Form 10-K Viper Energy Partners For: Dec 31

February 25, 2021 4:24 PM EST

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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
ANNUAL REPORT UNDER SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020
OR
TRANSITION REPORT UNDER SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
Commission File Number 001-36505
Viper Energy Partners LP
(Exact Name of Registrant As Specified in Its Charter)
DE
46-5001985
(State or Other Jurisdiction of Incorporation or Organization)
(I.R.S. Employer Identification Number)
500 West Texas
Suite 1200
Midland,TX
79701
(Address of principal executive offices)
(Zip code)
(432) 221-7400
(Registrant's telephone number, including area code)
 
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common UnitsVNOMThe Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
(NASDAQ Global Select Market)
Securities registered pursuant to section 12(g) of the Act:
None.
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes     No   
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.    Yes       No   
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act:
Large Accelerated FilerAccelerated Filer
Non-Accelerated FilerSmaller Reporting Company
Emerging Growth Company

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.    
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes       No   
The aggregate market value of the common units held by non-affiliates was approximately $691.5 million on June 30, 2020, the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter, based on closing prices in the daily composite list for transactions on the Nasdaq Global Select Market on such date. As of February 19, 2021, 65,293,828 common units representing limited partner interests and 90,709,946 Class B units representing limited partner interests were outstanding.
Documents Incorporated By Reference: None



VIPER ENERGY PARTNERS LP
FORM 10-K
FOR THE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2020
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
S-1





GLOSSARY OF OIL AND NATURAL GAS TERMS
The following is a glossary of certain oil and natural gas industry terms used in this Annual Report on Form 10-K (the “Annual Report” or this “report”):
3-D seismic
Geophysical data that depict the subsurface strata in three dimensions. 3-D seismic typically provides a more detailed and accurate interpretation of the subsurface strata than 2-D, or two-dimensional, seismic.
Basin
A large depression on the earth’s surface in which sediments accumulate.
Bbl or barrel
One stock tank barrel, or 42 U.S. gallons liquid volume, used in this report in reference to crude oil or other liquid hydrocarbons.
BOE
One barrel of crude oil equivalent, with six thousand cubic feet of natural gas being equivalent to one barrel of oil.
BOE/d
Barrels of oil equivalent per day.
British Thermal Unit or Btu
The quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water by one degree Fahrenheit.
Completion
The process of treating a drilled well followed by the installation of permanent equipment for the production of natural gas or oil, or in the case of a dry hole, the reporting of abandonment to the appropriate agency.
Condensate
Liquid hydrocarbons associated with the production that is primarily natural gas.
Crude oil
Liquid hydrocarbons retrieved from geological structures underground to be refined into fuel sources.
Deterministic method
The method of estimating reserves or resources under which a single value for each parameter (from the geoscience, engineering or economic data) in the reserves calculation is used in the reserves estimation procedure.
Developed acreage
Acreage allocated or assignable to productive wells.
Development costs
Capital costs incurred in the acquisition, exploitation and exploration of proved oil and natural gas reserves.
Development well
A well drilled within the proved area of a natural gas or oil reservoir to the depth of a stratigraphic horizon known to be productive.
Differential
An adjustment to the price of oil or natural gas from an established spot market price to reflect differences in the quality and/or location of oil or natural gas.
Dry hole or dry well
A well found to be incapable of producing hydrocarbons in sufficient quantities such that proceeds from the sale of such production exceed production expenses and taxes.
Exploitation
A development or other project which may target proven or unproven reserves (such as probable or possible reserves), but which generally has a lower risk than that associated with exploration projects.
Field
An area consisting of either a single reservoir or multiple reservoirs, all grouped on or related to the same individual geological structural feature and/or stratigraphic condition.
Finding and development costs
Capital costs incurred in the acquisition, exploitation and exploration of proved oil and natural gas reserves divided by proved reserve additions and revisions to proved reserves.
Fracturing
The process of creating and preserving a fracture or system of fractures in a reservoir rock typically by injecting a fluid under pressure through a wellbore and into the targeted formation.
Gross acres or gross wells
The total acres or wells, as the case may be, in which a working interest is owned.
Horizontal drilling
 A drilling technique used in certain formations where a well is drilled vertically to a certain depth and then drilled at a right angle with a specified interval.
Horizontal wells
Wells drilled directionally horizontal to allow for development of structures not reachable through traditional vertical drilling mechanisms.
MBbls
Thousand barrels of crude oil or other liquid hydrocarbons.
MBOE
One thousand barrels of crude oil equivalent, determined using a ratio of six Mcf of natural gas to one Bbl of crude oil, condensate or natural gas liquids.
Mcf
One thousand cubic feet of natural gas.
Mineral interests
The interests in ownership of the resource and mineral rights, giving an owner the right to profit from the extracted resources.
MMBtu
One million British Thermal Units.
MMcf
Million cubic feet of natural gas.
ii

Net royalty acres
Gross acreage multiplied by the average royalty interest.
Oil and natural gas properties
Tracts of land consisting of properties to be developed for oil and natural gas resource extraction.
Operator
The individual or company responsible for the exploration and/or production of an oil or natural gas well or lease.
Play
A set of discovered or prospective oil and/or natural gas accumulations sharing similar geologic, geographic and temporal properties, such as source rock, reservoir structure, timing, trapping mechanism and hydrocarbon type.
Plugging and abandonment
Refers to the sealing off of fluids in the strata penetrated by a well so that the fluids from one stratum will not escape into another or to the surface. Regulations of all states require plugging of abandoned wells.
PUD
Proved undeveloped.
Productive well
A well that is found to be capable of producing hydrocarbons in sufficient quantities such that proceeds from the sale of the production exceed production expenses and taxes.
Prospect
A specific geographic area which, based on supporting geological, geophysical or other data and also preliminary economic analysis using reasonably anticipated prices and costs, is deemed to have potential for the discovery of commercial hydrocarbons.
Proved developed reserves
Reserves that can be expected to be recovered through existing wells with existing equipment and operating methods.
Proved reserves
The estimated quantities of oil, natural gas and natural gas liquids which geological and engineering data demonstrate with reasonable certainty to be commercially recoverable in future years from known reservoirs under existing economic and operating conditions.
Proved undeveloped reserves
Proved reserves that are expected to be recovered from new wells on undrilled acreage or from existing wells where a relatively major expenditure is required for recompletion.
Recompletion
The process of re-entering an existing wellbore that is either producing or not producing and completing new reservoirs in an attempt to establish or increase existing production.
Reserves
Reserves are estimated remaining quantities of oil and natural gas and related substances anticipated to be economically producible, as of a given date, by application of development projects to known accumulations. In addition, there must exist, or there must be a reasonable expectation that there will exist, the legal right to produce or a revenue interest in the production, installed means of delivering oil and natural gas or related substances to the market and all permits and financing required to implement the project. Reserves should not be assigned to adjacent reservoirs isolated by major, potentially sealing, faults until those reservoirs are penetrated and evaluated as economically producible. Reserves should not be assigned to areas that are clearly separated from a known accumulation by a non-productive reservoir (i.e., absence of reservoir, structurally low reservoir or negative test results). Such areas may contain prospective resources (i.e., potentially recoverable resources from undiscovered accumulations).
Reservoir
A porous and permeable underground formation containing a natural accumulation of producible natural gas and/or crude oil that is confined by impermeable rock or water barriers and is separate from other reservoirs.
Resource play
A set of discovered or prospective oil and/or natural gas accumulations sharing similar geologic, geographic and temporal properties, such as source rock, reservoir structure, timing, trapping mechanism and hydrocarbon type.
Royalty interest
An interest that gives an owner the right to receive a portion of the resources or revenues without having to carry any costs of development, which may be subject to expiration.
Spacing
The distance between wells producing from the same reservoir. Spacing is often expressed in terms of acres (e.g., 40-acre spacing) and is often established by regulatory agencies.
Standardized measure
The present value of estimated future net revenue to be generated from the production of proved reserves, determined in accordance with the rules and regulations of the SEC (using prices and costs in effect as of the date of estimation), less future development, production and income tax expenses, and discounted at 10% per annum to reflect the timing of future net revenue.
Tight formation
A formation with low permeability that produces natural gas with very low flow rates for long periods of time.
Undeveloped acreage
Lease acreage on which wells have not been drilled or completed to a point that would permit the production of economic quantities of oil and natural gas regardless of whether such acreage contains proved reserves.
Wellbore
The hole drilled by the bit that is equipped for oil or natural gas production on a completed well.
Working interest
An operating interest that gives the owner the right to drill, produce and conduct operating activities on the property and receive a share of production and requires the owner to pay a share of the costs of drilling and production operations.
WTI
West Texas Intermediate.

