Form 424B5 NEW YORK MORTGAGE TRUST

June 29, 2021 8:49 AM EDT

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The information in this preliminary prospectus supplement is not complete and may be changed. This preliminary prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus are not an offer to sell these securities, and they are not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale thereof is not permitted.
 Filed Pursuant to Rule 424(b)(5)
 Registration No. 333-226726
Subject to Completion
Preliminary Prospectus Supplement, dated June 29, 2021
PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT (To Prospectus Dated August 9, 2018)
Shares
[MISSING IMAGE: lg_nymt-4c.jpg]
% Series F Fixed-to-Floating Rate Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock (Liquidation Preference $25.00 Per Share)
New York Mortgage Trust, Inc., a Maryland corporation, is offering to the public           shares of its    % Series F Fixed-to-Floating Rate Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock, $0.01 par value per share, which we refer to in this prospectus supplement as the Series F Preferred Stock. This is an original issuance of the Series F Preferred Stock. Holders of Series F Preferred Stock will be entitled to receive cumulative cash dividends (i) from and including the original issue date to, but excluding, October 15, 2026 at a fixed rate equal to    % per annum of the $25.00 per share liquidation preference (equivalent to $      per annum per share) and (ii) from and including October 15, 2026 at a floating rate equal to a benchmark rate (which is expected to be Three-Month Term SOFR (as defined below)) plus a spread of    % per annum of the $25.00 per share liquidation preference. Dividends will be payable quarterly in arrears on or about the 15th day of January, April, July and October of each year, when and as declared, beginning on October 15, 2021 (long first dividend period). Dividends will accumulate and be cumulative from, and including, the date of original issuance of the Series F Preferred Stock.
The Series F Preferred Stock is not redeemable by us prior to October 15, 2026, except under circumstances where it is necessary to preserve our qualification as a real estate investment trust, or REIT, for U.S. federal income tax purposes and except as described below upon the occurrence of a Change of Control (as defined herein). On or after October 15, 2026, we may, at our option, upon not less than 30 nor more than 60 days’ notice and subject to certain procedural requirements, redeem any or all of the shares of the Series F Preferred Stock for cash at a redemption price of $25.00 per share, plus any accumulated and unpaid dividends thereon (whether or not authorized or declared) to, but excluding, the redemption date, without interest. In addition, upon the occurrence of a Change of Control, we may, at our option, upon not less than 30 nor more than 60 days’ notice and subject to certain procedural requirements, redeem any or all of the shares of Series F Preferred Stock within 120 days on or after the first date on which such Change of Control occurred, for cash at a redemption price of $25.00 per share, plus any accumulated and unpaid dividends thereon (whether or not authorized or declared) to, but excluding, the redemption date, without interest. The Series F Preferred Stock has no stated maturity, is not subject to any sinking fund or mandatory redemption, and will remain outstanding indefinitely unless repurchased or redeemed by us or converted into shares of our common stock, par value $0.01 per share, in connection with a Change of Control by the holders of Series F Preferred Stock.
Upon the occurrence of a Change of Control, each holder of Series F Preferred Stock will have the right (subject to our election to redeem the Series F Preferred Stock in whole or in part, as described above, prior to the Change of Control Conversion Date (as defined herein)) to convert some or all of the shares of the Series F Preferred Stock held by such holder on the Change of Control Conversion Date into a number of shares of our common stock per share of Series F Preferred Stock equal to the lesser of:

the quotient obtained by dividing (i) the sum of the $25.00 liquidation preference per share of the Series F Preferred Stock plus the amount of any accumulated and unpaid dividends thereon (whether or not authorized or declared) to, but excluding, the Change of Control Conversion Date (unless the Change of Control Conversion Date is after a dividend record date (as defined herein) and prior to the corresponding dividend payment date (as defined herein) for the Series F Preferred Stock, in which case no additional amount for such accumulated and unpaid dividends will be included in this sum) by (ii) the Common Stock Price (as defined herein); and

            (the “Share Cap”), subject to certain adjustments as explained herein;
in each case, on the terms and subject to the conditions described in this prospectus supplement, including provisions for the receipt, under specified circumstances, of alternative consideration as described in this prospectus supplement.
No current market exists for the Series F Preferred Stock. We have applied to list the shares of the Series F Preferred Stock on the Nasdaq Global Select Market, under the symbol “NYMTL.” If the application is approved, trading of the Series F Preferred Stock on the Nasdaq Global Select Market is expected to begin within 30 days after the date of initial issuance of the Series F Preferred Stock. Our common stock is traded on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “NYMT”.
There are restrictions on transfer and ownership of the Series F Preferred Stock intended to preserve our qualification as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Please see the sections entitled “Description of the Series F Preferred Stock — Restrictions on Transfer and Ownership” in this prospectus supplement and “Description of Common Stock — Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer” in the accompanying prospectus. In addition, except under limited circumstances as described in this prospectus supplement, holders of the Series F Preferred Stock generally do not have any voting rights.
Investing in the Series F Preferred Stock involves a high degree of risk. See “Risk Factors” beginning on page S-15 of this prospectus supplement and in the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus.
Per Share
Total(1)
Price to the public
$        $       
Underwriting discounts and commissions
$ $
Proceeds to us (before expenses)
$ $
(1)
Assumes no exercise of the underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares as described below.
Neither the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus to which it relates is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.
The underwriters have an option to purchase a maximum of           additional shares of our Series F Preferred Stock solely to cover over-allotments, if any, on the same terms and conditions set forth above within 30 days of the date of this prospectus supplement.
Delivery of the shares of the Series F Preferred Stock will be made on or about July   , 2021, only in book-entry form through The Depository Trust Company.
Sole Book-Running Manager
Raymond James
The date of this prospectus supplement is June   , 2021.

 
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Prospectus Supplement
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Prospectus
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You should rely only on the information contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and any applicable free writing prospectus in making a decision about whether to invest in our Series F Preferred Stock. We have not, and the underwriters have not, authorized anyone to provide you with additional or different information. If anyone provides you with different or additional information, you should not rely on it.
 
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We are not, and the underwriters are not, making an offer of the shares of Series F Preferred Stock covered by this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus in any jurisdiction where such offer is not permitted.
You should assume that the information contained in or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and any applicable free writing prospectus is accurate only as of their respective dates or on the date or dates that are specified in such documents. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates.
 
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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT
This document consists of two parts. The first part is the prospectus supplement, which describes the specific terms of this offering and our Series F Preferred Stock, and also adds to and updates information contained in the accompanying prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. The second part is the accompanying prospectus, which describes more general information, some of which may not apply to this offering. Before you buy any shares of our Series F Preferred Stock, it is important for you to read and consider the information contained in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus together with additional information described under the headings “Incorporation by Reference of Information Filed with the SEC” and “Where You Can Find More Information” in this prospectus supplement.
To the extent the information set forth in this prospectus supplement differs in any way from the information set forth in the accompanying prospectus or the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus from a filing we made with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, prior to the date of this prospectus supplement, the information in this prospectus supplement will supersede such information. In addition, to the extent any information incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus from a filing we make with the SEC after the date of this prospectus supplement adds to, updates or changes information contained in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus or an earlier filing we made with the SEC that is incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus, the information in such later filing shall be deemed to modify, update and, where applicable, supersede such information in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus or the earlier filing with the SEC.
In this prospectus supplement, we refer to New York Mortgage Trust, Inc., a Maryland corporation, together with its consolidated subsidiaries, as “we,” “us,” “the Company” or “our,” unless we specifically state otherwise or the context indicates otherwise, and we refer to our wholly-owned taxable REIT subsidiaries as “TRSs.” In addition, the following defines certain of the commonly used terms in this prospectus supplement.

“ABS” refers to debt and/or equity tranches of securitizations backed by various asset classes including, but not limited to, automobiles, aircraft, credit cards, equipment, franchises, recreational vehicles and student loans;

“Agency RMBS” refers to RMBS representing interests in or obligations backed by pools of residential guaranteed by a government sponsored enterprise (“GSE”), such as the Federal National Mortgage Association (“Fannie Mae”) or the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (“Freddie Mac”), or by an agency of the U.S. government, such as the Government National Mortgage Association (“Ginnie Mae”);

“business purpose loans” refers to short-term loans collateralized by residential properties made to investors who intend to rehabilitate and sell the residential property for a profit;

“CDO” refers to collateralized debt obligation;

“CMBS” refers to commercial mortgage-backed securities comprised of commercial mortgage pass-through securities issued by a GSE, as well as PO, IO or mezzanine securities that represent the right to a specific component of the cash flow from a pool of commercial mortgage loans;

“Consolidated SLST” refers to a Freddie Mac-sponsored residential mortgage loan securitization, comprised of seasoned re-performing and non-performing residential mortgage loans, of which we own the first loss subordinated securities and certain IOs, that we consolidate in our financial statements in accordance with GAAP;

“Consolidated SLST CDOs” refers to the debt that permanently finances the residential mortgage loans held in Consolidated SLST that we consolidate in our financial statements in accordance with GAAP;

“Consolidated VIEs” refers to variable interest entities (“VIEs”) where the Company is the primary performance of the VIE and a right to receive benefits or absorb losses of the entity that could be
 
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potentially significant to the VIE and that the Company consolidates in its consolidated financial statements in accordance with GAAP;

“excess mortgage servicing spread” refers to the difference between the contractual servicing fee with Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac or Ginnie Mae and the base servicing fee that is retained as compensation for servicing or subservicing the related mortgage loans pursuant to the applicable servicing contract;

“GAAP” refers to generally accepted accounting principles within the United States;

“IOs” refers collectively to interest only and inverse interest only mortgage-backed securities that represent the right to the interest component of the cash flow from a pool of mortgage loans;

“non-Agency RMBS” refers to RMBS that are not guaranteed by any agency of the U.S. Government or GSE;

“POs” refers to mortgage-backed securities that represent the right to the principal component of the cash flow from a pool of mortgage loans;

“RMBS” refers to residential mortgage-backed securities backed by adjustable-rate, hybrid adjustable-rate, or fixed-rate residential loans;

“Series B Preferred Stock” refers to our 7.75% Series B Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock, $0.01 par value per share;

“Series C Preferred Stock” refers to our 7.875% Series C Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock, $0.01 par value per share;

“Series D Preferred Stock” refers to our 8.00% Series D Fixed-to-Floating Rate Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock, $0.01 par value per share; and

“Series E Preferred Stock” refers to our 7.875% Series E Fixed-to-Floating Rate Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock, $0.01 par value per share.
 
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CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
We make forward-looking statements in this prospectus supplement and in the accompanying prospectus and in the documents that are incorporated herein or therein by reference that are subject to risks and uncertainties. These forward-looking statements include information about possible or assumed future results of our business, financial condition, liquidity, results of operations, cash flow and plans and objectives. When we make statements which are not historical in nature, including those containing words such as “believe,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “estimate,” “project,” “plan,” “continue,” “intend,” “should,” “would,” “could,” “goal,” “objective,” “will,” “may,” “seek,” or similar expressions or their negative forms, or refer to strategies, plans, or intentions, we intend to identify forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act and Section 21E of the Exchange Act, and as such, these statements may involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties, and assumptions.
Forward-looking statements are based on our estimates, beliefs, assumptions and expectations of our future performance, taking into account information currently available to us. These estimates, beliefs, assumptions and expectations are subject to risks and uncertainties and can change as a result of many possible events or factors, not all of which are known to us. If a change occurs, our business, financial condition, liquidity and results of operations may vary materially from those expressed, anticipated or contemplated in our forward-looking statements. You should carefully consider these risks before you invest in our securities. The following factors are examples of those that could cause actual results to vary from our forward-looking statements:

changes in our business and investment strategy;

changes in interest rates and the fair market value of our assets, or the perception that such changes may occur, including negative changes resulting in margin calls relating to the financing of our assets;

changes in credit spreads;

changes in the long-term credit ratings of the U.S., Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac, or Ginnie Mae;

general volatility of the markets in which we invest;

changes in prepayment rates on the loans we own or that underlie our investment securities;

increased rates of default or delinquency and/or decreased recovery rates on our assets;

our ability to identify and acquire our targeted assets, including assets in our investment pipeline;

changes in our relationships with our financing counterparties and our ability to borrow to finance our assets and the terms thereof;

our ability to predict and control costs;

changes in laws, regulations or policies affecting our business, including actions that may be taken to contain or address the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic;

our ability to make distributions to our stockholders in the future;

the use of proceeds of this offering, including the redemption of all or a portion of any outstanding shares of series of our preferred stock;

our ability to maintain our qualification as a real estate investment trust (“REIT”) for U.S. federal income tax purposes;

our ability to maintain our exemption from registration under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended, or the “Investment Company Act”;

risks associated with investing in real estate assets, including changes in business conditions and the general economy, the availability of investment opportunities and the conditions in the market for Agency RMBS, non-Agency RMBS, ABS and CMBS securities, residential loans, structured multi-family investments and other mortgage-, residential housing- and credit-related assets, including changes resulting from the ongoing spread and economic effects of COVID-19; and

the impact of COVID-19 on us, our operations and our personnel.
 
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These and other risks, uncertainties and other important factors identified, or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, including, but not limited to, those described under the caption “Risk Factors” in this prospectus supplement, as well as those described under the captions “Risk Factors,” “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and “Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk” in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020, as updated by those risks described in our subsequent filings with the SEC under the Exchange Act and in the other documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement, could cause our actual results to differ materially from those projected in any forward-looking statements we make. All forward-looking statements speak only as of the date on which they are made. New risks and uncertainties arise over time and it is not possible to predict those events or how they may affect us. Except as required by law, we are not obligated to, and do not intend to, update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise. See “Where You Can Find More Information” below.
 
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WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION
We are subject to the informational requirements of the Exchange Act, and, in accordance with those requirements, file reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. The SEC maintains a website that contains reports, proxy statements and other information regarding registrants, including us, that file such information electronically with the SEC. The address of the SEC’s website is www.sec.gov. Our common stock, our 7.75% Series B Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock, $0.01 par value per share, our 7.875% Series C Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock, $0.01 par value per share, our 8.000% Series D Fixed-to-Floating Rate Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock, $0.01 par value per share, and our 7.875% Series E Fixed-to-Floating Rate Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock, $0.01 par value per share, are listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market. We have applied to list the Series F Preferred Stock on the Nasdaq Global Select Market. Our corporate website is located at www.nymtrust.com. Our corporate website and the information contained therein or connected thereto do not constitute a part of this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus or any amendment or supplement thereto.
We have filed with the SEC a registration statement on Form S-3 under the Securities Act with respect to the securities offered by this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, which form a part of the registration statement, do not contain all of the information set forth in the registration statement and its exhibits and schedules, certain parts of which are omitted in accordance with the SEC’s rules and regulations. For further information about us and our Series F Preferred Stock, we refer you to the registration statement and to such exhibits and schedules. Statements contained in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus concerning the provisions of any document filed as an exhibit to the registration statement or otherwise filed with the SEC are not necessarily complete, and in each instance reference is made to the copy of such document so filed. Each such statement is qualified in its entirety by such reference.
 
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INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE OF INFORMATION FILED WITH THE SEC
The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus the information we file with the SEC, which means that we can disclose important business, financial and other information to you by referring you to other documents separately filed with the SEC. The information incorporated by reference is deemed to be part of this prospectus supplement, except to the extent superseded by information contained herein or by information contained in documents filed with the SEC after the time this prospectus supplement is filed.
We incorporate by reference the following documents or information filed with the SEC and any subsequent filings we make with the SEC under Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act after the date of this prospectus supplement and prior to completion of the offering of our Series F Preferred Stock described in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus (other than, in each case, documents or information deemed to have been furnished and not filed in accordance with SEC rules):



our Current Reports on Form 8-K filed on March 15, 2021, April 27, 2021 and June 14, 2021;






We will provide without charge to each person, including any beneficial owner, to whom this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus are delivered, upon his or her written or oral request, a copy of any or all documents referred to above that have been or may be incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, excluding exhibits to those documents unless they are specifically incorporated by reference into those documents. You may request those documents from us by contacting: Corporate Secretary, New York Mortgage Trust, Inc., 90 Park Avenue, Floor 23, New York, New York 10016, telephone: (212) 792-0107.
 
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PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT SUMMARY
The following summary is qualified in its entirety by the more detailed information and consolidated financial statements and notes thereto appearing elsewhere in, or incorporated by reference into, this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. Because this is a summary, it does not contain all of the information that is important to you. You should read the entire prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, including the section entitled “Risk Factors” and the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, before making an investment decision.
Our Company
We are a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes, in the business of acquiring, investing in, financing and managing primarily mortgage-related single-family and multi-family residential assets. Our objective is to deliver long-term stable distributions to our stockholders over changing economic conditions through a combination of net interest margin and capital gains from a diversified investment portfolio. Our investment portfolio includes credit sensitive single-family and multi-family assets.
We intend to focus on our core portfolio strengths of single-family and multi-family residential credit assets, which we believe will deliver better risk adjusted returns over time, with a current focus on assets that may benefit from active management in a prolonged low interest rate environment. Our targeted investments currently include (i) residential loans and business purpose loans, (ii) structured multi-family property investments such as preferred equity in, and mezzanine loans to, owners of multi-family properties, as well as joint venture equity investments in multi-family properties, (iii) non-Agency RMBS, (iv) Agency RMBS, (v) CMBS and (vi) certain other mortgage-, residential housing- and other credit-related assets. Subject to maintaining our qualification as a REIT and the maintenance of our exclusion from registration as an investment company under the Investment Company Act, we also may opportunistically acquire and manage various other types of mortgage-, residential housing- and other credit-related assets that we believe will compensate us appropriately for the risks associated with them, including, without limitation, collateralized mortgage obligations, mortgage servicing rights, excess mortgage servicing spreads and securities issued by newly originated securitizations, including credit sensitive securities from these securitizations.
In recent years, we have sought to internalize and expand our investment management platform through the addition of multiple teams of investment professionals with expertise in our targeted assets. This includes the acquisition in 2016 of the external manager for our structured multi-family property investments and the addition of investment professionals in 2018 and 2019, which expanded our capabilities in self managing, sourcing and creating single-family credit assets. We believe that these steps have strengthened our ability to identify and secure attractive investment opportunities.
We have elected to be taxed as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes and have complied, and intend to continue to comply, with the provisions of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), with respect thereto. Accordingly, we do not expect to be subject to U.S. federal income tax on our REIT taxable income that we currently distribute to our stockholders provided we satisfy certain asset, income, distribution and ownership tests and record keeping requirements. Even if we maintain our qualification as a REIT, we expect to be subject to some U.S. federal, state and local income taxes on our income generated in our TRSs.
Our principal executive offices are located at 90 Park Avenue, New York, New York 10016, and our telephone number is (212) 792-0107. Our corporate website is www.nymtrust.com. Our corporate website and the information contained therein or connected thereto do not constitute a part of this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus or any amendment or supplement thereto.
Recent Developments
On April 27, 2021, we issued $100.0 million aggregate principal amount of our 5.75% senior unsecured notes due 2026 (the “Senior Unsecured Notes”) under an indenture, dated as of April 27, 2021, between us and UMB Bank National Association, as trustee. The Senior Unsecured Notes were issued in a private offering exempt from the registration requirements of the Securities Act resulting in net proceeds to us of approximately $96.3 million after deducting placement agent commissions and estimated offering expenses
 
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payable by us. The Senior Unsecured Notes are our senior unsecured obligations, will mature on April 30, 2026 and bear interest at a rate of 5.75% per year, subject to adjustment from time to time based on changes in the ratings of the Senior Unsecured Notes as described in the indenture.
In May 2021, we completed a securitization of business purpose loans, issuing $180.0 million of notes for net proceeds to us of $178.3 million, after deducting estimated expenses associated with the transaction. We utilized the net proceeds to repay approximately $116.8 million on outstanding non-mark-to-market repurchase agreements related to the business purpose loans.
We believe these recently completed financings are consistent with our previously stated intent to place a greater emphasis on procuring longer-termed and/or more committed financing arrangements that provide less or no exposure to fluctuations in the collateral repricing determinations of financing counterparties or rapid liquidity reductions in repurchase agreement financing markets. As of March 31, 2021, approximately 69% of our total portfolio financing, which we define as the sum of outstanding repurchase agreement financing and securitizations sponsored by us, was comprised of non-mark-to-market financing arrangements.
 
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THE OFFERING
The following is a brief summary of certain terms of this offering. For a more complete description of the terms of the Series F Preferred Stock, see “Description of the Series F Preferred Stock” in this prospectus supplement and “Description of Preferred Stock” in the accompanying prospectus.
In this prospectus supplement, (i) our “Junior Stock” means our common stock, $0.01 par value per share, and any class or series of stock we may issue in the future that by its terms ranks junior to the Series F Preferred Stock with respect to the payment of dividends and other distributions and the distribution of assets in the event of our liquidation, dissolution, or winding up, (ii) our “Parity Stock” means our Series B Preferred Stock, Series C Preferred Stock, Series D Preferred Stock, Series E Preferred Stock and any other class or series of stock issued by us from time to time that by its terms ranks on parity with the Series B Preferred Stock, Series C Preferred Stock, Series D Preferred Stock, Series E Preferred Stock and Series F Preferred Stock with respect to the payment of dividends and other distributions and the distribution of assets in the event of our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, and (iii) our “Senior Stock” means any class or series of stock we may issue in the future that by its terms ranks senior to the Series F Preferred Stock with respect to the payment of dividends and other distributions and the distribution of assets in the event of our liquidation, dissolution or winding up. The term “stock” does not include any convertible or exchangeable debt securities we may issue in the future.
Issuer
New York Mortgage Trust, Inc.
Securities Offered
             shares of our    % Series F Fixed-to-Floating Rate Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock, $0.01 par value per share (plus up to an additional          shares of our    % Series F Fixed-to-Floating Rate Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock that we will issue and sell in the event the underwriters exercise their over-allotment option).
Dividends
Holders of the Series F Preferred Stock will be entitled to receive cumulative cash dividends (i) from and including the original issue date to, but excluding, October 15, 2026 (the “Fixed Rate Period”), at a fixed rate equal to    % per annum of the $25.00 per share liquidation preference (equivalent to $      per annum per share) and (ii) from and including October 15, 2026 (the “Floating Rate Period”), at a floating rate equal to a Benchmark rate (as defined under “Description of the Series F Preferred Stock — Dividends”), which is expected to be the Three-Month SOFR, plus a spread of    % per annum of the $25.00 per share liquidation preference.
Dividends will be payable quarterly in arrears on the 15th day of each January, April, July and October, when and as declared, provided that if any dividend payment date is not a business day, then (i) in the Fixed Rate Period, the dividend which would otherwise have been payable on that dividend payment date will instead be paid on the immediately succeeding business day and (ii) in the Floating Rate Period, the dividend payment date will be the immediately succeeding business day. Dividends will accumulate and be cumulative from, and including, the date of original issuance, which is expected to be July   , 2021. The first dividend is scheduled to be payable on or about October 15, 2021 (long first dividend period) in the amount of $      per share and will be paid to the persons who are the holders of record of the Series F Preferred Stock at the close of business on the corresponding record date, which will be October 1, 2021.
No Maturity
The Series F Preferred Stock has no stated maturity and will not be subject to any sinking fund or mandatory redemption. Shares of the Series F Preferred Stock will remain outstanding indefinitely
 
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unless we decide to redeem or otherwise repurchase them or they become convertible and are converted as described below under “—Conversion Rights.” We are not required to set apart for payment the funds to redeem the Series F Preferred Stock.
Optional Redemption
The Series F Preferred Stock is not redeemable by us prior to October 15, 2026, except pursuant to Article VII of our charter, including under circumstances intended to preserve our qualification as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes and except as described below under “— Special Optional Redemption.” On and after October 15, 2026, we may, at our option, upon not less than 30 nor more than 60 days’ notice and subject to certain procedural requirements, redeem the Series F Preferred Stock, in whole or in part, at any time or from time to time, for cash at a redemption price equal to $25.00 per share, plus any accumulated and unpaid dividends thereon (whether or not authorized or declared) to, but excluding, the date fixed for redemption, without interest. Please see the section entitled “Description of the Series F Preferred Stock — Redemption — Optional Redemption.”
Special Optional Redemption
Upon the occurrence of a Change of Control, we may, at our option, upon not less than 30 nor more than 60 days’ notice and subject to certain procedural requirements, redeem the Series F Preferred Stock, in whole or in part, within 120 days on or after the first date on which such Change of Control occurred, for cash at a redemption price of $25.00 per share, plus any accumulated and unpaid dividends thereon (whether or not authorized or declared) to, but excluding, the date fixed for redemption, without interest. If, prior to the Change of Control Conversion Date (as defined herein), we have provided notice of our election to redeem some or all of the shares of Series F Preferred Stock (whether pursuant to our optional redemption right described above or this special optional redemption right), the holders of Series F Preferred Stock will not have the conversion right described below under “— Conversion Rights” with respect to the shares of Series F Preferred Stock called for redemption. Please see the section entitled “Description of the Series F Preferred Stock — Redemption” in this prospectus supplement.
A “Change of Control” is deemed to occur when, after the original issuance of the Series F Preferred Stock, the following have occurred and are continuing:

the acquisition by any person, including any syndicate or group deemed to be a “person” under Section 13(d)(3) of the Exchange Act of beneficial ownership, directly or indirectly, through a purchase, merger or other acquisition transaction or series of purchases, mergers or other acquisition transactions of our capital stock entitling that person to exercise more than 50% of the total voting power of all our capital stock entitled to vote generally in the election of our directors (except that such person will be deemed to have beneficial ownership of all securities that such person has the right to acquire, whether such right is currently exercisable or is exercisable only upon the occurrence of a subsequent condition); and

following the closing of any transaction referred to in the bullet point above, neither we nor the acquiring or surviving entity
 
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has a class of common securities (or American Depositary Receipts representing such securities) listed on the New York Stock Exchange (the “NYSE”), the NYSE American LLC (the “NYSE AMER”) or the Nasdaq Stock Market, or listed or quoted on an exchange or quotation system that is a successor to the NYSE, the NYSE AMER or the Nasdaq Stock Market.
Conversion Rights
Upon the occurrence of a Change of Control, each holder of Series F Preferred Stock will have the right (unless we have exercised our right to redeem the Series F Preferred Stock in whole or part, as described above under “— Optional Redemption” or “— Special Optional Redemption,” prior to the Change of Control Conversion Date, in which case the applicable holder will have the right only with respect to shares of Series F Preferred Stock that are not called for redemption) to convert some or all of the shares of Series F Preferred Stock held by such holder on the Change of Control Conversion Date into a number of shares of our common stock per share of Series F Preferred Stock to be converted equal to the lesser of:

the quotient obtained by dividing (i) the sum of the $25.00 liquidation preference per share of Series F Preferred Stock plus the amount of any accumulated and unpaid dividends thereon (whether or not authorized or declared) to, but excluding, the Change of Control Conversion Date (unless the Change of Control Conversion Date is after a dividend record date (as defined herein) and prior to the corresponding dividend payment date (as defined herein) for the Series F Preferred Stock, in which case no additional amount for such accumulated and unpaid dividends will be included in this sum) by (ii) the Common Stock Price (as defined herein); and

     , or the Share Cap, subject to adjustments to the Share Cap for any splits (including those effected pursuant to a distribution of our common stock to existing holders of our common stock), subdivisions or combinations of our common stock;
in each case, on the terms and subject to the conditions described in this prospectus supplement, including provisions for the receipt, under specified circumstances, of alternative consideration as described in this prospectus supplement.
For definitions of “Change of Control Conversion Date,” “dividend record date,” “dividend payment date” and “Common Stock Price” and a description of certain adjustments and provisions for the receipt of alternative consideration that may be applicable to the conversion of Series F Preferred Stock in the event of a Change of Control, and for other important information, please see the section entitled “Description of the Series F Preferred Stock — Conversion Rights.”
Liquidation Preference
If we liquidate, dissolve or wind up, holders of the Series F Preferred Stock will have the right to receive $25.00 per share, plus any accumulated and unpaid dividends thereon (whether or not authorized or declared) to, but excluding, the date of payment, without interest, before any payment is made to the holders of our common stock and the holders of any other Junior Stock we may
 
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issue in the future. Please see the section entitled “Description of the Series F Preferred Stock — Liquidation Preference.”
Ranking
The Series F Preferred Stock will rank, with respect to rights to the payment of dividends and other distributions and the distribution of assets upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, (1) senior to all classes or series of our common stock and any other Junior Stock we may issue in the future; (2) on a parity with our Parity Stock; (3) junior to any Senior Stock we may issue in the future; and (4) effectively junior to all of our existing and future indebtedness (including indebtedness convertible into or exchangeable for our common stock or preferred stock) and to the indebtedness of any of our existing or future subsidiaries. Please see the section entitled “Description of the Series F Preferred Stock — Ranking.”
Voting Rights
Holders of Series F Preferred Stock will generally have no voting rights. However, if dividends on the Series F Preferred Stock are in arrears for six or more quarterly dividend periods (whether or not consecutive), the number of directors constituting our board of directors will automatically be increased by two (if not already increased by two by reason of the election of directors by holders of any other class or series of Parity Stock upon which like voting rights have been conferred and are exercisable) and the holders of the Series F Preferred Stock, voting together as a single class with the holders of any Parity Stock upon which like voting rights have been conferred and are exercisable and which are entitled to vote as a class with the Series F Preferred Stock in the election referred to below, will be entitled to vote for the election of two additional directors to serve on our board of directors until our next annual meeting of stockholders and until their successors are duly elected (as described below) and qualify or until we pay, or declare and set apart funds for the payment of, all dividends accumulated on the Series F Preferred Stock for all past dividend periods and the then current dividend period, whichever occurs earlier. The holders of Series F Preferred Stock, voting together as a single class with the holders of any Parity Stock upon which like voting rights have been conferred and are exercisable and which are entitled to vote as a class with the Series F Preferred Stock, will have the right to elect two such directors, by a plurality of the votes cast in the election of each such director, at each annual meeting of our stockholders until all dividends accumulated on the Series F Preferred Stock, and the applicable classes of Parity stock, for all past dividend periods and the then current dividend period shall have been fully paid or declared and a sum sufficient for the payment thereof set apart for payment. In addition, the affirmative vote of the holders of at least two-thirds of the outstanding shares of Series F Preferred Stock, voting together as a single class with the holders of any Parity Stock upon which like voting rights have been conferred and are exercisable, is required for us (a) to authorize, issue or increase the number of authorized, shares of any class or series of Senior Stock, or (b) to amend, alter or repeal any provision of our charter, whether by merger, conversion, consolidation or otherwise, so as to materially and adversely affect any rights of the Series F Preferred Stock or to take certain other actions. Please see the section entitled “Description of the Series F Preferred Stock — Voting Rights.”
 
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Information Rights
During any period in which we are not subject to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act and any shares of Series F Preferred Stock are outstanding, we will use our best efforts to transmit through our website at http://www.nymtrust.com (or other permissible means under the Exchange Act) copies of the Annual Reports on Form 10-K and Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q that we would have been required to file with the SEC pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act if we were subject thereto (other than any exhibits that would have been required). We will use our best efforts to provide such reports on our website within 15 days after the respective dates by which we would have been required to file such reports with the SEC if we were subject to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act and we were a “non-accelerated filer” within the meaning of the Exchange Act.
Listing
No current market exists for the Series F Preferred Stock. We have filed an application to list the Series F Preferred Stock on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “NYMTL.” If approved for listing, we expect that trading on the Nasdaq Global Select Market will commence within 30 days after the date of initial issuance of the Series F Preferred Stock. The underwriters have advised us that they intend to make a market in the Series F Preferred Stock prior to the commencement of any trading on the Nasdaq Global Select Market, but they are not obligated to do so and may discontinue market making at any time without notice. We cannot assure you that a market for the Series F Preferred Stock will develop prior to commencement of trading on the Nasdaq Global Select Market or, if developed, will be maintained or will provide you with adequate liquidity.
Restrictions on Transfer and Ownership
In order to ensure that we remain qualified as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes, our charter, including the articles supplementary setting forth the terms of the Series F Preferred Stock, or the Articles Supplementary, provides that generally no person may own, or be deemed to own by virtue of the attribution provisions of the Code, either (i) more than 9.9% in value of the aggregate of our outstanding shares of capital stock or (ii) more than 9.9% in value or in number of shares, whichever is more restrictive, of the aggregate of our outstanding shares of common stock. These provisions may restrict the ability of a holder of Series F Preferred Stock to convert such stock into our common stock. Our board of directors has discretion to grant exemptions from the 9.9% ownership limitations under certain circumstances. Please see the sections entitled “Description of the Series F Preferred Stock — Restrictions on Transfer and Ownership” in this prospectus supplement and “Description of Preferred Stock — Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer; Change of Control Provisions” and “Description of Common Stock — Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer” in the accompanying prospectus.
Book Entry and Form
The Series F Preferred Stock will be represented by one or more global certificates in definitive, fully registered form deposited with a custodian for, and registered in the name of, a nominee of The Depository Trust Company.
 
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Use of Proceeds
We expect to use the net proceeds of this offering to fund the redemption of all or a portion of the outstanding shares of our Series C Preferred Stock. In addition, we intend to use the remainder of the net proceeds from this offering for general business purposes, which may include, among other things, acquiring our targeted assets, including both single-family and multi-family residential assets, and various other types of mortgage-, residential housing- and credit-related assets that we may target from time to time, the redemption of all or a portion of additional series of our preferred stock and general working capital purposes. This prospectus supplement does not constitute a notice of redemption of such Series C Preferred Stock or any other existing series of our preferred stock. See “Use of Proceeds.”
U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations
For a discussion of the U.S. federal income tax consequences of purchasing, owning and disposing of the Series F Preferred Stock and any common stock received upon conversion of the Series F Preferred Stock, please see the sections entitled “Additional Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations” in this prospectus supplement and “Material Federal Income Tax Considerations” in the accompanying prospectus.
Risk Factors
An investment in the Series F Preferred Stock is subject to a high degree of risk. Please refer to “Risk Factors” and other information included or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus for a discussion of factors you should carefully consider before investing in shares of our Series F Preferred Stock.
 
