested Trustees, and four Independent Trustees with a standing independent Audit Committee with a separate chair. The Board is responsible for overseeing risk management, and the full Board regularly engages in discussions of risk management and receives compliance reports that inform its oversight of risk management from its Chief Compliance Officer at quarterly meetings and on an ad hoc basis, when and if necessary. The Audit Committee considers financial and reporting risk within its area of responsibilities. Generally, the Board believes that its oversight of material risks is adequately maintained through the compliance-reporting chain where the Chief Compliance Officer is the primary recipient and communicator of such risk-related information, and the Audit Committee’s communications with the independent registered public accounting firm.

 

Trustee Qualifications

 

Generally, the Trust believes that each Trustee is competent to serve because of their individual overall merits including: (i) experience, (ii) qualifications, (iii) attributes and (iv) skills.

 

Gregory SkidmoreInterested Trustee – Mr. Skidmore has fifteen years of financial industry experience, holds a series 65 license, and possesses a strong understanding of the regulatory framework under which investment companies operate. He graduated from Connecticut College in 1999 with a Bachelor of Arts in Economics and History.

 

Dean Drulias Esq.Independent Trustee – Mr. Drulias has been a practicing attorney for over thirty years. He has extensive experience and possesses a strong understanding of the regulatory framework under which financial entities must operate. Additionally, he is well versed in corporate and transactional law.

 

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Shawn OrserIndependent Trustee – Mr. Orser has over ten years’ experience in the financial services industry, spanning from Merrill Lynch to the hedge fund industry. Mr. Orser holds a FINRA Series 7, Series 63, Series 55, and Series 66 licenses. He has a Bachelor of Science in Finance from Syracuse University.

 

Fredrick StoleruIndependent Trustee – Mr. Stoleru has over two decades of financial industry experience, holds both FINRA Series 7 and Series 63 licenses, and has a Master’s degree in Business Administration from Georgetown University. Like other trustees, his experience has given him a strong understanding of the regulatory framework under which investment companies operate.

 

Ronald Young Jr.Independent Trustee - Mr. Young currently serves as the President of Young Consulting, LLC, a company that provides business consulting. He also, serves as President of Tri-State LED, Inc., a corporation that provides comprehensive LED lighting solutions. Previously, he co-founded and served as the managing partner for a diversified private equity capital firm and real estate development company.

 

The Trust does not believe any one factor is determinative in assessing a Trustee’s qualifications, but that the collective experience of each Trustee makes the Board highly effective.

 

The following tables provide information about Board and the senior officers of the Trust. Information about each Trustee is provided below and includes each person’s: name, address, age (as of the date of the Fund’s most recent fiscal year end), present position(s) held with the Trust, principal occupations for the past five years. Unless otherwise noted, the business address of each person listed below is c/o Collaborative Fund Services, LLC, 500 Damonte Ranch Parkway Building 700, Unit 700, Reno NV 89521. Unless otherwise noted, each officer is elected annually by the Board.

 

Name, Address and Year of Birth

Position/ 

Term of Office* 

Principal Occupation During the Past Five Years Number of Portfolios in Fund Complex** Overseen by Trustee Other Directorships held by Trustee During the Past Five Years

Dean Drulias, Esq. 

Year of Birth: 1947 

Trustee

Attorney (self-employed), since 2012

 

19 None

Shawn Orser 

Year of Birth: 1975 

Trustee CEO, Seaside Advisory (6/2016-Present); Executive Vice President, Seaside Advisory (2009-6/2016). 19 None
Fredrick Stoleru
Year of Birth: 1971
Trustee Chief Executive Officer and President of Atlas Resources LLC since February 2017,  Senior Vice President, Atlas Energy, 2015-2017, Vice President of the General Partner of Atlas Growth Partners, L.P. since 2013. 19 None

Ronald Young Jr. 

Year of Birth: 1974 

None President - Young Consulting, Inc. (2008-Present); President – Tri State LED, Inc. (2010-Present). 19 None

 

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Interested Trustees and Officers

 

Name and Year of Birth Position/Term of Office* Principal Occupation During the Past Five Years Number of Portfolios in Fund Complex** Overseen by Trustee Other Directorships held by Trustee During the Past Five Years

Gregory Skidmore 

Year of Birth: 1976

 

Trustee and President President, Belpointe Asset Management, LLC since 2007. 19 None

Kyle R. Bubeck 

Year of Birth: 1955

 

Chief Compliance Officer President and Founder of Beacon Compliance Consulting, Inc. (since 2010); CFO and CCO of Trendstar Advisors, LLC (2003 to 2009). N/A N/A

William McCormick 

Year of Birth: 1964 

 

Treasurer Senior Wealth Advisor – Belpointe Asset Management (since 2019); Wealth Advisor – Advisory Services Network (2016 to 2019) N/A N/A

Brad Rundbaken 

Year of Birth: 1970

 

Secretary Manager – Collaborative Fund Services, LLC (since 2018); Wealth Advisor – Belpointe Asset Management (2015 to 2018) N/A N/A

* The term of office for each Trustee and officer listed above will continue indefinitely until the individual resigns or is removed. 

** As of January 2022, the Trust was comprised of 19 active series. The term “Fund Complex” applies only to operational series of the Trust.

 

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Board Committees

 

Audit Committee

 

The Board has an Audit Committee that consists of Mr. Stoleru, Mr. Orser, and Mr. Drulias, all of whom are Trustees who are not “interested persons” of the Trust within the meaning of the 1940 Act. The Audit Committee’s responsibilities include: (i) recommending to the Board the selection, retention or termination of the Trust’s independent auditors; (ii) reviewing with the independent auditors the scope, performance and anticipated cost of their audit; (iii) discussing with the independent auditors certain matters relating to the Trust’s financial statements, including any adjustment to such financial statements recommended by such independent auditors, or any other results of any audit; (iv) reviewing on a periodic basis a formal written statement from the independent auditors with respect to their independence, discussing with the independent auditors any relationships or services disclosed in the statement that may impact the objectivity and independence of the Trust’s independent auditors and recommending that the Board take appropriate action in response thereto to satisfy itself of the auditor’s independence; and (v) considering the comments of the independent auditors and management’s responses thereto with respect to the quality and adequacy of the Trust’s accounting and financial reporting policies and practices and internal controls. The Audit Committee operates pursuant to an Audit Committee Charter.

 

Each Trustee who is not affiliated with the Trust or an investment adviser to any series of the Trust will a fee based on the net assets of each fund for his attendance at the regularly scheduled meetings of the Board, to be paid in arrears of each calendar quarter, as well as reimbursement for any reasonable expenses incurred.

 

None of the executive officers receive compensation from the Trust.

 

The table below details the amount of compensation the Trustees are expected to receive from the Fund and the Trust during the initial fiscal period ending September 30, 2022. Each Independent Trustee is expected to attend all quarterly meetings during the period. The Trust does not have a bonus, profit sharing, pension or retirement plan.

 

Name and
Position
Estimated
Aggregate
Compensation
from the Fund
Estimated Total
Compensation From
Fund and Fund
Complex* Paid to
Trustees
Gregory Skidmore 0 0
Dean Drulias $1,200 $18,000
Shawn Orser $1,200 $18,000
Fredrick Stoleru $1,200 $18,000
Ronald Young Jr. $1,200 $18,000

* The term “Fund Complex” refers to the series of the Trust.

 

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Management and Trustee Ownership

 

As of the date of this SAI, the Trustees and officers, as a group, owned no shares of any Fund or any of the other funds in the Fund Complex.

 

CONTROL PERSONS AND PRINCIPAL HOLDERS

 

 

A principal shareholder is any person who owns (either of record or beneficially) 5% or more of the outstanding shares of a fund. A control person is one who owns, either directly or indirectly more than 25% of the voting securities of a company or acknowledges the existence of control. A control person is one who owns beneficially or through controlled companies more than 25% of the voting securities of a company or acknowledged the existence of control.

 

The Depository Trust Company (“DTC”) or its nominee is the record owner of all outstanding shares and is recognized as the owner of all shares for all purposes. Investors owning shares are beneficial owners as shown on the records of DTC or its participants.

 

INVESTMENT ADVISER

 

 

Investment Adviser and Advisory Agreement

 

The Board selected Rareview Capital LLC to serve as the investment adviser to the Fund. Neil Azous, by virtue of his ownership of greater than 25% of the Adviser, is considered to be a control person of the Adviser. Neil Azous is the Managing Member and acts as its Chief Investment Officer.