iii

GLOSSARY OF CERTAIN OTHER TERMS
The following is a glossary of certain other terms used in this report:
Delaware Act
Delaware Revised Uniform Limited Partnership Act.
Diamondback
Diamondback Energy, Inc., a Delaware corporation.
Diamondback E&P LLC
A subsidiary of Diamondback.
EPA
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
Exchange Act
The Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.
FERC
Federal Energy Regulatory Commission.
GAAP
Accounting principles generally accepted in the United States.
General partner
Viper Energy Partners GP LLC, a Delaware limited liability company; the general partner of the Partnership and a wholly-owned subsidiary of Diamondback.
IPO
The partnership’s initial public offering of common units.
LTIP
Viper Energy Partners LP Long Term Incentive Plan.
Operating Company
Viper Energy Partners LLC, a Delaware limited liability company and a consolidated subsidiary of Viper Energy Partners LP.
Partnership
Viper Energy Partners LP, a Delaware limited partnership.
Partnership agreement
The second amended and restated agreement of limited partnership, dated as of May 9, 2018, as amended as of May 10, 2018.
Ryder Scott
Ryder Scott Company, L.P.
SEC
Securities and Exchange Commission.
Securities Act
The Securities Act of 1933, as amended.
The NotesThe $500.0 million in aggregate principal amount of 5.375% Senior Notes due 2027 issued on October 16, 2019.
Wells Fargo
Wells Fargo Bank, National Association.


iv

CAUTIONARY STATEMENT REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

Various statements contained in this Annual Report are “forward-looking statements” as defined by the SEC. These forward-looking statements are subject to a number of risks, uncertainties and assumptions, many of which are beyond our control. All statements, other than statements of historical fact, regarding our strategy, future operations, financial position, estimated revenues and losses, projected costs, prospects, plans and objectives of management are forward-looking statements. When used in this Annual Report, the words “could,” “believe,” “anticipate,” “intend,” “estimate,” “expect,” “may,” “continue,” “predict,” “potential,” “project,” and similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements, although not all forward-looking statements contain such identifying words.

Forward-looking statements may include statements about:

the volatility of realized oil and natural gas prices and the extent and duration of price reductions and increased production by the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries, or OPEC, members and other oil exporting nations;
the threat, occurrence, potential duration or other implications of epidemic or pandemic diseases, including the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, any government responses thereto and logistical challenges and the supply chain disruptions during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic;
changes in general economic, business or industry conditions, including conditions of the U.S. oil and natural gas industry and the effect of U.S. energy, monetary and trade policies;
conditions in the capital, financial and credit markets and our ability to obtain capital on favorable terms or at all;
U.S. and global economic conditions and political and economic developments, including the effects of the recent U.S. presidential and congressional elections on energy and environmental policies;
our ability to execute our business and financial strategies;
the level of production on our properties;
the impact of reduced drilling activity on our exploration and development drilling prospects, inventories, projects and programs;
regional supply and demand factors, delays or interruptions of production, and any government order, rule or regulation that may impose production limits on properties in which we have mineral and royalty interest;

actions taken by third party operators on our mineral and royalty acreage;
our ability to replace our oil and natural gas reserves;
our ability to identify, complete and effectively integrate acquisitions of properties or businesses;
competition in the oil and natural gas industry;
the ability of our operators to obtain capital or financing needed for development and exploration operations;
title defects in the properties in which we invest;
uncertainties with respect to identified drilling locations and estimates of reserves;
the availability or cost of rigs, equipment, raw materials, supplies, oilfield services or personnel to our operators;
impact of extreme weather conditions, including the recent severe winter storms in the Permian Basin, on production volumes on our mineral and royalty acreage;
restrictions on the use of water;
the availability of transportation, pipeline and storage facilities;
the ability of our operators to comply with applicable governmental laws and regulations and to obtain permits and governmental approvals;
federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives relating to hydraulic fracturing, including the effect of existing and future laws and government regulations;
future operating results;
future distributions to eligible unitholders;
impact of potential impairment charges;
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operating hazards faced by our operators;
the ability of our operators to keep pace with technological advancements;
civil unrest, terrorist attacks and cyber threats;
the effects of future litigation; and
certain other factors discussed elsewhere in this report.

All forward-looking statements speak only as of the date of this report or, if earlier, as of the date they were made. We do not intend to, and disclaim any obligation to, update or revise any forward-looking statements unless required by securities laws. You should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements. Moreover, we operate in a very competitive and rapidly changing environment. New risks emerge from time to time. It is not possible for our management to predict all risks, nor can we assess the impact of all factors on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements we may make. Although we believe that our plans, intentions and expectations reflected in or suggested by the forward-looking statements we make in this report are reasonable, we can give no assurance that these plans, intentions or expectations will be achieved or occur, and actual results could differ materially and adversely from those anticipated or implied in the forward-looking statements.


vi

PART I
References in this Annual Report to (i) “Viper Energy Partners,” “Viper,” “the Partnership,” “our partnership,” “we,” “our,” “us” or like terms refer to Viper Energy Partners LP individually and collectively with its subsidiary, Viper Energy Partners LLC, as the context requires; (ii) “our general partner” refers to Viper Energy Partners GP LLC, our general partner and a wholly owned subsidiary of Diamondback Energy, Inc.; and (iii) the “Operating Company” or “OpCo” refers to Viper Energy Partners LLC, and (iv) “Diamondback” refers collectively to Diamondback Energy, Inc. and its subsidiaries other than the Partnership and its subsidiary.

ITEMS 1 and 2.     BUSINESS AND PROPERTIES

Overview

We are a publicly traded Delaware limited partnership formed by Diamondback to own and acquire mineral and royalty interests in oil and natural gas properties primarily in the Permian Basin. Since May 10, 2018, we have been treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes.
Our primary business objective is to provide an attractive return to our unitholders by focusing on business results, generating robust free cash flow, reducing debt and protecting our balance sheet, while maintaining a best-in-class cost structure. Our initial assets consisted of mineral interests in oil and natural gas properties in the Permian Basin in West Texas, substantially all of which are leased to working interest owners who bear the costs of operation and development. Diamondback contributed these assets to us upon the closing of our IPO on June 23, 2014.

Like Diamondback, we are currently focused primarily on oil and natural gas properties in the Permian Basin, which is one of the oldest and most prolific producing basins in North America. The Permian Basin, which consists of approximately 75,000 square miles centered around Midland, Texas, has been a significant source of oil production since the 1920s. The Permian Basin is known to have a number of zones of oil and natural gas bearing rock throughout.

Our Properties

As of December 31, 2020, our assets consisted of mineral interests underlying 787,264 gross acres and 24,350 net royalty acres in the Permian Basin and Eagle Ford Shale. Diamondback is the operator of approximately 52% of this acreage. As of December 31, 2020, there were 7,167 wells producing on this acreage, of which Diamondback was the operator of 1,694 wells. Net production during the fourth quarter of 2020 was approximately 27,699 BOE/d and net production for the year ended December 31, 2020 averaged 26,551 BOE/d. For the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018, royalty revenue generated from these mineral interests was $247.0 million, $293.8 million and $282.7 million, respectively.

The estimated proved oil and natural gas reserves of our assets, as of December 31, 2020, were 99,392 MBOE based on a reserve report prepared by Ryder Scott, our independent reserve engineers. Of these reserves, approximately 73% were classified as proved developed producing reserves. Proved undeveloped, or PUD, reserves included in this estimate were from 426 gross horizontal well locations. As of December 31, 2020, our proved reserves were approximately 58% oil, 22% natural gas liquids and 20% natural gas.