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RISK FACTORS
Investing in shares of the Series F Preferred Stock involves a high degree of risk. Please see the risks described below in addition to the risk factors included under the heading “Risk Factors” in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020. Such risks are not the only risks we face. Additional risks and uncertainties not currently known to us or that we currently deem to be immaterial may also materially adversely affect us and the market value of the Series F Preferred Stock. The risks described could affect our business, financial condition, liquidity, results of operations, prospects, and the market value of the Series F Preferred Stock. In such a case, you may lose all or part of your original investment. You should consider carefully the risks described below and in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020, as well as other information and data set forth in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein before making an investment decision with respect to the shares of the Series F Preferred Stock.
Risks Related to the Offering
The Series F Preferred Stock ranks junior to all of our indebtedness and other liabilities and any Senior Stock we may issue in the future and your interests could be diluted by the issuance of additional shares of preferred stock and by other transactions.
In the event of our bankruptcy, liquidation, dissolution or winding-up of our affairs, our assets will be available to pay obligations on the Series F Preferred Stock only after all of our indebtedness and other liabilities have been paid. The rights of holders of the Series F Preferred Stock to participate in the distribution of our assets will rank junior to the prior claims of our current and future creditors and any future series or class of preferred stock we may issue that ranks senior to the Series F Preferred Stock. In addition, the Series F Preferred Stock would effectively rank junior to all indebtedness and other liabilities of any existing or future subsidiaries. Such subsidiaries are or would be separate legal entities and have or will have no legal obligation to pay any amounts to us in respect of dividends due on the Series F Preferred Stock. If we are forced to liquidate our assets to pay our creditors, we may not have sufficient assets to pay amounts due on any or all of the shares of Series F Preferred Stock then outstanding. We have incurred and may in the future incur substantial amounts of debt and other obligations that will rank senior to the Series F Preferred Stock.
Future offerings of debt or senior equity securities may adversely affect the market price of the Series F Preferred Stock. Moreover, under the terms of certain of our securitizations or structured financings, our operating flexibility is constrained and, if we decide to issue debt or senior equity securities in the future, it is possible that these securities will be governed by an indenture or other instrument containing covenants or other provisions that will restrict our operating flexibility. Additionally, any convertible or exchangeable securities that we issue in the future may have rights, preferences and privileges more favorable than those of the Series F Preferred Stock and may result in dilution to owners of the Series F Preferred Stock. We and, indirectly, our stockholders, will bear the cost of issuing and servicing such securities. Because our decision to issue debt or equity securities in any future offering will depend on market conditions and other factors beyond our control, we cannot predict or estimate the amount, timing or nature of our future offerings. Thus, holders of the Series F Preferred Stock will bear the risk of our future offerings reducing the market price of the Series F Preferred Stock and diluting the value of their holdings in us.
An adverse rating of the Series F Preferred Stock may cause its trading price to fall.
Any rating assigned to the Series F Preferred Stock reflects the applicable rating agency’s assessment of the likelihood that the holders of the Series F Preferred Stock will receive the payments required to be made pursuant to the terms of the Series F Preferred Stock. A rating reflects only the view of a rating agency and is not the view of our Company or a recommendation to buy, sell or hold the Series F Preferred Stock. Any rating can be revised upward or downward or withdrawn at any time by a rating agency if it decides that circumstances warrant that change. If rating agencies assign a lower-than-expected rating or reduce, or indicate that they may reduce, their ratings in the future, the trading price of the Series F Preferred Stock could significantly decline.
 
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We may issue additional shares of Series F Preferred Stock and additional shares, series or classes of preferred stock that rank on parity with the Series F Preferred Stock as to dividend rights, rights upon liquidation or voting rights.
We are allowed to issue additional shares of Series F Preferred Stock and additional shares, classes or series of preferred stock that rank or would rank equally to the Series F Preferred Stock as to dividend payments and rights upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs, which we refer to in this prospectus supplement as Parity Stock, pursuant to our charter, including the Articles Supplementary, without any vote of the holders of the Series F Preferred Stock. For example, we currently maintain an “at-the-market” offering program pursuant to which we may offer and sell, from time to time, shares of our Series B Preferred Stock, our Series C Preferred Stock, our Series D Preferred Stock and our Series E Preferred Stock. The issuance of additional shares of Series F Preferred Stock and additional shares, series or classes of Parity Stock, including the issuance of additional shares of our Series B Preferred Stock, our Series C Preferred Stock, our Series D Preferred Stock or our Series E Preferred Stock could have the effect of reducing the amounts available to the Series F Preferred Stock issued in this offering upon our liquidation or dissolution or the winding up of our affairs. It also may reduce dividend payments on the Series F Preferred Stock issued in this offering if we do not have sufficient funds to pay dividends on all Series F Preferred Stock outstanding and other series or classes of Parity Stock.
In addition, although holders of Series F Preferred Stock are entitled to limited voting rights, as described in “Description of the Series F Preferred Stock — Voting Rights,” with respect to certain matters, the Series F Preferred Stock will vote as a class along with all other classes or series of our preferred stock that we have issued and may in the future issue upon which like voting rights have been conferred and are exercisable, including our Series B Preferred Stock, our Series C Preferred Stock, our Series D Preferred Stock, and our Series E Preferred Stock. As a result, the voting rights of holders of Series F Preferred Stock may be significantly diluted, and the holders of such other series or classes of preferred stock that we have issued and may in the future issue may be able to control or significantly influence the outcome of any vote.
Future issuances and sales of Series F Preferred Stock or Parity Stock, including our Series B Preferred Stock, our Series C Preferred Stock, our Series D Preferred Stock and our Series E Preferred Stock, or the perception that such issuances and sales could occur, may cause prevailing market prices for the Series F Preferred Stock and our common stock to decline and may adversely affect our ability to raise additional capital in the financial markets at times and prices favorable to us.
We may not be able to pay dividends or other distributions on the Series F Preferred Stock.
Under Maryland law, no distributions on capital stock may be made if, after giving effect to the distribution, (a) the corporation would not be able to pay the indebtedness of the corporation as such indebtedness becomes due in the usual course of business or, (b) except in certain limited circumstances when distributions are made from net earnings, the corporation’s total assets would be less than the sum of the corporation’s total liabilities plus, unless the charter provides otherwise (which our charter does, with respect to the Series B Preferred Stock, Series C Preferred Stock, Series D Preferred Stock, Series E Preferred Stock and Series F Preferred Stock), the amount that would be needed, if the corporation were to be dissolved at the time of the distribution, to satisfy the preferential rights upon dissolution of stockholders whose preferential rights on dissolution are superior to those receiving the distribution. There can be no guarantee that we will have sufficient cash to pay dividends on the Series F Preferred Stock. Our ability to pay dividends may be impaired if any of the risks described in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and in the accompanying prospectus were to occur. In addition, payment of our dividends depends upon our earnings, our financial condition, maintenance of our REIT qualification and other factors as our board of directors may deem relevant from time to time. We cannot assure you that our business will generate sufficient cash flow from operations or that future borrowings will be available to us in an amount sufficient to enable us to make distributions on our common stock and preferred stock, including the Series F Preferred Stock offered by this prospectus supplement, to pay our indebtedness or to fund our other liquidity needs.
You should not rely on indicative or historical data concerning SOFR.
The dividend rate during the Floating Rate Period will be determined using Three-Month Term SOFR (unless a Benchmark Transition Event (as defined below in “Description of the Series F Preferred Stock”)
 
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and its related Benchmark Replacement Date (as defined below in “Description of the Series F Preferred Stock”) occur with respect to Three-Month Term SOFR, in which case the dividend rate will be based on the next-available Benchmark Replacement). In the following discussion of the Secured Overnight Financing Rate (“SOFR”), when we refer to SOFR-linked Series F Preferred Stock, we mean the Series F Preferred Stock at any time when the dividend rate on the Series F Preferred Stock is or will be determined based on SOFR, including Three-Month Term SOFR.
SOFR is published by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (“FRBNY”) and is intended to be a broad measure of the cost of borrowing cash overnight collateralized by U.S. Treasury securities. FRBNY reports that SOFR includes all trades in the Broad General Collateral Rate, plus bilateral U.S. Treasury repurchase agreement (“repo”) transactions cleared through the delivery-versus-payment service offered by the Fixed Income Clearing Corporation (the “FICC”), a subsidiary of The Depository Trust & Clearing Corporation (“DTCC”). SOFR is filtered by FRBNY to remove a portion of the foregoing transactions considered to be “specials.” According to FRBNY, “specials” are repos for specific-issue collateral which take place at cash-lending rates below those for general collateral repos because cash providers are willing to accept a lesser return on their cash in order to obtain a particular security.
FRBNY reports that SOFR is calculated as a volume-weighted median of transaction-level tri-party repo data collected from The Bank of New York Mellon, which currently acts as the clearing bank for the tri-party repo market, as well as general collateral finance repo transaction data and data on bilateral U.S. Treasury repo transactions cleared through the FICC’s delivery-versus-payment service.
FRBNY states that it obtains information from DTCC Solutions LLC, an affiliate of DTCC. FRBNY currently publishes SOFR daily on its website at https://apps.newyorkfed.org/markets/autorates/sofr. FRBNY states on its publication page for SOFR that use of SOFR is subject to important disclaimers, limitations and indemnification obligations, including that FRBNY may alter the methods of calculation, publication schedule, rate revision practices or availability of SOFR at any time without notice. The foregoing Internet website is an inactive textual reference only, meaning that the information contained on the website is not part of this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus or incorporated by reference herein or therein.
FRBNY started publishing SOFR in April 2018. FRBNY has also started publishing historical indicative SOFRs dating back to 2014, although this historical indicative data inherently involves assumptions, estimates and approximations. You should not rely on this historical indicative data or on any historical changes or trends in SOFR as an indicator of the future performance of SOFR.
SOFR may be more volatile than other benchmark or market rates.
Since the initial publication of SOFR, daily changes in the rate have, on occasion, been more volatile than daily changes in comparable benchmark or market rates, and SOFR over time may bear little or no relation to the historical actual or historical indicative data. In addition, the return on and value of the SOFR-linked Series F Preferred Stock may fluctuate more than floating rate securities that are linked to less volatile rates.
Changes in SOFR could adversely affect the dividend that accrues on the SOFR-linked Series F Preferred Stock and the trading prices for the SOFR-linked Series F Preferred Stock.
Because SOFR is published by FRBNY based on data received from other sources, we have no control over its determination, calculation or publication. There can be no assurance that SOFR will not be discontinued or fundamentally altered in a manner that is materially adverse to the interests of investors in the SOFR-linked Series F Preferred Stock. If the manner in which SOFR is calculated is changed, that change may result in a reduction in the dividends that accrue on the SOFR-linked Series F Preferred Stock, which may adversely affect the trading prices of the SOFR-linked Series F Preferred Stock. In addition, the dividend rate on the SOFR-linked Series F Preferred Stock for any day will not be adjusted for any modification or amendment to SOFR for that day that FRBNY may publish if the dividend rate for that day has already been determined prior to such publication. Further, if the Benchmark rate on the SOFR-linked Series F Preferred Stock during the Floating Rate Period for any Dividend Period declines to zero or becomes negative, dividends will only accrue on the SOFR-linked Series F Preferred Stock at a rate equal to the spread of    %
 
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per annum with respect to that Dividend Period. There is no assurance that changes in SOFR could not have a material adverse effect on the value of and market for the SOFR-linked Series F Preferred Stock.
SOFR differs fundamentally from, and may not be a comparable substitute for, U.S. dollar LIBOR.
In June 2017, the Alternative Reference Rates Committee (the “ARRC”) convened by the Federal Reserve (the “Federal Reserve”) and FRBNY announced SOFR as its recommended alternative to the London interbank offered rate for U.S. dollar obligations (“U.S. dollar LIBOR”). However, because SOFR is a broad U.S. Treasury repo financing rate that represents overnight secured funding transactions, it differs fundamentally from U.S. dollar LIBOR. For example, SOFR is a secured overnight rate, while U.S. dollar LIBOR is an unsecured rate that represents interbank funding over different maturities. In addition, because SOFR is a transaction-based rate, it is backward-looking, whereas U.S. dollar LIBOR is forward-looking. Because of these and other differences, there can be no assurance that SOFR will perform in the same way as U.S. dollar LIBOR would have done at any time, and there is no guarantee that it is a comparable substitute for U.S. dollar LIBOR.
Any failure of SOFR to gain market acceptance could adversely affect the trading prices of the SOFR-linked Series F Preferred Stock.
SOFR may fail to gain market acceptance. SOFR was developed for use in certain U.S. dollar derivatives and other financial contracts as an alternative to U.S. dollar LIBOR in part because it is considered to be a good representation of general funding conditions in the overnight U.S. Treasury repo market. However, as a rate based on transactions secured by U.S. Treasury securities, it does not measure bank-specific credit risk and, as a result, is less likely to correlate with the unsecured short-term funding costs of banks. This may mean that market participants would not consider SOFR to be a suitable substitute or successor for all of the purposes for which U.S. dollar LIBOR historically has been used (including, without limitation, as a representation of the unsecured short-term funding costs of banks), which may, in turn, lessen its market acceptance. Any failure of SOFR to gain market acceptance could adversely affect the return on, value of and market for the SOFR-linked Series F Preferred Stock.
Any market for the SOFR-linked Series F Preferred Stock may be illiquid or unpredictable.
Since SOFR is a relatively new market index, SOFR-linked equity securities likely will have no established trading market when issued, and an established trading market for the SOFR-linked Series F Preferred Stock may never develop or may not be very liquid. Market terms for securities that are linked to SOFR may evolve over time, and as a result, trading prices of the SOFR-linked Series F Preferred Stock may be lower than those of later-issued securities that are linked to SOFR. Similarly, if SOFR does not prove to be widely used in securities that are similar or comparable to the SOFR-linked Series F Preferred Stock, the trading price of the SOFR-linked Series F Preferred Stock may be lower than those of securities that are linked to rates that are more widely used. You may not be able to sell the SOFR-linked Series F Preferred Stock at all or may not be able to sell the SOFR-linked Series F Preferred Stock at prices that will provide you with a yield comparable to similar investments that have a developed secondary market, and may consequently suffer from increased pricing volatility and market risk. The manner of adoption or application of reference rates based on SOFR in the bond and equity markets may differ materially compared with the application and adoption of SOFR in other markets, such as the derivatives and loan markets. You should carefully consider how any potential inconsistencies between the adoption of reference rates based on SOFR across these markets may impact any hedging or other financial arrangements which you may put in place in connection with any acquisition, holding or disposal of the SOFR-linked Series F Preferred Stock.
The dividend rate for the Series F Preferred Stock during the Floating Rate Period may be determined based on a rate other than Three-Month Term SOFR.
Under the terms of the Series F Preferred Stock, the dividend rate on the Series F Preferred Stock during the Floating Rate Period will be based on Three-Month Term SOFR, a forward-looking term rate for a tenor of three months that will be based on SOFR. Three-Month Term SOFR does not currently exist and is currently being developed under the sponsorship of the ARRC. There is no assurance that the
 
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development of Three-Month Term SOFR, or any other forward-looking term rate based on SOFR, will be completed. Uncertainty surrounding the development of forward-looking term rates based on SOFR could have a material adverse effect on the return on, value of and market for the Series F Preferred Stock. If, at the commencement of the Floating Rate Period for the Series F Preferred Stock, the Federal Reserve and/or the FRBNY, or a committee officially endorsed or convened by the Federal Reserve and/or the FRBNY or any successor thereto (“Relevant Governmental Body”) has not selected or recommended a forward-looking term rate for a tenor of three months based on SOFR, the development of a forward-looking term rate for a tenor of three months based on SOFR that has been recommended or selected by the Relevant Governmental Body is not complete or the calculation agent determines that the use of a forward-looking rate for a tenor of three months based on SOFR is not administratively feasible, then the next-available Benchmark Replacement under the benchmark transition provisions will be used to determine the dividend rate on the Series F Preferred Stock during the Floating Rate Period (unless a Benchmark Transition Event and its related Benchmark Replacement Date occur with respect to that next-available Benchmark Replacement).
Under the terms of the Series F Preferred Stock, the calculation agent is expressly authorized to make determinations, decisions or elections with respect to technical, administrative or operational matters that it decides may be appropriate to reflect the use of Three-Month Term SOFR as the dividend rate for the Series F Preferred Stock in a manner substantially consistent with market practice, which are defined in the terms of the Series F Preferred Stock as “Three-Month Term SOFR Conventions.” For example, assuming that a form of Three-Month Term SOFR is developed, it is not currently known how or by whom rates for Three-Month Term SOFR will be published. Accordingly, the calculation agent will need to determine the applicable Three-Month Term SOFR during the Floating Rate Period. The calculation agent’s determination and implementation of any Three-Month Term SOFR Conventions could result in adverse consequences to the dividend rate on the Series F Preferred Stock during the Floating Rate Period, which could adversely affect the return on, value of and market for the Series F Preferred Stock.
Any Benchmark Replacement may not be the economic equivalent of Three-Month Term SOFR.
Under the benchmark transition provisions of the Series F Preferred Stock, if the calculation agent determines that a Benchmark Transition Event and its related Benchmark Replacement Date have occurred with respect to Three-Month Term SOFR, then the dividend rate on the Series F Preferred Stock during the Floating Rate Period will be determined using the next-available Benchmark Replacement (which may include a related Benchmark Replacement Adjustment). However, the Benchmark Replacement may not be the economic equivalent of Three-Month Term SOFR. For example, Compounded SOFR, the first available Benchmark Replacement, is the compounded average of the daily Secured Overnight Financing Rates calculated in arrears, while Three-Month Term SOFR is intended to be a forward-looking rate with a tenor of three months. In addition, very limited market precedent exists for securities that use Compounded SOFR as the rate basis, and the method for calculating Compounded SOFR in those precedents varies. Further, the ISDA Fallback Rate, which is another Benchmark Replacement, has not yet been established and may change over time.
The implementation of Benchmark Replacement Conforming Changes could adversely affect the dividends that accrue on the Series F Preferred Stock and the trading prices for the Series F Preferred Stock.
Under the benchmark transition provisions of the Series F Preferred Stock, if a particular Benchmark Replacement or Benchmark Replacement Adjustment cannot be determined, then the next-available Benchmark Replacement or Benchmark Replacement Adjustment will apply. These replacement rates and adjustments may be selected or formulated by (i) the Relevant Governmental Body (such as the ARRC), (ii) ISDA or (iii) in certain circumstances, the calculation agent. In addition, the benchmark transition provisions expressly authorize the calculation agent to make certain changes, which are defined in the terms of the Series F Preferred Stock as “Benchmark Replacement Conforming Changes,” with respect to, among other things, the determination of the dividend rate, and the timing and frequency of determining rates and making payments. The application of a Benchmark Replacement and Benchmark Replacement Adjustment, and any implementation of Benchmark Replacement Conforming Changes, could result in adverse consequences to the amount of dividends that accrue on the Series F Preferred Stock during the Floating Rate Period, which could adversely affect the return on, value of and market for the Series F Preferred Stock. Further, there is no assurance that the characteristics of any Benchmark Replacement will
 
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be similar to the then-current Benchmark that it is replacing, or that any Benchmark Replacement will produce the economic equivalent of the then-current Benchmark that it is replacing.
The dividends that accrue on the Series F Preferred Stock will vary after October 15, 2026.
During the fixed rate period, the Series F Preferred Stock will accrue dividends at an initial rate of    % per annum. Thereafter, the dividends will accrue on the Series F Preferred Stock at a floating rate equal to a benchmark rate (which is expected to be Three-Month Term SOFR) plus a spread of    % per annum of the $25.00 per share liquidation preference, subject to the provisions under “Description of the Series F Preferred Stock — Dividends.” The dividend rate that is determined at the reference time for each Dividend Period will apply to the entire Dividend Period following such determination date even if the benchmark rate increases during that period.
Floating rate preferred stock bears additional risks not associated with fixed rate equity securities. These risks include fluctuation of the dividend rate and the possibility that you will receive an amount of dividends that is lower than expected. We have no control over a number of matters that may impact the dividend rate, including, without limitation, economic, financial, and political events that are important in determining the existence, magnitude, and longevity of market volatility, and other risks and their impact on the value of, or payments made on, the Series F Preferred Stock.
Our management team has broad discretion in the use of proceeds of this offering and, despite our efforts, we may invest or spend the proceeds of this offering in ways with which you may not agree or in ways which may not yield a significant return.
Our management will have broad discretion over the use of proceeds from this offering. The net proceeds from this offering will be used to fund the redemption of all or a portion of the outstanding shares of our Series C Preferred Stock and for general business purposes, which may include, among other things, acquiring our targeted assets, including both single-family and multi-family residential credit assets, and various other types of mortgage- and residential housing-related assets that we may target from time to time, the redemption of all or a portion of additional series of our preferred stock and general working capital purposes. Our management will have considerable discretion in the application of the net proceeds, and you will not have the opportunity, as part of your investment decision, to assess whether the proceeds are being used appropriately. As a result, the net proceeds from this offering may be used for general business purposes that do not increase our operating results or enhance the value of our Series F Preferred Stock.
You may not be able to exercise conversion rights upon a Change of Control. If exercisable, the change of control conversion rights described in this prospectus supplement may not adequately compensate you. These change of control conversion rights may also make it more difficult for a party to acquire us or discourage a party from acquiring us.
Upon the occurrence of a Change of Control, each holder of the Series F Preferred Stock will have the right (unless, prior to the Change of Control Conversion Date, we have provided notice of our election to redeem some or all of the shares of Series F Preferred Stock held by such holder as described under “Description of the Series F Preferred Stock — Redemption — Optional Redemption” or “— Special Optional Redemption,” in which case such holder will have the right only with respect to shares of Series F Preferred Stock that are not called for redemption) to convert some or all of such holder’s Series F Preferred Stock into shares of our common stock (or under specified circumstances certain Alternative Conversion Consideration (as defined below)). Notwithstanding that we generally may not redeem the Series F Preferred Stock prior to October 15, 2026, we have a special optional redemption right to redeem the Series F Preferred Stock in the event of a Change of Control, and holders of the Series F Preferred Stock will not have the right to convert any shares that we have elected to redeem prior to the Change of Control Conversion Date. Please see the sections entitled “Description of the Series F Preferred Stock — Redemption — Special Optional Redemption” and “Description of the Series F Preferred Stock — Conversion Rights.”
If we do not elect to redeem the Series F Preferred Stock prior to the Change of Control Conversion Date, then upon an exercise of the conversion rights provided to the holders of our Series F Preferred Stock, the holders of Series F Preferred Stock will be limited to a maximum number of shares of our common stock (or, if applicable, the Alternative Conversion Consideration) equal to the Share Cap multiplied by the number of shares of Series F Preferred Stock converted. If the Common Stock Price is less than $      per
 
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share (which is    % of the per share closing sale price of our common stock reported on the Nasdaq Global Select Market on           , 2021), subject to adjustment in certain circumstances, the holders of the Series F Preferred Stock will receive a maximum of           shares of our common stock per share of Series F Preferred Stock, which may result in a holder receiving shares of common stock (or Alternative Conversion Consideration, as applicable) with a value that is less than the liquidation preference of the Series F Preferred Stock plus any accumulated and unpaid dividends to, but excluding, the Change of Control Conversion Date.
In addition, the Change of Control conversion feature of the Series F Preferred Stock may have the effect of discouraging a third party from making an acquisition proposal for us or of delaying, deferring or preventing certain of our change of control transactions under circumstances that otherwise could provide the holders of our common stock and Series F Preferred Stock with the opportunity to realize a premium over the then-current market price of such stock or that stockholders may otherwise believe is in their best interests.
The market price of the Series F Preferred Stock could be substantially affected by various factors.
The market price of the Series F Preferred Stock will depend on many factors, which may change from time to time, including:

prevailing interest rates, changes in which may have an adverse effect on the market price of the Series F Preferred Stock;

trading prices of common and preferred equity securities issued by REITs and other similar companies;

the annual yield from distributions on the Series F Preferred Stock as compared to yields on other financial instruments;

general economic and financial market conditions;

government action or regulation;

the financial condition, performance and prospects of us and our competitors;

changes in financial estimates or recommendations by securities analysts with respect to us, our competitors or our industry;

our issuance of additional preferred equity or debt securities; and

actual or anticipated variations in quarterly operating results of us and our competitors.
As a result of these and other factors, including those set forth under “Risk Factors” in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020, investors who purchase the Series F Preferred Stock in this offering may experience a decrease, which could be substantial and rapid, in the market price of the Series F Preferred Stock, including decreases unrelated to our operating performance or prospects.
Our charter, including the Articles Supplementary, contains restrictions upon transfer and ownership of our capital stock, which may impair the ability of holders to acquire the Series F Preferred Stock or convert Series F Preferred Stock into shares of our common stock.
Our charter, including the Articles Supplementary, contains restrictions on transfer and ownership of our capital stock intended to assist us in maintaining our qualification as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Our charter provides that generally no person may own, or be deemed to own by virtue of the attribution provisions of the Code, either (i) more than 9.9% in value of the aggregate of our outstanding shares of capital stock or (ii) more than 9.9% in value or number of shares, whichever is more restrictive, of the aggregate of shares of our outstanding common stock. See “Description of the Series F Preferred Stock — Restrictions on Transfer and Ownership of Stock” in this prospectus supplement. You should consider these ownership limitations prior to your purchase of the Series F Preferred Stock. No holder of Series F Preferred Stock will be entitled to convert such stock into our common stock to the extent that receipt of shares of our common stock would cause the holder (or any other person) to exceed any of the ownership limitations or violate any of the other restrictions on transfer and ownership contained in our charter, subject to certain permissible exemptions. In addition, these restrictions could have anti-takeover effects and
 
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could reduce the possibility that a third party will attempt to acquire control of us, which could adversely affect the market price of the Series F Preferred Stock.
As a holder of Series F Preferred Stock, you will have extremely limited voting rights.
Your voting rights as a holder of Series F Preferred Stock will be limited. Our common stock is the only class of our securities that carries full voting rights. Holders of Series F Preferred Stock may vote only (a) to elect two additional directors to our board of directors, as described in the section entitled “Description of the Series F Preferred Stock — Voting Rights,” in the event that six quarterly dividends (whether or not consecutive) payable on the Series F Preferred Stock are in arrears, (b) on amendments to our charter that materially and adversely affect the rights of the holders of Series F Preferred Stock or (c) to authorize, increase or create additional classes or series of our shares that are senior to the Series F Preferred Stock. The Series F Preferred Stock will vote together as a single class along with all other classes or series of our Parity Stock upon which like voting rights have been conferred and are exercisable on each of these matters, including our Series B Preferred Stock, our Series C Preferred Stock, our Series D Preferred Stock and our Series E Preferred Stock. However, holders of any Parity Stock, including our Series B Preferred Stock, our Series C Preferred Stock, our Series D Preferred Stock and our Series E Preferred Stock, shall not be entitled to vote together as a class with the holders of Series F Preferred Stock as to any charter amendment described in (b) above if holders of Series F Preferred Stock are affected unequally by such amendment. As a result, the voting rights of holders of Series F Preferred Stock may be significantly diluted, and the holders of such other series of preferred stock that we may issue may be able to control or significantly influence the outcome of any vote. Other than the limited circumstances described in this prospectus supplement, holders of Series F Preferred Stock will not have any voting rights. Please see the section entitled “Description of the Series F Preferred Stock — Voting Rights.”
The Series F Preferred Stock is a new issue of securities and does not have an established trading market, which may negatively affect its value and your ability to transfer and sell your shares.
The Series F Preferred Stock is a new issue of securities and currently no market exists for the Series F Preferred Stock. We have applied to list the Series F Preferred Stock on the Nasdaq Global Select Market. However, we cannot assure you that the Series F Preferred Stock will be approved for listing on the Nasdaq Global Select Market. Even if so approved, trading of the Series F Preferred Stock on the Nasdaq Global Select Market is not expected to begin until some time during the period ending 30 days after the date of initial issuance of the Series F Preferred Stock and, in any event, a trading market on the Nasdaq Global Select Market for the Series F Preferred Stock may never develop or, even if one develops, may not be maintained and may not provide you with adequate liquidity. The underwriters have advised us that they intend to make a market in the Series F Preferred Stock prior to the commencement of any trading on the Nasdaq Global Select Market, but they are not obligated to do so and may discontinue market making at any time without notice. The liquidity of any market for the Series F Preferred Stock that may develop will depend on a number of factors, including prevailing interest rates, the dividend rate on our common stock, our financial condition and operating results, the number of holders of the Series F Preferred Stock, the market for similar securities and the interest of securities dealers in making a market in the Series F Preferred Stock. As a result, the ability to transfer or sell the Series F Preferred Stock and the amount you receive upon any sale or transfer of the Series F Preferred Stock could be adversely affected.
If our common stock is delisted, your ability to transfer or sell your shares of the Series F Preferred Stock may be limited and the market value of the Series F Preferred Stock will likely be materially adversely affected.
Other than in connection with a Change of Control, the Series F Preferred Stock does not contain provisions that are intended to protect you if our common stock is delisted from the Nasdaq Stock Market. Since the Series F Preferred Stock has no stated maturity date, you may be forced to hold your shares of the Series F Preferred Stock and receive stated dividends on the Series F Preferred Stock when, as and if authorized by our board of directors and declared by us with no assurance as to ever receiving the liquidation value thereof. In addition, if our common stock is delisted from the Nasdaq Stock Market, it is likely that the Series F Preferred Stock will be delisted from the Nasdaq Stock Market as well. Accordingly, if our common stock is delisted from the Nasdaq Stock Market, your ability to transfer or sell your shares of the Series F Preferred Stock may be limited and the market value of the Series F Preferred Stock will likely be materially adversely affected.
 
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USE OF PROCEEDS
We estimate that the net proceeds of this offering will be approximately $      million (or approximately $      million if the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional shares in full), in each case, after deducting the estimated offering expenses of approximately $650,000 payable by us.
We expect to use the net proceeds of this offering to fund the redemption of all or a portion of the outstanding shares of our Series C Preferred Stock. In addition, we intend to use the remainder of the net proceeds from this offering for general business purposes, which may include, among other things, acquiring our targeted assets, including both single-family and multi-family residential assets, and various other types of mortgage-, residential housing- and credit-related assets that we may target from time to time, the redemption of all or a portion of additional series of our preferred stock and general working capital purposes. This prospectus supplement does not constitute a notice of redemption of such Series C Preferred Stock or any other existing series of our preferred stock.
Pending these uses, we intend to maintain the net proceeds from this offering in interest-bearing, short-term, marketable investment grade securities or money market accounts or (interest or non-interest bearing) checking (or escrow) accounts that are consistent with our intention to maintain our qualification as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes. These investments may include, for example, government securities other than agency securities, certificates of deposit and interest-bearing bank deposits. These investments are expected to provide a lower net return than we will seek to achieve from our targeted assets.
As of the date of this prospectus supplement, we have 4,181,807 shares of Series C Preferred Stock outstanding. We may redeem for cash any or all outstanding shares of Series C Preferred Stock at a redemption price equal to $25.00 per share, plus any accumulated and unpaid dividends.
 
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CAPITALIZATION
The following table sets forth our cash and cash equivalents and total capitalization as of March 31, 2021 (1) on an actual basis, (2) on an as adjusted basis to give effect to the completion of the private placement of $100 million aggregate principal amount of the Senior Unsecured Notes (the “Senior Unsecured Notes Offering”), and (3) as further adjusted to give effect to the Senior Unsecured Notes Offering and the consummation of this offering. This table should be read in conjunction with “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and our condensed consolidated financial statements and the notes thereto incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement.
As of March 31, 2021
(unaudited)
Actual
As Adjusted for
the Senior
Unsecured Notes
Offering(1)
As Further
Adjusted for the
Senior Unsecured
Notes Offering
and This
Offering(2)
(Dollars in thousands)
Cash and cash equivalents
$ 290,977 $ 387,277
Debt:
Repurchase agreements
$ 537,049 $ 537,049 $ 537,049
Subordinated debentures
45,000 45,000 45,000
Convertible notes
135,954 135,954 135,954
Senior Unsecured Notes
96,300 96,300
Total debt(3)
$ 718,003 $ 814,303 $ 814,303
Non-controlling interest in Consolidated VIEs
5,498 5,498 5,498
Stockholders’ equity
Preferred stock, $0.01 par value per share, 7.75% Series B Cumulative Redeemable, $25 liquidation preference per share, 6,000,000 shares authorized, 3,156,087 shares issued and outstanding actual, as adjusted and as further
adjusted
$ 76,180 $ 76,180 $ 76,180
Preferred stock, $0.01 par value per share, 7.875% Series C Cumulative Redeemable, $25 liquidation preference per share, 6,600,000 shares authorized, 4,181,807 shares issued and outstanding actual, as adjusted and as further
adjusted
101,102 101,102
Preferred stock, $0.01 par value per share, 8.00% Series D Fixed-to-Floating Rate Cumulative Redeemable, $25 liquidation preference per share, 8,400,000 shares authorized and 6,123,495 shares issued and outstanding actual, as adjusted and as further adjusted
148,134 148,134 148,134
Preferred stock, $0.01 par value per share, 7.875% Series E
Fixed-to-Floating Rate Cumulative Redeemable, $25
liquidation preference per share, 9,900,000 shares
authorized and 7,411,499 shares issued and outstanding, as
adjusted and as further adjusted
179,349 179,349 179,349
Preferred stock, $0.01 par value per share,    % Series F Fixed-to-Floating Rate Cumulative Redeemable, $25 liquidation preference per share, 0 shares authorized and 0 shares issued and outstanding actual and as adjusted and       shares authorized and       shares issued and outstanding as further adjusted
 
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As of March 31, 2021
(unaudited)
Actual
As Adjusted for
the Senior
Unsecured Notes
Offering(1)
As Further
Adjusted for the
Senior Unsecured
Notes Offering
and This
Offering(2)
(Dollars in thousands)
Common stock, $0.01 par value per share, 800,000,000 shares
authorized, 379,272,504 shares issued and outstanding
actual, as adjusted and as further adjusted
3,793 3,793 3,793
Additional paid-in capital
2,343,912 2,343,912 2,343,912
Accumulated other comprehensive income
3,874 3,874 3,874
Accumulated deficit
(547,491) (547,491) (547,491)
Company’s stockholders’ equity
$ 2,308,853 $ 2,308,853 $
Total capitalization(4)
$ 3,026,856 $ 3,123,156 $
(1)
The as adjusted amount reflects the net proceeds to us of approximately $96.3 million from the issuance of our Senior Unsecured Notes on April 27, 2021.
(2)
The as further adjusted amount reflects (i) the net proceeds to us of approximately $96.3 million from the issuance of our Senior Unsecured Notes on April 27, 2021 and (ii) the net proceeds to us from the sale of           shares of our Series F Preferred Stock in this offering at a net price of $      per share and the receipt of the total estimated net proceeds of approximately $      million, after deducting the estimated offering expenses payable by us (assuming no exercise of the underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares).
(3)
Excludes Consolidated SLST CDOs amounting to $992.3 million, residential loan securitization CDOs amounting to $533.8 million and mortgages payable in Consolidated VIEs amounting to $62.5 million as they are non-recourse debt for which we have no obligation.
(4)
Total capitalization does not include non-controlling interest in Consolidated VIEs.
 