 

Under the terms of the management agreement (the “Agreement”), the Adviser, subject to the oversight of the Board, provides or arranges to be provided to the Fund such investment advice as its deems advisable and will furnish or arrange to be furnished a continuous investment program for the Fund consistent with the Fund’s investment objective and policies. As compensation for its management services, the Fund is obligated to pay the Adviser a fee computed and accrued daily and paid monthly at an annual rate of 0.85% of the average daily net assets of the Fund.

 

The Agreement will continue for an initial term of two years, and may be renewed on a year-to-year basis thereafter, provided that continuance is approved at least annually by specific approval of the Board or by vote of the holders of a majority of the outstanding voting securities of the Fund. In either event, it must also be approved by a majority of the Trustees who are neither parties to the agreement nor interested persons as defined in the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended, at a meeting called for the purpose of voting on such approval. The Agreement may be terminated at any time without the payment of any penalty by the Board or by vote of a majority of the outstanding voting securities of the Fund on not more than 60 days written notice to the Adviser. In the event of its assignment, the Agreement will terminate automatically.

 

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The Adviser has contractually agreed to reduce its fees and to reimburse expenses, at least through January 31, 2023, to ensure that total annual Fund operating expenses after fee waiver and reimbursement (exclusive of any 12b-1 fees, acquired fund fees and expenses, interest expenses, dividend expenses on short sales, taxes, brokerage commissions, expenses incurred in connection with any merger or reorganization, or extraordinary expenses such as litigation) will not exceed 0.97% of the average daily net assets of the Fund. These fee waivers and expense reimbursements are subject to possible recoupment from the Fund within three years of the date on which the waiver or reimbursement occurs, if such recoupment can be achieved within the lesser of the foregoing expense limits or the expense limits in place at the time of recoupment. This agreement may be terminated only by the Board, on 60 days written notice to the Adviser.

 

A discussion regarding the basis for the Board’s approval of the Agreement will be available in the Fund’s first annual or semi-annual shareholder report.

 

Investment Sub-Adviser and Sub-Advisory Agreement

 

The Adviser selected GST Management LLC to serve as the sub-adviser to the Fund. Rod Jones, by virtue of his ownership of greater than 25% of the Sub-Adviser, is considered to be a control person of the Sub-Adviser. Mr. Jones is the Managing Member and acts as its Chief Investment Officer.

 

Under the terms of the sub-advisory agreement (the “Agreement”), the Sub-Adviser, subject to the oversight of the Adviser and Board, provides discretionary advice to the Adviser as it deems advisable and will furnish or arrange to be furnished a continuous investment program for the Fund consistent with the Fund’s investment objective and policies. As compensation for its sub-advisory services, the Adviser (not the Fund) pays the Sub-Adviser a fee computed and accrued daily and paid monthly at an annual rate of 0.40% of the Adviser’s net management fee.

 

The Sub-Advisory Agreement will continue for an initial term of two years, and may be renewed on a year-to-year basis thereafter, provided that continuance is approved at least annually by specific approval of the Board or by vote of the holders of a majority of the outstanding voting securities of the Fund. In either event, it must also be approved by a majority of the Trustees who are neither parties to the agreement nor interested persons as defined in the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended, at a meeting called for the purpose of voting on such approval. The Sub-Advisory Agreement may be terminated at any time without the payment of any penalty by the Board or by vote of a majority of the outstanding voting securities of the Fund on not more than 60 days written notice to the Adviser. In the event of its assignment, the Agreement will terminate automatically.

 

Codes of Ethics

 

The Trust, the Adviser and the Distributor have each adopted codes of ethics (each a “Code”) under Rule 17j-1 under the 1940 Act that governs the personal securities transactions of their board members, officers and employees who may have access to current trading information of the Trust. Under the Codes, the Trustees are permitted to invest in securities that may also be purchased by the Fund.

 

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In addition, the Trust has adopted a code of ethics (the “Trust Code”), which applies only to the Trust’s executive officers to ensure that these officers promote professional conduct in the practice of corporate governance and management. The purpose behind these guidelines is to promote (i) honest and ethical conduct, including the ethical handling of actual or apparent conflicts of interest between personal and professional relationships; (ii) full, fair, accurate, timely, and understandable disclosure in reports and documents that the Trust files with, or submits to, the SEC and in other public communications made by the Fund; (iii) compliance with applicable governmental laws, rule and regulations; (iv) the prompt internal reporting of violations of the Trust Code to an appropriate person or persons identified in the Trust Code; and (v) accountability for adherence to the Trust Code.

 

Proxy Voting Policies

 

The Board has adopted Proxy Voting Policies and Procedures (“Policies”) on behalf of the Trust, which delegate the responsibility for voting proxies to the Adviser or its designee, subject to the Board’s continuing oversight. The Policies require that the Adviser or its designee vote proxies received in a manner consistent with the best interests of the Fund and shareholders. The Policies also require the Adviser or its designee to present to the Board, at least annually, the Adviser’s Proxy Policies, or the proxy policies of the Adviser’s designee, and a record of each proxy voted by the Adviser or its designee on behalf of the Fund, including a report on the resolution of all proxies identified by the Adviser as involving a conflict of interest.

 

Where a proxy proposal raises a material conflict between the Adviser’s interests and the Fund’s interests, the Adviser will resolve the conflict by voting in accordance with the policy guidelines or at the client’s directive using the recommendation of an independent third party. If the third party’s recommendations are not received in a timely fashion, the Adviser will abstain from voting the securities held by that client’s account. A copy of the Adviser’s and proxy voting policies is attached hereto as Appendix A.

 

More information. Information regarding how the Fund voted proxies relating to portfolio securities held by the Fund during the most recent 12-month period ending June 30 will be available (1) without charge, upon request, by calling the Fund at 1-888-783-8637; and (2) on the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission’s website at http://www.sec.gov. In addition, a copy of the Fund’s proxy voting policies and procedures are also available by calling 1-888-783-8637 and will be sent within three business days of receipt of a request.

 

THE DISTRIBUTOR

 

 

Foreside Fund Services, LLC, located at Three Canal Plaza, Suite 100, Portland, ME 04101, (the “Distributor”) serves as the principal underwriter and national distributor for the shares of the Fund pursuant to an underwriting agreement with the Trust (the “Underwriting Agreement”). The Distributor is registered as a broker-dealer under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 and each state’s securities laws and is a member of the FINRA. The offering of the Fund’s shares is continuous. The Underwriting Agreement provides that the Distributor, as agent in connection with the distribution of the Fund’s shares, will use reasonable efforts to facilitate the sale of the Fund’s shares.

 

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The Underwriting Agreement provides that, unless sooner terminated, it will continue in effect for two years initially and thereafter shall continue from year to year, subject to annual approval by (a) the Board or a vote of a majority of the outstanding shares, and (b) by a majority of the Trustees who are not interested persons of the Trust or of the Distributor by vote cast in person at a meeting called for the purpose of voting on such approval.

 

The Underwriting Agreement may be terminated by the Fund at any time, without the payment of any penalty, by vote of a majority of the entire Board or by vote of a majority of the outstanding shares of the Fund on 60 days written notice to the Distributor, or by the Distributor at any time, without the payment of any penalty, on 60 days written notice to the Fund. The Underwriting Agreement will automatically terminate in the event of its assignment.

 

The Distributor may enter into selling agreements with broker-dealers that solicit orders for the sale of shares of the Fund and may allow concessions to dealers that sell shares of the Fund.

 

The Distributor is not compensated by the Fund. Instead, the Adviser pays the Distributor for certain distribution related services.