Our Relationship with Diamondback

As of December 31, 2020, our general partner had a 100% general partner interest in us, and Diamondback owned 731,500 common units and beneficially owned all of our 90,709,946 outstanding Class B units, representing approximately 58% of our total units outstanding. Diamondback also owns and controls our general partner. We believe that the properties held by Diamondback include properties that have, or with additional development will have, production and reserves characteristics that could make them attractive for inclusion in our partnership. We believe Diamondback’s significant ownership in us will motivate it to offer additional mineral and other interests in oil and natural gas properties to us in the future, although Diamondback has no obligation to do so and may elect to dispose of mineral and other interests in such properties without offering us the opportunities to acquire them.

We believe Diamondback views our partnership as part of its business strategy and that Diamondback will be incentivized to pursue acquisitions jointly with us in the future. However, Diamondback will regularly evaluate acquisitions and may elect to acquire properties without offering us the opportunity to participate in such transactions. Moreover, Diamondback may not be successful in identifying potential acquisitions. Diamondback is free to act in a manner that is beneficial to its interests without regard to ours, which may include electing not to present us with acquisition or disposition opportunities.
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In addition, neither we, the Operating Company nor our general partner has any employees. Diamondback provides management, operating and administrative services to us and our general partner. Please read “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and the consolidated financial statements and related notes, each of which is included elsewhere in this report.

Business Strategies

Our primary business objective is to provide an attractive return to unitholders by focusing on business results, generating robust free cash flow, reducing debt and protecting our balance sheet, while maintaining a best-in-class cost structure. We intend to accomplish this objective by executing the following strategies:

Capitalize on the development of the properties underlying our mineral interests to grow our cash flow. Our assets primarily consist of mineral interests in the Permian Basin and the Eagle Ford Shale in Texas. We expect the production from our mineral interests will increase as Diamondback and our other operators continue to drill and develop our acreage. We expect to capitalize on this development, which requires no capital expenditure funding from us, and believe the anticipated increase in our aggregate royalty payment receipts will enable us to grow our cash flows.

Leverage our relationship with Diamondback to participate with it in acquisitions of mineral or other interests in producing properties from third parties and to increase the size and scope of our potential third-party acquisition targets. We have in the past and intend to continue to make opportunistic acquisitions of mineral interests that have substantial oil-weighted resource potential and organic growth potential. Diamondback was formed, in part, to acquire and develop oil and natural gas properties, some of which will likely meet our acquisition criteria. In addition, Diamondback’s executives have an established track record of evaluating, pursuing and consummating oil and natural gas property acquisitions in North America. Through our relationships with Diamondback and its affiliates, we have access to their significant pool of management talent and industry relationships, which we believe provide us with a competitive advantage in pursuing potential third-party acquisition opportunities. We may have additional opportunities to work jointly with Diamondback to pursue certain acquisitions of mineral or other interests in oil and natural gas properties from third parties. For example, we and Diamondback may jointly pursue an acquisition where we would acquire mineral or other interests in properties and Diamondback would acquire the remaining working and revenue interests in such properties. We believe this arrangement may give us access to third-party acquisition opportunities that we would not otherwise be in a position to pursue.

Seek to acquire from Diamondback, from time to time, mineral or other interests in producing oil and natural gas properties that meet our acquisition criteria. Since our formation, we have acquired, and may have additional opportunities from time to time in the future to acquire, mineral or other interests in producing oil and natural gas properties directly from Diamondback. We believe Diamondback may be incentivized to sell properties to us, as doing so may enhance Diamondback’s economic returns by monetizing long-lived producing properties while potentially retaining a portion of the resulting cash flow through distributions on Diamondback’s limited partner interests in us. However, none of Diamondback or any of its affiliates is contractually obligated to offer or sell any interests in properties to us.

High-grading our asset base. We intend to continue to high-grade our asset base and selectively divest non-core minerals with limited optionality when the amount negotiated exceeds our projected total value and, then redeploy proceeds into our core areas of focus.

Maintain a conservative capital structure to allow financial flexibility. Since our formation, we have maintained a conservative capital structure that has allowed us to opportunistically purchase accretive mineral and other interests. We are committed to maintaining a conservative leverage profile, and will continue to seek to opportunistically fund accretive acquisitions. We intend to continue to repay debt using free cash flow to ensure our ability to successfully operate in challenging business and commodity price environments.

Hedging to manage commodity price risk and to protect our balance sheet and cash flow. We use a combination of derivative instruments, including fixed price swap contracts, fixed price basis swap contracts, three-way costless collars and both outright put and call options to economically hedge exposure to changes in commodity prices and maintain financial and balance sheet flexibility.


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Competitive Strengths

We believe that the following competitive strengths will allow us to successfully execute our business strategies and achieve our primary business objective:

Oil rich resource base in one of North America’s leading resource plays. The majority of the acreage underlying our mineral interests is located in one of the most prolific oil plays in North America, the Permian Basin in West Texas. As of December 31, 2020, 165 horizontal drilling rigs were operating in the Permian Basin, representing 55% of the total U.S. onshore horizontal rig activity. The majority of our current properties is well positioned in the core of both the Midland and Delaware Basins. Production on our properties for the year ended December 31, 2020 was approximately 61% oil, 19% natural gas liquids and 20% natural gas. As of December 31, 2020, our estimated net proved reserves were comprised of approximately 58% oil, 22% natural gas liquids and 20% natural gas.

Sustainable, high margin business unburdened by capital expenses with minimal operating expenses. Our mineral and royalty interests provide us cash flows without the requirement to fund drilling and completion costs or lease operating expenses. Our operating costs consist of certain royalty taxes, gathering, processing and transportation costs and general and administrative expenses, providing us with a low cost structure and high operating margins that generate increasing free cash flow growth in a stable or rising price environment as the underlying production associated with our royalty interests continues to grow.

Experienced and proven management team. The members of our executive team have an average of over 25 years of industry experience, most of which has been focused on resource play development in the Permian Basin. This team has a proven track record of executing on multi-rig development drilling programs and extensive experience in the Permian Basin. In addition, our executive team has significant experience with property acquisition. We expect to benefit from the industry relationships of the management team. We believe the experience of our management team is essential for the execution of our business strategy.

Favorable and stable operating environment. We primarily focus our growth in the Permian Basin, one of the oldest, most prolific hydrocarbon basins in the United States, with a long and well-established production history and developed infrastructure. With over 350,000 wells drilled in the Permian Basin since the 1940s, we believe that the geological and regulatory environment is more stable and predictable, and that we are faced with fewer operational risks, in the Permian Basin as compared to emerging hydrocarbon basins. We believe that the impact of the proven application of new technology, combined with the substantial geological information available about the Permian Basin, also reduces the risk of development and exploration activities as compared to emerging hydrocarbon basins.

Oil and Natural Gas Data

Proved Reserves

Evaluation and Review of Reserves

Our historical reserve estimates as of December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018 were prepared by Ryder Scott. Ryder Scott is an independent petroleum engineering firm. The technical persons responsible for preparing our proved reserve estimates meet the requirements with regards to qualifications, independence, objectivity and confidentiality set forth in the Standards Pertaining to the Estimating and Auditing of Oil and Gas Reserves Information promulgated by the Society of Petroleum Engineers. Ryder Scott is a third-party engineering firm and does not own an interest in any of our properties and is not employed by us on a contingent basis.

Under SEC rules, proved reserves are those quantities of oil and natural gas, which, by analysis of geoscience and engineering data, can be estimated with reasonable certainty to be economically producible–from a given date forward, from known reservoirs and under existing economic conditions, operating methods and government regulations–prior to the time at which contracts providing the right to operate expire, unless evidence indicates that renewal is reasonably certain, regardless of whether deterministic or probabilistic methods are used for the estimation. If deterministic methods are used, the SEC has defined reasonable certainty for proved reserves as a “high degree of confidence that the quantities will be recovered.” All of our proved reserves as of December 31, 2020 were estimated using a deterministic method.