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DESCRIPTION OF THE SERIES F PREFERRED STOCK
This description of certain terms of the Series F Preferred Stock supplements, and, to the extent inconsistent therewith, replaces, the description of the general terms and provisions of our preferred stock set forth in the accompanying prospectus. The description of certain terms of the Series F Preferred Stock in this prospectus supplement does not purport to be complete and is in all respects subject to, and qualified in its entirety by references to the relevant provisions of our charter, including the articles supplementary designating the terms of the Series F Preferred Stock, our bylaws and Maryland law. Copies of our charter and our bylaws are filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus supplement and accompanying prospectus form a part.
General
Pursuant to our charter, we are currently authorized to designate and issue up to 200,000,000 shares of preferred stock, $0.01 par value per share, in one or more classes or series and, subject to the limitations prescribed by our charter and Maryland law, with such terms of each class or series of preferred stock, including preferences, conversion or other rights, voting powers, restrictions, limitations as to dividends and other distributions, qualifications, and terms and conditions of redemption and the number of shares constituting any such class or series, as our board of directors may determine, without any vote or action by our stockholders. As of the date of this prospectus supplement, we have available for issuance 179,127,112 authorized but undesignated and unissued shares of preferred stock.
As of the date of this prospectus supplement, we are currently authorized to issue up to 6,000,000 shares of our Series B Preferred Stock, 6,600,000 shares of our Series C Preferred Stock, 8,400,000 shares of our Series D Preferred Stock and 9,900,000 shares of our Series E Preferred Stock and have 3,156,087 shares of our Series B Preferred Stock, 4,181,807 shares of our Series C Preferred Stock, 6,123,495 shares of our Series D Preferred Stock and 7,411,499 shares of our Series E Preferred Stock issued and outstanding.
In connection with this offering, our board of directors and a committee of the board has, as permitted by our charter and Maryland law, classified and designated a new series of preferred stock with the rights set forth herein consisting of shares designated as the    % Series F Fixed-to-Floating Rate Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock, $0.01 par value per share, which we refer to herein as the Series F Preferred Stock, by adopting and filing the articles supplementary classifying and designating such shares with the State Department of Assessments and Taxation of Maryland. Our board of directors may, without the approval of holders of Series B Preferred Stock, Series C Preferred Stock, Series D Preferred Stock, Series E Preferred Stock, Series F Preferred Stock or our common stock, designate additional classes or series of authorized preferred stock ranking junior to or on parity with the Series F Preferred Stock or designate additional shares of the Series F Preferred Stock and authorize the issuance of such shares.
We have applied to list the shares of the Series F Preferred Stock on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “NYMTL.” If listing is approved, we expect trading to commence within 30 days after the initial delivery of the shares of Series F Preferred Stock.
The registrar, transfer agent and dividend and redemption price disbursing agent in respect of the Series F Preferred Stock will be American Stock Transfer & Trust Company, LLC.
Maturity
The Series F Preferred Stock has no stated maturity and will not be subject to any sinking fund or mandatory redemption. Shares of the Series F Preferred Stock will remain outstanding indefinitely unless we decide to redeem or otherwise repurchase them or they become convertible and are converted as described below under “— Conversion Rights.” We are not required to set apart for payment any funds to redeem the Series F Preferred Stock.
Ranking
The Series F Preferred Stock will rank, with respect to rights to the payment of dividends and other distributions and the distribution of assets upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up:
 
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senior to all classes or series of our common stock and any other Junior Stock we may issue;

on a parity with our Parity Stock;

junior to any Senior Stock we may issue; and

effectively junior to all of our existing and future indebtedness (including indebtedness convertible into or exchangeable for our common stock or preferred stock) and the indebtedness of our existing and future subsidiaries.
Dividends
Holders of shares of the Series F Preferred Stock are entitled to receive, when, as and if authorized by our board of directors and declared by us, out of funds legally available for the payment of dividends, cumulative cash dividends. The initial dividend rate for the Series F Preferred Stock from and including the original issue date (as defined below) to, but excluding, October 15, 2026 (the “Fixed Rate Period”) will be    % of the $25.00 per share liquidation preference per annum (equivalent to $      per annum per share). On and after October 15, 2026 (the “Floating Rate Period”), dividends on the Series F Preferred Stock will accumulate at a percentage of the $25.00 liquidation preference equal to the Benchmark rate (which is expected to be the Three-Month Term SOFR) plus a spread of   % (the “Floating Rate”). Notwithstanding the foregoing, if the Benchmark rate is less than zero, the Benchmark rate will be deemed to be zero. Dividends on the Series F Preferred Stock will accumulate daily and with respect to any shares of Series F Preferred Stock issued before October 15, 2021, will be cumulative from, and including, July   , 2021 (the “original issue date”), or, with respect to any shares of Series F Preferred Stock issued on or after October 15, 2021, will be cumulative from the most recent dividend payment date to which dividends have been paid in full, and will be payable quarterly in arrears on the 15th day of each January, April, July and October, beginning on October 15, 2021 (each, a “dividend payment date”). If any dividend payment date on or prior to October 15, 2026 is a day that is not a business day, as defined in the articles supplementary designating the Series F Preferred Stock, then the dividend which would otherwise have been payable on that dividend payment date will instead be paid on the immediately succeeding business day with the same force and effect as if paid on such dividend payment date. No interest, additional dividends or sums in lieu of interest will be payable for the period from and after that dividend payment date to that next succeeding business day. If any dividend payment date after October 15, 2026 is a day that is not a business day, as defined in the articles supplementary designating the Series F Preferred Stock, then the dividend payment date will be the immediately succeeding business day, and dividends will accrue to the dividend payment date. The first dividend on the Series F Preferred Stock is scheduled to be payable on or about October 15, 2021 (long first Dividend Period), in the amount of $      per share. Any dividends payable on the Series F Preferred Stock during the Fixed Rate Period, including dividends payable for the first Dividend Period and any partial Dividend Period, will be computed on the basis of a 360-day year consisting of twelve 30-day months. Any dividends payable on the Series F Preferred Stock during the Floating Rate Period, including dividends payable for any partial Dividend Period, will be computed by multiplying the Floating Rate for that Dividend Period by a fraction, the numerator of which will be the actual number of days elapsed during that Dividend Period and the denominator of which will be 360, and by multiplying the result by the aggregate liquidation preference of the Series F Preferred Stock. Dividends will be payable to holders of record as they appear on our stock records at the close of business on the applicable record date, which will be the first day of the calendar month (whether or not a business day) in which the applicable dividend payment date falls (each, a “dividend record date”). The dividends payable on any dividend payment date shall include dividends accumulated to, but not including, such dividend payment date.
“Dividend Period” means the period from, and including, a dividend payment date to, but excluding, the next succeeding dividend payment date, except for the initial Dividend Period, which will be the period from, and including, the original issue date of the Series F Preferred Stock to, but excluding, October 15, 2021.
For the purpose of calculating the dividends on the Series F Preferred Stock during the Floating Rate Period when the Benchmark is Three-Month Term SOFR, “Three-Month Term SOFR” means the rate for Term SOFR for a tenor of three months that is published by the Term SOFR Administrator at the Reference Time for any Dividend Period, as determined by the calculation agent after giving effect to the Three-Month Term SOFR Conventions. We will appoint a third party independent financial institution of national
 
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standing with experience providing such services as calculation agent for the Series F Preferred Stock prior to the commencement of the Floating Rate Period. We may change the calculation agent at any time in our sole discretion.
The following definitions apply to the foregoing definition of Three-Month Term SOFR:
“Benchmark” means, initially, Three-Month Term SOFR; provided that if the calculation agent determines on or prior to the Reference Time that a Benchmark Transition Event and its related Benchmark Replacement Date have occurred with respect to Three-Month Term SOFR or the then-current Benchmark, then “Benchmark” means the applicable Benchmark Replacement.
“FRBNY’s Website” means the website of the FRBNY at http://www.newyorkfed.org, or any successor source. The foregoing Internet website is an inactive textual reference only, meaning that the information contained on the website is not part of this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus or incorporated by reference herein or therein.
“Reference Time” with respect to any determination of the Benchmark means (1) if the Benchmark is Three-Month Term SOFR, the time determined by the calculation agent after giving effect to the Three-Month Term SOFR Conventions, and (2) if the Benchmark is not Three-Month Term SOFR, the time determined by the calculation agent after giving effect to the Benchmark Replacement Conforming Changes.
“Relevant Governmental Body” means the Federal Reserve and/or the FRBNY, or a committee officially endorsed or convened by the Federal Reserve and/or the FRBNY or any successor thereto.
“SOFR” means the secured overnight financing rate published by the FRBNY, as the administrator of the Benchmark (or a successor administrator), on the FRBNY’s Website.
“Term SOFR” means the forward-looking term rate based on SOFR that has been selected or recommended by the Relevant Governmental Body.
“Term SOFR Administrator” means any entity designated by the Relevant Governmental Body as the administrator of Term SOFR (or a successor administrator).
“Three-Month Term SOFR Conventions” means any determination, decision or election with respect to any technical, administrative or operational matter (including with respect to the manner and timing of the publication of Three-Month Term SOFR, or changes to the definition of “Dividend Period,” timing and frequency of determining Three-Month Term SOFR with respect to each Dividend Period and making dividend payments, rounding of amounts or tenors, and other administrative matters) that the calculation agent decides may be appropriate to reflect the use of Three-Month Term SOFR as the Benchmark in a manner substantially consistent with market practice (or, if the calculation agent decides that adoption of any portion of such market practice is not administratively feasible or if the calculation agent determines that no market practice for the use of Three-Month Term SOFR exists, in such other manner as the calculation agent determines is reasonably necessary).
The terms “Benchmark Replacement,” “Benchmark Replacement Conforming Changes,” “Benchmark Replacement Date,” “Benchmark Transition Event” and “Corresponding Tenor” have the meanings set forth below under the heading “— Effect of Benchmark Transition Event.”
Notwithstanding the foregoing paragraphs related to the determination of the dividend rate, if the calculation agent determines on or prior to the relevant Reference Time that a Benchmark Transition Event and its related Benchmark Replacement Date (each as defined below) have occurred with respect to Three-Month Term SOFR, then the provisions set forth below under the heading “— Effect of Benchmark Transition Event,” which we refer to as the “benchmark transition provisions,” will thereafter apply to all determinations of the dividend rate on the Series F Preferred Stock during the Floating Rate Period. In accordance with the benchmark transition provisions, after a Benchmark Transition Event and its related Benchmark Replacement Date have occurred, the dividend rate on the Series F Preferred Stock during the Floating Rate Period will be an annual rate equal to the Benchmark Replacement plus a spread of    %.
Absent manifest error, the calculation agent’s determination of the dividend rate for a particular Dividend Period for the Series F Preferred Stock will be binding and conclusive on you, the transfer agent
 
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and us. The calculation agent’s determination of any dividend rate, and its calculation of dividends for any Dividend Period, will be maintained on file at the calculation agent’s principal offices, will be made available to any holder of the Series F Preferred Stock upon request and will be provided to the transfer agent.
If the then-current Benchmark is Three-Month Term SOFR, the calculation agent will have the right to establish the Three-Month Term SOFR Conventions, and if any of the foregoing provisions concerning the calculation of the dividend rate and dividend payments during the Floating Rate Period are inconsistent with any of the Three-Month Term SOFR Conventions determined by the calculation agent, then the relevant Three-Month Term SOFR Conventions will apply. Furthermore, if the calculation agent determines that a Benchmark Transition Event and its related Benchmark Replacement Date have occurred with respect to Three-Month Term SOFR at any time when the Series F Preferred Stock is outstanding, then the foregoing provisions concerning the calculation of the dividend rate and dividend payments during the Floating Rate Period will be modified in accordance with the benchmark transition provisions.
No dividends on shares of Series F Preferred Stock may be authorized by our board of directors or paid or set apart for payment by us at any time when the terms and provisions of any agreement of ours, including any agreement relating to our indebtedness, prohibit the authorization, payment or setting apart for payment thereof or provide that the authorization, payment or setting apart for payment thereof would constitute a breach of the agreement or a default under the agreement, or if the authorization, payment or setting apart for payment is restricted or prohibited by law. You should review the information appearing above under “Risk Factors — We may not be able to pay dividends or other distributions on the Series F Preferred Stock” for more information as to, among other things, other circumstances under which we may be unable to pay dividends on the Series F Preferred Stock.
Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained herein, dividends on the Series F Preferred Stock will accumulate whether or not (i) the terms and provisions of any laws or agreements referred to in the preceding paragraph at any time prohibit the current payment of dividends, (ii) we have earnings, (iii) there are funds legally available for the payment of those dividends and (iv) those dividends are authorized and declared. No interest, or sum in lieu of interest, will be payable in respect of any dividend payment or payments on the Series F Preferred Stock which may be in arrears, and holders of Series F Preferred Stock will not be entitled to any dividends in excess of full cumulative dividends described above. Any dividend payment made on the Series F Preferred Stock will first be credited against the earliest accumulated but unpaid dividend due with respect to those shares.
Future dividends on our common stock and preferred stock, including the Series F Preferred Stock offered pursuant to this prospectus supplement, will be at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend on, among other things, our results of operations, cash flow from operations, financial condition and capital requirements, the annual distribution requirements under the REIT provisions of the Code, applicable law, any debt service requirements and any other factors our board of directors deems relevant. Accordingly, we cannot guarantee that we will be able to make cash distributions on the Series F Preferred Stock or what the actual dividends will be for any future period.
Except as noted below, unless full cumulative dividends on the Series F Preferred Stock have been or contemporaneously are declared and paid or declared and a sum sufficient for the payment thereof is set apart for payment for all past Dividend Periods, no dividends (other than in shares of our common stock or other Junior Stock we may issue) may be declared or paid or set apart for payment upon our common stock or other Junior Stock or our Parity Stock and no other distribution may be declared or made upon our common stock or other Junior Stock or our Parity Stock. In addition, our common stock and other Junior Stock or Parity Stock we may issue may not be redeemed, purchased or otherwise acquired for any consideration (or any moneys be paid to or made available for a sinking fund for the redemption of any such securities) by us (except by conversion into or exchange for shares of, or options, warrants or rights to purchase or subscribe for, our common stock or other Junior Stock we may issue or pursuant to an exchange offer made on the same terms to all holders of Series F Preferred Stock and all Parity Stock). The foregoing will not, however, prevent the redemption, purchase or acquisition by us of shares of any class or series of stock for the purpose of enforcing restrictions on transfer and ownership of our stock contained in our charter, including in order to preserve our qualification as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes, or the redemption, purchase or acquisition by us of shares of our common stock for purposes of and in compliance with any incentive or benefit plan of ours.
 
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When dividends are not paid in full (or a sum sufficient for such full payment is not so set apart) upon the Series F Preferred Stock and shares of any class or series of our Parity Stock, all dividends declared upon the Series F Preferred Stock and such Parity Stock must be declared pro rata so that the amount of dividends declared per share of Series F Preferred Stock and such Parity Stock will in all cases bear to each other the same ratio that accumulated dividends per share on the Series F Preferred Stock and such Parity Stock (which will not include any accrual in respect of unpaid dividends for prior Dividend Periods if such other Parity Stock do not have a cumulative dividend) bear to each other. No interest, or sum of money in lieu of interest, will be payable in respect of any dividend payment or payments on the Series F Preferred Stock which may be in arrears.
Liquidation Preference
In the event of our voluntary or involuntary liquidation, dissolution or winding up, the holders of Series F Preferred Stock will be entitled to be paid out of the assets we have legally available for distribution to our stockholders, subject to the preferential rights of the holders of any classes or series of Senior Stock, a liquidation preference of $25.00 per share, plus any accumulated and unpaid dividends thereon (whether or not authorized or declared) to, but excluding, the payment date, without interest, before any distribution of assets is made to holders of common stock or other Junior Stock we may issue; and the holders of Series F Preferred Stock will not be entitled to any further payment.
In the event that, upon any such voluntary or involuntary liquidation, dissolution or winding up, our available assets are insufficient to pay the amount of the liquidating distributions on all outstanding shares of Series B Preferred Stock, Series C Preferred Stock, Series D Preferred Stock, Series E Preferred Stock, Series F Preferred Stock and any other Parity Stock we may issue, then the holders of Series B Preferred Stock, Series C Preferred Stock, Series D Preferred Stock, Series E Preferred Stock, Series F Preferred Stock and such other Parity Stock will share ratably in any such distribution of assets in proportion to the full liquidating distributions to which they would otherwise be respectively entitled.
Notice of any such liquidation will be given no fewer than 30 days and no more than 60 days prior to the payment date, to each holder of record of Series F Preferred Stock at the address of such holder as it appears on our stock records. After payment of the full amount of the liquidating distributions to which they are entitled, the holders of Series F Preferred Stock will have no right or claim to any of our remaining assets. The consolidation, conversion or merger of us with or into any other corporation, trust or entity or of any other entity with or into us, the sale, lease, transfer or conveyance of all or substantially all of our property or business or a statutory share exchange, will not be deemed to constitute a liquidation, dissolution or winding up of us (although such events may give rise to the special optional redemption and contingent conversion rights described below).
In determining whether a distribution (other than upon voluntary or involuntary liquidation), by dividend, redemption or other acquisition of shares of stock or otherwise, is permitted under Maryland law with respect to any share of any class or series of our stock, amounts that would be needed, if we were to be dissolved at the time of the distribution, to satisfy the preferential rights upon dissolution of holders of shares of Series F Preferred Stock will not be added to our total liabilities.
Redemption
The Series F Preferred Stock is not redeemable by us prior to October 15, 2026, except under circumstances where it is necessary to preserve our qualification as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes (please see “— Restrictions on Transfer and Ownership” below and “Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer” in the accompanying prospectus) and except as described below under “— Special Optional Redemption” upon the occurrence of a Change of Control (as defined below).
Optional Redemption.   On and after October 15, 2026, we may, at our option, upon not less than 30 nor more than 60 days’ notice, redeem the Series F Preferred Stock, in whole or in part, at any time or from time to time, for cash at a redemption price of $25.00 per share, plus any accumulated and unpaid dividends thereon (whether or not authorized or declared) to, but excluding, the redemption date, without interest.
Special Optional Redemption.   Upon the occurrence of a Change of Control, we may, at our option, upon not less than 30 nor more than 60 days’ notice, redeem the Series F Preferred Stock, in whole or in
 
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part, within 120 days on or after the first date on which such Change of Control occurred, for cash at a redemption price of $ 25.00 per share, plus any accumulated and unpaid dividends thereon (whether or not authorized or declared) to, but excluding, the redemption date, without interest. If, prior to the Change of Control Conversion Date, we have provided notice of our election to redeem some or all of the shares of Series F Preferred Stock (whether pursuant to our optional redemption right described above under “— Optional Redemption” or this special optional redemption right), the holders of Series F Preferred Stock will not have the Change of Control Conversion Right (as defined below) described below under “— Conversion Rights” with respect to the shares called for redemption.
A “Change of Control” is deemed to occur when, after the original issue date, the following have occurred and are continuing:

the acquisition by any person, including any syndicate or group deemed to be a “person” under Section 13(d)(3) of the Exchange Act, of beneficial ownership, directly or indirectly, through a purchase, merger or other acquisition transaction or series of purchases, mergers or other acquisition transactions of our capital stock entitling that person to exercise more than 50% of the total voting power of all our capital stock entitled to vote generally in the election of our directors (except that such person will be deemed to have beneficial ownership of all securities that such person has the right to acquire, whether such right is currently exercisable or is exercisable only upon the occurrence of a subsequent condition); and

following the closing of any transaction referred to in the bullet point above, neither we nor the acquiring or surviving entity has a class of common securities (or American Depositary Receipts representing such securities) listed on the NYSE, the NYSE AMER or the Nasdaq Stock Market, or listed or quoted on an exchange or quotation system that is a successor to the NYSE, the NYSE AMER or the Nasdaq Stock Market, or listed or quoted on a successor to the foregoing exchanges.
Redemption Procedures.   In the event we elect to redeem Series F Preferred Stock pursuant to our optional redemption right or our special optional redemption right, the notice of redemption will be given by us, postage prepaid, not less than 30 nor more than 60 days prior to the redemption date, to each holder of record of Series F Preferred Stock called for redemption at such holder’s address as it appears on our stock records and will state the following:

the redemption date;

the number of shares of Series F Preferred Stock to be redeemed;

the redemption price;

the place or places where certificates (if any) for the Series F Preferred Stock are to be surrendered for payment of the redemption price;

that dividends on the shares to be redeemed will cease to accumulate on the redemption date;

if applicable, that such redemption is being made in connection with a Change of Control and, in that case, a brief description of the transaction or transactions constituting such Change of Control; and

if such redemption is being made in connection with a Change of Control, that the holders of the shares of Series F Preferred Stock being so called for redemption will not be able to tender such shares of Series F Preferred Stock for conversion in connection with the Change of Control and that each share of Series F Preferred Stock tendered for conversion that is called, prior to the Change of Control Conversion Date, for redemption will be redeemed on the related date of redemption instead of converted on the Change of Control Conversion Date.
If less than all of the Series F Preferred Stock held by any holder is to be redeemed, the notice given to such holder shall also specify the number of shares of Series F Preferred Stock held by such holder to be redeemed. No failure to give such notice or any defect thereto or in the giving thereof will affect the validity of the proceedings for the redemption of any shares of Series F Preferred Stock, except as to the holder to whom notice was defective or not given. Notwithstanding the foregoing, no notice of redemption will be required where we elect to redeem Series F Preferred Stock to preserve our status as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes.
 
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Holders of shares of Series F Preferred Stock to be redeemed must surrender such shares at the place designated in the notice of redemption and will be entitled to the redemption price and any accumulated and unpaid dividends payable upon the redemption following the surrender.
If notice of redemption of any shares of Series F Preferred Stock has been given and if we have irrevocably set apart for payment the funds necessary for redemption (including any accumulated and unpaid dividends) in trust for the benefit of the holders of the shares of Series F Preferred Stock so called for redemption, then from and after the redemption date (unless we default in providing for the payment of the redemption price plus accumulated and unpaid dividends, if any), dividends will cease to accumulate on those shares of Series F Preferred Stock, those shares of Series F Preferred Stock will no longer be deemed outstanding and all rights of the holders of those shares will terminate, except the right to receive the redemption price plus accumulated and unpaid dividends, if any, payable upon redemption.
If any redemption date is not a business day, then the redemption price and accumulated and unpaid dividends, if any, payable upon redemption may be paid on the next business day and no interest, additional dividends or other sums will accumulate on the amount payable for the period from and after that redemption date to that next business day.
If less than all of the outstanding shares of Series F Preferred Stock are to be redeemed, the shares of Series F Preferred Stock to be redeemed may be selected pro rata (as nearly as practicable without creating fractional shares) or by lot. If such redemption is to be by lot and, as a result of such redemption, any holder of shares of Series F Preferred Stock would become a holder of a number of shares of Series F Preferred Stock in excess of the ownership limit described in our charter, then the Company will redeem the requisite number of shares of such holder so that no holder will hold a number of shares in excess of the ownership limit provided in our charter. See “— Restrictions on Transfer and Ownership” in this prospectus supplement and in accompanying prospectus under the heading “Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer.”
Immediately prior to any redemption of Series F Preferred Stock, we will pay, in cash, any accumulated and unpaid dividends to, but excluding, the redemption date, unless a redemption date falls after a dividend record date and prior to the corresponding dividend payment date, in which case each holder of Series F Preferred Stock at the close of business on such dividend record date will be entitled to the dividend payable on such shares on the corresponding dividend payment date notwithstanding the redemption of such shares before such dividend payment date. Except as provided above, we will make no payment or allowance for unpaid dividends, whether or not in arrears, on shares of the Series F Preferred Stock to be redeemed.
Unless full cumulative dividends on all shares of Series F Preferred Stock have been or contemporaneously are declared and paid or declared and a sum sufficient for the payment thereof has been or contemporaneously is set apart for payment for all past Dividend Periods, no shares of Series F Preferred Stock may be redeemed unless all outstanding shares of Series F Preferred Stock are simultaneously redeemed, and we may not purchase or otherwise acquire directly or indirectly any shares of Series F Preferred Stock (except by conversion into or exchange for shares of, or options, warrants or rights to purchase or subscribe for, our common stock or other Junior Stock we may issue or pursuant to a purchase or exchange offer made on the same terms to all holders of Series F Preferred Stock and all classes or series of Parity Stock); provided, however, that the foregoing will not prevent the redemption, purchase or acquisition by us of shares of Series F Preferred Stock for the purpose of enforcing restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock contained in our charter, including in order to preserve our qualification as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes.
Subject to applicable law, we may purchase shares of Series F Preferred Stock in the open market, by tender or by privately negotiated transactions. Any shares of Series F Preferred Stock that we acquire, by redemption or otherwise, shall be reclassified as authorized but unissued shares of preferred stock, without designation as to class or series, and may thereafter be issued as any class or series of preferred stock.
Conversion Rights
Upon the occurrence of a Change of Control, each holder of Series F Preferred Stock will have the right (unless, prior to the Change of Control Conversion Date, we have provided notice of our election to redeem some or all of the shares of Series F Preferred Stock held by such holder as described above under
 
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“— Redemption,” in which case such holder will have the right only with respect to shares of Series F Preferred Stock that are not called for redemption) to convert some or all of the shares of the Series F Preferred Stock held by such holder (the “Change of Control Conversion Right”) on the Change of Control Conversion Date into a number of shares of our common stock per share of Series F Preferred Stock (the “Common Stock Conversion Consideration”) equal to the lesser of:

the quotient obtained by dividing (i) the sum of the $25.00 liquidation preference per share of Series F Preferred Stock, plus any accumulated and unpaid dividends thereon (whether or not authorized or declared) to, but excluding, the Change of Control Conversion Date (unless the Change of Control Conversion Date is after a dividend record date and prior to the corresponding dividend payment date for the Series F Preferred Stock, in which case no additional amount for such accumulated and unpaid dividends to be paid on such dividend payment date will be included in this sum) by (ii) the Common Stock Price, as defined below (such quotient, the “Conversion Rate”); and

            , or the “Share Cap,” subject to certain adjustments as described below.
Notwithstanding anything in the articles supplementary designating the Series F Preferred Stock to the contrary and except as otherwise required by law, the persons who are the holders of record of shares of Series F Preferred Stock at the close of business on a dividend record date will be entitled to receive the dividend payable on the corresponding dividend payment date notwithstanding the conversion of those shares after such dividend record date and on or prior to such dividend payment date and, in such case, the full amount of such dividend will be paid on such dividend payment date to the persons who were the holders of record at the close of business on such dividend record date. Except as provided above, we will make no allowance for unpaid dividends that are not in arrears on the shares of Series F Preferred Stock to be converted.
The Share Cap is subject to pro rata adjustments for any share splits (including those effected pursuant to a distribution of our common stock to existing holders of our common stock), subdivisions or combinations (in each case, a “Share Split”) with respect to our common stock as follows: the adjusted Share Cap as the result of a Share Split will be the number of shares of our common stock that is equivalent to the product obtained by multiplying (i) the Share Cap in effect immediately prior to such Share Split by (ii) a fraction, the numerator of which is the number of shares of our common stock outstanding immediately after giving effect to such Share Split and the denominator of which is the number of shares of our common stock outstanding immediately prior to such Share Split.
For the avoidance of doubt, subject to the immediately succeeding paragraph, the aggregate number of shares of our common stock (or equivalent Alternative Conversion Consideration (as defined below), as applicable) issuable or deliverable, as applicable, in connection with the exercise of the Change of Control Conversion Right will not exceed the product of the Share Cap times the aggregate number of shares of the Series F Preferred Stock issued and outstanding at the Change of Control Conversion Date (or equivalent Alternative Conversion Consideration, as applicable) (the “Exchange Cap”). The Exchange Cap is subject to pro rata adjustments for any Share Splits on the same basis as the corresponding adjustment to the Share Cap.
In the case of a Change of Control pursuant to which our common stock is or will be converted into cash, securities or other property or assets (including any combination thereof) (the “Alternative Form Consideration”), a holder of Series F Preferred Stock will receive upon conversion of such shares of the Series F Preferred Stock the kind and amount of Alternative Form Consideration which such holder would have owned or been entitled to receive upon the Change of Control had such holder held a number of shares of our common stock equal to the Common Stock Conversion Consideration immediately prior to the effective time of the Change of Control (the “Alternative Conversion Consideration”). The Common Stock Conversion Consideration or the Alternative Conversion Consideration, whichever shall be applicable to a Change of Control, is referred to as the “Conversion Consideration.”
If the holders of our common stock have the opportunity to elect the form of consideration to be received in the Change of Control, the Conversion Consideration in respect of such Change of Control will be deemed to be the kind and amount of consideration actually received by holders of a majority of the outstanding shares of our common stock that made or voted for such an election (if electing between two
 
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types of consideration) or holders of a plurality of the outstanding shares of our common stock that made or voted for such an election (if electing between more than two types of consideration), as the case may be, and will be subject to any limitations to which all holders of our common stock are subject, including, without limitation, pro rata reductions applicable to any portion of the consideration payable in such Change of Control.
We will not issue fractional shares of our common stock upon the conversion of the Series F Preferred Stock in connection with a Change of Control. Instead, we will make a cash payment equal to the value of such fractional shares based upon the Common Stock Price used in determining the Common Stock Conversion Consideration for such Change of Control.
Within 15 days following the occurrence of a Change of Control, provided that we have not exercised our right to redeem all shares of Series F Preferred Stock pursuant to the redemption provisions described above, we will provide to holders of Series F Preferred Stock a notice of occurrence of the Change of Control that describes the resulting Change of Control Conversion Right, which notice shall be delivered to the holders of record of the shares of Series F Preferred Stock to their addresses as they appear on our stock records. No failure to give such notice or any defect thereto or in the giving thereof will affect the validity of the proceedings for the conversion of any shares of Series F Preferred Stock except as to the holder to whom notice was defective or not given. This notice will state the following:

the events constituting the Change of Control;

the date of the Change of Control;

the last date on which the holders of Series F Preferred Stock may exercise their Change of Control Conversion Right;

the method and period for calculating the Common Stock Price;

the Change of Control Conversion Date;

that if, prior to the Change of Control Conversion Date, we have provided notice of our election to redeem all or any shares of Series F Preferred Stock, holders of Series F Preferred Stock that are subject to such redemption will not be able to convert the shares of Series F Preferred Stock called for redemption and such shares will be redeemed on the related redemption date, even if such shares have already been tendered for conversion pursuant to the Change of Control Conversion Right;

if applicable, the type and amount of Alternative Conversion Consideration entitled to be received per share of Series F Preferred Stock;

the name and address of the paying agent, transfer agent and conversion agent for the Series F Preferred Stock;

the procedures that the holders of Series F Preferred Stock must follow to exercise the Change of Control Conversion Right (including procedures for surrendering shares of Series F Preferred Stock for conversion through the facilities of a Depositary (as defined below)), including the form of conversion notice to be delivered by such holders as described below; and

the last date on which holders of Series F Preferred Stock may withdraw shares of Series F Preferred Stock surrendered for conversion and the procedures that such holders must follow to effect such a withdrawal.
Under such circumstances, we also will issue a press release containing such notice for publication on the Dow Jones & Company, Inc., Wall Street Journal, Business Wire, PR Newswire or Bloomberg Business News (or, if these organizations are not in existence at the time of issuance of the press release, such other news or press organization as is reasonably calculated to broadly disseminate the relevant information to the public), and post a notice on our website (if any), in any event prior to the opening of business on the first business day following any date on which we provide the notice described above to the holders of Series F Preferred Stock.
To exercise the Change of Control Conversion Right, the holders of Series F Preferred Stock will be required to deliver, on or before the close of business on the Change of Control Conversion Date, the
 