 

PORTFOLIO MANAGER

 

 

Neil Azous serves as the portfolio manager to the Fund and are primarily responsible for the day-to-day management of the Fund. As of January 13, 2022, the portfolio manager is responsible for the portfolio management of the following types of accounts in addition to the Fund:

 

Neil Azous

 

Total Other Accounts 

By Type 

Total Number of
Accounts by
Account Type

Total Assets By
Account Type 

(in millions) 

Number of
Accounts by
Type  Subject to a
Performance Fee

Total Assets By
Account Type
Subject to a
Performance Fee 

(in millions) 

Registered Investment
Companies
3 87 0 0
Other Pooled Investment Vehicles 0 0 0 0
Other Accounts 29 53 0 0

 

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Conflicts of Interest

 

As a general matter, certain conflicts of interest may arise in connection with a portfolio manager’s management of the Fund’s investments, on the one hand, and the investments of other accounts for which the portfolio manager is responsible, on the other. For example, it is possible that the various accounts managed could have different investment strategies that, at times, might conflict with one another to the possible detriment of the Fund. Alternatively, to the extent that the same investment opportunities might be desirable for more than one account, possible conflicts could arise in determining how to allocate them. Other potential conflicts might include conflicts created by specific portfolio manager compensation arrangements, and conflicts relating to selection of brokers or dealers to execute the Fund’s portfolio trades and/or specific uses of commissions from the Fund’s portfolio trades (for example, research, or “soft dollars”, if any). The Adviser has adopted policies and procedures and has structured the portfolio managers’ compensation in a manner reasonably designed to safeguard the Fund from being negatively affected as a result of any such potential conflicts.

 

Compensation

 

The Portfolio Manager’s compensation is tied to the management fee earned by the Adviser for its services provided to the Fund. The Portfolio Manager earns no compensation directly from the Fund.

 

Ownership of Securities

 

The following table shows the dollar range of equity securities beneficially owned by the portfolio managers in the Fund as of the date of this SAI:

 

Name of Portfolio Manager 

Dollar Range of Equity
Securities in the Fund
Neil Azous $0

 

ALLOCATION OF PORTFOLIO BROKERAGE

 

 

Specific decisions to purchase or sell securities for the Fund are made by the portfolio manager who is an employee of the Adviser. The Adviser is authorized by the Trustees to allocate the orders placed by them on behalf of the Fund to brokers or dealers who may, but need not, provide research or statistical material or other services to the Fund or the Adviser for the Fund’s use. Such allocation is to be in such amounts and proportions as the Adviser may determine.

 

In selecting a broker or dealer to execute each particular transaction, the Adviser will take the following into consideration:

 

the best net price available;

 

the reliability, integrity and financial condition of the broker or dealer;

 

the size of and difficulty in executing the order; and

 

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the value of the expected contribution of the broker or dealer to the investment performance of the Fund on a continuing basis.

 

Brokers or dealers executing a portfolio transaction on behalf of the Fund may receive a commission in excess of the amount of commission another broker or dealer would have charged for executing the transaction if the Adviser determines in good faith that such commission is reasonable in relation to the value of brokerage and research services provided to the Fund. In allocating portfolio brokerage, the Adviser may select brokers or dealers who also provide brokerage, research and other services to other accounts over which the Adviser exercises investment discretion. Some of the services received as the result of Fund transactions may primarily benefit accounts other than the Fund, while services received as the result of portfolio transactions effected on behalf of those other accounts may primarily benefit the Fund.

 

PORTFOLIO TURNOVER

 

 

The Fund’s portfolio turnover rate is calculated by dividing the lesser of purchases or sales of portfolio securities for the fiscal year by the monthly average of the value of the portfolio securities owned by the Fund during the fiscal year. The calculation excludes from both the numerator and the denominator securities with maturities at the time of acquisition of one year or less. High portfolio turnover involves correspondingly greater brokerage commissions and other transaction costs, which will be borne directly by the Fund. A 100% turnover rate would occur if all of the Fund’s portfolio securities were replaced once within a one-year period.

 

OTHER SERVICE PROVIDERS

 

 

Fund Administration

 

Citi Fund Services Ohio, Inc. (the “Administrator”), which has its principal office at 4400 Easton Commons, Suite 200, Columbus, Ohio 43219, and is primarily in the business of providing administrative, fund accounting and regulatory filing services to retail and institutional mutual funds.

 

Pursuant to Fund Services Agreement (the “Agreement”) with the Fund, the Administrator provides administrative services to the Fund, subject to the oversight of the Board. The Administrator may provide persons to serve as officers of the Fund. Such officers may be directors, officers or employees of the Administrator or its affiliates.

 

The Agreement will remain in effect for three years from the effective date of the agreement, and will remain in effect subject to annual approval of the Board for one-year periods thereafter. The Agreement is terminable by the Board or the Administrator on ninety days’ written notice and may be assigned provided the non-assigning party provides prior written consent. This Agreement provides that in the absence of willful misfeasance, bad faith or gross negligence on the part of the Administrator or reckless disregard of its obligations thereunder, the Administrator shall not be liable for any action or failure to act in accordance with its duties thereunder.

 

The Administrator provides or causes to provide the Fund with accounting services, including: (i) daily computation of net asset value; (ii) maintenance of security ledgers and books and records as required by the 1940 Act; (iii) production of the Fund’s listing of portfolio securities and general ledger reports; (iv) reconciliation of accounting records; (v) calculation of yield and total return for the Fund; (vi) maintaining certain books and records described in Rule 31a-1 under the 1940 Act, and reconciling account information and balances among the Fund’s custodian and Adviser; and (vii) monitoring and evaluating daily income and expense accruals, and sales and redemptions of shares of the Fund.

 

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For administrative services rendered to the Fund under the Agreement, the Fund pays the Administrator the greater of an annual minimum fee or an asset based fee, which scales downward based upon net assets. For the fund accounting services rendered to the Fund under the Agreement, the Fund pays the Administrator the greater of an annual minimum fee or an asset based fee, which scales downward based upon net assets. The Fund also pays the Administrator for any out-of-pocket expenses.

 

Custodian

 

Citibank N.A., located at 388 Greenwich Street, New York NY 10048 (the “Custodian”), serves as the custodian of the Fund’s assets pursuant to a Custodian Agreement by and between the Custodian and the Trust on behalf of the Fund. The Custodian’s responsibilities include safeguarding and controlling the Fund’s cash and securities, handling the receipt and delivery of securities, and collecting interest and dividends on the Fund’s investments. Pursuant to the Custodian and Transfer Agent Agreement, the Custodian also maintains original entry documents and books of record and general ledgers; posts cash receipts and disbursements; and records purchases and sales based upon communications from the Adviser. The Fund may employ foreign sub-custodians that are approved by the Board to hold foreign assets.

 

DESCRIPTION OF SHARES

 

 

Each share of beneficial interest of the Trust has one vote in the election of Trustees. Cumulative voting is not authorized for the Trust. This means that the holders of more than 50% of the shares voting for the election of Trustees can elect 100% of the Trustees if they choose to do so, and, in that event, the holders of the remaining shares will be unable to elect any Trustees.

 

Shareholders of the Trust and any other future series of the Trust will vote in the aggregate and not by series except as otherwise required by law or when the Board determines that the matter to be voted upon affects only the interest of the shareholders of a particular series or classes. Matters such as election of Trustees are not subject to separate voting requirements and may be acted upon by shareholders of the Trust voting without regard to series.

 

The Trust is authorized to issue an unlimited number of shares of beneficial interest. Each share has equal, per-class, dividend, distribution and liquidation rights. There are no conversion or preemptive rights applicable to any shares of the Fund. All shares issued are fully paid and non-assessable.

 

ANTI-MONEY LAUNDERING PROGRAM

 

 

The Trust has established an Anti-Money Laundering Compliance Program (the “Program”) as required by the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001 (“USA PATRIOT Act”). To ensure compliance with this law, the Trust’s Program provides for the development of internal practices, procedures and controls, designation of anti-money laundering compliance officers, an ongoing training program and an independent audit function to determine the effectiveness of the Program. The Trust’s secretary serves as its Anti-Money Laundering Compliance Officer.

 

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Procedures to implement the Program include, but are not limited to, determining that the Fund’s Distributor and Transfer Agent have established proper anti-money laundering procedures, reporting suspicious and/or fraudulent activity and a providing a complete and thorough review of all new opening account applications. The Trust will not transact business with any person or entity whose identity cannot be adequately verified under the provisions of the USA PATRIOT Act.

 

As a result of the Program, the Trust may be required to “freeze” the account of a shareholder if the shareholder appears to be involved in suspicious activity or if certain account information matches information on government lists of known terrorists or other suspicious persons, or the Trust may be required to transfer the account or proceeds of the account to a governmental agency.

 

PURCHASE, REDEMPTION AND PRICING OF SHARES

 

Calculation of Share Price

 

As indicated in the Prospectus under the heading “Net Asset Value,” (“NAV”) of the Fund’s shares is determined by dividing the total value of the Fund’s portfolio investments and other assets, less any liabilities, by the total number of shares outstanding of the Fund.