The estimation of reserves involves two distinct determinations. The first determination results in the estimation of the quantities of recoverable oil and natural gas and the second determination results in the estimation of the uncertainty associated with those estimated quantities in accordance with the definitions established under SEC rules. The process of estimating the
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quantities of recoverable oil and natural gas reserves relies on the use of certain generally accepted analytical procedures. These analytical procedures fall into three broad categories or methods: (1) performance-based methods, (2) volumetric-based methods and (3) analogy. These methods may be used singularly or in combination by the reserve evaluator in the process of estimating the quantities of reserves. Approximately 90% of the proved producing reserves attributable to producing wells were estimated by performance methods. These performance methods include, but may not be limited to, decline curve analysis, which utilized extrapolations of available historical production and pressure data. The remaining 10% of the proved producing reserves were estimated by analogy, or a combination of performance and analogy methods. The analogy method was used where there were inadequate historical performance data to establish a definitive trend and where the use of production performance data as a basis for the reserve estimates was considered to be inappropriate. All proved developed non-producing and undeveloped reserves were estimated by the analogy method.

To estimate economically recoverable proved reserves and related future net cash flows, Ryder Scott considered many factors and assumptions, including the use of reservoir parameters derived from geological, geophysical and engineering data which cannot be measured directly, economic criteria based on current costs and the SEC pricing requirements and forecasts of future production rates. To establish reasonable certainty with respect to our estimated proved reserves, the technologies and economic data used in the estimation of our proved reserves included production and well test data, downhole completion information, geologic data, electrical logs, radioactivity logs, core analyses, available seismic data and historical well cost and operating expense data.

The process of estimating oil, natural gas and natural gas liquids reserves is complex and requires significant judgment, as discussed in “Item 1A. Risk Factors” of this report. As a result, our petroleum engineers and geoscience professionals work closely with our independent reserve engineers to ensure the integrity, accuracy and timeliness of the data used to calculate our proved reserves relating to our assets in the Permian Basin. Our internal technical team members met with our independent reserve engineers periodically during the period covered by the reserve report to discuss the assumptions and methods used in the proved reserve estimation process. We provide historical information to the independent reserve engineers for our properties such as ownership interest, oil and gas production, well test data, commodity prices and operating and development costs. The Executive Vice President–Reservoir Engineering of our general partner is primarily responsible for overseeing the preparation of all of our reserve estimates. The Executive Vice President–Reservoir Engineering of our general partner is a petroleum engineer with over 30 years of reservoir and operations experience and our geoscience staff has an average of approximately 20 years of industry experience per person. Our technical staff uses historical information for our properties such as ownership interest, oil and natural gas production, well test data, commodity prices and operating and development costs.

The preparation of our proved reserve estimates are completed in accordance with our internal control procedures. These procedures, which are intended to ensure reliability of reserve estimations, include the following:

review and verification of historical production data, which data is based on actual production as reported by our operators;

preparation of reserve estimates by the Executive Vice President–Reservoir Engineering of our general partner or under his direct supervision;

review by the Executive Vice President–Reservoir Engineering of our general partner of all of our reported proved reserves at the close of each quarter, including the review of all significant reserve changes and all new proved undeveloped reserves additions;
direct reporting responsibilities by the Executive Vice President–Reservoir Engineering of our general partner to the Chief Executive Officer of our general partner;

verification of property ownership by our land department; and

no employee’s compensation is tied to the amount of reserves booked.

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The following table presents our estimated net proved oil and natural gas reserves as of December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018 based on the reserve reports prepared by Ryder Scott. Each reserve report has been prepared in accordance with the rules and regulations of the SEC. All of our proved reserves included in the reserve reports are located in the continental United States.
December 31,
 202020192018
Estimated proved developed reserves:
Oil (MBbls)40,220 40,857 29,526 
Natural gas (MMcf)93,617 80,737 49,681 
Natural gas liquids (MBbls)16,724 14,994 7,965 
Total (MBOE)72,547 69,307 45,771 
Estimated proved undeveloped reserves:
Oil (MBbls)17,310 13,563 12,352 
Natural gas (MMcf)25,833 15,037 11,916 
Natural gas liquids (MBbls)5,229 3,570 3,027 
Total (MBOE)26,845 19,639 17,365 
Estimated Net Proved Reserves:
Oil (MBbls)57,530 54,420 41,878 
Natural gas (MMcf)119,450 95,774 61,597 
Natural gas liquids (MBbls)21,953 18,564 10,992 
Total (MBOE)(1)
99,392 88,946 63,136 
Percent proved developed73 %78 %72 %
(1)Estimates of reserves as of December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018 were prepared using the unweighted arithmetic average of hydrocarbon prices received on a field-by-field basis on the first day of each month within the 12-month periods ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively, in accordance with SEC guidelines. Reserve estimates do not include any value for probable or possible reserves that may exist, nor do they include any value for undeveloped acreage. The reserve estimates represent our net revenue interest in our properties. Although we believe these estimates are reasonable, actual future production, cash flows, taxes, development expenditures, operating expenses and quantities of recoverable oil and natural gas reserves may vary substantially from these estimates. See “Item 1A. Risk Factors” for a discussion of risks and uncertainties associated with our estimates of proved reserves and related factors, and see Note 14—Supplemental Information on Oil and Natural Gas Operations for further discussion of our reserve estimates and pricing.

Proved Undeveloped Reserves

As of December 31, 2020, our PUD reserves totaled 17,310 MBbls of oil, 25,833 MMcf of natural gas and 5,229 MBbls of natural gas liquids, for a total of 26,845 MBOE. PUDs will be converted from undeveloped to developed as the applicable wells begin production. Our PUD reserves were from 426 horizontal wells, of which Diamondback is the operator of 385 wells with ConocoPhillips (formerly Concho Resources Inc.) and SM Energy operating the majority of the remaining wells. Of the horizontal locations, 173 are Wolfcamp A wells, 86 are Lower Spraberry wells, 84 are Middle Spraberry/Jo Mill wells, 56 are Wolfcamp B wells, 26 are Bone Spring wells and one is a Wolfcamp D well.

The following table includes the changes in PUD reserves for 2020:
(MBOE)
Beginning proved undeveloped reserves at December 31, 201919,639 
Undeveloped reserves transferred to developed(7,362)
Revisions(1,192)
Purchases88 
Divestitures(14)
Extensions and discoveries15,686 
Ending proved undeveloped reserves at December 31, 202026,845 


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The increase in proved undeveloped reserves was primarily attributable to additions of 15,686 MBOE, primarily from 299 horizontal well locations attributable to extensions resulting from strategic drilling of wells to delineate our acreage position and acquisitions of approximately 88 MBOE, partially offset by the conversion of approximately 7,362 MBOE attributable to PUDs into proved developed reserves. Downward revisions of 1,192 MBOE resulted primarily from PUD downgrades and lower benchmark commodity prices.

All of our PUD drilling locations are scheduled to be drilled within five years from the date they were initially recorded. As of December 31, 2020, none of our total proved reserves were classified as proved developed non-producing.

Oil and Natural Gas Production Prices and Production Costs

Production and Price History

We operate in the Permian Basin and the Eagle Ford Shale in Texas in one reportable segment engaged in the acquisition of oil and natural gas properties. At December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018, the Permian Basin contained 15% or more of our total proved reserves. The following table sets forth information regarding our share of our operators’ net production of oil, natural gas and natural gas liquids, for these fields along with our share of our operators’ net production from fields containing less than 15% of our total proved reserves:
Permian Basin
Other(1)
Total
Production Data:
Year Ended December 31, 2020
Oil (MBbls)5,800 156 5,956 
Natural gas (MMcf)11,098 388 11,486 
Natural gas liquids (MBbl)1,763 85 1,848 
Combined volumes (MBOE)9,413 306 9,718 
Year Ended December 31, 2019
Oil (MBbls)4,890 233 5,123 
Natural gas (MMcf)7,029 628 7,657 
Natural gas liquids (MBbl)1,339 120 1,459 
Combined volumes (MBOE)7,401 458 7,858 
Year Ended December 31, 2018
Oil (MBbls)4,177 222 4,399 
Natural gas (MMcf)5,223 617 5,840 
Natural gas liquids (MBbl)824 109 933 
Combined volumes (MBOE)5,872 434 6,305 
(1)Production data for the year ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018 includes the Eagle Ford Shale.