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certificates (if any) representing the shares of Series F Preferred Stock to be converted, duly endorsed for transfer (or, in the case of any shares of Series F Preferred Stock held in book-entry form through a Depositary or shares directly registered with the transfer agent therefor, to deliver, on or before the close of business on the Change of Control Conversion Date, the shares of Series F Preferred Stock to be converted through the facilities of such Depositary or through such transfer agent, respectively), together with a written conversion notice in the form provided by us, duly completed, to our transfer agent. The conversion notice must state:

the relevant Change of Control Conversion Date;

the number of shares of Series F Preferred Stock to be converted; and

that the shares of the Series F Preferred Stock are to be converted pursuant to the applicable provisions of the articles supplementary designating the Series F Preferred Stock.
The “Change of Control Conversion Date” is the date the Series F Preferred Stock is to be converted, which will be a business day selected by us that is not fewer than 20 days nor more than 35 days after the date on which we provide the notice described above to the holders of Series F Preferred Stock.
The “Common Stock Price” is (i) if the consideration to be received in the Change of Control by the holders of our common stock is solely cash, the amount of cash consideration per share of our common stock or (ii) if the consideration to be received in the Change of Control by holders of our common stock is other than solely cash (x) the average of the closing sale prices per share of our common stock (or, if no closing sale price is reported, the average of the closing bid and ask prices per share or, if more than one in either case, the average of the average closing bid and the average closing ask prices per share) for the ten consecutive trading days immediately preceding, but not including, the date on which such Change of Control occurred as reported on the principal U.S. securities exchange on which our common stock is then traded, or (y) if our common stock is not then listed for trading on a U.S. securities exchange, the average of the last quoted bid prices for our common stock in the over-the-counter market as reported by OTC Markets Group Inc. or similar organization for the ten consecutive trading days immediately preceding, but not including, the date on which such Change of Control occurred.
Holders of Series F Preferred Stock may withdraw any notice of exercise of a Change of Control Conversion Right (in whole or in part) by a written notice of withdrawal delivered to our transfer agent prior to the close of business on the business day prior to the Change of Control Conversion Date. The notice of withdrawal delivered by any holder must state:

the number of withdrawn shares of Series F Preferred Stock;

if certificated shares of Series F Preferred Stock have been surrendered for conversion, the certificate numbers of the withdrawn shares of Series F Preferred Stock; and

the number of shares of Series F Preferred Stock, if any, which remain subject to the holder’s conversion notice.
Notwithstanding the foregoing, if any shares of Series F Preferred Stock are held in book-entry form through The Depository Trust Company (“DTC”) or a similar depositary (each, a “Depositary”), the conversion notice and/or the notice of withdrawal, as applicable, must comply with applicable procedures, if any, of the applicable Depositary.
Shares of Series F Preferred Stock as to which the Change of Control Conversion Right has been properly exercised and for which the conversion notice has not been properly withdrawn will be converted into the applicable Conversion Consideration in accordance with the Change of Control Conversion Right on the Change of Control Conversion Date, unless prior to the Change of Control Conversion Date we have provided notice of our election to redeem some or all of the shares of Series F Preferred Stock, as described above under “— Redemption,” in which case only the shares of Series F Preferred Stock properly surrendered for conversion and not properly withdrawn that are not called for redemption will be converted as aforesaid. If we elect to redeem shares of Series F Preferred Stock that would otherwise be converted into the applicable Conversion Consideration on a Change of Control Conversion Date, such shares of Series F Preferred Stock will not be so converted and the holders of such shares will be entitled to receive on
 
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the applicable redemption date the redemption price described above under “— Redemption — Optional Redemption” or “— Redemption — Special Optional Redemption,” as applicable.
We will deliver all securities, cash and any other property owing upon conversion no later than the third business day following the Change of Control Conversion Date. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the persons entitled to receive any shares of our common stock or other securities delivered on conversion will be deemed to have become the holders of record thereof as of the Change of Control Conversion Date.
In connection with the exercise of any Change of Control Conversion Right, we will comply with all applicable federal and state securities laws and stock exchange rules in connection with any conversion of shares of the Series F Preferred Stock into shares of our common stock or other property. Notwithstanding any other provision of the Series F Preferred Stock, no holder of Series F Preferred Stock will be entitled to convert such shares of the Series F Preferred Stock into shares of our common stock to the extent that receipt of such shares of common stock would cause such holder (or any other person) to violate the applicable restrictions on transfer and ownership of our stock contained in our charter, unless we provide an exemption from this limitation to such holder pursuant to the terms of our charter. Please see the sections entitled “— Restrictions on Transfer and Ownership” below and “Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer” in the accompanying prospectus.
The Change of Control conversion feature may make it more difficult for a third party to acquire us or discourage a party from acquiring us. See “Risk Factors — You may not be able to exercise conversion rights upon a Change of Control. If exercisable, the change of control conversion rights described in this prospectus supplement may not adequately compensate you. These change of control conversion rights may also make it more difficult for a party to acquire us or discourage a party from acquiring us.”
Except as provided above in connection with a Change of Control, the Series F Preferred Stock is not convertible into or exchangeable for any other securities or property.
Voting Rights
Holders of Series F Preferred Stock will not have any voting rights, except as set forth below.
Whenever dividends on any shares of Series F Preferred Stock are in arrears for six or more full quarterly Dividend Periods, whether or not consecutive, the number of directors constituting our board of directors will be automatically increased by two (if not already increased by two by reason of the election of directors by the holders of any other class or series of Parity Stock upon which like voting rights have been conferred and are exercisable) and the holders of Series F Preferred Stock, voting as a single class with holders of the Parity Stock upon which like voting rights have been conferred and are exercisable, will be entitled to vote for the election of those two additional directors at a special meeting called by us at the request of the holders of record of at least 25% of the outstanding shares of Series F Preferred Stock and all other classes or series of Parity Stock upon which like voting rights have been conferred and are exercisable to be held no later than 90 days after our receipt of such request (unless the request is received less than 90 days before the date fixed for the next annual or special meeting of our stockholders, in which case such vote will be held at the earlier of the next annual or special meeting of the stockholders to the extent permitted by applicable law), and at each subsequent annual meeting until all dividends accumulated on the Series F Preferred Stock for all past Dividend Periods and the then current Dividend Period will have been fully paid or declared and a sum sufficient for the payment thereof set apart for payment. In that case, the right of holders of Series F Preferred Stock to elect any directors will cease and, unless there are other classes or series of Parity Stock upon which like voting rights have been conferred and are exercisable, the term of office of any directors elected by holders of Series F Preferred Stock will immediately terminate and the number of directors constituting the board of directors will be reduced accordingly. For the avoidance of doubt, in no event will the total number of directors elected by holders of Series F Preferred Stock (voting together as a single class with the Parity Stock upon which like voting rights have been conferred and are exercisable) pursuant to these voting rights exceed two. The directors elected by the holders of the Series F Preferred Stock and the holders of the Parity Stock upon which like voting rights have been conferred and are exercisable will be elected by a plurality of the votes cast by the holders of the outstanding shares of Series F Preferred Stock when they have the voting rights described in this paragraph and the Parity Stock upon which like voting rights have been conferred and are exercisable (voting together as a single class), with each such
 
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director to serve until our next annual meeting of stockholders and until their successors are duly elected and qualify or until such directors’ right to hold the office terminates as described above, whichever occurs earlier.
On each matter on which holders of Series F Preferred Stock are entitled to vote, each share of Series F Preferred Stock will be entitled to one vote, except that when shares of any other class or series of preferred stock we may issue, including the Parity Stock, have the right to vote with the Series F Preferred Stock as a single class on any matter, the Series F Preferred Stock, the Parity Stock and each such other class or series of stock will have one vote for each $25.00 of liquidation preference (excluding accumulated dividends). If, at any time when the voting rights conferred upon the Series F Preferred Stock are exercisable, any vacancy in the office of a director elected by the holders of the Parity Stock upon which like voting rights have been conferred and are exercisable will occur, then such vacancy may be filled only by the remaining director or by vote of the holders of the outstanding Series F Preferred Stock and any other classes or series of Parity Stock upon which like voting rights have been conferred and are exercisable.
Any director elected by holders of shares of Series F Preferred Stock and any class or series of Parity Stock upon which like voting rights have been conferred and are exercisable may be removed at any time, with or without cause, only by the vote of, and may not be removed otherwise than by the vote of, the holders of record of a majority of the outstanding shares of Series F Preferred Stock and any such class or series of Parity Stock we may issue when they have the voting rights described above (voting as a single class with all other classes or series of Parity Stock upon which like voting rights have been conferred and are exercisable).
So long as any shares of Series F Preferred Stock remain outstanding, we will not, without the affirmative vote or consent of the holders of at least two-thirds of the shares of Series F Preferred Stock, and Parity Stock upon which like voting rights have been conferred and are exercisable (voting together as a single class), (i) authorize, create, or increase the authorized or issued amount of, any class or series of Senior Stock or reclassify any of our authorized stock into such shares, or create or authorize or issue any obligation or security convertible into or evidencing the right to purchase any such shares or (ii) amend, alter or repeal the provisions of our charter, whether by merger, conversion, consolidation or otherwise, so as to materially and adversely affect any right, preference, privilege or voting power of the Series F Preferred Stock (each, an “Event”); provided, however, with respect to the occurrence of any Event set forth in clause (ii) above, so long as the Series F Preferred Stock remains outstanding with the terms thereof materially unchanged, or the holders of Series F Preferred Stock receive shares of stock or other equity interests with rights, preferences, privileges and voting powers substantially the same as those of the Series F Preferred Stock, taking into account that upon the occurrence of an Event we may not be the successor entity, the occurrence of any such Event will not be deemed to materially and adversely affect the rights, preferences, privileges or voting power of holders of Series F Preferred Stock; and, provided further, that any increase in the amount of the authorized or issued Series F Preferred Stock or the creation or issuance, or any increase in the amounts authorized of any Parity Stock, including the Series B Preferred Stock, Series C Preferred Stock, Series D Preferred Stock and Series E Preferred Stock or Junior Stock will not be deemed to materially and adversely affect the rights, preferences, privileges or voting powers of holders of Series F Preferred Stock. Notwithstanding the foregoing, holders of any class or series of Parity Stock, including the Series B Preferred Stock, Series C Preferred Stock, the Series D Preferred Stock and the Series E Preferred Stock, shall not be entitled to vote together as a class with the holders of the Series F Preferred Stock on any amendment, alteration or repeal of any provision of our charter unless such action affects the holders of the Series F Preferred Stock and such other class or series of Parity Stock, including the Series B Preferred Stock, Series C Preferred Stock, the Series D Preferred Stock and the Series E Preferred Stock, equally.
The foregoing voting provisions will not apply if, at or prior to the time when the act with respect to which such vote would otherwise be required shall be effected, all outstanding shares of Series F Preferred Stock have been redeemed or called for redemption upon proper notice and sufficient funds have been irrevocably set apart to effect such redemption.
Except as expressly stated in the articles supplementary designating the Series F Preferred Stock, the Series F Preferred Stock will not have any relative, participating, optional or other special voting rights or powers and the consent of the holders thereof will not be required for the taking of any corporate action. The
 
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holders of Series F Preferred Stock will have exclusive voting rights on any amendment to our charter that would alter the contract rights, as expressly set forth in the charter, of only the Series F Preferred Stock.
Information Rights
During any period in which we are not subject to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act and any shares of Series F Preferred Stock are outstanding, we will use our best efforts to (i) transmit through our website at http://www.nymtrust.com (or other permissible means under the Exchange Act) copies of the Annual Reports on Form 10-K and Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q that we would have been required to file with the SEC pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act if we were subject thereto (other than any exhibits that would have been required). We will use our best efforts to provide such reports on our website within 15 days after the respective dates by which we would have been required to file such reports with the SEC if we were subject to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act and we were a “non-accelerated filer” within the meaning of the Exchange Act.
Restrictions on Transfer and Ownership
The Articles Supplementary will provide that the aggregate stock ownership limitation included in our charter (as described under “Description of Common Stock — Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer” in the accompanying prospectus) applies to ownership of shares of Series F Preferred Stock. Our charter provides that generally no person may own, or be deemed to own by virtue of the attribution provisions of the Code, either (i) more than 9.9% in value of the aggregate of our outstanding shares of capital stock or (ii) more than 9.9% in value or number of shares, whichever is more restrictive, of the aggregate of shares of our outstanding common stock. See “Description of Common Stock — Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer” and “Description of Preferred Stock — Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer; Change of Control Provisions” in the accompanying prospectus. No holder of Series F Preferred Stock will be entitled to convert any shares of Series F Preferred Stock into shares of our common stock to the extent that receipt of shares of our common stock would cause such holder or any other person to exceed the ownership limits contained in our charter. Our board of directors may, in its sole discretion, exempt a person from any of the ownership limits, as described under “Description of Common Stock — Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer” and “Description of Preferred Stock — Restrictions on Ownership; Change of Control Provisions” in the accompanying prospectus.
Preemptive Rights
No holders of Series F Preferred Stock will, as holders of Series F Preferred Stock, have any preemptive rights to purchase or subscribe for our common stock or any of our other securities.
Effect of Benchmark Transition Event
Benchmark Replacement.   If the calculation agent determines that a Benchmark Transition Event and its related Benchmark Replacement Date have occurred on or prior to the Reference Time in respect of any determination of the Benchmark on any date, then the Benchmark Replacement will replace the then-current Benchmark for all purposes relating to the Series F Preferred Stock during the Floating Rate Period in respect of such determination on such date and all determinations on all subsequent dates.
Benchmark Replacement Conforming Changes.   In connection with the implementation of a Benchmark Replacement, the calculation agent will have the right to make Benchmark Replacement Conforming Changes from time to time.
Certain Defined Terms.   As used herein:
“Benchmark Replacement” means the Interpolated Benchmark with respect to the then-current Benchmark, plus the Benchmark Replacement Adjustment for such Benchmark; provided that if (a) the calculation agent cannot determine the Interpolated Benchmark as of the Benchmark Replacement Date or (b) the then-current Benchmark is Three-Month Term SOFR and a Benchmark Transition Event and its related Benchmark Replacement Date have occurred with respect to Three-Month Term SOFR (in which event no Interpolated Benchmark with respect to Three-Month Term SOFR shall be determined), then
 
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“Benchmark Replacement” means the first alternative set forth in the order below that can be determined by the calculation agent as of the Benchmark Replacement Date:
(1)   Compounded SOFR;
(2)   the sum of: (a) the alternate rate that has been selected or recommended by the Relevant Governmental Body as the replacement for the then-current Benchmark for the applicable Corresponding Tenor and (b) the Benchmark Replacement Adjustment;
(3)   the sum of: (a) the ISDA Fallback Rate and (b) the Benchmark Replacement Adjustment;
(4)   the sum of: (a) the alternate rate that has been selected by the calculation agent as the replacement for the then-current Benchmark for the applicable Corresponding Tenor, giving due consideration to any industry-accepted rate as a replacement for the then-current Benchmark for U.S. dollar-denominated floating rate securities at such time, and (b) the Benchmark Replacement Adjustment.
“Benchmark Replacement Adjustment” means the first alternative set forth in the order below that can be determined by the calculation agent as of the Benchmark Replacement Date:
(1)   the spread adjustment, or method for calculating or determining such spread adjustment (which may be a positive or negative value or zero), that has been selected or recommended by the Relevant Governmental Body for the applicable Unadjusted Benchmark Replacement;
(2)   if the applicable Unadjusted Benchmark Replacement is equivalent to the ISDA Fallback Rate, then the ISDA Fallback Adjustment; and
(3)   the spread adjustment (which may be a positive or negative value or zero) that has been selected by the calculation agent giving due consideration to any industry-accepted spread adjustment or method for calculating or determining such spread adjustment, for the replacement of the then-current Benchmark with the applicable Unadjusted Benchmark Replacement for U.S. dollar-denominated floating rate securities at such time.
“Benchmark Replacement Conforming Changes” means, with respect to any Benchmark Replacement, any technical, administrative or operational changes (including changes to the definition of “dividend period,” timing and frequency of determining rates with respect to each dividend period and making payments of dividends, rounding of amounts or tenors, and other administrative matters) that the calculation agent decides may be appropriate to reflect the adoption of such Benchmark Replacement in a manner substantially consistent with market practice (or, if the calculation agent decides that adoption of any portion of such market practice is not administratively feasible or if the calculation agent determines that no market practice for use of the Benchmark Replacement exists, in such other manner as the calculation agent determines is reasonably necessary).
“Benchmark Replacement Date” means the earliest to occur of the following events with respect to the then-current Benchmark:
(1)   in the case of clause (1) of the definition of “Benchmark Transition Event,” the relevant Reference Time in respect of any determination;
(2)   in the case of clause (2) or (3) of the definition of “Benchmark Transition Event,” the later of (a) the date of the public statement or publication of information referenced therein and (b) the date on which the administrator of the Benchmark permanently or indefinitely ceases to provide the Benchmark; or
(3)   in the case of clause (4) of the definition of “Benchmark Transition Event,” the date of the public statement or publication of information referenced therein.
For the avoidance of doubt, for purposes of the definitions of Benchmark Replacement Date and Benchmark Transition Event, references to the Benchmark also include any reference rate underlying the Benchmark (for example, if the Benchmark becomes Compounded SOFR, references to the Benchmark would include SOFR).
 
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For the avoidance of doubt, if the event giving rise to the Benchmark Replacement Date occurs on the same day as, but earlier than, the Reference Time in respect of any determination, the Benchmark Replacement Date will be deemed to have occurred prior to the Reference Time for such determination.
“Benchmark Transition Event” means the occurrence of one or more of the following events with respect to the then-current Benchmark:
(1)   if the Benchmark is Three-Month Term SOFR, (a) the Relevant Governmental Body has not selected or recommended a forward-looking term rate for a tenor of three months based on SOFR, (b) the development of a forward-looking term rate for a tenor of three months based on SOFR that has been recommended or selected by the Relevant Governmental Body is not complete or (c) we determine that the use of a forward-looking rate for a tenor of three months based on SOFR is not administratively feasible;
(2)   a public statement or publication of information by or on behalf of the administrator of the Benchmark announcing that such administrator has ceased or will cease to provide the Benchmark, permanently or indefinitely, provided that, at the time of such statement or publication, there is no successor administrator that will continue to provide the Benchmark;
(3)   a public statement or publication of information by the regulatory supervisor for the administrator of the Benchmark, the central bank for the currency of the Benchmark, an insolvency official with jurisdiction over the administrator for the Benchmark, a resolution authority with jurisdiction over the administrator for the Benchmark or a court or an entity with similar insolvency or resolution authority over the administrator for the Benchmark, which states that the administrator of the Benchmark has ceased or will cease to provide the Benchmark permanently or indefinitely, provided that, at the time of such statement or publication, there is no successor administrator that will continue to provide the Benchmark; or
(4)   a public statement or publication of information by the regulatory supervisor for the administrator of the Benchmark announcing that the Benchmark is no longer representative.
“Compounded SOFR” means the compounded average of SOFRs for the applicable Corresponding Tenor, with the rate, or methodology for this rate, and conventions for this rate being established by the calculation agent in accordance with:
(1)   the rate, or methodology for this rate, and conventions for this rate selected or recommended by the Relevant Governmental Body for determining compounded SOFR; provided that:
(2)   if, and to the extent that, the calculation agent determines that Compounded SOFR cannot be determined in accordance with clause (1) above, then the rate, or methodology for this rate, and conventions for this rate that have been selected by the calculation agent giving due consideration to any industry-accepted market practice for U.S. dollar-denominated floating rate securities at such time.
For the avoidance of doubt, the calculation of Compounded SOFR shall exclude the Benchmark Replacement Adjustment (if applicable) and the spread of    % per annum.
“Corresponding Tenor” with respect to a Benchmark Replacement means a tenor (including overnight) having approximately the same length (disregarding business day adjustment) as the applicable tenor for the then-current Benchmark.
“Interpolated Benchmark” with respect to the Benchmark means the rate determined for the Corresponding Tenor by interpolating on a linear basis between: (1) the Benchmark for the longest period (for which the Benchmark is available) that is shorter than the Corresponding Tenor, and (2) the Benchmark for the shortest period (for which the Benchmark is available) that is longer than the Corresponding Tenor.
“ISDA” means the International Swaps and Derivatives Association, Inc. or any successor.
“ISDA Definitions” means the 2006 ISDA Definitions published by ISDA, as amended or supplemented from time to time, or any successor definitional booklet for interest rate derivatives published from time to time.
 
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“ISDA Fallback Adjustment” means the spread adjustment (which may be a positive or negative value or zero) that would apply for derivatives transactions referencing the ISDA Definitions to be determined upon the occurrence of an index cessation event with respect to the Benchmark for the applicable tenor.
“ISDA Fallback Rate” means the rate that would apply for derivatives transactions referencing the ISDA Definitions to be effective upon the occurrence of an index cessation date with respect to the Benchmark for the applicable tenor excluding the applicable ISDA Fallback Adjustment.
“Unadjusted Benchmark Replacement” means the Benchmark Replacement excluding the Benchmark Replacement Adjustment.
The terms “FRBNY’s Website,” “Reference Time,” “Relevant Governmental Body,” “SOFR” and “Term SOFR” have the meanings set forth above under the heading “— Dividends.”
Determinations and Decisions
The calculation agent is expressly authorized to make certain determinations, decisions and elections under the terms of the Series F Preferred Stock, including with respect to the use of Three-Month Term SOFR as the Benchmark for the Floating Rate Period and under the benchmark transition provisions. Any determination, decision or election that may be made by the calculation agent under the terms of the Series F Preferred Stock, including any determination with respect to a tenor, rate or adjustment or of the occurrence or non-occurrence of an event, circumstance or date and any decision to take or refrain from taking any action or any selection:

will be conclusive and binding on the holders of the Series F Preferred Stock and the transfer agent absent manifest error;

will be made after consultation with us, and the calculation agent will not make any such determination, decision or election to which we reasonably object; and

notwithstanding anything to the contrary in the articles supplementary, shall become effective without consent from the holders of the Series F Preferred Stock, the transfer agent or any other party.
Book-Entry Procedures
DTC will act as securities depositary for the Series F Preferred Stock, which will only be issued in the form of global securities held in book-entry form. We will not issue certificates to you for the shares of Series F Preferred Stock that you purchase, unless DTC’s services are discontinued as described below.
Title to book-entry interests in the Series F Preferred Stock will pass by book-entry registration of the transfer within the records of DTC in accordance with its procedures. Book-entry interests in the securities may be transferred within DTC in accordance with procedures established for these purposes by DTC. Each person owning a beneficial interest in shares of the Series F Preferred Stock must rely on the procedures of DTC and the participant through which such person owns its interest to exercise its rights as a holder of the Series F Preferred Stock.
DTC has advised us that it is a limited-purpose trust company organized under the New York Banking Law, a member of the Federal Reserve System, a “clearing corporation” within the meaning of the New York Uniform Commercial Code and a “clearing agency” registered under the provisions of Section 17A of the Exchange Act. DTC holds securities that its participants (“Direct Participants”) deposit with DTC. DTC also facilitates the settlement among Direct Participants of securities transactions, such as transfers and pledges, in deposited securities through electronic computerized book-entry changes in Direct Participants’ accounts, thereby eliminating the need for physical movement of securities certificates. Direct Participants include securities brokers and dealers, banks, trust companies, clearing corporations, and certain other organizations. Access to the DTC system is also available to others such as securities brokers and dealers, including the underwriters, banks and trust companies that clear through or maintain a custodial relationship with a Direct Participant, either directly or indirectly (“Indirect Participants”). The rules applicable to DTC and its Direct and Indirect Participants are on file with the SEC.
 
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When you purchase shares of Series F Preferred Stock within the DTC system, the purchase must be by or through a Direct Participant. The Direct Participant will receive a credit for the Series F Preferred Stock on DTC’s records. You will be considered to be the “beneficial owner” of the Series F Preferred Stock. Your beneficial ownership interest will be recorded on the Direct and Indirect Participants’ records, but DTC will have no knowledge of your individual ownership. DTC’s records reflect only the identity of the Direct Participants to whose accounts shares of Series F Preferred Stock are credited.
You will not receive written confirmation from DTC of your purchase. The Direct or Indirect Participants through whom you purchased the Series F Preferred Stock should send you written confirmations providing details of your transactions, as well as periodic statements of your holdings. The Direct and Indirect Participants are responsible for keeping an accurate account of the holdings of their customers like you.
Transfers of ownership interests held through Direct and Indirect Participants will be accomplished by entries on the books of Direct and Indirect Participants acting on behalf of the beneficial owners.
Conveyance of notices and other communications by DTC to Direct Participants, by Direct Participants to Indirect Participants, and by Direct Participants and Indirect Participants to beneficial owners will be governed by arrangements among them, subject to any statutory or regulatory requirements as may be in effect from time to time.
We understand that, under DTC’s existing practices, in the event that we request any action of the holders, or an owner of a beneficial interest in a global security, such as you, desires to take any action which a holder is entitled to take under our charter (including the articles supplementary designating the Series F Preferred Stock), DTC would authorize the Direct Participants holding the relevant shares to take such action, and those Direct Participants and any Indirect Participants would authorize beneficial owners owning through those Direct and Indirect Participants to take such action or would otherwise act upon the instructions of beneficial owners owning through them.
Any redemption notices with respect to the Series F Preferred Stock will be sent to Cede & Co. If less than all of the outstanding shares of Series F Preferred Stock are being redeemed, DTC will reduce each Direct Participant’s holdings of shares of Series F Preferred Stock in accordance with its procedures.
In those instances where a vote is required, neither DTC nor Cede & Co. itself will consent or vote with respect to the shares of Series F Preferred Stock. Under its usual procedures, DTC would mail an omnibus proxy to us as soon as possible after the record date. The omnibus proxy assigns Cede & Co.’s consenting or voting rights to those Direct Participants whose accounts the shares of Series F Preferred Stock are credited to on the record date, which are identified in a listing attached to the omnibus proxy.
Dividends on the Series F Preferred Stock will be made directly to DTC’s nominee (or its successor, if applicable). DTC’s practice is to credit participants’ accounts on the relevant payment date in accordance with their respective holdings shown on DTC’s records unless DTC has reason to believe that it will not receive payment on that payment date.
Payments by Direct and Indirect Participants to beneficial owners will be governed by standing instructions and customary practices, as is the case with securities held for the accounts of customers in bearer form or registered in “street name.” These payments will be the responsibility of the participant and not of DTC, us or any agent of ours.
DTC may discontinue providing its services as securities depositary with respect to the Series F Preferred Stock at any time by giving reasonable notice to us. Additionally, we may decide to discontinue the book-entry only system of transfers with respect to the Series F Preferred Stock. In that event, we will print and deliver certificates in fully registered form for the Series F Preferred Stock. If DTC notifies us that it is unwilling to continue as securities depositary, or it is unable to continue or ceases to be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act and a successor depositary is not appointed by us within 90 days after receiving such notice or becoming aware that DTC is no longer so registered, we will issue the Series F Preferred Stock in definitive form, at our expense, upon registration of transfer of, or in exchange for, such global security.
 
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According to DTC, the foregoing information with respect to DTC has been provided to the financial community for informational purposes only and is not intended to serve as a representation, warranty or contract modification of any kind.
Global Clearance and Settlement Procedures
Initial settlement for the Series F Preferred Stock will be made in immediately available funds. Secondary market trading among DTC’s Participants will occur in the ordinary way in accordance with DTC’s rules and will be settled in immediately available funds using DTC’s Same-Day Funds Settlement System.
 
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ADDITIONAL MATERIAL U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSIDERATIONS
The following is a summary of additional material U.S. federal income tax considerations with respect to the ownership of the Series F Preferred Stock. This summary supplements and should be read together with the discussion under “Material Federal Income Tax Considerations” in the accompanying prospectus.
Qualified REIT Dividends.   Under H.R. 1, informally titled the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the “TCJA”), individuals, trusts, and estates generally, for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017 and before January 1, 2026, may deduct 20% of the “qualified REIT dividends” ​(i.e., REIT dividends other than capital gain dividends and portions of REIT dividends designated as qualified dividend income, which in each case are already eligible for capital gain tax rates) they receive. Under applicable Treasury Regulations, to qualify for this deduction, the stockholder receiving such dividend must hold the dividend-paying REIT shares for at least 46 days (taking into account certain special holding period rules) of the 91-day period beginning 45 days before the shares become ex-dividend, and cannot be under an obligation to make related payments with respect to a position in substantially similar or related property.
Net Interest Expense Deduction.   Under the TCJA, a taxpayer’s net interest expense deduction may be limited to 30% of the sum of adjusted taxable income, business interest, and certain other amounts. The Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act of 2020 (the “CARES Act”) temporarily increased this limit, in the absence of an election otherwise, to 50% for non-partnership entities for their 2019 and 2020 taxable years and for partnerships for their 2020 taxable years. In addition, under the CARES Act, a taxpayer was able to elect to use its adjusted taxable income from its 2019 taxable year for purposes of calculating its limitation in its 2020 taxable year. In the case of partnerships, although the interest deduction limit is applied at the partnership level, with disallowed interest expense carried forward by the partners indefinitely, under the CARES Act, a partner allocated disallowed interest with respect to a partnership’s 2019 taxable year was able to deduct 50% of such amount in such partner’s 2020 taxable year.
NOL Limitations.   The TCJA limited the deduction for net operating losses (“NOLs”) to 80% of taxable income (before the deduction), but this limitation was lifted for taxable years beginning before January 1, 2021 by the CARES Act. The CARES Act additionally provided for a 5-year carryback period for NOLs of non-REIT corporations and individuals; however, REITs still may only carry forward NOLs (which, for NOLs generated after December 31, 2017, may be carried forward indefinitely).
Legislative Proposals.   The Biden Administration has proposed modifications of several key aspects of the tax Code, including by increasing corporate and individual tax rates. Changes to the U.S. federal tax laws and interpretations thereof could adversely affect an investment in our Series F Preferred Stock.
 
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UNDERWRITING
Raymond James & Associates, Inc. is acting as the sole book-running manager of the offering and as representative of the underwriters named below. Subject to the terms and conditions stated in the underwriting agreement dated the date of this prospectus supplement, each underwriter named below has severally agreed to purchase, and we have agreed to sell to that underwriter, the number of shares of    % Series F Fixed-to-Floating Rate Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock set forth opposite the underwriter’s name.
Underwriters
Number of Shares
Raymond James & Associates, Inc.
      
Total
       
The underwriting agreement provides that the obligations of the underwriters to purchase the shares included in this offering are subject to approval of legal matters by counsel and to other conditions. The underwriters are obligated to purchase all the shares (other than those covered by the option to purchase additional shares described below) if they purchase any of the shares.
The underwriters initially propose to offer the shares of Series F Preferred Stock directly to the public at the public offering price set forth on the cover page of this prospectus supplement and to certain dealers at a price that represents a concession not in excess of $      per share below the public offering price. Any underwriters may allow, and such dealers may re-allow, a concession not in excess of $      per share to other underwriters or to certain dealers. If the shares are not sold at the initial price to the public, the underwriters may change the offering price and the other selling terms. The offering of the shares by the underwriters is subject to receipt and acceptance and subject to the underwriters’ right to reject any order in whole or in part.
If the underwriters sell more shares than the total number set forth in the table above, we have granted to the underwriters an option, exercisable for 30 days from the date of this prospectus supplement, to purchase up to          additional shares at the public offering price less the underwriting discount. The underwriters may exercise the option solely for the purpose of covering over-allotments, if any, in connection with this offering. To the extent the option is exercised, each underwriter must purchase a number of additional shares approximately proportionate to that underwriter’s initial purchase commitment. Any shares issued or sold under the option will be issued and sold on the same terms and conditions as the other shares that are the subject of this offering.
We have agreed that, except for the Series F Preferred Stock to be issued hereunder, we will not, without the prior written consent of the representative (which consent may be withheld in the representative’s sole discretion), directly or indirectly, issue, sell, offer, agree to sell, contract or grant any option to sell (including, without limitation, pursuant to any short sale), pledge, make any short sale of, maintain any short position with respect to, transfer, establish or maintain an open “put equivalent position” within the meaning of Rule 16a-1(h) under the Exchange Act, enter into any swap, derivative transaction or other arrangement (whether such transaction is to be settled by delivery of our common stock, other securities, cash or other consideration) that transfers to another, in whole or in part, any of the economic consequences of ownership, or otherwise dispose of any shares of Series F Preferred Stock or any other of our preferred securities or any securities convertible into or exercisable or exchangeable for our preferred securities or publicly announce an intention to do any of the foregoing, for a period commencing on the date hereof and continuing through the close of trading on the date 30 days after the date of this prospectus supplement.
We have applied to have the Series F Preferred Stock listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “NYMTL.” If the application is approved, trading of the Series F Preferred Stock on the Nasdaq Global Select Market is expected to begin within 30 days after the date of initial issuance of the Series F Preferred Stock.
The following table shows the underwriting discounts and commissions that we are to pay to the underwriters in connection with this offering. These amounts are shown assuming both no exercise and full exercise of the underwriters’ over-allotment option.
 
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Per Share
Without Exercise
of Option
With Full Exercise
of Option
Price to the public
$       $         $        
Underwriting discounts and commissions
$ $ $
Proceeds to us (before expenses)
$ $ $
We estimate that our total expenses incurred in connection with this offering, excluding the underwriting discounts, will be approximately $650,000.
In connection with the offering, the underwriters may purchase and sell shares in the open market. Purchases and sales in the open market may include short sales, purchases to cover short positions, which may include purchases pursuant to the over-allotment option, and stabilizing purchases.