 

The Administrator calculates the Fund’s NAV at the close of regular trading (normally 4:00 p.m., Eastern time) every day that the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”) is open. NAV is calculated by deducting all of the Fund’s liabilities from the total value of its assets and dividing the result by the number of Shares outstanding, rounding to the nearest cent. All valuations are subject to review by the Board or its delegate.

 

In determining NAV, expenses are accrued and applied daily and securities and other assets for which market quotations are readily available are valued at market value. The NAV for the Fund will be calculated and disseminated daily. The value of the Fund’s portfolio securities is based on market value when market quotations are readily available.

 

Exchange-traded securities, such as common and preferred stocks, ETFs, ETPs, ETNs, closed-end funds, REITs, MLPs, REOCs and similar instruments, generally are valued by using market quotations, but may be valued on the basis of prices furnished by a pricing service when the Adviser believes such prices accurately reflect the fair market value of such securities. Securities that are traded on any stock exchange or on the Exchange are generally valued by the pricing service at the last quoted sale price. Lacking a last sale price, an equity security is generally valued by the pricing service at its last bid price. When market quotations are not readily available, when the Adviser determines that the market quotation or the price provided by the pricing service does not accurately reflect the current market value, or when restricted or illiquid securities are being valued, such securities are valued as determined in good faith by the Adviser. If a security’s market price is not readily available, the security will be valued at fair value as determined by the Trust’s Fair Value Committee in accordance with the Trust’s valuation policies and procedures approved by the Board. The values of assets denominated in foreign currencies are converted into U.S. dollars based on the mean of the current bid and asked prices by major banking institutions and currency dealers.

 

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Bonds, notes, debentures or similar instruments are valued by a pricing service when the Adviser believes such prices are accurate and reflect the fair market value of such securities. If the Adviser decides that a price provided by the pricing service does not accurately reflect the fair market value of the securities, when prices are not readily available from a pricing service, or when restricted or illiquid securities are being valued, securities are valued at fair value as determined in good faith by the Adviser, subject to review by the Board. Short-term investments having a maturity of 60 days or less may be amortized to maturity, provided such valuations represent par value.

 

Futures contracts listed for trading on a futures exchange or board of trade for which market quotations are readily available are valued at the last quoted sales price or, in the absence of a sale, at the mean of the last bid and ask prices.

 

Even when market quotations are available, they may be stale or unreliable because the validity of market quotations appears to be questionable; the number of quotations is such as to indicate that there is a thin market in the security; a significant event occurs after the close of a market but before the Fund’s NAV calculation that may affect a security’s value; or the Adviser is aware of any other data that calls into question the reliability of market quotations such as issuer-specific events, which may include a merger or insolvency, events which affect a geographical area or an industry segment, such as political events or natural disasters, or market events, such as a significant movement in the U.S. market. Where market quotations are not readily available, including where the Adviser determines that the closing price of the security is unreliable, the Adviser will value the security at fair value in good faith using procedures approved by the Board. Fair value pricing involves subjective judgments and it is possible that a fair value determination for a security is materially different than the value that could be realized upon the sale of the security.

 

Because foreign markets may be open on different days than the days during which a shareholder may purchase Shares, the value of the Fund’s investments may change on days when shareholders are not able to purchase Shares.

 

Creation Units

 

The Fund sells and redeems Shares in Creation Units on a continuous basis through the Distributor, without a sales load, at the NAV next determined after receipt of an order in proper form on any Business Day. A “Business Day” is any day on which the NYSE is open for business. As of the date of this SAI, the NYSE observes the following holidays: New Year’s Day, Martin Luther King, Jr. Day, Presidents’ Day, Good Friday, Memorial Day, Independence Day, Labor Day, Thanksgiving Day and Christmas Day.

 

A Creation Unit is an aggregation of 25,000 Shares. The Board may declare a split or a consolidation in the number of Shares outstanding of the Fund or Trust, and make a corresponding change in the number of Shares in a Creation Unit.

 

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Authorized Participants

 

To purchase or redeem any Creation Units, you must be, or transact through, an Authorized Participant. In order to be an Authorized Participant, you must be either a broker-dealer or other participant (“Participating Party”) in the Continuous Net Settlement System (“Clearing Process”) of the National Securities Clearing Corporation (“NSCC”) or a participant in DTC with access to the DTC system (“DTC Participant”), and you must execute an agreement (“Participant Agreement”) with the Distributor that governs transactions in the Fund’s Creation Units.

 

Investors who are not Authorized Participants but want to transact in Creation Units may contact the Distributor for the names of Authorized Participants. An Authorized Participant may require investors to enter into a separate agreement to transact through it for Creation Units and may require orders for purchases of shares placed with it to be in a particular form. Investors transacting through a broker that is not itself an Authorized Participant and therefore must still transact through an Authorized Participant may incur additional charges. There are expected to be a limited number of Authorized Participants at any one time.

 

Orders must be transmitted by an Authorized Participant by telephone or other transmission method acceptable to the Distributor. Market disruptions and telephone or other communication failures may impede the transmission of orders.

 

Transaction Fees

 

A fixed fee payable to the Custodian is imposed on each creation and redemption transaction regardless of the number of Creation Units involved in the transaction (“Fixed Fee”). Purchases and redemptions of Creation Units for cash or involving cash-in-lieu (as defined below) are required to pay an additional variable charge to compensate the Fund and its ongoing shareholders for brokerage and market impact expenses relating to Creation Unit transactions (“Variable Charge,” and together with the Fixed Fee, the “Transaction Fees”). With the approval of the Board, the Adviser may waive or adjust the Transaction Fees, including the Fixed Fee and/or Variable Charge (shown in the table below), from time to time. In such cases, the Authorized Participant will reimburse the Fund for, among other things, any difference between the market value at which the securities and/or financial instruments were purchased by the Fund and the cash-in-lieu amount, applicable registration fees, brokerage commissions and certain taxes. In addition, purchasers of Creation Units are responsible for the costs of transferring the Deposit Securities to the account of the Fund.

 

Investors who use the services of a broker, or other such intermediary may be charged a fee for such services. The Transaction Fees for the Fund are listed in the table below.

 

Fee for In-Kind and Cash
Purchases
Maximum Additional
Variable Charge for Cash
Purchases*
$250 2.00%

 

* As a percentage of the amount invested.

 

The Clearing Process

 

Transactions by an Authorized Participant that is a Participating Party using the NSCC system are referred to as transactions “through the Clearing Process.” Transactions by an Authorized Participant that is a DTC Participant using the DTC system are referred to as transactions “outside the Clearing Process.” The Clearing Process is an enhanced clearing process that is available only for certain securities and only to DTC participants that are also participants in the Continuous Net Settlement System of the NSCC. In-kind (portions of) purchase orders not subject to the Clearing Process will go through a manual clearing process run by DTC. Portfolio Deposits that include government securities must be delivered through the Federal Reserve Bank wire transfer system (“Federal Reserve System”). Fund Deposits that include cash may be delivered through the Clearing Process or the Federal Reserve System. In-kind deposits of securities for orders outside the Clearing Process must be delivered through the Federal Reserve System (for government securities) or through DTC (for corporate securities).

 

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Purchasing Creation Units

 

Portfolio Deposit

 

The consideration for a Creation Unit generally consists of the Deposit Securities and a Cash Component. Together, the Deposit Securities and the Cash Component constitute the “Portfolio Deposit.” The Cash Component serves the function of compensating for any differences between the net asset value per Creation Unit and the Deposit Securities. Thus, the Cash Component is equal to the difference between (x) the net asset value per Creation Unit of the Fund and (y) the market value of the Deposit Securities. If (x) is more than (y), the Authorized Participant will pay the Cash Component to the Fund. If (x) is less than (y), the Authorized Participant will receive the Cash Component from the Fund.

 

On each Business Day, prior to the opening of business on the Exchange (currently 9:30 a.m., Eastern Time), the Adviser through the Custodian makes available through NSCC the name and amount of each Deposit Security in the current Portfolio Deposit (based on information at the end of the previous Business Day) for the Fund and the (estimated) Cash Component, effective through and including the previous Business Day, per Creation Unit. The Deposit Securities announced are applicable to purchases of Creation Units until the next announcement of Deposit Securities.