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The following table sets forth certain price and cost information for each of the periods indicated:
Year Ended December 31,
202020192018
Average Prices:
Oil (per Bbl)$36.58 $51.61 $56.13 
Natural gas (per Mcf)$0.79 $1.06 $2.22 
Natural gas liquids (per Bbl)$10.88 $14.63 $24.41 
Combined (per BOE)$25.41 $37.39 $44.83 
Oil, hedged ($/Bbl)(1)
$32.00 $51.61 $56.13 
Natural gas, hedged ($/Mcf)(1)
$0.02 $1.06 $2.22 
Natural gas liquids ($/Bbl)(1)
$10.88 $14.63 $24.41 
Combined price, hedged ($/BOE)(1)
$21.71 $37.39 $44.83 
(1) Hedged prices reflect the effect of our commodity derivative transactions on our average sales prices. Our calculation of such effects include realized gains and losses on cash settlements for commodity derivatives, which we do not designate for hedge accounting.

Productive Wells

As of December 31, 2020, we owned an average 3.8% net revenue interest in 7,167 gross productive wells, including an average 3.8% net revenue interest in 6,968 gross oil productive wells and an average 2.1% net revenue interest in 199 gross natural gas productive wells. As of December 31, 2020, we had 11 gross productive wells with an average 12.7% net revenue interest in process of being drilled by Diamondback. The expected timing of these wells is based primarily on permitting by third party operators or Diamondback’s current expected completion schedule. Productive wells consist of producing wells capable of production, including natural gas awaiting pipeline connections to commence deliveries and oil wells awaiting connection to production facilities. Gross wells are the total number of producing wells in which we have an interest.

Acreage

The following table sets forth information as of December 31, 2020 relating to the gross and net royalty acreage of our mineral interests:
BasinGross Royalty AcreageNet Royalty Acreage
Delaware290,821 11,091 
Midland376,090 12,578 
Eagle Ford Shale120,353 681 
Total acreage787,264 24,350 
     
Our net interest in production from our mineral interests is based on lease royalty terms which vary from property to property. Our interest in the majority of these properties is perpetual in nature, however approximately 13% of the net royalty acreage consists of over-riding royalty interests which may be subject to expiration. Net royalty acres are defined as gross acreage multiplied by the average royalty interest.

Title to Properties

Prior to the drilling of an oil or natural gas well, it is the normal practice in our industry for the person or company acting as the operator of the well to obtain a preliminary title review to ensure there are no obvious defects in title to the well. Frequently, as a result of such examinations, certain curative work must be done to correct defects in the marketability of the title, and such curative work entails expense. Our operators’ failure to cure any title defects may delay or prevent us from utilizing the associated mineral interest, which may adversely impact our ability in the future to increase production and reserves. Additionally, undeveloped acreage has greater risk of title defects than developed acreage. If there are any title defects or defects in the assignment of leasehold rights in properties in which we hold an interest, our business and cash available for distribution may be adversely affected.


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Competition

The oil and natural gas industry is intensely competitive, and we compete with other companies that have greater resources. Many of these companies not only explore for and produce oil and natural gas, but also carry on midstream and refining operations and market petroleum and other products on a regional, national or worldwide basis. These companies may be able to pay more for productive oil and natural gas properties and exploratory prospects or to define, evaluate, bid for and purchase a greater number of properties and prospects than our financial or human resources permit. In addition, these companies may have a greater ability to continue exploration activities during periods of low oil and natural gas market prices. Our larger or more integrated competitors may be able to absorb the burden of existing, and any changes to, federal, state and local laws and regulations more easily than we can, which would adversely affect our competitive position.

Our ability to acquire additional mineral, royalty, overriding royalty, net profits and similar interests in the future will be dependent upon our ability to evaluate and select suitable properties and to consummate transactions in a highly competitive environment. In addition, because we have fewer financial and human resources than many companies in our industry, we may be at a disadvantage in bidding for these and other oil and natural gas properties. Further, oil and natural gas compete with other forms of energy available to customers, primarily based on price. Changes in the availability or price of oil and natural gas or other forms of energy, as well as business conditions, conservation, legislation, regulations and the ability to convert to alternate fuels and other forms of energy may affect the demand for oil and natural gas.

Seasonal Nature of Business

Generally, demand for oil increases during the summer months and decreases during the winter months while natural gas decreases during the summer months and increases during the winter months. Certain natural gas users utilize natural gas storage facilities and purchase some of their anticipated winter requirements during the summer, which can lessen seasonal demand fluctuations. Seasonal weather conditions, such as, for example, the recent severe winter storms in the Permian Basin, and lease stipulations can limit drilling and producing activities and other oil and natural gas operations in a portion of our operating areas. These seasonal anomalies can pose challenges for our operators in meeting well drilling objectives and can increase competition for equipment, supplies and personnel during the spring and summer months, which could lead to shortages and increase costs or delay operations.

Regulation

The following disclosure describes regulation more directly associated with operators of oil and natural gas properties, including our current operators, and other owners of working interests in oil and natural gas properties. To the extent we elect in the future to engage in the exploration, development and production of oil and natural gas properties, we would be directly subject to the same regulations described below. For purposes of this section, where applicable, references to “we,” “us,” and “our” refer to Viper Energy Partners LP to the extent the partnership were to acquire working interests in the future as well as to any operators of our properties, including our current operators.
Oil and natural gas operations are subject to various types of legislation, regulation and other legal requirements enacted by governmental authorities. This legislation and regulation affecting the oil and natural gas industry is under constant review for amendment or expansion. Some of these requirements carry substantial penalties for failure to comply. The regulatory burden on the oil and natural gas industry increases the cost of doing business.

Environmental Matters

Oil and natural gas exploration, development and production operations are subject to stringent laws and regulations governing the discharge of materials into the environment or otherwise relating to environmental protection. Numerous federal, state and local governmental agencies, such as the EPA, issue regulations that often require difficult and costly compliance measures that carry substantial administrative, civil and criminal penalties and may result in injunctive obligations for non-compliance. These laws and regulations may require the acquisition of a permit before drilling commences, restrict the types, quantities and concentrations of various substances that can be released into the environment in connection with drilling and production activities, limit or prohibit construction or drilling activities on certain lands lying within wilderness, wetlands, ecologically or seismically sensitive areas, and other protected areas, require action to prevent or remediate pollution from current or former operations, such as plugging abandoned wells or closing pits, result in the suspension or revocation of necessary permits, licenses and authorizations, require that additional pollution controls be installed and impose substantial liabilities for pollution resulting from operations.

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Liability under such laws and regulations is often strict (i.e., no showing of “fault” is required) and can be joint and several. Moreover, it is not uncommon for neighboring landowners and other third parties to file claims for personal injury and property damage allegedly caused by the release of hazardous substances, hydrocarbons or other waste products into the environment. Changes in environmental laws and regulations occur frequently, and any changes that result in more stringent and costly pollution control or waste handling, storage, transport, disposal or cleanup requirements could materially and adversely affect our business and prospects.

Waste Handling

The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, or the RCRA, as amended, and comparable state statutes and regulations promulgated thereunder, affect oil and natural gas exploration, development and production activities by imposing requirements regarding the generation, transportation, treatment, storage, disposal and cleanup of hazardous and non-hazardous wastes. With federal approval, the individual states administer some or all of the provisions of the RCRA, sometimes in conjunction with their own, more stringent requirements. Although most wastes associated with the exploration, development and production of crude oil and natural gas are exempt from regulation as hazardous wastes under the RCRA, such wastes may constitute “solid wastes” that are subject to the less stringent non-hazardous waste requirements. Moreover, the EPA or state or local governments may adopt more stringent requirements for the handling of non-hazardous wastes or categorize some non-hazardous wastes as hazardous for future regulation. Indeed, legislation has been proposed from time to time in Congress to re-categorize certain oil and natural gas exploration, development and production wastes as “hazardous wastes.” Also, in December 2016, the EPA agreed in a consent decree to review its regulation of oil and natural gas waste. However, in April 2019, the EPA concluded that revisions to the federal regulations for the management of oil and natural gas waste are not necessary at this time. Any changes in such laws and regulations could have a material adverse effect on our capital expenditures and operating expenses.

Administrative, civil and criminal penalties can be imposed for failure to comply with waste handling requirements. Any legislative or regulatory reclassification of oil and natural gas exploration and production wastes could increase the costs to manage and dispose of wastes.