Short sales involve secondary market sales by the underwriters of a greater number of shares than they are required to purchase in the offering.

“Covered” short sales are sales of shares in an amount up to the number of shares represented by the underwriters’ over-allotment option.

“Naked” short sales are sales of shares in an amount in excess of the number of shares represented by the underwriters’ over-allotment option.

Covering transactions involve purchases of shares either pursuant to the over-allotment option or in the open market after the distribution has been completed in order to cover short positions.

To close a naked short position, the underwriters must purchase shares in the open market after the distribution has been completed. A naked short position is more likely to be created if the underwriters are concerned that there may be downward pressure on the price of the shares in the open market after pricing that could adversely affect investors who purchase in the offering.

To close a covered short position, the underwriters must purchase shares in the open market after the distribution has been completed or must exercise the over-allotment option. In determining the source of shares to close the covered short position, the underwriters will consider, among other things, the price of shares available for purchase in the open market as compared to the price at which they may purchase shares through the over-allotment option.

Stabilizing transactions involve bids to purchase shares so long as the stabilizing bids do not exceed a specified maximum.
Purchases to cover short positions and stabilizing purchases, as well as other purchases by the underwriters for their own accounts, may have the effect of preventing or retarding a decline in the market price of the shares. They may also cause the price of the shares to be higher than the price that would otherwise exist in the open market in the absence of these transactions. The underwriters may conduct these transactions on the Nasdaq Global Select Market, in the over-the-counter market or otherwise. If the underwriters commence any of these transactions, they may discontinue them at any time.
The underwriters are full service financial institutions engaged in various activities, which may include securities trading, commercial and investment banking, financial advisory, investment management, principal investment, hedging, financing and brokerage activities. The underwriters have performed commercial banking, investment banking and advisory services for us from time to time for which they have received customary fees and reimbursement of expenses. The underwriters may, from time to time, engage in transactions with and perform services for us in the ordinary course of their business for which they may receive customary fees and reimbursement of expenses.
In addition, in the ordinary course of its business activities, certain of the underwriters and their affiliates may make or hold a broad array of investments and actively trade debt and equity securities (or related derivative securities) and financial instruments (including bank loans) for their own account and for the accounts of their customers. Such investments and securities activities may involve securities and/or instruments of ours or our affiliates.
 
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We have agreed to indemnify the underwriters against certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act, or to contribute to payments the underwriters may be required to make because of any of those liabilities.
Settlement
We expect that delivery of the shares of Series F Preferred Stock will be made to investors on         July   , 2021, which will be the fifth business day following the date of this prospectus supplement (such settlement being referred to as “T+5”). Under Rule 15c6-1 under the Exchange Act, trades in the secondary market are required to settle in two business days, unless the parties to any such trade expressly agree otherwise. Accordingly, purchasers who wish to trade shares of Series F Preferred Stock prior to July   , 2021, will be required, by virtue of the fact that the shares of Series F Preferred Stock initially settle in T+5, to specify an alternative settlement arrangement at the time of any such trade to prevent a failed settlement. Purchasers of the shares of Series F Preferred Stock who wish to trade shares of Series F Preferred Stock prior to their date of delivery hereunder should consult their advisors.
 
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EXPERTS
The audited consolidated financial statements and management’s assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting incorporated by reference in this prospectus and elsewhere in the registration statement have been so incorporated by reference in reliance upon the reports of Grant Thornton LLP, independent registered public accountants, upon the authority of said firm as experts in accounting and auditing.
LEGAL MATTERS
Certain legal matters will be passed upon for us by Vinson & Elkins L.L.P. The underwriters are being represented in connection with this offering by Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom LLP. Select legal matters relating to Maryland law, including the validity of the Series F Preferred Stock being offered in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, will be passed upon for us by Venable LLP.
 
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PROSPECTUS
[MISSING IMAGE: lg_nymt-4c.jpg]
Common Stock
Preferred Stock
Debt Securities
We may offer and sell, from time to time, in one or more offerings, the common stock, preferred stock and debt securities described in this prospectus. We may offer and sell these securities to or through one or more underwriters, dealers and agents, or directly to purchasers, on a continuous or delayed basis.
The specific terms of any securities to be offered, and the specific manner in which they may be offered, will be described in one or more supplements to this prospectus. This prospectus may not be used to consummate sales of any of these securities unless it is accompanied by a prospectus supplement. Before investing, you should carefully read this prospectus and any related prospectus supplement.
Our shares of common stock are listed on The Nasdaq Global Select Market, or Nasdaq, under the symbol “NYMT.” The last reported sale price of our common stock on Nasdaq on August 8, 2018, was $6.33 per share. Our shares of 7.75% Series B Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock, par value $0.01 per share, are listed on Nasdaq under the symbol “NYMTP.” Our shares of 7.875% Series C Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock, par value $0.01 per share, are listed on Nasdaq under the symbol “NYMTO.” Our shares of 8.00% Series D Fixed-to-Floating Rate Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock, par value $0.01 per share, are listed on Nasdaq under the symbol “NYMTN.”
To preserve our qualification as a real estate investment trust for federal income tax purposes, among other purposes, we impose certain restrictions on the ownership and transfer of our capital stock. See “Description of Common Stock — Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer” and “Description of Preferred Stock — Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer; Change of Control Provisions.”
Investing in our securities involves substantial risks. You should carefully read and consider the information under “Risk Factors” on page 3 of this prospectus and any prospectus supplement before making a decision to purchase these securities.
Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.
The date of this prospectus is August 9, 2018.

 
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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS
This prospectus is part of a shelf registration statement that we have filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). Under this shelf registration statement, we may offer and sell any combination of our common stock, preferred stock and debt securities in one or more offerings. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer. Each time we offer to sell securities under this shelf registration statement, we will provide a prospectus supplement that will contain specific information about the terms of that offering. The prospectus supplement may add, update or change information contained in or incorporated by reference into this prospectus. Before you buy any of our securities, you should carefully read both this prospectus, any accompanying prospectus supplement and the information contained in or incorporated by reference into this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement together with additional information described under the headings “Incorporation by Reference of Information Filed with the SEC” and “Where You Can Find More Information.”
The SEC allows us to incorporate by reference information that we file with them, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those documents. The information incorporated by reference is considered to be a part of this prospectus, and information that we file later with the SEC will automatically update and, where applicable, supersede this information. You should rely only on the information contained in or incorporated by reference into this prospectus, any accompanying prospectus supplement or any applicable free writing prospectus. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with information different from that contained in this prospectus. No dealer, salesperson or other person is authorized to give any information or to represent anything not contained in or incorporated by reference into this prospectus, any accompanying prospectus supplement or any applicable free writing prospectus. If anyone provides you with different, inconsistent or unauthorized information or representations, you must not rely on them. This prospectus and the accompanying prospectus supplement are an offer to sell only the securities offered hereby, but only under circumstances and in jurisdictions where it is lawful to do so. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus or any accompanying prospectus supplement is accurate as of the date on its respective cover, and that any information incorporated by reference into this prospectus or any accompanying prospectus supplement is accurate only as of the date of the document incorporated by reference, unless we indicate otherwise. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since that date.
In this prospectus, we refer to New York Mortgage Trust, Inc., together with its consolidated subsidiaries, as “we,” “us,” “our company” or “our,” unless we specifically state otherwise or the context indicates otherwise, and refer to our wholly-owned taxable REIT subsidiaries as “TRSs” and our wholly-owned qualified REIT subsidiaries as “QRSs.” In addition, the following defines certain of the commonly used terms in this prospectus.

“Agency ARMs” refers to Agency RMBS comprised of adjustable-rate and hybrid adjustable-rate RMBS;

“Agency fixed-rate” refers to Agency RMBS comprised of fixed-rate RMBS;

“Agency IOs” refers to Agency RMBS comprised of IO RMBS;

“Agency RMBS” refers to RMBS representing interests in or obligations backed by pools of mortgage loans issued or guaranteed by a government sponsored enterprise (“GSE”), such as the Federal National Mortgage Association (“Fannie Mae”) or the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (“Freddie Mac”), or an agency of the U.S. government, such as the Government National Mortgage Association (“Ginnie Mae”);

“ARMs” refers to adjustable-rate residential mortgage loans;

“CDO” refers to collateralized debt obligation;

“CLO” refers to collateralized loan obligation;

“CMBS” refers to commercial mortgage-backed securities comprised of commercial mortgage pass-through securities, as well as IO or PO securities that represent the right to a specific component of the cash flow from a pool of commercial mortgage loans;
 
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“Consolidated K-Series” refers to Freddie Mac-sponsored multi-family loan K-Series securitizations, of which we, or one of our “special purpose entities,” or “SPEs,” own the first loss POs and certain IOs and mezzanine securities and that we consolidate into our financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP;

“Consolidated VIEs” refers to VIEs where the Company is the primary beneficiary, as it has both the power to direct the activities that most significantly impact the economic performance of the VIE and a right to receive benefits or absorb losses of the entity that could be potentially significant to the VIE;

“distressed residential loans” refers to pools of performing and re-performing fixed-rate and adjustable-rate, fully amortizing, interest-only and balloon, seasoned mortgage loans secured by first liens on one- to four-family properties;

“IOs” refers collectively to interest only and inverse interest only mortgage-backed securities that represent the right to the interest component of the cash flow from a pool of mortgage loans;

“IO RMBS” refers to RMBS comprised of IOs;

“multi-family CMBS” refers to CMBS backed by commercial mortgage loans on multi-family properties;

“non-Agency RMBS” refers to RMBS backed by prime jumbo mortgage loans, including re-performing and non-performing loans;

“non-QM loans” refers to residential mortgage loans that are not deemed “qualified mortgage,” or “QM,” loans under the rules of the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau;

“POs” refers to mortgage-backed securities that represent the right to the principal component of the cash flow from a pool of mortgage loans;

“prime ARM loans” and “residential securitized loans” each refer to prime credit quality residential ARM loans held in securitization trusts;

“RMBS” refers to residential mortgage-backed securities that are adjustable-rate, hybrid adjustable-rate, fixed-rate, interest only and inverse interest only, or principal only securities;

“second mortgages” and “second mortgage loans” each refers to liens on residential properties that are subordinate to more senior mortgages or loans; and

“Variable Interest Entity” or “VIE” refers to an entity in which equity investors do not have the characteristics of a controlling financial interest or do not have sufficient equity at risk for the entity to finance its activities without additional subordinated financial support from other parties.
 
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CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
When used in this prospectus and in any accompanying prospectus supplement, in filings with the SEC or in press releases or other written or oral communications issued or made by us, statements which are not historical in nature, including those containing words such as “believe,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “estimate,” “plan,” “continue,” “intend,” “should,” “would,” “could,” “goal,” “objective,” “will,” “may” or similar expressions, are intended to identify “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), and, as such, may involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and assumptions.
Forward-looking statements are based on our beliefs, assumptions and expectations of our future performance, taking into account all information currently available to us. These beliefs, assumptions and expectations are subject to risks and uncertainties and can change as a result of many possible events or factors, not all of which are known to us. If a change occurs, our business, financial condition, liquidity and results of operations may vary materially from those expressed in our forward-looking statements. The following factors are examples of those that could cause actual results to vary from our forward-looking statements: changes in interest rates and the market value of our securities; changes in credit spreads; the impact of a downgrade of the long-term credit ratings of the U.S., Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac, or Ginnie Mae; market volatility; changes in the prepayment rates on the mortgage loans underlying our investment securities; increased rates of default and/or decreased recovery rates on our assets; delays in identifying and acquiring our targeted assets; our ability to borrow to finance our assets and the terms thereof; changes in governmental laws, regulations, or policies affecting our business; our ability to maintain our qualification as a real estate investment trust (“REIT”) for federal tax purposes; our ability to maintain our exemption from registration under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “Investment Company Act”); and risks associated with investing in real estate assets, including changes in business conditions and the general economy. These and other risks, uncertainties and factors, including the risk factors described below and in Item 1A of our most recently filed Annual Report on Form 10-K, as updated by those risk factors included in our subsequent filings with the SEC under the Exchange Act, could cause our actual results to differ materially from those projected in any forward-looking statements we make. All forward-looking statements speak only as of the date on which they are made. New risks and uncertainties arise over time and it is not possible to predict those events or how they may affect us. Except as required by law, we are not obligated to, and do not intend to, update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.
 
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OUR COMPANY
General
We are a REIT for federal income tax purposes, in the business of acquiring, investing in, financing and managing mortgage-related and residential housing-related assets. Our objective is to deliver long-term stable distributions to our stockholders over changing economic conditions through a combination of net interest margin and net realized capital gains from a diversified investment portfolio. Our investment portfolio includes credit sensitive assets and investments sourced from distressed markets that create the potential for capital gains, as well as more traditional types of mortgage-related investments that generate interest income.
Our investment portfolio includes (i) structured multi-family property investments such as multi-family CMBS and preferred equity in, and mezzanine loans to, owners of multi-family properties, (ii) distressed residential assets such as residential mortgage loans sourced from distressed markets and non-Agency RMBS, (iii) second mortgages, (iv) Agency RMBS and (v) certain other mortgage-related and residential housing-related assets. Subject to maintaining our qualification as a REIT and the maintenance of our exclusion from registration as an investment company under the Investment Company Act, we also may opportunistically acquire and manage various other types of mortgage-related and residential housing-related assets that we believe will compensate us appropriately for the risks associated with them, including, without limitation, non-QM loans, collateralized mortgage obligations and securities issued by newly originated residential securitizations, including credit sensitive securities from these securitizations.
We seek to achieve a balanced and diverse funding mix to finance our assets and operations. We currently rely primarily on a combination of short-term borrowings, such as repurchase agreements with terms typically of 30 days, longer term repurchase agreement borrowings with terms between one year and 18 months and longer term financings, such as securitizations and convertible notes, with terms longer than one year.
We internally manage the assets in our investment portfolio, with the exception of certain distressed residential loans that are managed by Headlands Asset Management, LLC pursuant to a management agreement. As part of our investment strategy, we may, from time to time, utilize one or more external investment managers to manage specific asset types that we target or own.
We have elected to be taxed as a REIT for federal income tax purposes and have complied, and intend to continue to comply, with the provisions of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, with respect thereto. Accordingly, we do not expect to be subject to federal income tax on our REIT taxable income that we currently distribute to our stockholders if certain asset, income, distribution and ownership tests and record keeping requirements are fulfilled. Even if we maintain our qualification as a REIT, we expect to be subject to some federal, state and local taxes on our income generated in our TRSs.
Corporate Offices
We are a Maryland corporation that was formed in 2003. Our principal executive offices are located at 275 Madison Avenue, Suite 3200, New York, New York 10016, and our telephone number is (212) 792-0107. Our website address is www.nymtrust.com. Our website and the information contained at or connected to our website do not constitute a part of this prospectus or any accompanying prospectus supplement.
 
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RISK FACTORS
Investing in our securities involves substantial risks, including the risk that you might lose your entire investment. Before making an investment decision, you should carefully read and consider all of the information contained in or incorporated by reference into this prospectus, including the risk factors described in our filings with the SEC that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus. For a description of the reports and documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus, and information about where you can find them, see “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Incorporation by Reference of Information Filed with the SEC” below. Any one of the risks discussed could cause actual results to differ materially from expectations and could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or not presently deemed material by us, may also materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
 
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RATIO OF EARNINGS TO FIXED CHARGES AND OF EARNINGS TO COMBINED FIXED CHARGES AND PREFERRED STOCK DIVIDENDS
The following table sets forth our consolidated ratios of earnings to fixed charges and of earnings to combined fixed charges and preferred stock dividends for each of the last five fiscal years.
Six Months
Ended
June 30, 2018
Year Ended December 31,
2017
2016
2015
2014
2013
Ratio of earnings to fixed charges
2.84 2.96 3.03 3.89 6.59 4.32
Ratio of earnings to combined fixed charges and preferred
stock dividends
2.04 2.21 2.16 2.79 5.35 3.69
For each period, we computed the ratio of earnings to fixed charges by dividing earnings by fixed charges. For each period, we computed the ratio of earnings to combined fixed charges and preferred stock dividends by dividing earnings by the sum of fixed charges and dividends on then-outstanding shares of preferred stock. Fixed charges consist of interest costs, whether expensed or capitalized, and amortization of financing costs, but exclude interest expense on multi-family collateralized debt obligations of the Consolidated K-Series, which we are required to consolidate in our financial statements under generally accepted accounting principles in the U.S. We do not have any claim to the assets (other than the securities represented by our first loss pieces) or obligations for the liabilities of the Consolidated K-Series. For the period January 1, 2012 to June 4, 2013, no shares of preferred stock were outstanding. For the period June 4, 2013 to June 30, 2018, 3,000,000 shares of our 7.75% Series B Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock, $0.01 par value per share, or our Series B Preferred Stock, were issued and outstanding. For the period April 22, 2015 to June 30, 2018, 3,600,000 shares of our 7.875% Series C Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock, $0.01 par value per share, or our Series C Preferred Stock, were issued and outstanding. For the period October 13, 2017 to June 30, 2018, 5,400,000 shares of our 8.00% Series D Fixed-to-Floating Rate Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock, $0.01 par value per share, or our Series D Preferred Stock, were issued and outstanding.
 
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USE OF PROCEEDS
Unless otherwise set forth in a prospectus supplement, we will add the net proceeds from sales of securities to our general corporate funds, which we may use for new investments in accordance with our investment strategy in place at such time, to repay indebtedness or for other general corporate purposes. Any specific allocation of the net proceeds of an offering of securities to a specific purpose will be determined at the time of such offering and will be described in the related prospectus supplement.
 
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DESCRIPTION OF THE SECURITIES WE MAY OFFER
This prospectus contains a summary description of the common stock, preferred stock and debt securities that we may offer from time to time. As further described in this prospectus, these summary descriptions are not meant to be complete descriptions of each security. The particular terms of any security will be described in the accompanying prospectus supplement and other offering material. The accompanying prospectus supplement may update, change or add to the terms and conditions of the securities as described in this prospectus.
 
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DESCRIPTION OF COMMON STOCK
The following summary description of our common stock does not purport to be complete and is subject to and qualified in its entirety by reference to Maryland law and to our charter and our bylaws, copies of which are filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. See “Where You Can Find More Information.”
General
Our charter provides that we may issue up to 400,000,000 shares of common stock, $0.01 par value per share. As of August 8, 2018, 124,685,626 shares of our common stock were issued and outstanding. Under Maryland law, our stockholders are not generally liable for our debts or obligations. Our charter also provides that a majority of our entire board of directors may amend our charter from time to time to increase or decrease the aggregate number of shares of capital stock of any class or series that we have the authority to issue, without stockholder approval.
Voting Rights of Common Stock
Except as provided with respect to any other class or series of shares of our stock and subject to the provisions of our charter regarding restrictions on the transfer and ownership of shares of common stock, each outstanding share of common stock entitles the holder to one vote on all matters submitted to a vote of stockholders, including the election of directors and, the holders of our common stock possess the exclusive voting power. There is no cumulative voting in the election of directors, which means that the holders of a majority of our outstanding shares of stock entitled to vote thereon can elect all of the directors then standing for election. Under Maryland law, a Maryland corporation generally cannot dissolve, amend its charter, merge, convert, sell all or substantially all of its assets, or engage in a share exchange or engage in similar transactions outside the ordinary course of business unless approved by the affirmative vote of stockholders holding at least two-thirds of the shares entitled to vote on the matter, unless a lesser percentage (but not less than a majority of all the votes entitled to be cast on the matter) is set forth in the corporation’s charter. Our charter provides for approval by a majority of all the votes entitled to be cast on the matter for the matters described in the preceding sentence, except for certain charter amendments related to the amendment of our charter, the removal of our directors, the classification and issuance of common and preferred stock and the restrictions on transfer and ownership of shares.
Dividends, Liquidation and Other Rights
All of our outstanding shares of common stock are duly authorized, fully paid and nonassessable. Holders of our shares of common stock are entitled to receive dividends when authorized by our board of directors and declared by us out of assets legally available for the payment of dividends. They also are entitled to share ratably in our assets legally available for distribution to our stockholders in the event of our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, after payment of or adequate provision for all of our known debts and liabilities. These rights are subject to the preferential rights of any other class or series of our stock and to the provisions of our charter regarding restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock.
Holders of our shares of common stock have no preference, conversion, exchange, sinking fund or redemption rights, have no preemptive rights to subscribe for any of our securities and generally have no appraisal rights. Subject to the restrictions on transfer and ownership of capital stock contained in our charter and to the ability of the board of directors to create shares of common stock with differing voting rights, all shares of common stock have equal dividend, liquidation and other rights.
Power to Issue Additional Shares of Common Stock
Our charter also provides that a majority of our entire board of directors may amend our charter from time to time to increase or decrease the aggregate number of shares of capital stock of any class or series that we have the authority to issue, to reclassify any unissued shares of our common stock into any other classes or series of classes of our stock, to establish the number of shares in each class or series and to set the preferences, conversion and other rights, voting powers, restrictions, limitations as to dividends or other distributions, qualifications and terms and conditions of redemption for each such class or series. We believe
 
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that the power of our board of directors to take these actions provides us with increased flexibility in structuring possible future financings and acquisitions and in meeting other needs that might arise. The additional classes or series, as well as our common stock, are available for issuance without further action by our stockholders, unless stockholder action is required by applicable law or the rules of any stock exchange or automated quotation system on which our securities may be listed or traded. Although our board of directors has no intention at the present time of doing so, it could authorize us to issue a class or series that could, depending upon the terms of such class or series, delay, defer or prevent a transaction or a change in control of us that might involve a premium price for our common stock or otherwise be in the best interest of holders of our common stock.
Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer
In order to qualify as a REIT under the Internal Revenue Code, our shares of stock must be beneficially owned by 100 or more persons during at least 335 days of a taxable year of 12 months or during a proportionate part of a shorter taxable year, other than our first REIT taxable year. Also, no more than 50% of the value of our outstanding shares of capital stock may be owned, directly or constructively, by five or fewer individuals (as defined in the Internal Revenue Code to include certain entities) during the last half of any taxable year. In addition, if certain “disqualified organizations” hold our stock, although the law on the matter is unclear, a tax might be imposed on us if a portion of our assets is treated as a taxable mortgage pool (“TMP”). In addition, a tax will be imposed on us if certain disqualified organizations hold our stock and we hold a residual interest in a real estate mortgage investment conduit, or REMIC.
To help us to qualify as a REIT, among other purposes, our charter, subject to certain exceptions, contains restrictions on the number of shares of our capital stock that a person may own and prohibits certain entities from owning our stock. As amended, our charter provides that generally no person may own, or be deemed to own by virtue of the attribution provisions of the Internal Revenue Code, either (i) more than 9.9% in value of the aggregate of our outstanding shares of capital stock or (ii) more than 9.9% in value or number of shares, whichever is more restrictive, of the outstanding shares of our common stock. Our board of directors is permitted under our charter to increase or decrease the common stock ownership limit and the aggregate stock ownership limit from time to time, and to waive these ownership limits (prospectively or retroactively) on a case by case basis so long as the waiver will not allow five or fewer individuals to beneficially own more than 49.9% in value of our outstanding capital stock or otherwise cause us to fail to comply with applicable REIT ownership requirements under the Internal Revenue Code. Our charter prohibits the following “disqualified organizations” from owning our stock: the U.S.; any state or political subdivision of the U.S.; any foreign government; any international organization; any agency or instrumentality of any of the foregoing; any other tax-exempt organization, other than a farmer’s cooperative described in Section 521 of the Internal Revenue Code, that is exempt from both income taxation and from taxation under the unrelated business taxable income provisions of the Internal Revenue Code and any rural electrical or telephone cooperative.
Our charter also prohibits any person from (a) beneficially or constructively owning shares of our capital stock that would result in our being “closely held” within the meaning of Section 856(h) of the Internal Revenue Code (without regard to whether the ownership interest is held in the last half of the taxable year) and (b) transferring shares of our capital stock if such transfer would result in our capital stock being beneficially owned by fewer than 100 persons. Any person who acquires or attempts or intends to acquire beneficial ownership of shares of our capital stock that will or may violate any of the foregoing restrictions on transferability and ownership will be required to give notice immediately to us or, in the case of a proposed or attempted transaction, give at least 15 days prior written notice, and provide us with such other information as we may request in order to determine the effect of such transfer on our status as a REIT. The foregoing restrictions on transfer and ownership will not apply if our board of directors determines that it is no longer in our best interests to attempt to qualify, or to continue to qualify, as a REIT.
Our board of directors, in its sole discretion, may exempt (prospectively or retroactively) a person from the above ownership limits and any of the restrictions described in the first sentence of the paragraph directly above. However, our board of directors will grant an exemption to any person only if it obtains such representations, covenants and undertakings as our board of directors may deem appropriate in order to determine that granting the exemption would not result in our losing our status as a REIT. As a condition
 
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of granting the exemption, our board of directors may require a ruling from the Internal Revenue Service, or the IRS, or an opinion of counsel, in either case in form and substance satisfactory to the board of directors, in its sole discretion, in order to determine or ensure our status as a REIT.
Any transfer that results in our shares of stock being owned by fewer than 100 persons will be void. However, if any transfer of our shares of stock occurs which, if effective, would result in any person beneficially or constructively owning shares of stock in excess or in violation of the above transfer or ownership limitations, known as a prohibited owner, then that number of shares of stock, the beneficial or constructive ownership of which otherwise would cause such person to violate the transfer or ownership limitations (rounded up to the nearest whole share), will be automatically transferred to a charitable trust for the exclusive benefit of a charitable beneficiary, and the prohibited owner will not acquire any rights in such shares. This automatic transfer will be considered effective as of the close of business on the business day before the violative transfer. If the transfer to the charitable trust would not be effective for any reason to prevent the violation of the above transfer or ownership limitations, then the transfer of that number of shares of stock that otherwise would cause any person to violate the above limitations will be void. Shares of stock held in the charitable trust will continue to constitute issued and outstanding shares of our stock. The prohibited owner will not benefit economically from ownership of any shares of stock held in the charitable trust, will have no rights to dividends or other distributions and will not possess any rights to vote or other rights attributable to the shares of stock held in the charitable trust. The trustee of the charitable trust will be appointed by us and must be unaffiliated with us or any prohibited owner and will have all voting rights and rights to dividends or other distributions with respect to shares of stock held in the charitable trust, and these rights will be exercised for the exclusive benefit of the trust’s charitable beneficiary. Any dividend or other distribution paid to a prohibited owner before our discovery that shares of stock have been transferred to the trustee will be paid by the prohibited owner to the trustee upon demand, and any dividend or other distribution authorized but unpaid will be paid when due to the trustee. Any dividend or other distribution so paid to the trustee will be held in trust for the trust’s charitable beneficiary. Subject to Maryland law, effective as of the date that such shares of stock have been transferred to the trustee, the trustee, in its sole discretion, will have the authority to:

rescind as void any vote cast by a prohibited owner prior to our discovery that such shares have been transferred to the trustee; and

recast such vote in accordance with the desires of the trustee acting for the benefit of the trust’s beneficiary.
However, if we have already taken irreversible corporate action, then the trustee will not have the authority to rescind and recast such vote.
Within 20 days of receiving notice from us that shares of stock have been transferred to the charitable trust, and unless we buy the shares first as described below, the trustee will sell the shares of stock held in the charitable trust to a person, designated by the trustee, whose ownership of the shares will not violate the ownership limitations in our charter. Upon the sale, the interest of the charitable beneficiary in the shares sold will terminate and the trustee will distribute the net proceeds of the sale to the prohibited owner and to the charitable beneficiary. The prohibited owner will receive the lesser of:

the price paid by the prohibited owner for the shares or, if the prohibited owner did not give value for the shares in connection with the event causing the shares to be held in the charitable trust (for example, in the case of a gift or devise), the market price of the shares on the day of the event causing the shares to be held in the charitable trust; and

the price per share received by the trustee from the sale or other disposition of the shares held in the charitable trust (less any commission and other expenses of a sale).
The trustee may reduce the amount payable to the prohibited owner by the amount of dividends and distributions paid to the prohibited owner that are owed by the prohibited owner to the trustee. Any net sale proceeds in excess of the amount payable to the prohibited owner will be paid immediately to the charitable beneficiary. If, before our discovery that shares of stock have been transferred to the charitable trust, such shares are sold by a prohibited owner, then:

such shares will be deemed to have been sold on behalf of the charitable trust; and
 
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to the extent that the prohibited owner received an amount for such shares that exceeds the amount that the prohibited owner was entitled to receive as described above, the excess must be paid to the trustee upon demand.
In addition, shares of stock held in the charitable trust will be deemed to have been offered for sale to us, or our designee, at a price per share equal to the lesser of:

the price per share in the transaction that resulted in such transfer to the charitable trust (or, in the case of a gift or devise, the market price at the time of the gift or devise); and

the market price on the date we, or our designee, accepts such offer.
We may reduce the amount payable to the prohibited owner by the amount of dividends and other distributions paid to the prohibited owner that are owed by the prohibited owner to the trustee. We may pay the amount of such reduction to the trustee for the benefit of the charitable beneficiary. We will have the right to accept the offer until the trustee has sold the shares of stock held in the charitable trust. Upon such a sale to us, the interest of the charitable beneficiary in the shares sold will terminate and the trustee will distribute the net proceeds of the sale to the prohibited owner and any dividends or other distributions held by the trustee will be paid to the charitable beneficiary.
All certificates representing shares of our capital stock will bear a legend referring to the restrictions described above.
Every holder of more than 5% (or such lower percentage as required by the Internal Revenue Code or the regulations promulgated thereunder) in value of all classes or series of our capital stock, including shares of common stock, within 30 days after the end of each taxable year, will be required to give written notice to us stating the name and address of such holder, the number of shares of each class and series of shares of our stock that the holder beneficially owns and a description of the manner in which the shares are held. Each holder shall provide to us such additional information as we may request in order to determine the effect, if any, of the holder’s beneficial ownership on our status as a REIT and to ensure compliance with our ownership limitations. In addition, each beneficial or constructive owner of our capital stock (including the stockholder of record) shall upon demand be required to provide to us such information as we may request, in good faith, in order to determine our status as a REIT and to comply with the requirements of any taxing authority or governmental authority or to determine such compliance and ensure compliance with our ownership limits.
Our ownership limitations could delay, defer or prevent a transaction or a change in control of us that might involve a premium price for holders of our common stock or might otherwise be in the best interest of our stockholders.
Transfer Agent and Registrar
The transfer agent and registrar for our shares of common stock is American Stock Transfer & Trust Company, LLC.
 
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DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED STOCK
The following summary description of our preferred stock does not purport to be complete and is subject to and qualified in its entirety by reference to Maryland law and to our charter and our bylaws, copies of which are filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. See “Where You Can Find More Information.”
General
Our charter authorizes our board of directors to issue 200,000,000 shares of preferred stock, $0.01 par value per share, in one or more series and with rights, preferences, privileges and restrictions that our board of directors may fix or designate without any further vote or action by our stockholders. As of August 8, 2018, 3,000,000 shares of our Series B Preferred Stock, 3,600,000 shares of our Series C Preferred Stock and 5,400,000 shares of our 8.00% Series D Fixed-to-Floating Rate Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock (our “Series D Preferred Stock”) were issued and outstanding.
Power to Issue Additional Shares of Preferred Stock
Our charter authorizes our board of directors to reclassify any unissued shares of common stock into preferred stock, to classify any unissued shares of preferred stock and to reclassify any previously classified but unissued shares of any series of preferred stock previously authorized by our board of directors. We believe that the power of our board of directors to take these actions provides us with increased flexibility in structuring possible future financings and acquisitions and in meeting other needs that might arise. Prior to issuance of shares of each class or series of preferred stock, our board of directors is required by Maryland law and our charter to set the preferences, conversion or other rights, voting powers, restrictions, limitations as to dividends or other distributions, qualifications and terms and conditions of redemption for each class or series. The additional classes or series, as well as our common stock, are available for issuance without further action by our stockholders, unless stockholder action is required by applicable law or the rules of any stock exchange or automated quotation system on which our securities may be listed or traded. Although our board of directors has no intention at the present time of doing so, it could authorize us to issue a class or series that could, depending upon the terms of such class or series, delay, defer or prevent a transaction or a change in control of us that might involve a premium price for our preferred stock or otherwise be in the best interest of holders of our preferred stock.
Terms
When we issue preferred stock, it will be fully paid and nonassessable.
Articles supplementary that will become part of our charter will reflect the specific terms of any new class or series of preferred stock offered. A prospectus supplement will describe these specific terms, including:

the title and stated value;

the number of shares, liquidation preference and offering price;

the dividend rate, dividend periods and payment dates;

the date on which dividends begin to accrue or accumulate;

any auction and remarketing procedures;

any retirement or sinking fund requirement;

the price and the terms and conditions of any redemption right;

any listing on any securities exchange;

the price and the terms and conditions of any conversion or exchange right;

any voting rights;

the relative ranking and preferences as to dividends, liquidation, dissolution or winding up;
 
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any limitations on issuing any series of preferred stock ranking senior to or on a parity with the series of preferred stock as to dividends, liquidation, dissolution or winding up;

any limitations or restrictions on direct or beneficial ownership and restrictions on transfer; and

any other specific terms, preferences, rights, limitations or restrictions.
Series B Preferred Stock
Our Series B Preferred Stock generally provides for the following rights, preferences and obligations:

Ranking.   Our Series B Preferred Stock ranks, with respect to rights to the payment of dividends and the distribution of assets upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up:

senior to all classes or series of our common stock and to all other equity securities issued by us other than equity securities referred to immediately below;

on a parity with all equity securities issued by us with terms specifically providing that those equity securities rank on a parity with our Series B Preferred Stock with respect to rights to the payment of dividends and the distribution of assets upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, including our Series C Preferred Stock and our Series D Preferred Stock;

junior to all equity securities issued by us with terms specifically providing that those equity securities rank senior to our Series B Preferred Stock with respect to rights to the payment of dividends and the distribution of assets upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up; and

effectively junior to all of our existing and future indebtedness (including indebtedness convertible into our common stock or preferred stock) and to the indebtedness of our existing and future subsidiaries.