 

Payment of any stamp duty or the like shall be the sole responsibility of the Authorized Participant purchasing a Creation Unit. The Authorized Participant must ensure that all Deposit Securities properly denote change in beneficial ownership.

 

Custom Orders and Cash-in-lieu

 

The Fund may, in its sole discretion, permit or require the substitution of an amount of cash (“cash-in-lieu”) to be added to the Cash Component to replace any Deposit Security. The Fund may permit or require cash-in-lieu when, for example, a Deposit Security may not be available in sufficient quantity for delivery or may not be eligible for transfer through the systems of DTC or the Clearing Process. Similarly, the Fund may permit or require cash in lieu of Deposit Securities when, for example, the Authorized Participant or its underlying investor is restricted under U.S. or local securities laws or policies from transacting in one or more Deposit Securities. The Fund will comply with the federal securities laws in accepting Deposit Securities including that the Deposit Securities are sold in transactions that would be exempt from registration under the Securities Act. All orders involving cash-in-lieu are considered to be “Custom Orders.”

 

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Purchase Orders

 

To order a Creation Unit, an Authorized Participant must submit an irrevocable purchase order to the Distributor.

 

Timing of Submission of Purchase Orders

 

An Authorized Participant must submit an irrevocable purchase order no later than the earlier of (i) 4:00 p.m. Eastern Time or (ii) the closing time of the bond markets and/or the trading session on the Exchange, on any Business Day in order to receive that Business Day’s NAV (“Cut-off Time”). The Cut-off Time for Custom Orders is generally two hours earlier. The Business Day the order is deemed received by the Distributor is referred to as the “Transmittal Date.” An order to create Creation Units is deemed received on a Business Day if (i) such order is received by the Distributor by the Cut-off Time on such day and (ii) all other procedures set forth in the Participant Agreement are properly followed. Persons placing or effectuating custom orders and/or orders involving cash should be mindful of time deadlines imposed by intermediaries, such as DTC and/or the Federal Reserve Bank wire system, which may impact the successful processing of such orders to ensure that cash and securities are transferred by the “Settlement Date,” which is generally the Business Day immediately following the Transmittal Date (“T+1”) for cash and the second Business Day following the Transmittal Date for securities (“T+2”).

 

Orders Using the Clearing Process

 

If available, (portions of) orders may be settled through the Clearing Process. In connection with such orders, the Distributor transmits, on behalf of the Authorized Participant, such trade instructions as are necessary to effect the creation order. Pursuant to such trade instructions, the Authorized Participant agrees to deliver the requisite Portfolio Deposit to the Fund, together with such additional information as may be required by the Distributor or Transfer Agent. Cash Components will be delivered using either the Clearing Process or the Federal Reserve System.

 

Orders Outside the Clearing Process

 

If the Clearing Process is not available for (portions of) an order, Portfolio Deposits will be made outside the Clearing Process. Orders outside the Clearing Process must state that the DTC Participant is not using the Clearing Process and that the creation of Creation Units will be effected through DTC. The Portfolio Deposit transfer must be ordered by the DTC Participant on the Transmittal Date in a timely fashion so as to ensure the delivery of Deposit Securities (whether standard or custom) through DTC to the Fund account by 11:00 a.m., Eastern time, on T+1. The Cash Component, along with any cash-in-lieu and Transaction Fee, must be transferred directly to the Custodian through the Federal Reserve System in a timely manner so as to be received by the Custodian no later than 12:00 p.m., Eastern Time, on T+1. If the Custodian does not receive both the Deposit Securities and the cash by the appointed time, the order may be canceled. A canceled order may be resubmitted the following Business Day but must conform to that Business Day’s Portfolio Deposit. Authorized Participants that submit a canceled order will be liable to the Fund for any losses incurred by the Fund in connection therewith.

 

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Orders involving foreign Deposit Securities are expected to be settled outside the Clearing Process. Thus, upon receipt of an irrevocable purchase order, the Distributor will notify the Adviser and the Custodian of such order. The Custodian , who will have caused the appropriate local sub-custodian(s) of the Fund to maintain an account into which an Authorized Participant may deliver Deposit Securities (or cash -in-lieu), with adjustments determined by the Fund, will then provide information of the order to such local sub-custodian(s). The ordering Authorized Participant will then deliver the Deposit Securities (and any cash-in-lieu) to the Fund’s account at the applicable local sub-custodian. The Authorized Participant must also make available on or before the contractual settlement date, by means satisfactory to the Fund, immediately available or same day funds in U.S. dollars estimated by the Fund to be sufficient to pay the Cash Component and Transaction Fee. When a relevant local market is closed due to local market holidays, the local market settlement process will not commence until the end of the local holiday period. Settlement must occur by 2:00 p.m., Eastern Time, on the contractual settlement date.

 

Acceptance of Purchase Order

 

All questions as to the number of shares of each security in the Deposit Securities and the validity, form, eligibility and acceptance for deposit of any securities to be delivered shall be determined by the Fund. The Fund’s determination shall be final and binding.

 

The Fund reserves the right to reject or revoke acceptance of a purchase order transmitted to it by the Distributor under certain circumstances including (a) the order is not in proper form; (b) the investor(s), upon obtaining the shares ordered, would own 80% or more of the currently outstanding shares of the Fund; (c) the Deposit Securities delivered do not conform to the Deposit Securities for the applicable date; (d) the acceptance of the Portfolio Deposit would, in the opinion of counsel, be unlawful; or (e) in the event that circumstances outside the control of the Trust, the Distributor and the Adviser make it for all practical purposes impossible to process purchase orders. Examples of such circumstances include acts of God; public service or utility problems resulting in telephone, telecopy or computer failures; fires, floods or extreme weather conditions; market conditions or activities causing trading halts; systems failures involving computer or other informational systems affecting the Trust, the Distributor, DTC, NSCC, the Adviser, the Fund’s Custodian, a sub-custodian or any other participant in the creation process; and similar extraordinary events. The Distributor shall notify an Authorized Participant of its rejection of the order. The Fund, the Custodian, any sub-custodian and the Distributor are under no duty, however, to give notification of any defects or irregularities in the delivery of Portfolio Deposits, and they shall not incur any liability for the failure to give any such notification.

 

Issuance of a Creation Unit

 

Once the Fund has accepted an order, upon next determination of the Fund’s NAV, the Fund will confirm the issuance of a Creation Unit, against receipt of payment, at such NAV. The Distributor will transmit a confirmation of acceptance to the Authorized Participant that placed the order.

 

Except as provided below, a Creation Unit will not be issued until the Fund obtains good title to the Deposit Securities and the Cash Component, along with any cash-in-lieu and Transaction Fee. Except as provided in Appendix C, the delivery of Creation Units will generally occur no later than T+2.

 

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In certain cases, Authorized Participants will create and redeem Creation Units on the same trade date. In these instances, the Trust reserves the right to settle these transactions on a net basis.

 

With respect to orders involving foreign Deposit Securities, when the applicable local sub-custodian(s) have confirmed to the Custodian that the Deposit Securities (or cash -in-lieu) have been delivered to the Fund’s account at the applicable local sub-custodian(s), the Distributor and the Adviser shall be notified of such delivery, and the Fund will issue and cause the delivery of the Creation Unit. While, as stated above, Creation Units are generally delivered on T+2, the Fund may settle Creation Unit transactions on a basis other than T+2 in order to accommodate foreign market holiday schedules, to account for different treatment among foreign and U.S. markets of dividend record dates and ex-dividend dates (that is the last day the holder of a security can sell the security and still receive dividends payable on the security), and in certain other circumstances.

 

The Fund may issue a Creation Unit prior to receiving good title to the Deposit Securities, under the following circumstances. Pursuant to the applicable Participant Agreement, the Fund may issue a Creation Unit notwithstanding that (certain) Deposit Securities have not been delivered, in reliance on an undertaking by the relevant Authorized Participant to deliver the missing Deposit Securities as soon as possible, which undertaking is secured by such Authorized Participant’s delivery to and maintenance with the Custodian of collateral having a value equal to at least 115% of the value of the missing Deposit Securities (“Collateral”), as adjusted by time to time by the Adviser. Such Collateral will have a value greater than the NAV of the Creation Unit on the date the order is placed. Such collateral must be delivered no later than 2:00 p.m., Eastern Time, on T+1. The only Collateral that is acceptable to the Fund is cash in U.S. Dollars.