Remediation of Hazardous Substances

The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, as amended, which we refer to as CERCLA or the “Superfund” law, and analogous state laws, generally impose liability, without regard to fault or legality of the original conduct, on classes of persons who are considered to be responsible for the release of a “hazardous substance” into the environment. These persons include the current owner or operator of a contaminated facility, a former owner or operator of the facility at the time of contamination, and those persons that disposed or arranged for the disposal of the hazardous substance at the facility. Under CERCLA and comparable state statutes, persons deemed “responsible parties” are subject to strict liability that, in some circumstances, may be joint and several for the costs of removing or remediating previously disposed wastes (including wastes disposed of or released by prior owners or operators) or property contamination (including groundwater contamination), for damages to natural resources and for the costs of certain health studies. In addition, it is not uncommon for neighboring landowners and other third parties to file claims for personal injury and property damage allegedly caused by the hazardous substances released into the environment. In the course of our operations, we use materials that, if released, would be subject to CERCLA and comparable state statutes. Therefore, governmental agencies or third parties may seek to hold us responsible under CERCLA and comparable state statutes for all or part of the costs to clean up sites at which such “hazardous substances” have been released.

Water Discharges

The Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972, as amended, also known as the “Clean Water Act,” or the CWA, the Safe Drinking Water Act, the Oil Pollution Act, or the OPA, and analogous state laws and regulations promulgated thereunder impose restrictions and strict controls regarding the unauthorized discharge of pollutants, including produced waters and other gas and oil wastes, into navigable waters of the United States, as well as state waters. The discharge of pollutants into regulated waters is prohibited, except in accordance with the terms of a permit issued by the EPA or the state. Spill prevention, control and countermeasure plan requirements under federal law require appropriate containment berms and similar structures to help prevent the contamination of navigable waters in the event of a petroleum hydrocarbon tank spill, rupture or leak. The CWA and regulations implemented thereunder also prohibit the discharge of dredge and fill material into regulated waters, including jurisdictional wetlands, unless authorized by an appropriately issued permit.


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On June 29, 2015, the EPA and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, or the Corps, jointly promulgated final rules redefining the scope of waters protected under the CWA. However, on October 22, 2019, the agencies published a final rule to repeal the 2015 rules. The 2015 rule and the 2019 repeal are subject to several ongoing legal challenges. Also, on April 21, 2020, the EPA and the Corps published a final rule replacing the 2015 rule, and significantly reducing the waters subject to federal regulation under the CWA. As a result of such recent developments, substantial uncertainty exists regarding the scope of waters protected under the CWA. Several state and environmental groups have challenged the replacement rule and, on January 20, 2021, the Biden Administration directed the EPA and the Corps to review the rule. To the extent the rules expand the range of properties subject to the CWA’s jurisdiction, we could face increased costs and delays with respect to obtaining permits for dredge and fill activities in wetland areas.

The EPA has also adopted regulations requiring certain oil and natural gas exploration and production facilities to obtain individual permits or coverage under general permits for storm water discharges. In addition, on June 28, 2016, the EPA published a final rule prohibiting the discharge of wastewater from onshore unconventional oil and natural gas extraction facilities to publicly owned wastewater treatment plants, which regulations are discussed in more detail below under the caption “–Regulation of Hydraulic Fracturing.” Costs may be associated with the treatment of wastewater or developing and implementing storm water pollution prevention plans, as well as for monitoring and sampling the storm water runoff from certain of our facilities. Some states also maintain groundwater protection programs that require permits for discharges or operations that may impact groundwater conditions.

The OPA is the primary federal law for oil spill liability. The OPA contains numerous requirements relating to the prevention of and response to petroleum releases into waters of the United States, including the requirement that operators of offshore facilities and certain onshore facilities near or crossing waterways must develop and maintain facility response contingency plans and maintain certain significant levels of financial assurance to cover potential environmental cleanup and restoration costs. The OPA subjects owners of facilities to strict liability that, in some circumstances, may be joint and several for all containment and cleanup costs and certain other damages arising from a release, including, but not limited to, the costs of responding to a release of oil to surface waters.

Non-compliance with the CWA or the OPA may result in substantial administrative, civil and criminal penalties, as well as injunctive obligations.

Air Emissions

The federal Clean Air Act, or the CAA, as amended, and comparable state laws and regulations, regulate emissions of various air pollutants through the issuance of permits and the imposition of other requirements. The EPA has developed, and continues to develop, stringent regulations governing emissions of air pollutants at specified sources. New facilities may be required to obtain permits before work can begin, and existing facilities may be required to obtain additional permits and incur capital costs in order to remain in compliance. For example, on August 16, 2012, the EPA published final regulations under the federal CAA that establish new emission controls for oil and natural gas production and processing operations, which are discussed in more detail below in “—Regulation of Hydraulic Fracturing.” Also, on May 12, 2016, the EPA issued a final rule regarding the criteria for aggregating multiple small surface sites into a single source for air-quality permitting purposes applicable to the oil and natural gas industry. This rule could cause small facilities, on an aggregate basis, to be deemed a major source, thereby triggering more stringent air permitting processes and requirements. These laws and regulations may increase the costs of compliance for some facilities we own or operate, and federal and state regulatory agencies can impose administrative, civil and criminal penalties for non-compliance with air permits or other requirements of the federal CAA and associated state laws and regulations. Obtaining or renewing permits has the potential to delay the development of oil and natural gas projects.

Climate Change

In recent years, federal, state and local governments have taken steps to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. The EPA has finalized a series of greenhouse gas monitoring, reporting and emissions control rules for the oil and natural gas industry, and the U.S. Congress has, from time to time, considered adopting legislation to reduce emissions. Almost one-half of the states have already taken measures to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases primarily through the development of greenhouse gas emission inventories and/or regional greenhouse gas cap-and-trade programs. In addition, states have imposed increasingly stringent requirements related to the venting or flaring of gas during oil and natural gas operations. For example, on November 4, 2020, the Texas Railroad Commission adopted new guidance on when flaring is permissible, requiring operators to submit more specific information to justify the need to flare or vent gas.

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At the international level, in December 2015, the United States participated in the 21st Conference of the Parties of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Paris, France. The resulting Paris Agreement calls for the parties to undertake “ambitious efforts” to limit the average global temperature, and to conserve and enhance sinks and reservoirs of greenhouse gases. The Agreement went into effect on November 4, 2016. The Agreement establishes a framework for the parties to cooperate and report actions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Although the United States withdrew from the Paris Agreement effective November 4, 2020, President Biden issued an Executive Order on January 20, 2021 to rejoin the Paris Agreement, which went into effect on February 19, 2021. The United States has indicated its plan to announce in advance of an April 22, 2021 climate summit its nationally determined contribution, or its commitment to reduce its national greenhouse gas emissions to meet this objective. Furthermore, many state and local leaders have stated their intent to intensify efforts to support the commitments set forth in the international accord.

Restrictions on emissions of methane or carbon dioxide that may be imposed could adversely impact the demand for, price of, and value of our products and reserves. As our operations also emit greenhouse gases directly, current and future laws or regulations limiting such emissions could increase our own costs. At this time, it is not possible to accurately estimate how potential future laws or regulations addressing greenhouse gas emissions would impact our business.

In addition, there have also been efforts in recent years to influence the investment community, including investment advisors and certain sovereign wealth, pension and endowment funds promoting divestment of fossil fuel equities and pressuring lenders to limit funding to companies engaged in the extraction of fossil fuel reserves. Such environmental activism and initiatives aimed at limiting climate change and reducing air pollution could interfere with our business activities, operations and ability to access capital. Furthermore, claims have been made against certain energy companies alleging that greenhouse gas emissions from oil and natural gas operations constitute a public nuisance under federal and/or state common law. As a result, private individuals or public entities may seek to enforce environmental laws and regulations against us and could allege personal injury, property damages or other liabilities. While our business is not a party to any such litigation, we could be named in actions making similar allegations. An unfavorable ruling in any such case could significantly impact our operations and could have an adverse impact on our financial condition.