Dividend Rights.   Shares of our Series B Preferred Stock accrue cumulative cash dividends at an annual rate of 7.75% on the $25.00 per share liquidation preference, equivalent to an annual amount of $1.9375 per share per year.

Liquidation Rights.   In the event of our voluntary or involuntary liquidation, dissolution or winding up, the holders of our Series B Preferred Stock will be entitled to be paid out of the assets we have legally available for distribution to our stockholders, subject to the preferential rights of the holders of any class or series of our equity securities ranking senior to our Series B Preferred Stock with respect to the distribution of assets upon liquidation, dissolution or winding up, a liquidation preference of $25.00 per share, plus an amount equal to any accumulated and unpaid dividends (whether or not earned or declared) to, but not including, the date of payment, before any distribution of assets is made to holders of our common stock or any other class or series of our equity securities we may issue that ranks junior to our Series B Preferred Stock as to liquidation rights.

Redemption Provisions.   Shares of our Series B Preferred Stock are not redeemable by us prior to June 4, 2018, except in certain limited circumstances. We may, at our option, upon not less than 30 nor more than 60 days’ written notice, redeem the Series B Preferred Stock, in whole or in part, at any time or from time to time, for cash at a redemption price of $25.00 per share, plus any accumulated and unpaid dividends thereon to, but not including, the date fixed for redemption. Shares of our Series B Preferred Stock have no stated maturity and are not subject to any sinking fund or mandatory redemption provisions.

Voting Rights.   Holders of our Series B Preferred Stock will generally have no voting rights. However, if we do not pay dividends on our Series B Preferred Stock for six or more quarterly dividend periods (whether or not consecutive), the holders of our Series B Preferred Stock, voting together as a single class with the holders of all other classes or series of our preferred stock upon which like voting rights have been conferred and are exercisable and which are entitled to vote as a class with our Series B Preferred Stock in the election referred to below, including our Series C Preferred Stock and our Series D Preferred Stock, will be entitled to vote for the election of two additional directors to serve on our board of directors until we pay, or declare and set apart funds for the payment of, all dividends accumulated on our Series B Preferred Stock for all past dividend periods
 
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and the then current dividend period. In addition, the affirmative vote of the holders of at least two-thirds of the outstanding shares of our Series B Preferred Stock, voting together as a single class with the holders of all other classes of our preferred stock we may issue upon which like voting rights have been conferred and are exercisable, including our Series C Preferred Stock and our Series D Preferred Stock, is required for us (a) to authorize or issue shares of any class or series of stock ranking senior to our Series B Preferred Stock with respect to the payment of dividends or the distribution of assets on liquidation, dissolution or winding up, or (b) to amend any provision of our charter, whether by merger or otherwise, so as to materially and adversely affect any rights of our Series B Preferred Stock or to take certain other actions.

Conversion and Preemptive Rights.   Except in connection with certain changes in control of our company, shares of our Series B Preferred Stock are not convertible or exchangeable for any of our other securities or property, and holders of our Series B Preferred Stock have no preemptive rights to subscribe for any securities of our company.
For additional information regarding our Series B Preferred Stock, see our Registration Statement on Form 8-A filed with the SEC on May 31, 2013. See “Where You Can Obtain More Information.”
Series C Preferred Stock
Our Series C Preferred Stock generally provides for the following rights, preferences and obligations:

Ranking.   Our Series C Preferred Stock ranks, with respect to rights to the payment of dividends and the distribution of assets upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up:

senior to all classes or series of our common stock and to all other equity securities issued by us other than equity securities referred to immediately below;

on a parity with all equity securities issued by us with terms specifically providing that those equity securities rank on a parity with our Series C Preferred Stock with respect to rights to the payment of dividends and the distribution of assets upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, including our Series B Preferred Stock and our Series D Preferred Stock;

junior to all equity securities issued by us with terms specifically providing that those equity securities rank senior to our Series C Preferred Stock with respect to rights to the payment of dividends and the distribution of assets upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up; and

effectively junior to all of our existing and future indebtedness (including indebtedness convertible into our common stock or preferred stock) and to the indebtedness of our existing and future subsidiaries.

Dividend Rights.   Shares of our Series C Preferred Stock accrue cumulative cash dividends at an annual rate of 7.875% on the $25.00 per share liquidation preference, equivalent to an annual amount of $1.96875 per share per year.

Liquidation Rights.   In the event of our voluntary or involuntary liquidation, dissolution or winding up, the holders of our Series C Preferred Stock will be entitled to be paid out of the assets we have legally available for distribution to our stockholders, subject to the preferential rights of the holders of any class or series of our equity securities ranking senior to our Series C Preferred Stock with respect to the distribution of assets upon liquidation, dissolution or winding up, a liquidation preference of $25.00 per share, plus an amount equal to any accumulated and unpaid dividends (whether or not earned or declared) to, but not including, the date of payment, before any distribution of assets is made to holders of our common stock or any other class or series of our equity securities we may issue that ranks junior to our Series C Preferred Stock as to liquidation rights.

Redemption Provisions.   Shares of our Series C Preferred Stock are not redeemable by us prior to April 22, 2020, except in certain limited circumstances. On and after April 22, 2020, we may, at our option, upon not less than 30 nor more than 60 days’ written notice, redeem the Series C Preferred Stock, in whole or in part, at any time or from time to time, for cash at a redemption price of $25.00 per share, plus any accumulated and unpaid dividends thereon to, but not including, the date fixed for redemption. Shares of our Series C Preferred Stock have no stated maturity and are not subject to any sinking fund or mandatory redemption provisions.
 
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Voting Rights.   Holders of our Series C Preferred Stock will generally have no voting rights. However, if we do not pay dividends on our Series C Preferred Stock for six or more quarterly dividend periods (whether or not consecutive), the holders of our Series C Preferred Stock, voting together as a single class with the holders of all other classes or series of our preferred stock upon which like voting rights have been conferred and are exercisable and which are entitled to vote as a class with our Series C Preferred Stock in the election referred to below, including our Series B Preferred Stock and our Series D Preferred Stock, will be entitled to vote for the election of two additional directors to serve on our board of directors until we pay, or declare and set apart funds for the payment of, all dividends accumulated on our Series C Preferred Stock for all past dividend periods and the then current dividend period. In addition, the affirmative vote of the holders of at least two-thirds of the outstanding shares of our Series C Preferred Stock, voting together as a single class with the holders of all other classes of our preferred stock we may issue upon which like voting rights have been conferred and are exercisable, including our Series B Preferred Stock our Series D Preferred Stock, is required for us (a) to authorize or issue shares of any class or series of stock ranking senior to our Series C Preferred Stock with respect to the payment of dividends or the distribution of assets on liquidation, dissolution or winding up, or (b) to amend any provision of our charter, whether by merger or otherwise, so as to materially and adversely affect any rights of our Series C Preferred Stock or to take certain other actions.

Conversion and Preemptive Rights.   Except in connection with certain changes in control of our company, shares of our Series C Preferred Stock are not convertible or exchangeable for any of our other securities or property, and holders of our Series C Preferred Stock have no preemptive rights to subscribe for any securities of our company.
For additional information regarding our Series C Preferred Stock, see our Registration Statement on Form 8-A filed with the SEC on April 21, 2015. See “Where You Can Obtain More Information.”
Series D Preferred Stock
Our Series D Preferred Stock generally provides for the following rights, preferences and obligations:

Ranking.   Our Series D Preferred Stock ranks, with respect to rights to the payment of dividends and the distribution of assets upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up:

senior to all classes or series of our common stock and to all other equity securities issued by us other than equity securities referred to immediately below;

on a parity with all equity securities issued by us with terms specifically providing that those equity securities rank on a parity with our Series D Preferred Stock with respect to rights to the payment of dividends and the distribution of assets upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, including our Series B Preferred Stock and our Series C Preferred Stock;

junior to all equity securities issued by us with terms specifically providing that those equity securities rank senior to our Series D Preferred Stock with respect to rights to the payment of dividends and the distribution of assets upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up; and

effectively junior to all of our existing and future indebtedness (including indebtedness convertible into our common stock or preferred stock) and to the indebtedness of our existing and future subsidiaries.

Dividend Rights.   Shares of our Series D Preferred Stock accrue cumulative cash dividends at (i) a fixed annual rate of 8.00% on the $25.00 per share liquidation preference, equivalent to an annual amount of $2.00 per share per year to, but excluding, October 15, 2027 and (ii) at a floating rate equal to three-month LIBOR as calculated on each dividend determination date plus a spread of 5.695% per annum of the $25.00 per share liquidation preference from and including October 15, 2027.

Liquidation Rights.   In the event of our voluntary or involuntary liquidation, dissolution or winding up, the holders of our Series D Preferred Stock will be entitled to be paid out of the assets we have legally available for distribution to our stockholders, subject to the preferential rights of the holders of any class or series of our equity securities ranking senior to our Series D Preferred Stock with respect to the distribution of assets upon liquidation, dissolution or winding up, a liquidation
 
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preference of $25.00 per share, plus an amount equal to any accumulated and unpaid dividends (whether or not earned or declared) to, but not including, the date of payment, without interest, before any distribution of assets is made to holders of our common stock or any other class or series of our equity securities we may issue that ranks junior to our Series D Preferred Stock as to liquidation rights.

Redemption Provisions.   Shares of our Series D Preferred Stock are not redeemable by us prior to October 15, 2027, except in certain limited circumstances. On and after October 15, 2027, we may, at our option, upon not less than 30 nor more than 60 days’ written notice, redeem the Series D Preferred Stock, in whole or in part, at any time or from time to time, for cash at a redemption price of $25.00 per share, plus any accumulated and unpaid dividends thereon to, but not including, the date fixed for redemption. Shares of our Series D Preferred Stock have no stated maturity and are not subject to any sinking fund or mandatory redemption provisions.

Voting Rights.   Holders of our Series D Preferred Stock will generally have no voting rights. However, if we do not pay dividends on our Series D Preferred Stock for six or more quarterly dividend periods (whether or not consecutive), the holders of our Series D Preferred Stock, voting together as a single class with the holders of all other classes or series of our preferred stock upon which like voting rights have been conferred and are exercisable and which are entitled to vote as a class with our Series D Preferred Stock in the election referred to below, including our Series B Preferred Stock and our Series C Preferred Stock, will be entitled to vote for the election of two additional directors to serve on our board of directors until we pay, or declare and set apart funds for the payment of, all dividends accumulated on our Series D Preferred Stock for all past dividend periods and the then current dividend period. In addition, the affirmative vote of the holders of at least two-thirds of the outstanding shares of our Series D Preferred Stock, voting together as a single class with the holders of all other classes of our preferred stock we may issue upon which like voting rights have been conferred and are exercisable, including our Series B Preferred Stock and our Series C Preferred Stock, is required for us (a) to authorize or issue shares of any class or series of stock ranking senior to our Series D Preferred Stock with respect to the payment of dividends or the distribution of assets on liquidation, dissolution or winding up, or (b) to amend any provision of our charter, whether by merger or otherwise, so as to materially and adversely affect any rights of our Series D Preferred Stock or to take certain other actions.

Conversion and Preemptive Rights.   Except in connection with certain changes in control of our company, shares of our Series D Preferred Stock are not convertible or exchangeable for any of our other securities or property, and holders of our Series D Preferred Stock have no preemptive rights to subscribe for any securities of our company.
For additional information regarding our Series D Preferred Stock, see our Registration Statement on Form 8-A filed with the SEC on October 10, 2017. See “Where You Can Obtain More Information.”
Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer; Change of Control Provisions
As discussed above under “Description of Common Stock — Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer,” our charter contains restrictions on ownership and transfers of our capital stock. In addition, the articles supplementary designating the terms of a series of our preferred stock may also contain additional provisions restricting the ownership and transfer of such series. The applicable prospectus supplement will specify any additional ownership limitation relating to a series of preferred stock.
For a discussion of provisions in our charter that may have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a change of control, see “Certain Provisions of Maryland Law and Our Charter and Bylaws.”
Transfer Agent
The transfer agent and registrar for each series of our preferred stock will be American Stock Transfer & Trust Company, LLC unless a different transfer agent is named in the applicable prospectus supplement. The transfer agent and registrar for our Series B Preferred Stock, Series C Preferred Stock and Series D Preferred Stock is American Stock Transfer & Trust Company, LLC.
 
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DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES
General
The debt securities offered by this prospectus will be our direct unsecured general obligations. This prospectus describes certain general terms of the debt securities offered through this prospectus. In the following discussion, we refer to any of our direct unsecured general obligations as the “Debt Securities.” When we offer to sell a particular series of Debt Securities, we will describe the specific terms of that series in a prospectus supplement or any free writing prospectus. We will issue senior Debt Securities under the indenture, dated January 23, 2017, between us and U.S. Bank National Association, as trustee (the “Debt Securities Indenture”), which is incorporated by reference into the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part and is filed as an exhibit to the registration statement. We refer to the trustee under any Debt Securities Indenture as the “Debt Securities Trustee.”
The prospectus supplement or any free writing prospectus applicable to a particular series of Debt Securities may state that a particular series of Debt Securities will be our subordinated obligations. Unless the applicable prospectus supplement or any free writing prospectus provides otherwise, Debt Securities that will be our subordinated obligations will be issued under a separate Debt Securities Indenture in the form of an open-ended Indenture (for [Subordinated] Debt Securities) between us and a trustee to be selected by us at or about the time we offer our Debt Securities (the “Subordinated Debt Securities Indenture”). The form of Subordinated Debt Securities Indenture is incorporated by reference into the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part and is filed as an exhibit to the registration statement. In the following discussion, we refer to any of our subordinated obligations as the “Subordinated Debt Securities.” Our Debt Securities Indenture is, and any supplement thereto will be, qualified under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, or the Trust Indenture Act, and any Subordinated Debt Securities Indenture that we enter into with respect to Subordinated Debt Securities will be qualified under the Trust Indenture Act. You should refer to the Trust Indenture Act for the provisions that apply to the Debt Securities.
We have summarized selected provisions of the Debt Securities Indenture below. Each Debt Securities Indenture will be independent of any other Debt Securities Indenture unless otherwise stated in a prospectus supplement or any free writing prospectus. The Subordinated Debt Securities Indenture will be substantially identical to the Debt Securities Indenture, except for provisions relating to Subordination. The summary that follows is not complete and the summary is qualified in its entirety by reference to the provisions of the applicable Debt Securities Indenture. You should consult the applicable Debt Securities, Debt Securities Indenture, any supplemental indentures, officers’ certificates and other related documents for more complete information on the Debt Securities. These documents appear as exhibits to, or are incorporated by reference into, the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will appear as exhibits to other documents that we will file with the SEC, which will be incorporated by reference into this prospectus. In the summary below, we have included references to applicable section numbers of the Debt Securities Indenture so that you can easily locate these provisions.
Ranking
Our Debt Securities that are not designated Subordinated Debt Securities will be effectively subordinated to all secured indebtedness that we have outstanding from time to time to the extent of the value of the collateral securing such secured indebtedness and will be structurally subordinated to the indebtedness and other liabilities of our subsidiaries. Our Debt Securities that are designated Subordinated Debt Securities will be subordinate to all outstanding secured indebtedness as well as Debt Securities that are not designated Subordinated Debt Securities. We incur indebtedness from time to time to finance many of our assets pursuant to repurchase agreements and certain other structured finance instruments, such as the trust preferred securities issued by our subsidiary, Hypotheca Capital, LLC, or Hypotheca, pursuant to which we guarantee the payment of notes by Hypotheca that back the trust preferred securities issued by it. This indebtedness is deemed to be secured indebtedness. As a result, we have a significant amount of secured indebtedness at any given time in relation to our total assets. The Debt Securities Indenture does not limit the amount of secured indebtedness that we may issue or incur.
Our ability to meet our financial obligations with respect to any future Debt Securities, and cash needs generally, is dependent on our operating cash flow, our ability to access various sources of short- and
 
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long-term liquidity, including repurchase agreements, financing and the capital markets. Holders of our Debt Securities will effectively have a junior position to claims of our creditors, including trade creditors, debt holders, secured creditors, taxing authorities and guarantee holders.
Provisions of a Particular Series
The Debt Securities may from time to time be issued in one or more series. You should consult the prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus relating to any particular series of Debt Securities for the following information:

the title of the Debt Securities;

any limit on the aggregate principal amount of the Debt Securities of the series of which they are a part;

the date(s), or method for determining the date(s), on which the principal of the Debt Securities will be payable;

the rate, including the method of determination, if applicable, at which the Debt Securities will bear interest, if any, and:

the date from which the interest will accrue;

the dates on which we will pay interest;

to whom the interest is payable, if other than the registered holder;

our ability, if any, to defer interest payments and any related restrictions during any interest deferral period; and

the record date for any interest payable on any interest payment date;

the place where:

the principal of, premium, if any, and interest on the Debt Securities will be payable;

you may register the transfer of the Debt Securities;

you may exchange the Debt Securities; and

you may serve notices and demands upon us regarding the Debt Securities;

the security registrar for the Debt Securities and whether the principal of the Debt Securities is payable without presentment or surrender of them;

the terms and conditions upon which we may elect to redeem any Debt Securities, including any replacement capital or similar covenants limiting our ability to redeem any Subordinated Debt Securities;

the denominations in which we may issue Debt Securities, if other than $1,000 and integral multiples of $1,000;

the terms and conditions upon which the Debt Securities must be redeemed or purchased due to our obligations pursuant to any sinking fund or other mandatory redemption or tender provisions, or at the holder’s option, including any applicable exceptions to notice requirements;

the currency, if other than U.S. currency, in which payments on the Debt Securities will be payable;

the terms according to which elections can be made by us or the holder regarding payments on the Debt Securities in currency other than the currency in which the Debt Securities are stated to be payable;

if any Debt Securities are denominated in a currency other than U.S. dollars or in a composite currency, the obligations or instruments that will be considered eligible obligations with respect to such Debt Securities and any additional provisions for the reimbursement of our company’s indebtedness with respect to such Debt Securities after the satisfaction or discharge thereof;
 
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if payments are to be made on the Debt Securities in securities or other property, the type and amount of the securities and other property or the method by which the amount shall be determined;

the manner in which we will determine any amounts payable on the Debt Securities that are to be determined with reference to an index or other fact or event ascertainable outside of the applicable indenture;

if other than the entire principal amount, the portion of the principal amount of the Debt Securities payable upon declaration of acceleration of their maturity;

any addition to the events of default applicable to any Debt Securities and any addition to our covenants for the benefit of the holders of the Debt Securities;

the terms applicable to any rights to convert Debt Securities into or exchange them for other of our securities or those of any other entity;

whether we are issuing Debt Securities as global securities, and if so:

the terms and conditions upon which the global securities may be exchanged for certificated Debt Securities;

the depositary for the global securities; and

the form of legend to be set forth on the global securities;

whether we are issuing the Debt Securities as bearer certificates;

any limitations on transfer or exchange of Debt Securities or the right to obtain registration of their transfer, and the terms and amount of any service charge required for registration of transfer or exchange;

any exceptions to the provisions governing payments due on legal holidays, or any variations in the definition of business day with respect to the Debt Securities;

any collateral security, assurance, guarantee or other credit enhancement applicable to the Debt Securities;

any other terms of the Debt Securities not in conflict with the provisions of the applicable Debt Securities Indenture; and

the material federal income tax consequences applicable to the Debt Securities.
For more information, see Section 3.01 of the applicable Debt Securities Indenture.
Debt Securities may be sold at a substantial discount below their principal amount. You should consult the applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus for a description of certain material federal income tax considerations that may apply to Debt Securities sold at an original issue discount or denominated in a currency other than U.S. dollars.
Unless the applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus states otherwise, the covenants contained in the applicable indenture will not afford holders of Debt Securities protection in the event we have a change in control or are involved in a highly-leveraged transaction.
Subordination
The applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus may provide that a series of Debt Securities will be Subordinated Debt Securities, subordinate and junior in right of payment to all of our Senior Indebtedness, as defined below. If so, we will issue these securities under a separate Debt Securities Indenture for Subordinated Debt Securities. For more information, see Article XV of the form of Debt Securities Indenture.
Unless the applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus states otherwise, in the event:

there occur certain acts of bankruptcy, insolvency, liquidation, dissolution or other winding up of our company;
 
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any Senior Indebtedness is not paid when due;

any applicable grace period with respect to other defaults with respect to any Senior Indebtedness has ended, the default has not been cured or waived and the maturity of such Senior Indebtedness has been accelerated because of the default; or

the maturity of the Subordinated Debt Securities of any series has been accelerated because of a default and Senior Indebtedness is then outstanding;
then no payment of principal of, including redemption and sinking fund payments, or any premium or interest on, the Subordinated Debt Securities may be made until all amounts due to holders of Senior Indebtedness have been paid in full.
Upon any distribution of our assets to creditors upon any dissolution, winding up, liquidation or reorganization, whether voluntary or involuntary or in bankruptcy, insolvency, receivership or other proceedings, all principal of, and any premium and interest due or to become due on, all outstanding Senior Indebtedness must be paid in full before the holders of the Subordinated Debt Securities are entitled to payment. For more information, see Section 15.02 of the applicable Debt Securities Indenture. The rights of the holders of the Subordinated Debt Securities will be subrogated to the rights of the holders of Senior Indebtedness to receive payments or distributions applicable to Senior Indebtedness until all amounts owing on the Subordinated Debt Securities are paid in full. For more information, see Section 15.04 of the applicable Debt Securities Indenture.
Unless the applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus states otherwise, the term “Senior Indebtedness” means all:

obligations (other than non-recourse obligations and the indebtedness issued under the applicable Subordinated Debt Securities Indenture) of, or guaranteed or assumed by, us:

for borrowed money (including both senior and subordinated indebtedness for borrowed money, but excluding the Subordinated Debt Securities); or

for the payment of money relating to any lease that is capitalized on our consolidated balance sheet in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles;

indebtedness evidenced by bonds, debentures, notes or other similar instruments;

obligations with respect to letters of credit, bankers’ acceptances or similar facilities issued for our account;

obligations issued or assumed as the deferred purchase price of property or services (excluding trade accounts payable or accrued liabilities arising in the ordinary course);

obligations for claims, as defined in section 101(5) of the United States Bankruptcy Code of 1978, as amended, in respect of derivative products such as interest and foreign exchange rate contracts, commodity contracts and similar arrangements; and

obligations of another person for which we have guaranteed or assumed direct or indirect responsibility or liability.
In the case of any such indebtedness or obligations, Senior Indebtedness includes amendments, renewals, extensions, modifications and refundings, whether existing as of the date of the Subordinated Debt Securities Indenture or subsequently incurred by us.
The Subordinated Debt Securities Indenture does not limit the aggregate amount of Senior Indebtedness we may issue.
Form, Exchange and Transfer
Unless the applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus states otherwise, we will issue Debt Securities only in fully registered form without coupons and in denominations of $1,000 and integral multiples of that amount. For more information, see Sections 2.01 and 3.02 of the applicable Debt Securities Indenture.
 
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Holders may present Debt Securities for exchange or for registration of transfer, duly endorsed or accompanied by a duly executed instrument of transfer, at the office of the security registrar or at the office of any transfer agent we may designate. Exchanges and transfers are subject to the terms of the applicable indenture and applicable limitations for global securities. We may designate ourselves the security registrar.
No charge will be made for any registration of transfer or exchange of Debt Securities, but we may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge that the holder must pay in connection with the transaction. Any transfer or exchange will become effective upon the security registrar or transfer agent, as the case may be, being satisfied with the documents of title and identity of the person making the request. For more information, see Section 3.05 of the applicable Debt Securities Indenture.
The applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus will state the name of any transfer agent, in addition to the security registrar initially designated by us, for any Debt Securities. We may at any time designate additional transfer agents or withdraw the designation of any transfer agent or make a change in the office through which any transfer agent acts. We must, however, maintain a transfer agent in each place of payment for the Debt Securities of each series. For more information, see Section 6.02 of the applicable Debt Securities Indenture.
We will not be required to issue, register the transfer of, or exchange any:

Debt Securities or any tranche of any Debt Securities during a period beginning at the opening of business 15 days before the day of mailing of a notice of redemption of any Debt Securities called for redemption and ending at the close of business on the day of mailing; or

Debt Securities selected for redemption except the unredeemed portion of any Debt Securities being partially redeemed.
For more information, see Section 3.05 of the applicable Debt Securities Indenture.
Payment and Paying Agents
Unless the applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus states otherwise, we will pay interest on a Debt Security on any interest payment date to the person in whose name the Debt Security is registered at the close of business on the regular record date for the interest payment. For more information, see Section 3.07 of the applicable Debt Securities Indenture.
Unless the applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus provides otherwise, we will pay principal and any premium and interest on Debt Securities at the office of the paying agent whom we will designate for this purpose. Unless the applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus states otherwise, the corporate trust office of the Debt Securities Trustee in New York City will be designated as our sole paying agent for payments with respect to Debt Securities of each series. Any other paying agents initially designated by us for the Debt Securities of a particular series will be named in the applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus. We may at any time add or delete paying agents or change the office through which any paying agent acts. We must, however, maintain a paying agent in each place of payment for the Debt Securities of a particular series. For more information, see Section 6.02 of the applicable Debt Securities Indenture.
All money we pay to a paying agent for the payment of the principal and any premium or interest on any Debt Security that remains unclaimed at the end of two years after payment is due will be repaid to us. After that date, the holder of that Debt Security shall be deemed an unsecured general creditor and may look only to us for these payments. For more information, see Section 6.03 of the applicable Debt Securities Indenture.
Redemption
You should consult the applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus for any terms regarding optional or mandatory redemption of Debt Securities. Except for any provisions in the applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus regarding Debt Securities redeemable at the holder’s option, Debt Securities may be redeemed only upon notice by mail not less than 30 nor more than 60 days
 
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prior to the redemption date. Further, if less than all of the Debt Securities of a series, or any tranche of a series, are to be redeemed, the Debt Securities to be redeemed will be selected by the Debt Securities Trustee by the method provided for the particular series. In the absence of a selection provision, the Debt Securities Trustee will select a fair and appropriate method of selection. For more information, see Sections 4.02, 4.03 and 4.04 of the applicable Debt Securities Indenture.
A notice of redemption we provide may state:

that redemption is conditioned upon receipt by the paying agent on or before the redemption date of money sufficient to pay the principal of and any premium and interest on the Debt Securities; and

that if the money has not been received, the notice will be ineffective and we will not be required to redeem the Debt Securities.
For more information, see Section 4.04 of the applicable Debt Securities Indenture.
Consolidation, Merger and Sale of Assets
We may not consolidate with or merge into any other corporation, nor may we transfer or lease substantially all of our assets and property to any other person, unless:

the corporation formed by the consolidation or into which we are merged, or the person that acquires by conveyance or transfer, or that leases, substantially all of our property and assets:

is organized and validly existing under the laws of any domestic jurisdiction; and

expressly assumes by supplemental indenture our obligations on the Debt Securities and under the applicable indentures;

immediately after giving effect to the transaction, no event of default, and no event that (after notice or lapse of time or both) would become an event of default, has occurred and is continuing; and

we have delivered to the Debt Securities Trustee an officer’s certificate and opinion of counsel as provided in the applicable indentures.
For more information, see Section 11.01 of the applicable Debt Securities Indenture.
Events of Default
Unless the applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus states otherwise, “event of default” under the applicable indenture with respect to Debt Securities of any series means any of the following:

failure to pay any interest due on any Debt Security of that series within 30 days after it becomes due;

failure to pay principal or premium, if any, when due on any Debt Security of that series;

failure to make any required sinking fund payment when due on any Debt Securities of that series;

breach of or failure to perform any other covenant or warranty in the applicable indenture with respect to Debt Securities of that series for 60 days (subject to extension under certain circumstances for another 120 days) after we receive notice from the Debt Securities Trustee, or we and the Debt Securities Trustee receive notice from the holders of at least 33% in principal amount of the Debt Securities of that series outstanding under the applicable indenture according to the provisions of the applicable indenture;

certain events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization; and

any other event of default set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus.
For more information, see Section 8.01 of the applicable Debt Securities Indenture.
An event of default with respect to a particular series of Debt Securities does not necessarily constitute an event of default with respect to the Debt Securities of any other series issued under the applicable indenture.
 
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If an event of default with respect to a particular series of Debt Securities occurs and is continuing, either the Debt Securities Trustee or the holders of at least 33% in principal amount of the outstanding Debt Securities of that series may declare the principal amount of all of the Debt Securities of that series to be due and payable immediately. If the Debt Securities of that series are discount Debt Securities or similar Debt Securities, only the portion of the principal amount as specified in the applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus may be immediately due and payable. If an event of default occurs and is continuing with respect to all series of Debt Securities issued under a Debt Securities Indenture, including all events of default relating to bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization, the Debt Securities Trustee or the holders of at least 33% in principal amount of the outstanding Debt Securities of all series issued under that Debt Securities Indenture, considered together, may declare an acceleration of the principal amount of all series of Debt Securities issued under that Debt Securities Indenture. There is no automatic acceleration, even in the event of our bankruptcy or insolvency.
The applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus may provide, with respect to a series of Debt Securities to which a credit enhancement is applicable, that the provider of the credit enhancement may, if a default has occurred and is continuing with respect to the series, have all or any part of the rights with respect to remedies that would otherwise have been exercisable by the holder of that series.
At any time after a declaration of acceleration with respect to the Debt Securities of a particular series, and before a judgment or decree for payment of the money due has been obtained, the event of default giving rise to the declaration of acceleration will, without further action, be deemed to have been waived, and the declaration and its consequences will be deemed to have been rescinded and annulled, if:

we have paid or deposited with the Debt Securities Trustee a sum sufficient to pay:

all overdue interest on all Debt Securities of the particular series;

the principal of and any premium on any Debt Securities of that series that have become due otherwise than by the declaration of acceleration and any interest at the rate prescribed in the Debt Securities;

interest upon overdue interest at the rate prescribed in the Debt Securities, to the extent payment is lawful; and

all amounts due to the Debt Securities Trustee under the applicable Debt Securities Indenture; and

any other event of default with respect to the Debt Securities of the particular series, other than the failure to pay the principal of the Debt Securities of that series that has become due solely by the declaration of acceleration, has been cured or waived as provided in the applicable indenture.
For more information, see Section 8.02 of the applicable Debt Securities Indenture.
The applicable Debt Securities Indenture includes provisions as to the duties of the Debt Securities Trustee in case an event of default occurs and is continuing. Consistent with these provisions, the Debt Securities Trustee will be under no obligation to exercise any of its rights or powers at the request or direction of any of the holders unless those holders have offered to the Debt Securities Trustee reasonable security or indemnity against the costs, expenses and liabilities that may be incurred by it in compliance with such request or direction. For more information, see Section 9.03 of the applicable Debt Securities Indenture. Subject to these provisions for indemnification, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Debt Securities of any series may direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Debt Securities Trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred on the Debt Securities Trustee, with respect to the Debt Securities of that series. For more information, see Section 8.12 of the applicable Debt Securities Indenture.
No holder of Debt Securities may institute any proceeding regarding the applicable indenture, or for the appointment of a receiver or a trustee, or for any other remedy under the applicable indenture unless:

the holder has previously given to the Debt Securities Trustee written notice of a continuing event of default of that particular series;
 
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the holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Debt Securities of all series with respect to which an event of default has occurred and is continuing have made a written request to the Debt Securities Trustee, and have offered reasonable indemnity to the Debt Securities Trustee, to institute the proceeding as trustee; and

the Debt Securities Trustee has failed to institute the proceeding, and has not received from the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Debt Securities of that series a direction inconsistent with the request, within 60 days after notice, request and offer of reasonable indemnity.
For more information, see Section 8.07 of the applicable Debt Securities Indenture.
The preceding limitations do not apply, however, to a suit instituted by a holder of a Debt Security for the enforcement of payment of the principal of or any premium or interest on the Debt Securities on or after the applicable due date stated in the Debt Securities. For more information, see Section 8.08 of the applicable Debt Securities Indenture.
We must furnish annually to the Debt Securities Trustee a statement by an appropriate officer as to that officer’s knowledge of our compliance with all conditions and covenants under each of the indentures for Debt Securities. Our compliance is to be determined without regard to any grace period or notice requirement under the respective indenture. For more information, see Sections 6.05 and 6.06 of the applicable Debt Securities Indenture.
Modification and Waiver
We and the Debt Securities Trustee, without the consent of the holders of the Debt Securities, may enter into one or more supplemental indentures for any of the following purposes:

to evidence the assumption by any permitted successor of our covenants in the applicable indenture and the Debt Securities;

to add one or more covenants or other provisions for the benefit of the holders of outstanding Debt Securities or to surrender any right or power conferred upon us by the applicable indenture;

to add any additional events of default;

to change or eliminate any provision of the applicable indenture or add any new provision to it, but if this action would adversely affect the interests of the holders of any particular series of Debt Securities in any material respect, the action will not become effective with respect to that series while any Debt Securities of that series remain outstanding under the applicable indenture;

to provide collateral security for the Debt Securities;

to establish the form or terms of Debt Securities according to the provisions of the applicable indenture;

to provide for the authentication and delivery of bearer securities (and coupons representing any interest thereon) and for procedures for the registration, exchange and replacement of such bearer securities and for the giving of notice to, and the solicitation of the vote or consent of, the holders of such bearer securities, and for all related incidental matters;

to evidence the acceptance of appointment of a successor Debt Securities Trustee under the applicable indenture with respect to one or more series of the Debt Securities and to add to or change any of the provisions of the applicable indenture as necessary to provide for trust administration under the applicable indenture by more than one trustee;

to provide for the procedures required to permit the use of a non-certificated system of registration for any series of Debt Securities;

to change any place where:

the principal of and any premium and interest on any Debt Securities are payable;

any Debt Securities may be surrendered for registration of transfer or exchange; or
 