 

While (certain) Deposit Securities remain undelivered, the Collateral shall at all times have a value equal to at least 115% (as adjusted by the Adviser) of the daily marked-to-market value of the missing Deposit Securities. At any time, the Fund may use the Collateral to purchase the missing securities, and the Authorized Participant will be liable to the Fund for any costs incurred thereby or losses resulting therefrom, whether or not they exceed the amount of the Collateral, including any Transaction Fee, any amount by which the purchase price of the missing Deposit Securities exceeds the market value of such securities on the Transmittal Date, brokerage and other transaction costs. The Trust will return any unused Collateral once all of the missing securities have been received by the Fund. More information regarding the Fund’s current procedures for collateralization is available from the Distributor.

 

Cash Purchase Method

 

When cash purchases of Creation Units are available or specified for the Fund, they will be effected in essentially the same manner as in-kind purchases In the case of a cash purchase, the investor must pay the cash equivalent of the Portfolio Deposit. In addition, cash purchases will be subject to Transaction Fees, as described above.

 

Redeeming a Creation Unit

 

Redemption Basket

 

The consideration received in connection with the redemption of a Creation Unit generally consists of an in-kind basket of designated securities (“Redemption Securities”) and a Cash Component. Together, the Redemption Securities and the Cash Component constitute the “Redemption Basket.”

 

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There can be no assurance that there will be sufficient liquidity in Shares in the secondary market to permit assembly of a Creation Unit. In addition, investors may incur brokerage and other costs in connection with assembling a Creation Unit.

 

The Cash Component serves the function of compensating for any differences between the net asset value per Creation Unit and the Redemption Securities. Thus, the Cash Component is equal to the difference between (x) the net asset value per Creation Unit of the Fund and (y) the market value of the Redemption Securities. If (x) is more than (y), the Authorized Participant will receive the Cash Component from the Fund. If (x) is less than (y), the Authorized Participant will pay the Cash Component to the Fund.

 

If the Redemption Securities on a Business Day are different from the Deposit Securities, prior to the opening of business on the Exchange (currently 9:30 a.m., Eastern Time), the Adviser through the Custodian makes available through NSCC the name and amount of each Redemption Security in the current Redemption Basket (based on information at the end of the previous Business Day) for the Fund and the (estimated) Cash Component, effective through and including the previous Business Day, per Creation Unit. If the Redemption Securities on a Business Day are different from the Deposit Securities, all redemption requests that day will be processed outside the Clearing Process.

 

The right of redemption may be suspended or the date of payment postponed: (i) for any period during which the NYSE is closed (other than customary weekend and holiday closings); (ii) for any period during which trading on the NYSE is suspended or restricted; (iii) for any period during which an emergency exists as a result of which disposal of the Shares or determination of the ETF’s NAV is not reasonably practicable; or (iv) in such other circumstances as permitted by the SEC, including as described below.

 

Custom Redemptions and Cash-in-lieu

 

The Fund may, in its sole discretion, permit or require the substitution of cash-in-lieu to be added to the Cash Component to replace any Redemption Security. The Fund may permit or require cash-in-lieu when, for example, a Redemption Security may not be available in sufficient quantity for delivery or may not be eligible for transfer through the systems of DTC or the Clearing Process. Similarly, the Fund may permit or require cash-in-lieu of Redemption Securities when, for example, the Authorized Participant or its underlying investor is restricted under U.S. or local securities law or policies from transacting in one or more Redemption Securities. The Fund will comply with the federal securities laws in satisfying redemptions with Redemption Securities, including that the Redemption Securities are sold in transactions that would be exempt from registration under the Securities Act. All redemption requests involving cash-in-lieu are considered to be “Custom Redemptions.”

 

Redemption Requests

 

To redeem a Creation Unit, an Authorized Participant must submit an irrevocable redemption request to the Distributor.

 

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An Authorized Participant submitting a redemption request is deemed to represent to the Fund that it or, if applicable, the investor on whose behalf it is acting, (i) owns outright or has full legal authority and legal beneficial right to tender for redemption the Creation Unit to be redeemed and can receive the entire proceeds of the redemption, and (ii) all of the Shares that are in the Creation Unit to be redeemed have not been borrowed, loaned or pledged to another party nor are they the subject of a repurchase agreement, securities lending agreement or such other arrangement that would preclude the delivery of such Shares to the Fund. The Fund reserves the absolute right, in its sole discretion, to verify these representations, but will typically require verification in connection with higher levels of redemption activity and/or short interest in the Fund. If the Authorized Participant, upon receipt of a verification request, does not provide sufficient verification of the requested representations, the redemption request will not be considered to be in proper form and may be rejected by the Fund.

 

Timing of Submission of Redemption Requests

 

An Authorized Participant must submit an irrevocable redemption order no later than the Cut-off Time. The Cut-off Time for Custom Orders is generally two hours earlier. The Business Day the order is deemed received by the Distributor is referred to as the “Transmittal Date.” A redemption request is deemed received if (i) such order is received by the Distributor by the Cut-off Time on such day and (ii) all other procedures set forth in the Participant Agreement are properly followed. Persons placing or effectuating Custom Redemptions and/or orders involving cash should be mindful of time deadlines imposed by intermediaries, such as DTC and/or the Federal Reserve System, which may impact the successful processing of such orders to ensure that cash and securities are transferred by the Settlement Date, as defined above.

 

Requests Using the Clearing Process

 

If available, (portions of) redemption requests may be settled through the Clearing Process. In connection with such orders, the Distributor transmits on behalf of the Authorized Participant, such trade instructions as are necessary to effect the redemption. Pursuant to such trade instructions, the Authorized Participant agrees to deliver the requisite Creation Unit(s) to the Fund, together with such additional information as may be required by the Distributor or Transfer Agent. Cash Components will be delivered using either the Clearing Process or the Federal Reserve System, as described above.

 

Requests Outside the Clearing Process

 

If the Clearing Process is not available for (portions of) an order, Redemption Baskets will be delivered outside the Clearing Process. Orders outside the Clearing Process must state that the DTC Participant is not using the Clearing Process and that the redemption will be effected through DTC. The Authorized Participant must transfer or cause to be transferred the Creation Unit(s) of shares being redeemed through the book-entry system of DTC so as to be delivered through DTC to the Custodian by 10:00 a.m., Eastern Time, on received T+1. In addition, the Cash Component must be received by the Custodian by 12:00 p.m., Eastern Time, on T+1. If the Custodian does not receive the Creation Unit(s) and Cash Component by the appointed times on T+1, the redemption will be rejected, except in the circumstances described below. A rejected redemption request may be resubmitted the following Business Day.

 

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Orders involving foreign Redemption Securities are expected to be settled outside the Clearing Process. Thus, upon receipt of an irrevocable redemption request, the Distributor will notify the Adviser and the Custodian. The Custodian will then provide information of the redemption to the Fund’s local sub-custodian(s). The redeeming Authorized Participant, or the investor on whose behalf is acting, will have established appropriate arrangements with a broker-dealer, bank or other custody provider in each jurisdiction in which the Redemption Securities are customarily traded and to which such Redemption Securities (and any cash-in-lieu) can be delivered from the Fund’s accounts at the applicable local sub-custodian(s).

 

Acceptance of Redemption Requests

 

All questions as to the number of shares of each security in the Deposit Securities and the validity, form, eligibility and acceptance for deposit of any securities to be delivered shall be determined by the Trust. The Trust’s determination shall be final and binding.

 

Delivery of Redemption Basket

 

Once the Fund has accepted a redemption request, upon next determination of the Fund’s NAV, the Fund will confirm the issuance of a Redemption Basket, against receipt of the Creation Unit(s) at such NAV, any cash-in-lieu and Transaction Fee. A Creation Unit tendered for redemption and the payment of the Cash Component, any cash-in-lieu and Transaction Fee will be effected through DTC. The Authorized Participant, or the investor on whose behalf it is acting, will be recorded on the book-entry system of DTC.

 

The Redemption Basket will generally be delivered to the redeeming Authorized Participant within T+2. Except under the circumstances described below, however, a Redemption Basket generally will not be issued until the Creation Unit(s) are delivered to the Fund, along with the Cash Component, any cash-in-lieu and Transaction Fee.

 

In certain cases, Authorized Participants will create and redeem Creation Units on the same trade date. In these instances, the Trust reserves the right to settle these transactions on a net basis.