Moreover, climate change may be associated with extreme weather conditions such as more intense hurricanes, thunderstorms, tornadoes and snow or ice storms, as well as rising sea levels. Another possible consequence of climate change is increased volatility in seasonal temperatures. Some studies indicate that climate change could cause some areas to experience temperatures substantially hotter or colder than their historical averages. Extreme weather conditions, such as, for example, the recent severe winter storms in the Permian Basin, can interfere with our production and increase our costs and damage resulting from extreme weather may not be fully insured. However, at this time, we are unable to determine the extent to which climate change may lead to increased storm or weather hazards affecting our operations.

Regulation of Hydraulic Fracturing

Hydraulic fracturing is an important common practice that is used to stimulate production of hydrocarbons from tight formations, including shales. The process, which involves the injection of water, sand and chemicals under pressure into formations to fracture the surrounding rock and stimulate production, is typically regulated by state oil and natural gas commissions. However, legislation has been proposed in recent sessions of Congress to amend the Safe Drinking Water Act to repeal the exemption for hydraulic fracturing from the definition of “underground injection,” to require federal permitting and regulatory control of hydraulic fracturing, and to require disclosure of the chemical constituents of the fluids used in the fracturing process. Furthermore, several federal agencies have asserted regulatory authority over certain aspects of the process. For example, the EPA has taken the position that hydraulic fracturing with fluids containing diesel fuel is subject to regulation under the Underground Injection Control program, specifically as “Class II” Underground Injection Control wells under the Safe Drinking Water Act.

On June 28, 2016, the EPA published a final rule prohibiting the discharge of wastewater from onshore unconventional oil and natural gas extraction facilities to publicly owned wastewater treatment plants. The EPA is also conducting a study of private wastewater treatment facilities (also known as centralized waste treatment, or CWT, facilities) accepting oil and natural gas extraction wastewater. The EPA is collecting data and information related to the extent to which CWT facilities accept such wastewater, available treatment technologies (and their associated costs), discharge characteristics, financial characteristics of CWT facilities, and the environmental impacts of discharges from CWT facilities.


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On August 16, 2012, the EPA published final regulations under the federal CAA that establish new air emission controls for oil and natural gas production and natural gas processing operations. Specifically, the EPA’s rule package includes New Source Performance standards to address emissions of sulfur dioxide and volatile organic compounds and a separate set of emission standards to address hazardous air pollutants frequently associated with oil and natural gas production and processing activities. The final rules seek to achieve a 95% reduction in volatile organic compounds emitted by requiring the use of reduced emission completions or “green completions” on all hydraulically-fractured wells constructed or refractured after January 1, 2015. The rules also establish specific new requirements regarding emissions from compressors, controllers, dehydrators, storage tanks and other production equipment. The EPA received numerous requests for reconsideration of these rules from both industry and the environmental community, and court challenges to the rules were also filed. In response, the EPA has issued, and will likely continue to issue, revised rules responsive to some of the requests for reconsideration. In particular, on May 12, 2016, the EPA amended its regulations to impose new standards for methane and volatile organic compounds emissions for certain new, modified, and reconstructed equipment, processes, and activities across the oil and natural gas sector. However, in a March 28, 2017 executive order, the Trump Administration directed the EPA to review the 2016 regulations and, if appropriate, to initiate a rulemaking to rescind or revise them consistent with the stated policy of promoting clean and safe development of the nation’s energy resources, while at the same time avoiding regulatory burdens that unnecessarily encumber energy production. Accordingly, on August 13, 2020, the EPA issued final amendments to the 2012 and 2016 New Source Performance standards to ease regulatory burdens, including rescinding standards applicable to transmission or storage segments and eliminating methane requirements altogether. Various state, municipal and environmental groups have challenged the amendments and, on January 20, 2021, President Biden issued an executive order directing the EPA to review the amendments consistent with several policy objective, including reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Thus substantial uncertainty exists regarding the scope of the New Source Performance standards for oil and natural gas operations. The 2012 and 2016 New Source Performance standards, to the extent implemented, as well as any future laws and their implementing regulations, may require us to obtain pre-approval for the expansion or modification of existing facilities or the construction of new facilities expected to produce air emissions, impose stringent air permit requirements, or mandate the use of specific equipment or technologies to control emissions. We cannot predict the final regulatory requirements or the cost to comply with such requirements with any certainty.

Furthermore, there are certain governmental reviews either underway or being proposed that focus on environmental aspects of hydraulic fracturing practices. On December 13, 2016, the EPA released a study examining the potential for hydraulic fracturing activities to impact drinking water resources, finding that, under some circumstances, the use of water in hydraulic fracturing activities can impact drinking water resources. Also, on February 6, 2015, the EPA released a report with findings and recommendations related to public concern about induced seismic activity from disposal wells. The report recommends strategies for managing and minimizing the potential for significant injection-induced seismic events. Other governmental agencies, including the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Geological Survey, and the U.S. Government Accountability Office, have evaluated or are evaluating various other aspects of hydraulic fracturing. These ongoing or proposed studies could spur initiatives to further regulate hydraulic fracturing, and could ultimately make it more difficult or costly for us to perform fracturing and increase our costs of compliance and doing business.

Several states, including Texas, have adopted, or are considering adopting, regulations that could restrict or prohibit hydraulic fracturing in certain circumstances, impose more stringent operating standards and/or require the disclosure of the composition of hydraulic fracturing fluids. The Texas Legislature adopted legislation, effective September 1, 2011, requiring oil and natural gas operators to publicly disclose the chemicals used in the hydraulic fracturing process. The Texas Railroad Commission adopted rules and regulations implementing this legislation that apply to all wells for which the Texas Railroad Commission issues an initial drilling permit after February 1, 2012. The law requires that the well operator disclose the list of chemical ingredients subject to the requirements of Federal Occupational Safety and Health Act for disclosure on an internet website and also file the list of chemicals with the Texas Railroad Commission with the well completion report. The total volume of water used to hydraulically fracture a well must also be disclosed to the public and filed with the Texas Railroad Commission. Also, in May 2013, the Texas Railroad Commission adopted rules governing well casing, cementing and other standards for ensuring that hydraulic fracturing operations do not contaminate nearby water resources. The rules took effect in January 2014. Additionally, on October 28, 2014, the Texas Railroad Commission adopted disposal well rule amendments designed, among other things, to require applicants for new disposal wells that will receive non-hazardous produced water and hydraulic fracturing flowback fluid to conduct seismic activity searches utilizing the U.S. Geological Survey. The searches are intended to determine the potential for earthquakes within a circular area of 100 square miles around a proposed new disposal well. The disposal well rule amendments, which became effective on November 17, 2014, also clarify the Texas Railroad Commission’s authority to modify, suspend or terminate a disposal well permit if scientific data indicates a disposal well is likely to contribute to seismic activity. The Texas Railroad Commission has used this authority to deny permits for waste disposal wells.

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There has been increasing public controversy regarding hydraulic fracturing with regard to the use of fracturing fluids, induced seismic activity, impacts on drinking water supplies, use of water and the potential for impacts to surface water, groundwater and the environment generally. A number of lawsuits and enforcement actions have been initiated across the country implicating hydraulic fracturing practices. If new laws or regulations that significantly restrict hydraulic fracturing are adopted, such laws could make it more difficult or costly for us to perform fracturing to stimulate production from tight formations as well as make it easier for third parties opposing the hydraulic fracturing process to initiate legal proceedings based on allegations that specific chemicals used in the fracturing process could adversely affect groundwater. In addition, if hydraulic fracturing is further regulated at the federal or state level, our fracturing activities could become subject to additional permitting and financial assurance requirements, more stringent construction specifications, increased monitoring, reporting and recordkeeping obligations, plugging and abandonment requirements and also to permitting delays and potential increases in costs. Such changes could cause us to incur substantial compliance costs, and compliance or the consequences of any failure to comply by us could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations. At this time, it is not possible to estimate the impact on our business of newly enacted or potential federal, state or local laws governing hydraulic fracturing.