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notices and demands to or upon us regarding Debt Securities and the applicable indentures may be served; or

to cure any ambiguity or inconsistency, but only by means of changes or additions that will not adversely affect the interests of the holders of Debt Securities of any series in any material respect.
For more information, see Section 12.01 of the applicable Debt Securities Indenture.
The holders of at least a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding Debt Securities of any series may waive:

compliance by us with certain provisions of the applicable indenture (see Section 6.06 of the applicable Debt Securities Indenture); and

any past default under the applicable indenture, except a default in the payment of principal, premium or interest and certain covenants and provisions of the applicable indenture that cannot be modified or amended without consent of the holder of each outstanding Debt Security of the series affected (see Section 8.13 of the applicable Debt Securities Indenture).
The Trust Indenture Act of 1939 may be amended after the date of the applicable indenture to require changes to the indenture. In this event, the indenture will be deemed to have been amended so as to effect the changes, and we and the Debt Securities Trustee may, without the consent of any holders, enter into one or more supplemental indentures to evidence or effect the amendment. For more information, see Section 12.01 of the applicable Debt Securities Indenture.
Except as provided in this section, the consent of the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding Debt Securities of all series issued pursuant to a Debt Securities Indenture, considered as one class, is required to change in any manner the applicable indenture pursuant to one or more supplemental indentures. If there are Debt Securities of more than one series outstanding under a Debt Securities Indenture and less than all of such series are directly affected by a proposed supplemental indenture, however, only the consent of the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding Debt Securities of all series directly affected, considered as one class, will be required. Furthermore, if the Debt Securities of any series have been issued in more than one tranche and if the proposed supplemental indenture directly affects the rights of the holders of one or more, but not all, tranches, only the consent of the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding Debt Securities of all tranches directly affected, considered as one class, will be required. In addition, an amendment or modification:

may not, without the consent of the holder of each outstanding Debt Security affected:

change the maturity of the principal of, or any installment of principal of or interest on, any Debt Securities;

reduce the principal amount or the rate of interest, or the amount of any installment of interest, or change the method of calculating the rate of interest;

reduce any premium payable upon the redemption of the Debt Securities;

reduce the amount of the principal of any Debt Security originally issued at a discount from the stated principal amount that would be due and payable upon a declaration of acceleration of maturity;

change the currency or other property in which a Debt Security or premium or interest on a Debt Security is payable; or

impair the right to institute suit for the enforcement of any payment on or after the stated maturity, or in the case of redemption, on or after the redemption date, of any Debt Securities;

may not reduce the percentage of principal amount requirement for consent of the holders for any supplemental indenture, or for any waiver of compliance with any provision of or any default under the applicable indenture, or reduce the requirements for quorum or voting, without the consent of the holder of each outstanding Debt Security of each series or tranche affected; and
 
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may not modify provisions of the applicable indenture relating to supplemental indentures, waivers of certain covenants and waivers of past defaults with respect to the Debt Securities of any series, or any tranche of a series, without the consent of the holder of each outstanding Debt Security affected.
A supplemental indenture will be deemed not to affect the rights under the applicable indenture of the holders of any series or tranche of the Debt Securities if the supplemental indenture:

changes or eliminates any covenant or other provision of the applicable indenture expressly included solely for the benefit of one or more other particular series of Debt Securities or tranches thereof; or

modifies the rights of the holders of Debt Securities of any other series or tranches with respect to any covenant or other provision.
For more information, see Section 12.02 of the applicable Debt Securities Indenture.
If we solicit from holders of the Debt Securities any type of action, we may at our option by board resolution fix in advance a record date for the determination of the holders entitled to vote on the action. We shall have no obligation, however, to do so. If we fix a record date, the action may be taken before or after the record date, but only the holders of record at the close of business on the record date shall be deemed to be holders for the purposes of determining whether holders of the requisite proportion of the outstanding Debt Securities have authorized the action. For that purpose, the outstanding Debt Securities shall be computed as of the record date. Any holder action shall bind every future holder of the same security and the holder of every security issued upon the registration of transfer of or in exchange for or in lieu of the security in respect of anything done or permitted by the Debt Securities Trustee or us in reliance on that action, whether or not notation of the action is made upon the security. For more information, see Section 1.04 of the applicable Debt Securities Indenture.
Defeasance
Unless the applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus provides otherwise, any Debt Security, or portion of the principal amount of a Debt Security, will be deemed to have been paid for purposes of the applicable indenture, and, at our election, our entire indebtedness in respect of the Debt Security, or portion thereof, will be deemed to have been satisfied and discharged, if we have irrevocably deposited with the Debt Securities Trustee or any paying agent other than us, in trust money, certain eligible obligations, as defined in the applicable indenture, or a combination of the two, sufficient to pay principal of and any premium and interest due and to become due on the Debt Security or portion thereof, and other required documentation. Included among the documentation we are required to deliver to be deemed to have our indebtedness deemed satisfied and discharged with respect to a Debt Security pursuant to the preceding sentence is an opinion of counsel to the effect that, as a result of a change in law occurring after the date of the applicable Debt Security Indenture, the holders of such Debt Security, or portions thereof, will not recognize income, gain or loss for U.S. federal income tax purposes as a result of the satisfaction and discharge of our indebtedness in respect thereof and will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on the same amounts, at the same times and in the same manner as if such satisfaction and discharge had not been effected. For more information, see Section 7.01 of the applicable Debt Securities Indenture. For this purpose, unless the applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus provides otherwise, eligible obligations include direct obligations of, or obligations unconditionally guaranteed by, the U.S., entitled to the benefit of full faith and credit of the U.S., and certificates, depositary receipts or other instruments that evidence a direct ownership interest in those obligations or in any specific interest or principal payments due in respect of those obligations.
Resignation, Removal of Debt Securities Trustee; Appointment of Successor
The Debt Securities Trustee may resign at any time by giving written notice to us or may be removed at any time by an action of the holders of a majority in principal amount of outstanding Debt Securities delivered to the Debt Securities Trustee and us. No resignation or removal of the Debt Securities Trustee and no appointment of a successor trustee will become effective until a successor trustee accepts appointment
 
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in accordance with the requirements of the applicable indenture. So long as no event of default or event that would become an event of default (after notice or lapse of time or both) has occurred and is continuing, and except with respect to a Debt Securities Trustee appointed by an action of the holders, if we have delivered to the Debt Securities Trustee a resolution of our board of directors appointing a successor trustee and the successor trustee has accepted the appointment in accordance with the terms of the applicable indenture, the Debt Securities Trustee will be deemed to have resigned and the successor trustee will be deemed to have been appointed as trustee in accordance with the applicable indenture. For more information, see Section 9.10 of the applicable Debt Securities Indenture.
Notices
We will give notices to holders of Debt Securities by mail to their addresses as they appear in the Debt Security Register. For more information, see Section 1.06 of the applicable Debt Securities Indenture.
Title
The Debt Securities Trustee and its agents, and we and our agents, may treat the person in whose name a Debt Security is registered as the absolute owner of that Debt Security, whether or not that Debt Security may be overdue, for the purpose of making payment and for all other purposes. For more information, see Section 3.08 of the applicable Debt Securities Indenture.
Governing Law
The Debt Securities Indentures and the Debt Securities, including any Subordinated Debt Securities Indentures and Subordinated Debt Securities, will be governed by, and construed in accordance with, the law of the State of New York. For more information, see Section 1.12 of the applicable Debt Securities Indenture.
 
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GLOBAL SECURITIES
We may issue some or all of our securities of any series as global securities. We will register each global security in the name of a depositary identified in the applicable prospectus supplement. The global securities will be deposited with a depositary or nominee or custodian for the depositary and will bear a legend regarding restrictions on exchanges and registration of transfer as discussed below and any other matters to be provided pursuant to the indenture.
As long as the depositary or its nominee is the registered holder of a global security, that person will be considered the sole owner and holder of the global security and the securities represented by it for all purposes under the securities and the indenture. Except in limited circumstances, owners of a beneficial interest in a global security:

will not be entitled to have the global security or any securities represented by it registered in their names;

will not receive or be entitled to receive physical delivery of certificated securities in exchange for the global security; and

will not be considered to be the owners or holders of the global security or any securities represented by it for any purposes under the securities or the indenture.
We will make all payments of principal and any premium and interest on a global security to the depositary or its nominee as the holder of the global security. The laws of some jurisdictions require that certain purchasers of securities take physical delivery of securities in definitive form. These laws may impair the ability to transfer beneficial interests in a global security.
Ownership of beneficial interests in a global security will be limited to institutions having accounts with the depositary or its nominee, called “participants” for purposes of this discussion, and to persons that hold beneficial interests through participants. When a global security is issued, the depositary will credit on its book-entry, registration and transfer system the principal amounts of securities represented by the global security to the accounts of its participants. Ownership of beneficial interests in a global security will be shown only on, and the transfer of those ownership interests will be effected only through, records maintained by:

the depositary, with respect to participants’ interests; or

any participant, with respect to interests of persons held by the participants on their behalf.
Payments by participants to owners of beneficial interests held through the participants will be the responsibility of the participants. The depositary may from time to time adopt various policies and procedures governing payments, transfers, exchanges and other matters relating to beneficial interests in a global security. None of the following will have any responsibility or liability for any aspect of the depositary’s or any participant’s records relating to, or for payments made on account of, beneficial interests in a global security, or for maintaining, supervising or reviewing any records relating to those beneficial interests:

us or our affiliates;

the trustee under any indenture; or

any agent of any of the above.
 
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CERTAIN PROVISIONS OF MARYLAND LAW AND OUR CHARTER AND BYLAWS
The following description of certain provisions of Maryland law and our charter and bylaws is only a summary. For a complete description, we refer you to the applicable Maryland law, our charter and our bylaws. Our charter and bylaws are filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. See “Where You Can Find More Information.”
Number of Directors; Vacancies
Our charter and bylaws provide that the number of our directors may only be increased or decreased by a vote of a majority of the members of our entire board of directors. Our board of directors is currently comprised of six directors. Our charter provides that any vacancy, including a vacancy created by an increase in the number of directors, may be filled only by a majority of the remaining directors, even if the remaining directors do not constitute a quorum.
Removal of Directors
Subject to the rights of holders of our preferred stock to elect or remove directors, our charter provides that a director may be removed at any time upon the affirmative vote of at least two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast generally in the election of directors. Absent removal of all of our directors, this provision, when coupled with the provision in our charter authorizing our board of directors to fill vacant directorships, may preclude stockholders from removing incumbent directors and filling the vacancies created by such removal with their own nominees.
Amendment to the Charter
Generally, our charter may be amended only by the affirmative vote of the holders a majority of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter. However, provisions in our charter related to (1) removal of directors, (2) the power of our board of directors to classify and cause us to issue additional shares of common and preferred stock, (3) except as set forth in the sentence immediately below, the restrictions on transfer and ownership and (4) the provisions setting forth the vote requirement to amend the sections discussed in clauses (1), (2) and (3), may only be amended by the affirmative vote of the holders of two-thirds of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter. In addition, our board of directors may from time to time increase or decrease the common stock ownership limit and the aggregate stock ownership limit without stockholder approval.
Dissolution
Our dissolution must be approved by the affirmative vote of the holders of not less than a majority of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter.
Business Combinations
Maryland law prohibits “business combinations” between us and an interested stockholder or an affiliate of an interested stockholder for five years after the most recent date on which the interested stockholder becomes an interested stockholder. These business combinations include a merger, consolidation, share exchange, or, in circumstances specified under Maryland law, an asset transfer or issuance or reclassification of equity securities. Maryland law defines an interested stockholder as:

any person or entity who beneficially owns, directly or indirectly, 10% or more of the voting power of our stock; or

an affiliate or associate of ours who, at any time within the two year period prior to the date in question, was the beneficial owner, directly or indirectly, of 10% or more of the voting power of our then outstanding voting stock.
A person is not an interested stockholder if our board of directors approves in advance the transaction by which the person otherwise would have become an interested stockholder. However, in approving a
 
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transaction, our board of directors may provide that its approval is subject to compliance, at or after the time of approval, with any terms and conditions determined by our board of directors.
After the five-year prohibition, any business combination between us and an interested stockholder generally must be recommended by our board of directors and approved by the affirmative vote of at least:

80% of the votes entitled to be cast by holders of our then-outstanding shares of voting stock; and

two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast by holders of our voting stock other than stock held by the interested stockholder with whom or with whose affiliate the business combination is to be effected or stock held by an affiliate or associate of the interested stockholder.
These super-majority vote requirements do not apply if our common stockholders receive a minimum price, as defined under Maryland law, for their shares in the form of cash or other consideration in the same form as previously paid by the interested stockholder for its stock.
The statute permits various exemptions from its provisions, including business combinations that are approved by our board of directors before the time that the interested stockholder becomes an interested stockholder.
As permitted by the Maryland General Corporation Law, our board of directors has adopted a resolution that the business combination provisions of the Maryland General Corporation Law will not apply to us. There is no assurance that our board of directors will not amend or repeal this resolution in the future.
Control Share Acquisitions
Maryland law provides that “control shares” of a Maryland corporation acquired in a “control share acquisition” have no voting rights unless approved by the affirmative vote of at least two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter. Shares owned by the acquiror or by officers or directors who are our employees are excluded from the shares entitled to vote on the matter. “Control shares” are voting shares that, if aggregated with all other shares currently owned by the acquiring person, or in respect of which the acquiring person is able to exercise or direct the exercise of voting power (except solely by virtue of a revocable proxy), would entitle the acquiring person to exercise voting power in electing directors within one of the following ranges of voting power:

one-tenth or more but less than one-third;

one-third or more but less than a majority; or

a majority or more of all voting power.
Control shares do not include shares the acquiring person is then entitled to vote as a result of having previously obtained stockholder approval or shares acquired directly from the corporation. A “control share acquisition” means the acquisition of issued and outstanding control shares, subject to certain exceptions.
A person who has made or proposes to make a control share acquisition may compel our board of directors to call a special meeting of stockholders to be held within 50 days of demand to consider the voting rights of the shares. The right to compel the calling of a special meeting is subject to the satisfaction of certain conditions, including an undertaking to pay the expenses of the meeting. If no request for a meeting is made, we may present the question at any stockholders meeting.
If voting rights are not approved at the stockholders meeting or if the acquiring person does not deliver an acquiring person statement required by Maryland law, then, subject to certain conditions and limitations, we may redeem any or all of the control shares, except those for which voting rights have previously been approved, for fair value. Fair value is determined, without regard to the absence of voting rights for the control shares, as of the date of the last control share acquisition by the acquiror or if any meeting of stockholders is held at which the voting rights of the shares were considered and not approved, as of the date of such meeting. If voting rights for control shares are approved at a stockholders meeting and the acquiror becomes entitled to vote a majority of the shares entitled to vote, all other stockholders may exercise appraisal rights. The fair value of the shares for purposes of these appraisal rights may not be less
 
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than the highest price per share paid by the acquiror in the control share acquisition. The control share acquisition statute does not apply to shares acquired in a merger, consolidation or share exchange if we are a party to the transaction, nor does it apply to acquisitions approved by or exempted by our charter or bylaws.
Our bylaws contain a provision exempting any and all acquisitions of our shares of stock from the control shares provisions of Maryland law. Nothing prevents our board of directors from amending or repealing this provision in the future.
Limitation of Liability and Indemnification
Maryland law permits a corporation to include in its charter a provision eliminating the liability of its directors and officers to the corporation and its stockholders for money damages, except for liability resulting from:

actual receipt of an improper benefit or profit in money, property or services; or

a final judgment based upon a finding of active and deliberate dishonesty by the director or officer that was material to the cause of action adjudicated.
Our charter contains such a provision that eliminates such liability to the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law.
Our charter authorizes us to obligate ourselves, and our bylaws obligate us, to the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law, to indemnify, and to pay or reimburse reasonable expenses in advance of final disposition of a final proceeding to, any of our present or former directors or officers or any individual who, while a director or officer and at our request, serves or has served another corporation, real estate investment trust, partnership, joint venture, trust, employee benefit plan or any other enterprise as a director, officer, partner or trustee. The indemnification covers any claim or liability arising from such status against the person.
Maryland law requires a corporation (unless its charter provides otherwise, which our charter does not) to indemnify a director or officer who has been successful in the defense of any proceeding to which he is made a party by reason of his service in that capacity.
Maryland law permits us to indemnify our present and former directors and officers against judgments, penalties, fines, settlements and reasonable expenses actually incurred by them in any proceeding to which they may be made a party by reason of their service in those or other capacities unless it is established that:

the act or omission of the director or officer was material to the matter giving rise to the proceeding and (i) was committed in bad faith or (ii) was the result of active and deliberate dishonesty;

the director or officer actually received an improper personal benefit of money, property or services; or

in the case of a criminal proceeding, the director or officer had reasonable cause to believe that the act or omission was unlawful.
However, Maryland law prohibits us from indemnifying our present and former directors and officers for an adverse judgment in a suit by or in the right of the corporation or for a judgment of liability on the basis that personal benefit was improperly received unless in either case a court orders indemnification and then only for expenses. Maryland law permits a corporation to advance reasonable expenses to a director or officer upon the corporation’s receipt of:

a written affirmation by the director or officer of his or her good faith belief that he or she has met the standard of conduct necessary for indemnification; and

a written undertaking by him or her, or on his or her behalf, to repay the amount paid or reimbursed by us if it is ultimately determined that the standard of conduct is not met.
Our charter and bylaws also permit us to indemnify and advance expenses to any person who served a predecessor of ours in any capacity described above and to any of our or our predecessors’ employees or agents.
 
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In addition, indemnification could reduce the legal remedies available to us and our stockholders against our officers and directors. The SEC takes the position that indemnification against liabilities arising under the Securities Act is against public policy and unenforceable. Indemnification of our directors and officers may not be allowed for liabilities arising from or out of a violation of state or federal securities laws, unless one or more of the following conditions are met:

there has been a adjudication on the merits in favor of the director or officer on each count involving alleged securities law violations;

all claims against the director or officer have been dismissed with prejudice on the merits by a court of competent jurisdiction; or

a court of competent jurisdiction approves a settlement of the claims against the director or officer and finds that indemnification with respect to the settlement and the related costs should be allowed after being advised of the position of the SEC and of the published position of any state securities regulatory authority in which the securities were offered as to indemnification for violations of securities laws.
Meetings of Stockholders
Special meetings of stockholders may be called only by our board of directors, the chairman of our board of directors, our chief executive officer and our president. Further, our secretary is required to call a special meeting of stockholders upon the written request of the holders of common stock entitled to cast not less than a majority of all votes entitled to be cast at such meeting. Only matters set forth in the notice of the special meeting may be considered and acted upon at such a meeting.
Advance Notice of Director Nominations and New Business
Our bylaws provide that, with respect to an annual meeting of stockholders, nominations of individuals for election to our board of directors and the proposal of business to be considered by stockholders at the annual meeting may be made only:

pursuant to our notice of the meeting;

by or at the direction of our board of directors; or

by a stockholder who was a stockholder of record both at the time of the giving of notice by the stockholder and at the time of the meeting, who is entitled to vote at the meeting and has complied with the advance notice procedures set forth in our bylaws.
With respect to special meetings of stockholders, only the business specified in our notice of meeting may be brought before the meeting of stockholders, and nominations of individuals for election to our board of directors may be made only:

pursuant to our notice of the meeting;

by our board of directors; or

provided that our board of directors has determined that directors shall be elected at such meeting, by a stockholder who was a stockholder of record both at the time of the provision of notice and at the time of the meeting who is entitled to vote at the meeting and has complied with the advance notice provisions set forth in our bylaws.
The purpose of requiring stockholders to give advance notice of nominations and other proposals is to afford our board of directors the opportunity to consider the qualifications of the proposed nominees or the advisability of the other proposals and, to the extent considered necessary by our board of directors, to inform stockholders and make recommendations regarding the nominations or other proposals. The advance notice procedures also permit a more orderly procedure for conducting our stockholder meetings. Although our bylaws do not give our board of directors the power to disapprove timely stockholder nominations and proposals, they may have the effect of precluding a contest for the election of directors or proposals for other action if the proper procedures are not followed, and of discouraging or deterring a third
 
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party from conducting a solicitation of proxies to elect its own slate of directors to our board of directors or to approve its own proposal.
Possible Anti-Takeover Effect of Certain Provisions of Maryland Law and of Our Charter and Bylaws
Subtitle 8 of Title 3 of the Maryland General Corporation Law permits a Maryland corporation with a class of equity securities registered under the Exchange Act and at least three independent directors to elect to be subject, by provision in its charter or bylaws or a resolution of its board of directors and notwithstanding any contrary provision in its charter or bylaws, to any or all of five of the following provisions:

a classified board of directors, meaning that the directors may be divided into up to three classes with only one class standing for election in any year;

a director may be removed only by a two-thirds vote of the stockholders;

a requirement that the number of directors be fixed only by vote of the directors;

a requirement that a vacancy on the board of directors be filled only by the remaining directors and for the new director to serve the remainder of the full term of the class of directors in which the vacancy occurred; and

a requirement that stockholder-called special meetings of stockholders may only be called by stockholders holding a majority of the outstanding stock entitled to vote at the meeting.
Pursuant to our charter, we have elected to be subject to the provisions of Subtitle 8 requiring vacancies on our board may be filled only by the remaining directors, even if such directors are less than a quorum, and for the full term of the directorship in which the vacancy occurred. Through provisions in our charter and bylaws unrelated to Subtitle 8, we already (a) require a two-thirds vote for the removal of any director from our board, (b) vest in our board of directors the exclusive power to fix the number of directorships and (c) require that stockholder-called special meetings of stockholders may only be called by stockholders holding a majority of our outstanding stock entitled to vote at the meeting. Further, although we do not currently have a classified board of directors, Subtitle 8 permits our board of directors, without stockholder approval and regardless of what is provided in our charter or bylaws, to implement takeover defenses that we may not yet have, such as dividing the members of our board of directors into up to three classes with only one class standing for election in any year.
The business combination and control share acquisition provisions of Maryland law (if the applicable resolution of our board of directors is repealed or the provisions in our bylaws are rescinded), the provisions of our charter on the removal of directors, the ownership limitations required to protect our REIT status, the board of directors’ ability to increase the aggregate number of shares of capital stock and issue shares of preferred stock with differing terms and conditions, and the advance notice provisions of our bylaws could have the effect of delaying, deterring or preventing a transaction or a change in control that might involve a premium price for you or might otherwise be in your best interest.
 
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MATERIAL FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSIDERATIONS
This section summarizes the federal income tax issues that you, as a holder of our securities, may consider relevant. Vinson & Elkins L.L.P. has acted as our tax counsel, has reviewed this summary, and is of the opinion that the discussion contained herein is accurate in all material respects. The following discussions takes into account H.R. 1, informally titled the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the “TCJA”). The TCJA makes major changes to the Internal Revenue Code, including several provisions of the Internal Revenue Code that may affect the taxation of REITs and their securityholders. The most significant of these provisions are described below. The individual and collective impact of these changes on REITs and their securityholders is uncertain, and may not become evident for some period. Investors should consult their tax advisors regarding the implications of the TCJA on their investment. Because this section is a summary, it does not address all aspects of taxation that may be relevant to particular holders of our securities in light of their personal investment or tax circumstances, or to certain types of holders that are subject to special treatment under the federal income tax laws, such as:

insurance companies;

tax-exempt organizations (except to the limited extent discussed in “— Taxation of Tax-Exempt Stockholders” below);

financial institutions or broker-dealers;

non-U.S. individuals and foreign corporations (except to the limited extent discussed in “— Taxation of Non-U.S. Stockholders” below);

U.S. expatriates;

persons who mark-to-market our securities;

subchapter S corporations;

U.S. stockholders (as defined below) whose functional currency is not the U.S. dollar;

regulated investment companies and REITs;

trusts and estates;

holders who receive our securities through the exercise of employee stock options or otherwise as compensation;

persons holding our securities as part of a “straddle,” “hedge,” “conversion transaction,” “synthetic security” or other integrated investment;

persons subject to the alternative minimum tax provisions of the Internal Revenue Code;

persons subject to special tax accounting rules as a result of their use of applicable financial statements (within the meaning of Section 451(b)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code); and

persons holding our securities through a partnership or similar pass-through entity.
This summary assumes that securityholders hold shares as capital assets for federal income tax purposes, which generally means property held for investment.
The statements in this section are not intended to be, and should not be construed as, tax advice. The statements in this section and the opinion of Vinson & Elkins L.L.P. are based on the Internal Revenue Code, current, temporary and proposed Treasury regulations, the legislative history of the Internal Revenue Code, current administrative interpretations and practices of the IRS, and court decisions. The reference to IRS interpretations and practices includes the IRS practices and policies endorsed in private letter rulings, which are not binding on the IRS except with respect to the taxpayer that receives the ruling. In each case, these sources are relied upon as they exist on the date of this discussion. Future legislation, Treasury regulations, administrative interpretations and court decisions could change the current law or adversely affect existing interpretations of current law on which the information in this section is based. Any such change could apply retroactively. We have not received any rulings from the IRS concerning our qualification as a REIT. Accordingly, even if there is no change in the applicable law, no assurance can be provided that
 
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the statements made in the following discussion, which do not bind the IRS or the courts, will not be challenged by the IRS or will be sustained by a court if so challenged.
We urge you to consult your tax advisor regarding the specific tax consequences to you of the purchase, ownership and sale of our securities and of our election to be taxed as a REIT. Specifically, you should consult your tax advisor regarding the federal, state, local, foreign, and other tax consequences of such purchase, ownership, sale and election, and regarding potential changes in applicable tax laws.
Taxation of Our Company
We elected to be taxed as a REIT under the federal income tax laws commencing with our short taxable year ended December 31, 2004. We believe that we are organized and we operate in such a manner so as to qualify for taxation as a REIT under the federal income tax laws, and we intend to continue to operate in such a manner, but no assurance can be given that we will operate in a manner so as to remain qualified as a REIT. This section discusses the laws governing the federal income tax treatment of a REIT. These laws are highly technical and complex.
In connection with this prospectus, Vinson & Elkins L.L.P. is rendering an opinion that we qualified to be taxed as a REIT for our taxable years ended December 31, 2004 through December 31, 2017, and our organization and current and proposed method of operation will enable us to continue to meet the requirements for qualification and taxation as a REIT for our taxable year ending December 31, 2018 and subsequent taxable years. Investors should be aware that Vinson & Elkins L.L.P.’s opinion is based upon customary assumptions, is conditioned upon certain representations made by us as to factual matters, including representations regarding the nature of our assets and the conduct of our business, and is not binding upon the IRS or any court and speaks as of the date issued. In addition, Vinson & Elkins L.L.P.’s opinion is based on existing federal income tax law governing qualification as a REIT, which is subject to change either prospectively or retroactively. Moreover, our qualification and taxation as a REIT depends upon our ability to meet on a continuing basis, through actual annual operating results, certain qualification tests set forth in the federal tax laws. Those qualification tests involve the percentage of income that we earn from specified sources, the percentage of our assets that fall within specified categories, the diversity of our stock ownership, and the percentage of our earnings that we distribute. Vinson & Elkins L.L.P. will not review our compliance with those tests on a continuing basis. Accordingly, no assurance can be given that our actual results of operations for any particular taxable year will satisfy such requirements. Vinson & Elkins L.L.P.’s opinion does not foreclose the possibility that we may have to use one or more of the REIT savings provisions described below, which would require us to pay an excise or penalty tax (which could be material) in order for us to maintain our REIT qualification. For a discussion of the tax consequences of our failure to qualify as a REIT, see “— Failure to Qualify”.
As a REIT, we generally will not be subject to federal income tax on the REIT taxable income that we distribute to our stockholders, but taxable income generated by our TRSs, Hypotheca, New York Mortgage Funding, LLC, or NYMF, NYMT Residential Tax, LLC, or NYMT Residential, NYMT Residential Tax 2013-RP1, LLC, or Residential Tax 2013-RP1, NYMT Residential Tax 2013-RP2, LLC, or Residential Tax 2013-RP2 and NYMT Residential Tax 2013-RP3, LLC, or Residential Tax 2013-RP3 will be subject to regular corporate income tax. The benefit of that tax treatment is that it avoids the double taxation, or taxation at both the corporate and stockholder levels, that generally applies to distributions by a corporation to its stockholders. However, we will be subject to federal tax in the following circumstances:

We will pay federal income tax on taxable income, including net capital gain, that we do not distribute to stockholders during, or within a specified time period after, the calendar year in which the income is earned.

For taxable years beginning before January 1, 2018, we may be subject to the “alternative minimum tax” on any items of tax preference that we do not distribute or allocate to stockholders.

We will pay income tax at the highest corporate income tax rate on:

net income from the sale or other disposition of property acquired through foreclosure, or foreclosure property, that we hold primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business, and
 
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other nonqualifying income from foreclosure property.

We will pay a 100% tax on our net income from sales or other dispositions of property, other than foreclosure property, that we hold primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business.

If we fail to satisfy one or both of the 75% gross income test or the 95% gross income test, as described below under “— Gross Income Tests,” and nonetheless continue to qualify as a REIT because we meet other requirements, we will pay a 100% tax on the gross income attributable to the greater of the amount by which we fail the 75% gross income test or the 95% gross income test, in either case, multiplied by a fraction intended to reflect our profitability.

If we fail any of the asset tests, other than a de minimis failure of the 5% asset test or the 10% vote or value test, as described below under “— Asset Tests,” as long as the failure was due to reasonable cause and not to willful neglect, we file a description of the assets that caused such failure with the IRS, and we dispose of the assets or otherwise comply with the asset tests within six months after the last day of the quarter in which we identify such failure, we will pay a tax equal to the greater of $50,000 or 21% (for tax years beginning on or before December 31, 2017, 35%) of the net income from the nonqualifying assets during the period in which we failed to satisfy any of the asset tests.

If we fail to satisfy one or more requirements for REIT qualification, other than the gross income tests or the asset tests, as long as such failure was due to reasonable cause and not to willful neglect, we will be required to pay a penalty of $50,000 for each such failure.

If we fail to distribute during a calendar year at least the sum of:

85% of our REIT ordinary income for the year,

95% of our REIT capital gain net income for the year, and

any undistributed taxable income required to be distributed from earlier periods,
we will pay a 4% nondeductible excise tax on the excess of the required distribution over the amount we actually distributed.

We may elect to retain and pay income tax on our net long-term capital gain. In that case, a U.S. stockholder would be taxed on its proportionate share of our undistributed long-term capital gain (to the extent that we make a timely designation of such gain to the stockholder) and would receive a credit or refund for its proportionate share of the tax we paid.

We will be subject to a 100% excise tax on some payments we receive (or on certain expenses deducted by any TRS, and effective for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2015, on income imputed any TRS for services rendered to or on behalf of us), if arrangements among us and our TRSs do not reflect arm’s-length terms.

If we acquire any asset from a C corporation, or a corporation that generally is subject to full corporate-level tax, in a merger or other transaction in which we acquire a basis in the asset that is determined by reference either to the C corporation’s basis in the asset or to another asset, we will pay tax at the highest regular corporate income tax rate applicable if we recognize gain on the sale or disposition of the asset during the 5-year period after we acquire the asset. The amount of gain on which we will pay tax is the lesser of:

the amount of gain that we recognize at the time of the sale or disposition, and

the amount of gain that we would have recognized if we had sold the asset at the time we acquired it.

If we own a residual interest in a REMIC, we will be taxable at the highest corporate income tax rate on the portion of any excess inclusion income that we derive from the REMIC residual interests equal to the percentage of our stock that is held by “disqualified organizations.” Although the law is not entirely clear, the IRS has taken the position that similar rules may apply if we own an equity interest in a TMP. To the extent that we own a REMIC residual interest or an equity interest in a TMP through a TRS, we will not be subject to this tax. For a discussion of “excess inclusion income,” see “Requirements for Qualification — Organizational Requirements — Taxable Mortgage Pools.” A “disqualified organization” includes:
 
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the U.S.;

any state or political subdivision of the U.S.;

any foreign government;

any international organization;

any agency or instrumentality of any of the foregoing;

any other tax-exempt organization, other than a farmer’s cooperative described in section 521 of the Internal Revenue Code, that is exempt both from income taxation and from taxation under the unrelated business taxable income provisions of the Internal Revenue Code; and

any rural electrical or telephone cooperative.
For this reason, our charter prohibits disqualified organizations from owning our stock.
Requirements for Qualification
Organizational Requirements
A REIT is a corporation, trust, or association that meets each of the following requirements:
(1)
It is managed by one or more trustees or directors.
(2)
Its beneficial ownership is evidenced by transferable shares, or by transferable certificates of beneficial interest.
(3)
It would be taxable as a domestic corporation, but for the REIT provisions of the federal income tax laws.
(4)
It is neither a financial institution nor an insurance company subject to special provisions of the federal income tax laws.
(5)
At least 100 persons are beneficial owners of its shares or ownership certificates.
(6)
Not more than 50% in value of its outstanding shares or ownership certificates is owned, directly or indirectly, by five or fewer individuals, which the federal income tax laws define to include certain entities, during the last half of any taxable year.
(7)
It elects to be a REIT, or has made such election for a previous taxable year, and satisfies all relevant filing and other administrative requirements established by the IRS that must be met to elect and maintain REIT status.
(8)
It meets certain other qualification tests, described below, regarding the nature of its income and assets and the distribution of its income.
(9)
It uses a calendar year for federal income tax purposes and complies with the recordkeeping requirements of the federal income tax laws.
We must meet requirements 1 through 4, 8 and 9 during our entire taxable year and must meet requirement 5 during at least 335 days of a taxable year of 12 months, or during a proportionate part of a taxable year of less than 12 months. Requirements 5 and 6 applied to us beginning with our 2005 taxable year. If we comply with all the requirements for ascertaining the ownership of our outstanding stock in a taxable year and have no reason to know that we violated requirement 6, we will be deemed to have satisfied requirement 6 for that taxable year. For purposes of determining share ownership under requirement 6, an “individual” generally includes a supplemental unemployment compensation benefits plan, a private foundation, or a portion of a trust permanently set aside or used exclusively for charitable purposes. An “individual,” however, generally does not include a trust that is a qualified employee pension or profit sharing trust under the federal income tax laws, and beneficiaries of such a trust will be treated as holding our stock in proportion to their actuarial interests in the trust for purposes of requirement 6.
 