 

With respect to orders involving foreign Redemption Securities, the Fund may settle Creation Unit transactions on a basis other than T+2 in order to accommodate foreign market holiday schedules, to account for different treatment among foreign and U.S. markets of dividend record dates and ex-dividend dates (that is the last day the holder of a security can sell the security and still receive dividends payable on the security), and in certain other circumstances. When a relevant local market is closed due to local market holidays, the local market settlement process will not commence until the end of the local holiday period.

 

Cash Redemption Method

 

When cash redemptions of Creation Units are available or specified for the Fund, they will be effected in essentially the same manner as in-kind redemptions. In the case of a cash redemption, the investor will receive the cash equivalent of the Redemption Basket minus any Transaction Fees, as described above.

 

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TAX STATUS

 

The following discussion is general in nature and should not be regarded as an exhaustive presentation of all possible tax ramifications. All shareholders should consult a qualified tax advisor regarding their investment in the Fund.

 

The Fund has qualified and has elected to be treated as a regulated investment company under Subchapter M of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), and intends to continue to so qualify, which requires compliance with certain requirements concerning the sources of its income, diversification of its assets, and the amount and timing of its distributions to shareholders. Such qualification does not involve supervision of management or investment practices or policies by any government agency or bureau. By so qualifying, the Fund should not be subject to federal income or excise tax on its net investment income or net capital gain, which are distributed to shareholders in accordance with the applicable timing requirements. Net investment income and net capital gain of the Fund will be computed in accordance with Section 852 of the Code.

 

Net investment income includes dividends and interest less expenses. Net capital gain for a fiscal year is computed by taking into account any capital loss carryforward of the Fund. Capital losses may be carried forward indefinitely and retain the character of the original loss. Capital loss carry forwards are available to offset future realized capital gains. To the extent that these carry forwards are used to offset future capital gains it is probable that the amount offset will not be distributed to shareholders.

 

The Fund intends to distribute all of its net investment income and any excess of net long-term capital gains over net short-term capital losses in accordance with the timing requirements imposed by the Code and therefore should not be required to pay any federal income or excise taxes. Dividends from net investment income, if any, are declared and paid quarterly by the Fund. The Fund distributes its net realized capital gains, if any, to shareholders annually no later than December 31 of each year. Both types of distributions will be in shares of the Fund unless a shareholder elects to receive cash.

 

To be treated as a regulated investment company under Subchapter M of the Code, the Fund must also (a) derive at least 90% of its gross income from dividends, interest, payments with respect to securities loans, net income from certain publicly traded partnerships and gains from the sale or other disposition of securities or foreign currencies, or other income (including, but not limited to, gains from options, futures or forward contracts) derived with respect to the business of investing in such securities or currencies, and (b) diversify its holdings so that, at the end of each fiscal quarter, (i) at least 50% of the market value of the Fund’s assets is represented by cash, U.S. government securities and securities of other regulated investment companies, and other securities (for purposes of this calculation, generally limited in respect of any one issuer, to an amount not greater than 5% of the market value of the Fund’s assets and 10% of the outstanding voting securities of such issuer) and (ii) not more than 25% of the value of its assets is invested in the securities of (other than U.S. government securities or the securities of other regulated investment companies) any one issuer, two or more issuers that the Fund controls and that are determined to be engaged in the same or similar trades or businesses, or the securities of certain publicly traded partnerships.

 

If the Fund fails to qualify as a regulated investment company under Subchapter M in any fiscal year, it will be treated as a corporation for federal income tax purposes. As such the Fund would be required to pay income taxes on its net investment income and net realized capital gains, if any, at the rate generally applicable to corporations. Shareholders of the Fund generally would not be liable for income tax on the Fund’s net investment income or net realized capital gains in their individual capacities. Distributions to shareholders, whether from the Fund’s net investment income or net realized capital gains, would be treated as taxable dividends to the extent of current or accumulated earnings and profits of the Fund.

 

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The Fund is subject to a 4% nondeductible excise tax on certain undistributed amounts of ordinary income and capital gain under a prescribed formula contained in Section 4982 of the Code. The formula requires payment to shareholders during a calendar year of distributions representing at least 98% of the Fund’s ordinary income for the calendar year and at least 98.2% of its capital gain net income (i.e., the excess of its capital gains over capital losses) realized during the one-year period ending October 31 during such year plus 100% of any income that was neither distributed nor taxed to the Fund during the preceding calendar year. Under ordinary circumstances, the Fund expects to time its distributions so as to avoid liability for this tax.

 

The following discussion of tax consequences is for the general information of shareholders that are subject to tax. Shareholders that are IRAs or other qualified retirement plans are generally exempt from income taxation under the Code.

 

Distributions of taxable net investment income and the excess of net short-term capital gain over net long-term capital loss are taxable to shareholders as ordinary income.

 

Distributions of net capital gain (“capital gain dividends”) generally are taxable to shareholders as long-term capital gain; regardless of the length of time the shares of the Trust have been held by such shareholders.

 

Under current law, certain U.S. shareholders, including individuals and estates and trusts, are subject to an additional 3.8% Medicare tax on all or a portion of their “net investment income,” which should include dividends from the Fund and net gains from the disposition of shares of the Fund. U.S. shareholders are urged to consult their own tax advisors regarding the implications of the additional Medicare tax resulting from an investment in the Fund.

 

Redemption of Fund shares by a shareholder will result in the recognition of taxable gain or loss in an amount equal to the difference between the amount realized and the shareholder’s tax basis in his or her Fund shares. Such gain or loss is treated as a capital gain or loss if the shares are held as capital assets. However, any loss realized upon the redemption of shares within six months from the date of their purchase will be treated as a long-term capital loss to the extent of any amounts treated as capital gain dividends during such six-month period. All or a portion of any loss realized upon the redemption of shares may be disallowed to the extent shares are purchased (including shares acquired by means of reinvested dividends) within 30 days before or after such redemption.

 

Distributions of taxable net investment income and net capital gain will be taxable as described above, whether received in additional cash or shares. Shareholders electing to receive distributions in the form of additional shares will have a cost basis for federal income tax purposes in each share so received equal to the net asset value of a share on the reinvestment date.

 

All distributions of taxable net investment income and net capital gain, whether received in shares or in cash, must be reported by each taxable shareholder on his or her federal income tax return. Dividends or distributions declared in October, November or December as of a record date in such a month, if any, will be deemed to have been received by shareholders on December 31, if paid during January of the following year. Redemptions of shares may result in tax consequences (gain or loss) to the shareholder and are also subject to these reporting requirements.

 

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Under the Code, the Fund will be required to report to the Internal Revenue Service all distributions of taxable income and capital gains as well as gross proceeds from the redemption or exchange of Fund shares, except in the case of certain exempt shareholders. Under the backup withholding provisions of Section 3406 of the Code, distributions of taxable net investment income and net capital gain and proceeds from the redemption or exchange of the shares of a regulated investment company may be subject to withholding of federal income tax in the case of non-exempt shareholders who fail to furnish the investment company with their taxpayer identification numbers and with required certifications regarding their status under the federal income tax law, or if the Fund is notified by the IRS or a broker that withholding is required due to an incorrect TIN or a previous failure to report taxable interest or dividends. If the withholding provisions are applicable, any such distributions and proceeds, whether taken in cash or reinvested in additional shares, will be reduced by the amounts required to be withheld.

 

Options, Futures, Forward Contracts and Swap Agreements

 

To the extent such investments are permissible for the Fund, the Fund’s transactions in options, futures contracts, hedging transactions, forward contracts, straddles and foreign currencies will be subject to special tax rules (including mark-to-market, constructive sale, straddle, wash sale and short sale rules), the effect of which may be to accelerate income to the Fund, defer losses to the Fund, cause adjustments in the holding periods of the Fund’s securities, convert long-term capital gains into short-term capital gains and convert short-term capital losses into long-term capital losses. These rules could therefore affect the amount, timing and character of distributions to shareholders.

 

To the extent such investments are permissible, certain of the Fund’s hedging activities (including its transactions, if any, in foreign currencies or foreign currency-denominated instruments) are likely to produce a difference between its book income and its taxable income. If the Fund’s book income exceeds its taxable income, the distribution (if any) of such excess book income will be treated as (i) a dividend to the extent of the Fund’s remaining earnings and profits (including earnings and profits arising from tax-exempt income), (ii) thereafter, as a return of capital to the extent of the recipient’s basis in the shares, and (iii) thereafter, as gain from the sale or exchange of a capital asset. If the Fund’s book income is less than taxable income, the Fund could be required to make distributions exceeding book income to qualify as a regulated investment company that is accorded special tax treatment.

 

Passive Foreign Investment Companies

 

Investment by the Fund in certain passive foreign investment companies (“PFICs”) could subject the Fund to a U.S. federal income tax (including interest charges) on distributions received from the company or on proceeds received from the disposition of shares in the company, which tax cannot be eliminated by making distributions to Fund shareholders. However, the Fund may elect to treat a PFIC as a qualified electing fund (“QEF”), in which case the Fund will be required to include its share of the company’s income and net capital gains annually, regardless of whether it receives any distribution from the company.

 

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The Fund also may make an election to mark the gains (and to a limited extent losses) in such holdings “to the market” as though it had sold and repurchased its holdings in those PFICs on the last day of the Fund’s taxable year. Such gains and losses are treated as ordinary income and loss. The QEF and mark-to-market elections may accelerate the recognition of income (without the receipt of cash) and increase the amount required to be distributed for the Fund to avoid taxation. Making either of these elections, therefore, may require the Fund to liquidate other investments (including when it is not advantageous to do so) to meet its distribution requirement, which also may accelerate the recognition of gain and affect the Fund’s total return.

 

Foreign Currency Transactions

 

The Fund’s transactions in foreign currencies, foreign currency-denominated debt securities and certain foreign currency options, futures contracts and forward contracts (and similar instruments) may give rise to ordinary income or loss to the extent such income or loss results from fluctuations in the value of the foreign currency concerned.

 

Foreign Taxation

 

Income received by the Fund from sources within foreign countries may be subject to withholding and other taxes imposed by such countries. Tax treaties and conventions between certain countries and the U.S. may reduce or eliminate such taxes. If more than 50% of the value of the Fund’s total assets at the close of its taxable year consists of securities of foreign corporations, the Fund may be able to elect to “pass through” to the Fund’s shareholders the amount of eligible foreign income and similar taxes paid by the Fund. If this election is made, a shareholder generally subject to tax will be required to include in gross income (in addition to taxable dividends actually received) his or her pro rata share of the foreign taxes paid by the Fund, and may be entitled either to deduct (as an itemized deduction) his or her pro rata share of foreign taxes in computing his or her taxable income or to use it as a foreign tax credit against his or her U.S. federal income tax liability, subject to certain limitations. In particular, a shareholder must hold his or her shares (without protection from risk of loss) on the ex-dividend date and for at least 15 more days during the 30-day period surrounding the ex-dividend date to be eligible to claim a foreign tax credit with respect to a gain dividend. No deduction for foreign taxes may be claimed by a shareholder who does not itemize deductions. Each shareholder will be notified within 60 days after the close of the Fund’s taxable year whether the foreign taxes paid by the Fund will “pass through” for that year.

 

Generally, a credit for foreign taxes is subject to the limitation that it may not exceed the shareholder’s U.S. tax attributable to his or her total foreign source taxable income. For this purpose, if the pass-through election is made, the source of the Fund’s income will flow through to shareholders of the Fund. With respect to the Fund, gains from the sale of securities will be treated as derived from U.S. sources and certain currency fluctuation gains, including fluctuation gains from foreign currency-denominated debt securities, receivables and payables will be treated as ordinary income derived from U.S. sources. The limitation on the foreign tax credit is applied separately to foreign source passive income, and to certain other types of income. A shareholder may be unable to claim a credit for the full amount of his or her proportionate share of the foreign taxes paid by the Fund. The foreign tax credit can be used to offset only 90% of the revised alternative minimum tax imposed on individuals, and foreign taxes generally are not deductible in computing alternative minimum taxable income.

 

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Original Issue Discount and Pay-In-Kind Securities

 

Some of the debt securities (with a fixed maturity date of more than one year from the date of issuance) that may be acquired by the Fund may be treated as debt securities that are issued originally at a discount. Generally, the amount of the original issue discount (“OID”) is treated as interest income and is included in income over the term of the debt security, even though payment of that amount is not received until a later time, usually when the debt security matures. A portion of the OID includable in income with respect to certain high-yield corporate debt securities (including certain pay-in-kind securities) may be treated as a dividend for U.S. federal income tax purposes.

 

Some of the debt securities (with a fixed maturity date of more than one year from the date of issuance) that may be acquired by the Fund in the secondary market may be treated as having market discount. Generally, any gain recognized on the disposition of, and any partial payment of principal on, a debt security having market discount is treated as ordinary income to the extent the gain, or principal payment, does not exceed the “accrued market discount” on such debt security. Market discount generally accrues in equal daily installments. The Fund may make one or more of the elections applicable to debt securities having market discount, which could affect the character and timing of recognition of income.

 

Some debt securities (with a fixed maturity date of one year or less from the date of issuance) that may be acquired by the Fund may be treated as having OID in the case of certain types of debt securities. Generally, the Fund will be required to include the OID, in income over the term of the debt security, even though payment of that amount is not received until a later time, usually when the debt security matures. The Fund may make one or more of the elections applicable to debt securities having OID, which could affect the character and timing of recognition of income.

 

The Fund that holds the foregoing kinds of securities may be required to pay out as an income distribution each year an amount that is greater than the total amount of cash interest the Fund actually received. Such distributions may be made from the cash assets of the Fund or by liquidation of portfolio securities, if necessary (including when it is not advantageous to do so). The Fund may realize gains or losses from such liquidations. In the event the Fund realizes net capital gains from such transactions, its shareholders may receive a larger capital gain distribution, if any, than they would in the absence of such transactions.

 

Other Tax Considerations

 

Shareholders of the Fund may be subject to state and local taxes on distributions received from the Fund and on redemptions of the Fund’s shares.

 

A brief explanation of the form and character of the distribution accompany each distribution. In January of each year the Fund issues to each shareholder a statement of the federal income tax status of all distributions.

 

Shareholders should consult their tax advisors about the application of federal, state and local and foreign tax law in light of their particular situation.

 

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INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM

 

 

The firm of Cohen & Company, Ltd.(“Cohen”), located at 342 North Water Street, Suite 830, Milwaukee, WI 53202 has been selected as independent registered public accounting firm for the Fund for the fiscal year ending September 30, 2022. Cohen will perform an annual audit of the Fund’s financial statements and provides financial, tax and accounting services as requested.

 

LEGAL COUNSEL

 

 

Thompson Hine LLP, 41 South High Street, Suite 1700, Columbus, Ohio 43215, serves as the Trust’s legal counsel.

 

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

 

 

The Fund has not yet commenced operations and, therefore, has not produced financial statements. Once produced, you can obtain a copy of the financial statements contained in the Fund’s Annual or Semi-Annual Report without charge by calling the Fund at 1-888-783-8637.

 

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Adviser Proxy Voting Policies and Procedures

 

Rareview Capital LLC (“RVC”) has a Proxy Voting Policy that sets forth the general principles used to determine how RVC votes proxies on securities in client accounts or in affiliated funds for which RVC has proxy voting authority.

 

RVC’s Proxy Voting Policy describes how RVC usually votes proxies on various matters, such as proposals on corporate governance, changes to capital structure and routine matters, including the election of directors and ratification of the appointment of independent auditors. RVC’s Proxy Voting Policy describes how RVC addresses conflicts of interest between RVC and its clients with respect to proxy voting decisions.

 

In pursuing this policy, RVC votes in a manner that is intended to maximize the value of client assets.

 

While clients may direct RVC’s vote on a particular solicitation in written communication to RVC, the general policy is to vote proxies in the best interests of clients.

 

In instances where the proxy relates to an underlying investment company owned by the Registered Investment Company(s), pursuant to requirements of the Investment Company Act of 1940, RVC must cast proxy votes in the same proportion as all other shareholders of the underlying fund.

 

To resolve conflicts, RVC will abstain from making a voting decision and will forward all of the necessary proxy voting materials to the client to cast the votes or engage an independent proxy voting service.

 

If you would like a copy of this Proxy Voting Policy or information on how proxies were voted with respect to securities held in your account, please call 1-203-539-6067 or write to Rareview Capital LLC, Soundview Plaza, 1266 E. Main Street, Ste 700R, Stamford, CT 06902.

 

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