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We believe that we have issued sufficient stock with sufficient diversity of ownership to satisfy requirements 5 and 6. In addition, our charter restricts the ownership and transfer of our stock so that we should continue to satisfy these requirements. The provisions of our charter restricting the ownership and transfer of our capital stock are described in “Description of Common Stock — Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer.”
Qualified REIT Subsidiaries.   A corporation that is a “qualified REIT subsidiary” is not treated as a corporation separate from its parent REIT. All assets, liabilities, and items of income, deduction, and credit of a “qualified REIT subsidiary” are treated as assets, liabilities, and items of income, deduction, and credit of the REIT. A “qualified REIT subsidiary” is a corporation all of the capital stock of which is owned by the REIT and that has not elected to be a TRS. Thus, in applying the requirements described herein, any “qualified REIT subsidiary” that we own will be ignored, and all assets, liabilities, and items of income, deduction, and credit of such subsidiary will be treated as our assets, liabilities, and items of income, deduction, and credit.
Other Disregarded Entities and Partnerships.   An unincorporated domestic entity, such as a partnership or limited liability company that has a single owner for federal income tax purposes, generally is not treated as an entity separate from its parent for federal income tax purposes. An unincorporated domestic entity with two or more owners for federal income tax purposes generally is treated as a partnership for federal income tax purposes. In the case of a REIT that is a partner in a partnership that has other partners, the REIT is treated as owning its proportionate share of the assets of the partnership and as earning its allocable share of the gross income of the partnership for purposes of the applicable REIT qualification tests. For purposes of the 10% value test (described in “— Asset Tests”), our proportionate share is based on our proportionate interest in the equity interests and certain debt securities issued by the partnership. For all of the other asset and income tests, our proportionate share is based on our proportionate interest in the capital interests in the partnership. Thus, our proportionate share of the assets, liabilities, and items of income of any partnership, joint venture, or limited liability company that is treated as a partnership for federal income tax purposes in which we acquire an interest, directly or indirectly, will be treated as our assets and gross income for purposes of applying the various REIT qualification requirements.
We own, and may acquire in the future, limited partner or non-managing member interests in partnerships and limited liability companies. If a partnership or limited liability company in which we own an interest takes or expects to take actions that could jeopardize our status as a REIT or require us to pay tax, we may be forced to dispose of our interest in such entity. In addition, it is possible that a partnership or limited liability company could take an action which could cause us to fail a gross income or asset test, and that we would not become aware of such action in time to dispose of our interest in the partnership or limited liability company or take other corrective action on a timely basis. In that case, we could fail to qualify as a REIT unless we were entitled to relief, as described below.
Taxable REIT Subsidiaries.   A REIT is permitted to own up to 100% of the stock of one or more TRSs. A TRS is a fully taxable corporation that may earn income that would not be qualifying income if earned directly by the parent REIT. The subsidiary and the REIT must jointly elect to treat the subsidiary as a TRS. A corporation of which a TRS directly or indirectly owns more than 35% of the voting power or value of the stock will automatically be treated as a TRS. We will not be treated as holding the assets of a TRS or as receiving any income that the TRS earns. Rather, the stock issued by a TRS to us will be an asset in our hands, and we will treat the distributions paid to us from such TRS, if any, as income. This treatment may affect our compliance with the gross income and asset tests. Because we will not include the assets and income of TRSs in determining our compliance with the REIT requirements, we may use such entities to undertake indirectly activities, such as earning fee income, that the REIT rules might otherwise preclude us from doing directly or through pass-through subsidiaries. Overall, no more than 20% (25% for our 2017 and prior taxable years) of the value of a REIT’s assets may consist of stock or securities of one or more TRSs. A corporation will not qualify as a TRS if it directly or indirectly operates or manages any hotels or health care facilities or provides rights to any brand name under which any hotel or health care facility is operated.
A TRS will pay income tax at regular corporate income tax rates on any income that it earns. In addition, the TRS rules limit the deductibility of interest paid or accrued by a TRS to its parent REIT to assure that the TRS is subject to an appropriate level of corporate taxation. Further, the rules impose a 100%
 
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excise tax on transactions between a TRS and its parent REIT or the REIT’s tenants that are not conducted on an arm’s-length basis. We have elected to treat Hypotheca, its wholly owned subsidiary, NYMF, NYMT Residential, Residential Tax 2013-RP1, Residential Tax 2013-RP2 and Residential Tax 2013-RP3 as TRSs. We may elect to treat additional entities as TRSs in the future. Our TRSs are subject to corporate income tax on their taxable income. We believe that all transactions between us and our TRSs have been and will be conducted on an arm’s-length basis.
Taxable Mortgage Pools.   An entity, or a portion of an entity, may be classified as a TMP under the Internal Revenue Code if:

substantially all of its assets consist of debt obligations or interests in debt obligations;

more than 50% of those debt obligations are real estate mortgage loans or interests in real estate mortgage loans as of specified testing dates;

the entity has issued debt obligations that have two or more maturities; and

the payments required to be made by the entity on its debt obligations “bear a relationship” to the payments to be received by the entity on the debt obligations that it holds as assets.
Under U.S. Treasury regulations, if less than 80% of the assets of an entity (or a portion of an entity) consist of debt obligations, these debt obligations are considered not to comprise “substantially all” of its assets, and therefore the entity would not be treated as a TMP.
We may make investments or enter into financing and securitization transactions that would result in our being considered to be, or to own an interest in, one or more TMPs. Where an entity, or a portion of an entity, is classified as a TMP, it is generally treated as a taxable corporation for federal income tax purposes. However, special rules apply to a REIT, a portion of a REIT, or a qualified REIT subsidiary, that is a TMP. The portion of the REIT’s assets, held directly or through a qualified REIT subsidiary, that qualifies as a TMP is treated as a qualified REIT subsidiary that is not subject to corporate income tax, and the TMP classification does not affect the tax status of the REIT. Rather, the consequences of the TMP classification would generally, except as described below, be limited to the REIT’s stockholders. The Treasury Department has yet to issue regulations governing the tax treatment of the stockholders of a REIT that owns an interest in a TMP.
If a REIT is a TMP, or if a REIT owns a qualified REIT subsidiary that is a TMP, then a portion of the REIT’s income will be treated as “excess inclusion income” and a portion of the dividends the REIT pays to its stockholders will be considered to be excess inclusion income. A stockholder’s share of excess inclusion income: (i) would not be allowed to be offset by any net operating losses otherwise available to the stockholder; (ii) would be subject to tax as unrelated business taxable income in the hands of most types of stockholders that are otherwise generally exempt from federal income tax; and (iii) would result in the application of federal income tax withholding at the maximum rate (30%) (and any otherwise available rate reductions under income tax treaties would not apply) to the extent allocable to most types of foreign stockholders. IRS guidance indicates that our excess inclusion income will be allocated among our stockholders in proportion to our dividends paid. However, the manner in which excess inclusion income would be allocated to dividends attributable to a tax year that are not paid until a subsequent tax year or to dividends attributable to a portion of a tax year when no excess inclusion income-generating assets were held or how such income is to be reported to stockholders is not clear under current law. Although the law is unclear, the IRS has taken the position that a REIT is taxable at the highest corporate tax rate on the portion of any excess inclusion income that it derives from an equity interest in a TMP equal to the percentage of its stock that is held in record name by “disqualified organizations.” To the extent that our stock owned by “disqualified organizations” is held in street name by a broker-dealer or other nominee, the broker-dealer or nominee would be liable for a tax at the highest corporate income tax rate on the portion of our excess inclusion income allocable to the stock held on behalf of the disqualified organizations. See “— Taxation of Our Company” for a discussion of “disqualified organizations.” A regulated investment company or other pass-through entity owning our stock will be subject to tax at the highest corporate income tax rate on any excess inclusion income allocated to their record name owners that are disqualified organizations. Tax-exempt investors, foreign investors, taxpayers with net operating losses, regulated investment companies, pass-through entities and broker-dealers and other nominees should carefully consider
 
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the tax consequences described above and are urged to consult their tax advisors in connection with their decision to invest in or hold our stock.
If we were to own less than 100% of the ownership interests in an entity that is classified as a TMP, the foregoing rules would not apply. Rather, the entity would be treated as a corporation for federal income tax purposes, and its income would be subject to corporate income tax. In addition, this characterization would alter our REIT income and asset test calculations and could adversely affect our compliance with those requirements. We currently do not own, and currently do not intend to own some, but less than all, of the ownership interests in an entity that is or will become a TMP, and we intend to monitor the structure of any TMPs in which we have an interest to ensure that they will not adversely affect our status as a REIT.
We have entered into a securitization transaction pursuant to which one of our subsidiaries that is disregarded for federal income tax purposes issued two classes of notes secured by certain multi-family CMBS. The senior note was sold to a third-party and the subordinate note was retained. This securitization transaction could become a TMP that could produce excess inclusion income if we transferred the retained, subordinate note to a third-party or one of our TRSs. We have no intention of transferring the retained, subordinate note, and therefore do not anticipate generating excess inclusion income.
Gross Income Tests
We must satisfy two gross income tests annually to maintain our qualification as a REIT. First, at least 75% of our gross income for each taxable year must consist of defined types of income that we derive, directly or indirectly, from investments relating to real property or mortgage loans on real property or qualified temporary investment income. Qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test generally includes:

rents from real property;

interest on debt secured by a mortgage on real property, or on interests in real property;

dividends or other distributions on, and gain from the sale of, shares in other REITs;

gain from the sale of real estate assets (effective for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2015, excluding gain from the sale of a debt instrument issued by a “publicly offered REIT” ​(i.e., a REIT that is required to file annual and periodic reports with the SEC under the Exchange Act) to the extent not secured by real property or an interest in real property) not held for sale to customers;

income and gain derived from foreclosure property;

amounts, such as commitment fees, received in consideration for entering into an agreement to make a loan secured by real property, unless such amounts are determined by income and profits;

income derived from a REMIC in proportion to the real estate assets held by the REMIC, unless at least 95% of the REMIC’s assets are real estate assets, in which case all of the income derived from the REMIC; and

income derived from the temporary investment of new capital that is attributable to the issuance of our stock or a public offering of our debt with a maturity date of at least five years and that we receive during the one-year period beginning on the date on which we received such new capital.
Second, in general, at least 95% of our gross income for each taxable year must consist of income that is qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test, other types of interest and dividends, gain from the sale or disposition of stock or securities or any combination of these. Gross income from our sale of property that we hold primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business is excluded from both the numerator and the denominator in both income tests. Income and gain from “hedging transactions,” as defined in “— Hedging Transactions,” that we entered into on or before July 30, 2008 to hedge indebtedness incurred or to be incurred to acquire or carry real estate assets and that are clearly and timely identified as such are excluded from both the numerator and the denominator for purposes of the 95% gross income test (but are nonqualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test). Income and gain from hedging transactions entered into after July 30, 2008 are excluded from both the numerator and the denominator for purposes of both the 75% and 95% gross income tests. In addition, cancellation of
 
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indebtedness income and certain foreign currency gains will be excluded from gross income for purposes of one or both of the gross income tests. See “— Foreign Currency Gain.” We will monitor the amount of our nonqualifying income and we will manage our portfolio to comply at all times with the gross income tests. The following paragraphs discuss the specific application of the gross income tests to us.
Interest.   The term “interest,” as defined for purposes of both gross income tests, generally excludes any amount that is based in whole or in part on the income or profits of any person. However, interest generally includes the following:

an amount that is based on a fixed percentage or percentages of receipts or sales; and

an amount that is based on the income or profits of a debtor, as long as the debtor derives substantially all of its income from the real property securing the debt from leasing substantially all of its interest in the property, and only to the extent that the amounts received by the debtor would be qualifying “rents from real property” if received directly by a REIT.
If a loan contains a provision that entitles a REIT to a percentage of the borrower’s gain upon the sale of the real property securing the loan or a percentage of the appreciation in the property’s value as of a specific date, income attributable to that loan provision will be treated as gain from the sale of the property securing the loan, which generally is qualifying income for purposes of both gross income tests.
Interest on debt secured by a mortgage on real property or on interests in real property, including, for this purpose, discount points, prepayment penalties, loan assumption fees, and late payment charges that are not compensation for services, generally is qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test.
Interest income generally constitutes qualifying mortgage interest for purposes of the 75% gross income test to the extent that the obligation upon which such interest is paid is secured by a mortgage on real property (and, for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2015, a mortgage on an interest in real property). In general, under applicable Treasury Regulations, if a loan is secured by real property and other property and the highest principal amount of the loan outstanding during a taxable year exceeds the fair market value of the real property securing the loan determined as of (i) the date we agreed to acquire or originate the loan or (ii) as discussed further below, in the event of a “significant modification,” the date we modified the loan, then a portion of the interest income from such loan will not be qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test, but will be qualifying income for purposes of the 95% gross income test. Although the law is not entirely clear, a portion of the loan will likely be a non-qualifying asset for purposes of the 75% asset test. The nonqualifying portion of such a loan would be subject to, among other requirements, the 10% value test. See “— Asset Tests” below. For taxable years beginning after December 31, 2015, in the case of mortgage loans secured by both real property and personal property, if the fair market value of such personal property does not exceed 15% of the total fair market value of all such property securing the loan, then the personal property securing the loan will be treated as real property for purposes of determining whether the mortgage loan is a qualifying asset for the 75% asset test and the related interest income qualifies for purposes of the 75% gross income test.
We invest primarily in Agency RMBS, prime ARM loans held in securitization trusts and multi-family CMBS. We also invest in distressed residential mortgage loans and mezzanine loans. Other than income from embedded derivative instruments as described below, all of the income on our Agency RMBS is qualifying income for purposes of the 95% gross income test. The Agency RMBS are treated either as interests in a grantor trust or as interests in a REMIC for federal income tax purposes. In the case of Agency RMBS and CMBS treated as interests in grantor trusts, we are treated as owning an undivided beneficial ownership interest in the mortgage loans held by the grantor trust. The interest on such mortgage loans and the prime ARM loans held in securitization trusts is qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test to the extent that the obligation is secured by real property, as discussed above. In the case of Agency RMBS and CMBS treated as interests in a REMIC, income derived from REMIC interests will generally be treated as qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test. If less than 95% of the assets of the REMIC are real estate assets, however, then only a proportionate part of our interest in the REMIC and income derived from the interest will qualify for purposes of the 75% gross income test. In addition, some REMIC securitizations include imbedded interest rate swap or cap contracts or other derivative instruments that potentially could produce nonqualifying income for the holders of the related REMIC securities. We
 
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believe that substantially all of our income from Agency RMBS, prime ARM loans held in securitization trusts and CMBS is qualifying income for the 75% and 95% gross income tests.
Certain of the terms of our mortgage loans held by our securitization trusts and our distressed residential mortgage loans may in the future be modified to avoid foreclosure actions and for other reasons. Under the Internal Revenue Code, if the terms of a loan are modified in a manner constituting a “significant modification,” such modification triggers a deemed exchange of the original loan for the modified loan. IRS Revenue Procedure 2014-51 provides a safe harbor pursuant to which we will not be required to redetermine the fair market value of the real property securing a loan for purposes of the gross income and asset tests in connection with a loan modification that is: (i) occasioned by a borrower default; or (ii) made at a time when we reasonably believe that the modification to the loan will substantially reduce a significant risk of default on the original loan. No assurance can be provided that all of our loan modifications have or will qualify for the safe harbor in Revenue Procedure 2014-51. To the extent we significantly modify loans in a manner that does not qualify for that safe harbor, we will be required to redetermine the value of the real property securing the loan at the time it was significantly modified. In determining the value of the real property securing such a loan, we generally will not obtain third-party appraisals, but rather will rely on internal valuations. No assurance can be provided that the IRS will not successfully challenge our internal valuations. If the terms of our mortgage loans are significantly modified in a manner that does not qualify for the safe harbor in Revenue Procedure 2014-51 and the fair market value of the real property securing such loans has decreased significantly, we could fail the 75% gross income test, the 75% asset test and/or the 10% value test.
We own, and in the future may acquire, distressed residential mortgage loans. Revenue Procedure 2014-51 provides that that the IRS will treat distressed mortgage loans acquired by a REIT that are secured by real property and other property as producing in part nonqualifying income for the 75% gross income test. Specifically, Revenue Procedure 2014-51 indicates that interest income on a distressed mortgage loan will be treated as qualifying income based on the ratio of: (i) the fair market value of the real property securing the debt determined as of the date the REIT committed to acquire the loan; and (ii) the face amount of the loan (and not the purchase price or current value of the loan). The face amount of a distressed mortgage loan typically exceeds the fair market value of the real property securing the mortgage loan on the date the REIT commits to acquire the loan. We have invested, and in the future will invest, in distressed mortgage loans in a manner that is consistent with maintaining our qualification as a REIT.
We currently own, and in the future may originate or acquire, mezzanine loans, which are loans secured by equity interests in an entity that directly or indirectly owns real property, rather than by a direct mortgage of the real property. In Revenue Procedure 2003-65, the IRS established a safe harbor under which loans secured by a first priority security interest in ownership interests in a partnership or limited liability company owning real property will be treated as real estate assets for purposes of the REIT asset tests described below, and interest derived from those loans will be treated as qualifying income for both the 75% and 95% gross income tests, provided several requirements are satisfied.
Although Revenue Procedure 2003-65 provides a safe harbor on which taxpayers may rely, it does not prescribe rules of substantive tax law. Moreover, our mezzanine loans typically do not meet all of the requirements for reliance on the safe harbor. To the extent any mezzanine loans that we originate or acquire do not qualify for the safe harbor described above, the interest income from the loans will be qualifying income for purposes of the 95% gross income test, but there is a risk that such interest income will not be qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test. We have invested, and will continue to invest, in mezzanine loans in a manner that will enable us to continue to satisfy the REIT gross income and asset tests.
We have entered into sale and repurchase agreements under which we nominally sold certain of our mortgage assets to a counterparty and simultaneously entered into an agreement to repurchase the sold assets. Based on positions the IRS has taken in analogous situations, we believe that we will be treated for purposes of the REIT gross income and asset tests (see “— Asset Tests” below) as the owner of the mortgage assets that are the subject of any such agreement notwithstanding that we transferred record ownership of the assets to the counterparty during the term of the agreement. It is possible, however, that the IRS could assert that we did not own the mortgage assets during the term of the sale and repurchase agreement, in which case our ability to qualify as a REIT could be adversely affected.
 
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The interest, original issue discount, and market discount income that we receive from our mortgage loans and mortgage-backed securities generally will be qualifying income for purposes of both gross income tests. However, as discussed above, if the fair market value of the real estate securing any of our loans is less than the principal amount of the loan, a portion of the income from that loan will be qualifying income for purposes of the 95% gross income test but not the 75% gross income test.
We have invested in Agency RMBS through “to be announced,” or TBA, contracts and have recognized gain or loss upon the disposition of our investment in TBA contracts. The law is unclear regarding whether gains from dispositions of TBA contracts will be treated as gains from the sale of real property (including interests in real property and interests in mortgages on real property) or other qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test. Until we receive a favorable private letter ruling from the IRS or we receive an opinion of counsel to the effect that income and gain from the disposition of TBA contracts should be treated as qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test, we will either invest and dispose of TBA contracts through a TRS or we will limit our gains from dispositions of TBA contracts and any nonqualifying income to no more than 25% of our gross income for each calendar year. Accordingly, our ability to dispose of TBA contracts through dollar roll transactions or otherwise, could be limited. Moreover, even if we are advised by counsel that income and gains from dispositions of TBA contracts should be treated as qualifying income, it is possible that the IRS could successfully take the position that such income is not qualifying income. In the event that such income were determined not to be qualifying for the 75% gross income test, we could be subject to a penalty tax or we could fail to qualify as a REIT if such income and any nonqualifying income exceeds 25% of our gross income. See “— Failure to Qualify.”
Dividends.   Our share of any dividends received from any corporation (including our TRSs, but excluding any REIT) in which we own an equity interest will qualify for purposes of the 95% gross income test but not for purposes of the 75% gross income test. Our share of any dividends received from any other REIT in which we own an equity interest will be qualifying income for purposes of both gross income tests.
Fee Income.   Fee income generally is qualifying income for purposes of both the 75% and 95% gross income tests if it is received in consideration for entering into an agreement to make a loan secured by real property and the fees are not determined by income and profits. Other fees generally are not qualifying income for purposes of either gross income test. Any fees earned by a TRS are not included for purposes of the gross income tests.
Foreign Currency Gain.   Certain foreign currency gains are excluded from gross income for purposes of one or both of the gross income tests. “Real estate foreign exchange gain” is excluded from gross income for purposes of the 75% gross income test. Real estate foreign exchange gain generally includes foreign currency gain attributable to any item of income or gain that is qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test, foreign currency gain attributable to the acquisition or ownership of (or becoming or being the obligor under) obligations secured by mortgages on real property or on interest in real property and certain foreign currency gain attributable to certain “qualified business units” of a REIT. “Passive foreign exchange gain” is excluded from gross income for purposes of the 95% gross income test. Passive foreign exchange gain generally includes real estate foreign exchange gain as described above, and also includes foreign currency gain attributable to any item of income or gain that is qualifying income for purposes of the 95% gross income test and foreign currency gain attributable to the acquisition or ownership of (or becoming or being the obligor under) obligations secured by mortgages on real property or on interest in real property. Because passive foreign exchange gain includes real estate foreign exchange gain, real estate foreign exchange gain is excluded from gross income for purposes of both the 75% and 95% gross income test. These exclusions for real estate foreign exchange gain and passive foreign exchange gain do not apply to foreign currency gain derived from dealing, or engaging in substantial and regular trading, in securities. Such gain is treated as nonqualifying income for purposes of both the 75% and 95% gross income tests.
Rents from Real Property.   As a result of foreclosures on mortgage loans held by our securitization trusts, we hold a small portfolio of residential real property. In addition, we own, and in the future may acquire, interests in limited partnerships and limited liability companies that own apartment buildings. Rents we receive with respect to real property or an interest therein will qualify as “rents from real property” in satisfying the gross income requirements for a REIT described above only if the following conditions are met:
 
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First, the amount of rent must not be based in whole or in part on the income or profits of any person. However, an amount received or accrued generally will not be excluded from rents from real property solely by reason of being based on fixed percentages of receipts or sales.

Second, rents we receive from a “related party tenant” will not qualify as rents from real property in satisfying the gross income tests unless the tenant is a TRS, at least 90% of the property is leased to unrelated tenants and the rent paid by the TRS is substantially comparable to the rent paid by the unrelated tenants for comparable space and the rent is not attributable to a modification of a lease with a controlled TRS (i.e., a TRS in which we own directly or indirectly more than 50% of the voting power or value of the stock). A tenant is a related party tenant if the REIT, or an actual or constructive owner of 10% or more of the REIT, actually or constructively owns 10% or more of the tenant.

Third, if rent attributable to personal property, leased in connection with a lease of real property, is greater than 15% of the total rent received under the lease, then the portion of rent attributable to the personal property will not qualify as rents from real property.

Fourth, we generally must not operate or manage our real property or furnish or render noncustomary services to our tenants, other than through an “independent contractor” who is adequately compensated and from whom we do not derive revenue. However, we may provide services directly to tenants if the services are “usually or customarily rendered” in connection with the rental of space for occupancy only and are not considered to be provided for the tenants’ convenience. In addition, we may provide a minimal amount of “noncustomary” services to the tenants of a property, other than through an independent contractor, as long as our income from the services does not exceed 1% of our income from the related property. Furthermore, we may own up to 100% of the stock of a TRS, which may provide customary and noncustomary services to tenants without tainting its rental income from the related properties.
Hedging Transactions.   From time to time, we enter into hedging transactions with respect to one or more of our assets or liabilities. Our hedging activities may include entering into interest rate swaps, caps, and floors, options to purchase these items, and futures and forward contracts. Income and gain from “hedging transactions” entered into on or before July 30, 2008 is excluded from gross income for purposes of the 95% gross income test (but is treated as nonqualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test). Income and gain from hedging transactions entered into after July 30, 2008 are excluded from gross income for purposes of both the 75% and 95% gross income tests. A “hedging transaction” includes any transaction entered into in the normal course of our trade or business primarily to manage the risk of interest rate changes, price changes, or currency fluctuations with respect to borrowings made or to be made, or ordinary obligations incurred or to be incurred, to acquire or carry real estate assets. A “hedging transaction” also includes any transaction entered into after July 30, 2008 primarily to manage risk of currency fluctuations with respect to any item of income or gain that is qualifying income for purposes of the 75% or 95% gross income test (or any property which generates such income or gain). We are required to clearly identify any such hedging transaction before the close of the day on which it was acquired, originated, or entered into and satisfy certain other identification requirements. To the extent that we hedge or for other purposes, or to the extent that a portion of our mortgage loans is not secured by “real estate assets” ​(as described below under “— Asset Tests”) or in other situations, the income from those transactions is not likely to be treated as qualifying income for purposes of the gross income tests. We have structured and intend to continue to structure any hedging transactions in a manner that does not jeopardize our status as a REIT.
Effective for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2015, if we have entered into a qualifying hedging transaction as described above (an “Original Hedge”), and a portion of the hedged indebtedness is extinguished or the related property is disposed of and in connection with such extinguishment or disposition we enter into a new clearly identified hedging transaction that would counteract the Original hedging transaction (a “Counteracting Hedge”), income from the Original Hedge and income from the Counteracting Hedge (including gain from the disposition of the Original Hedge and the Counteracting Hedge) will not be treated as gross income for purposes of the 95% and 75% gross income tests.
Prohibited Transactions.   A REIT will incur a 100% tax on the net income (including foreign currency gain) derived from any sale or other disposition of property, other than foreclosure property, that the REIT holds primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of a trade or business. We believe that none of
 
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our assets will be held primarily for sale to customers and that a sale of any of our assets will not be in the ordinary course of our business. Whether a REIT holds an asset primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of a trade or business depends, however, on the facts and circumstances in effect from time to time, including those related to a particular asset. Nevertheless, we will attempt to comply with the terms of safe-harbor provisions in the federal income tax laws prescribing when an asset sale will not be characterized as a prohibited transaction. We cannot assure you, however, that we can comply with the safe-harbor provisions or that we will avoid owning property that may be characterized as property that we hold primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of a trade or business. If we decide to sell assets in a manner that might expose us to the 100% prohibited transactions tax, we may contribute those assets to a TRS prior to marketing and sale of those assets to avoid the prohibited transactions tax. No assurance can be given, however, that the IRS will respect the transaction by which those assets are contributed to the TRS and even if the contribution transaction is respected, the TRS may incur a significant tax liability as a result of those sales.
Foreclosure Property.   We will be subject to tax at the maximum corporate income tax rate on any income (including foreign currency gain) from foreclosure property, other than income that otherwise would be qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test, less expenses directly connected with the production of that income. However, gross income from foreclosure property will qualify under the 75% and 95% gross income tests. Foreclosure property is any real property, including interests in real property, and any personal property incident to such real property:

that is acquired by a REIT as the result of the REIT having bid on such property at foreclosure, or having otherwise reduced such property to ownership or possession by agreement or process of law, after there was a default or default was imminent on a lease of such property or on indebtedness that such property secured;

for which the related loan or lease was acquired by the REIT at a time when the default was not imminent or anticipated; and

for which the REIT makes a proper election to treat the property as foreclosure property.
However, a REIT will not be considered to have foreclosed on a property where the REIT takes control of the property as a mortgagee-in-possession and cannot receive any profit or sustain any loss except as a creditor of the mortgagor. Property generally ceases to be foreclosure property at the end of the third taxable year following the taxable year in which the REIT acquired the property, or longer if an extension is granted by the Secretary of the Treasury. This grace period terminates and foreclosure property ceases to be foreclosure property on the first day:

on which a lease is entered into for the property that, by its terms, will give rise to income that does not qualify for purposes of the 75% gross income test, or any amount is received or accrued, directly or indirectly, pursuant to a lease entered into on or after such day that will give rise to income that does not qualify for purposes of the 75% gross income test;

on which any construction takes place on the property, other than completion of a building or any other improvement, where more than 10% of the construction was completed before default became imminent; or

which is more than 90 days after the day on which the REIT acquired the property and the property is used in a trade or business which is conducted by the REIT, other than through an independent contractor from whom the REIT itself does not derive or receive any income or, as effective for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2015, a TRS.
Although we have not made any foreclosure property elections, we may do so in the future.
Failure to Satisfy Gross Income Tests.   If we fail to satisfy one or both of the gross income tests for any taxable year, we nevertheless may qualify as a REIT for that year if we qualify for relief under certain provisions of the federal income tax laws. Those relief provisions generally will be available if:

our failure to meet such tests was due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect; and

following such failure for any taxable year, a schedule of the sources of our income is filed with the IRS.
 
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We cannot predict, however, whether in all circumstances we would qualify for the relief provisions. In addition, as discussed above in “— Taxation of Our Company,” even if the relief provisions apply, we would incur a 100% tax on the gross income attributable to the greater of (i) the amount by which we fail the 75% gross income test or (ii) the amount by which 95% of our gross income exceeds the amount of our income qualifying under the 95% gross income test, multiplied by a fraction intended to reflect our profitability.
Asset Tests
To qualify as a REIT, we also must satisfy the following asset tests at the end of each quarter of each taxable year. First, at least 75% of the value of our total assets must consist of:

cash or cash items, including certain receivables, certain money market funds, and, in certain circumstances, foreign currencies;

government securities;

interests in real property, including leaseholds and options to acquire real property and leaseholds;

interests in mortgage loans secured by real property;

stock in other REITs;

investments in stock or debt instruments during the one-year period following our receipt of new capital that we raise through equity offerings or public offerings of debt with at least a five-year term;

regular or residual interests in a REMIC (however, if less than 95% of the assets of a REMIC consists of assets that are qualifying real estate-related assets under the federal income tax laws, determined as if we held such assets, we will be treated as holding directly our proportionate share of the assets of such REMIC); and

effective for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2015, (i) personal property leased in connection with real property to the extent that rents attributable to such personal property are treated as “rents from real property,” and (ii) debt instruments issued by “publicly offered REITs” (i.e., REITs which are required to file annual and periodic reports with the SEC under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934).
Second, of our investments not included in the 75% asset class, the value of our interest in any one issuer’s securities may not exceed 5% of the value of our total assets, or the 5% asset test.
Third, of our investments not included in the 75% asset class, we may not own more than 10% of the voting power or value of any one issuer’s outstanding securities, or the 10% vote or value test.
Fourth, no more than 20% (25% for our 2017 and prior taxable years) of the value of our total assets may consist of the securities of one or more TRSs.
Fifth, no more than 25% of the value of our total assets may consist of the securities of TRSs and other non-TRS taxable subsidiaries and other assets that are not qualifying assets for purposes of the 75% asset test, or the 25% securities test.
Finally, effective for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2015, not more than 25% of the value of our total assets may be represented by debt instruments issued by “publicly offered REITs” to the extent not secured by real property or interests in real property.
For purposes of the 5% asset test, the 10% vote or value test and the 25% securities test, the term “securities” does not include stock in another REIT, equity or debt securities of a qualified REIT subsidiary or TRS of ours, mortgage loans or mortgage-backed securities that constitute real estate assets, or equity interests in a partnership. For purposes of the 10% value test, the term “securities” does not include:

“Straight debt” securities, which is defined as a written unconditional promise to pay on demand or on a specified date a sum certain in money if (i) the debt is not convertible, directly or indirectly, into stock, and (ii) the interest rate and interest payment dates are not contingent on profits, the borrower’s discretion, or similar factors. “Straight debt” securities do not include any securities issued by a partnership or a corporation in which we or any controlled TRS (i.e., a TRS in which we
 
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own directly or indirectly more than 50% of the voting power or value of the stock) hold non-”straight debt” securities that have an aggregate value of more than 1% of the issuer’s outstanding securities. However, “straight debt” securities include debt subject to the following contingencies:

a contingency relating to the time of payment of interest or principal, as long as either (i) there is no change to the effective yield of the debt obligation, other than a change to the annual yield that does not exceed the greater of 0.25% or 5% of the annual yield, or (ii) neither the aggregate issue price nor the aggregate face amount of the issuer’s debt obligations held by us exceeds $1 million and no more than 12 months of unaccrued interest on the debt obligations can be required to be prepaid; and

a contingency relating to the time or amount of payment upon a default or prepayment of a debt obligation, as long as the contingency is consistent with customary commercial practice.

Any loan to an individual or an estate.

Any “section 467 rental agreement,” other than an agreement with a related party tenant.