Other Regulation of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry

The oil and natural gas industry is extensively regulated by numerous federal, state and local authorities. Legislation affecting the oil and natural gas industry is under constant review for amendment or expansion, frequently increasing the regulatory burden. Also, numerous departments and agencies, both federal and state, are authorized by statute to issue rules and regulations that are binding on the oil and natural gas industry and its individual members, some of which carry substantial penalties for failure to comply. Although the regulatory burden on the oil and natural gas industry increases the cost of doing business, these burdens generally do not affect us any differently or to any greater or lesser extent than they affect other companies in the industry with similar types, quantities and locations of production. The availability, terms and cost of transportation significantly affect sales of oil and natural gas. The interstate transportation and sale for resale of oil and natural gas is subject to federal regulation, including regulation of the terms, conditions and rates for interstate transportation, storage and various other matters, primarily by FERC. Federal and state regulations govern the price and terms for access to oil and natural gas pipeline transportation. FERC’s regulations for interstate oil and natural gas transmission in some circumstances may also affect the intrastate transportation of oil and natural gas.

Although oil and natural gas prices are currently unregulated, Congress historically has been active in the area of oil and natural gas regulation. We cannot predict whether new legislation to regulate oil and natural gas might be proposed, what proposals, if any, might actually be enacted by Congress or the various state legislatures, and what effect, if any, the proposals might have on our operations. Sales of condensate and oil and natural gas liquids are not currently regulated and are made at market prices.

Drilling and Production

The operations of our operators are subject to various types of regulation at the federal, state and local level. These types of regulation include requiring permits for the drilling of wells, drilling bonds and reports concerning operations. The states, and some counties and municipalities, in which our operators conduct business also regulate one or more of the following: the location of wells; the method of drilling and casing wells; the timing of construction or drilling activities, including seasonal wildlife closures; the rates of production or “allowables”; the surface use and restoration of properties upon which wells are drilled; the plugging and abandoning of wells; and notice to, and consultation with, surface owners and other third parties.

State laws regulate the size and shape of drilling and spacing units or proration units governing the pooling of oil and natural gas properties. Some states allow forced pooling or integration of tracts to facilitate exploration while other states rely on voluntary pooling of lands and leases. In some instances, forced pooling or unitization may be implemented by third parties and may reduce our interest in the unitized properties. In addition, state conservation laws establish maximum rates of production from oil and natural gas wells, generally prohibit the venting or flaring of natural gas and impose requirements regarding the ratability of production. These laws and regulations may limit the amount of oil and natural gas that our operators can produce from our wells or limit the number of wells or the locations at which we can drill. Moreover, each state generally imposes a production or severance tax with respect to the production and sale of oil, natural gas and natural gas liquids within its jurisdiction. States do not regulate wellhead prices or engage in other similar direct regulation, but we cannot assure our unitholders that they will not do so in the future. The effect of such future regulations may be to limit the amounts of oil and natural gas that may be produced from our wells, negatively affect the economics of production from these wells or to limit the number of locations we can drill.

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Federal, state and local regulations provide detailed requirements for the plugging and abandonment of wells, closure or decommissioning of production facilities and pipelines and for site restoration in areas. Although the Corps does not require bonds or other financial assurances, some state agencies and municipalities do have such requirements.

Natural Gas Sales and Transportation

Historically, federal legislation and regulatory controls have affected the price and marketing of natural gas. FERC has jurisdiction over the transportation and sale for resale of natural gas in interstate commerce by natural gas companies under the Natural Gas Act of 1938 and the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978. Since 1978, various federal laws have been enacted which have resulted in the complete removal of all price and non-price controls for sales of domestic natural gas sold in “first sales.” Under the Energy Policy Act of 2005, FERC has substantial enforcement authority to prohibit the manipulation of natural gas markets and enforce its rules and orders, including the ability to assess substantial civil penalties.

FERC also regulates interstate natural gas transportation rates and service conditions and establishes the terms under which we may use interstate natural gas pipeline capacity, which affects the marketing of natural gas that our operators produce, as well as the revenues our operators receive for sales of natural gas and release of natural gas pipeline capacity. Commencing in 1985, FERC promulgated a series of orders, regulations and rule makings that significantly fostered competition in the business of transporting and marketing gas. Today, interstate pipeline companies are required to provide nondiscriminatory transportation services to producers, marketers and other shippers, regardless of whether such shippers are affiliated with an interstate pipeline company. FERC’s initiatives have led to the development of a competitive, open access market for natural gas purchases and sales that permits all purchasers of natural gas to buy gas directly from third-party sellers other than pipelines. However, the natural gas industry historically has been very heavily regulated; therefore, we cannot guarantee that the less stringent regulatory approach currently pursued by FERC and Congress will continue indefinitely into the future nor can we determine what effect, if any, future regulatory changes might have on our natural gas related activities. Under FERC’s current regulatory regime, transmission services are provided on an open-access, non-discriminatory basis at cost-based rates or negotiated rates. Gathering service, which occurs upstream of jurisdictional transmission services, is regulated by the states onshore and in state waters. Although its policy is still in flux, FERC has in the past reclassified certain jurisdictional transmission facilities as non-jurisdictional gathering facilities, which has the tendency to increase our operators’ costs of transporting gas to point-of-sale locations.

Oil Sales and Transportation

Sales of crude oil, condensate and natural gas liquids are not currently regulated and are made at negotiated prices. Nevertheless, Congress could reenact price controls in the future.

Crude oil sales are affected by the availability, terms and cost of transportation. The transportation of oil in common carrier pipelines is also subject to rate regulation. FERC regulates interstate oil pipeline transportation rates under the Interstate Commerce Act, and intrastate oil pipeline transportation rates are subject to regulation by state regulatory commissions. The basis for intrastate oil pipeline regulation, and the degree of regulatory oversight and scrutiny given to intrastate oil pipeline rates, varies from state to state. Insofar as effective interstate and intrastate rates are equally applicable to all comparable shippers, we believe that the regulation of oil transportation rates will not affect our operations in any materially different way than such regulation will affect the operations of our competitors.
Further, interstate and intrastate common carrier oil pipelines must provide service on a non-discriminatory basis. Under this open access standard, common carriers must offer service to all shippers requesting service on the same terms and under the same rates. When oil pipelines operate at full capacity, access is governed by prorationing provisions set forth in the pipelines’ published tariffs. Accordingly, we believe that access to oil pipeline transportation services generally will be available to our operators to the same extent as to our or their competitors.

State Regulation

Texas regulates the drilling for, and the production, gathering and sale of, oil and natural gas, including imposing severance taxes and requirements for obtaining drilling permits. Texas currently imposes a 4.6% severance tax on oil production and a 7.5% severance tax on natural gas production. States also regulate the method of developing new fields, the spacing and operation of wells and the prevention of waste of oil and natural gas resources. States may regulate rates of production and may establish maximum daily production allowables from oil and natural gas wells based on market demand or resource conservation, or both. States do not regulate wellhead prices or engage in other similar direct economic regulation, but we cannot assure our unitholders that they will not do so in the future. The effect of these regulations may be to limit the
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amount of oil and natural gas that may be produced from our wells and to limit the number of wells or locations our operators can drill.

The petroleum industry is also subject to compliance with various other federal, state and local regulations and laws. Some of those laws relate to resource conservation and equal employment opportunity. We do not believe that compliance with these laws will have a material adverse effect on us.

Employees

We do not have any employees. We are managed and operated by the board of directors and executive officers of our general partner. All of the individuals that conduct our business, including our executive officers, are employed by Diamondback.

Facilities

Our principal executive offices are located in Midland, Texas and are owned by Diamondback. We believe that these facilities are adequate for our current operations.

Availability of Partnership Reports

Our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and all amendments to those reports are available free of charge on the Investor Relations page of our website at www.viperenergy.com as soon as reasonably practicable after such material is electronically filed with, or furnished to, the SEC. Information contained on, or connected to, our website is not incorporated by reference into this Annual Report and should not be considered part of this or any other report that we file with or furnish to the SEC.

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ITEM 1A.     RISK FACTORS

Limited partner interests are inherently different from the capital stock of a corporation, although many of the business risks to which we are subject are similar to those that would be faced by a corporation engaged in a similar business. If any of the following risks were to occur, our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash available for distribution could be materially adversely affected. In that case, we might not be able to make distributions on our common units, the trading price of our common units could decline, and unitholders could lose all or part of their investment. Other risks are also described in “Items 1 and 2. Business and Properties,” “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and “Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk.”

Risks Related to Our Business

Our business has been and will likely continue to be adversely affected by the ongoing COVID-19 coronavirus pandemic.

The spread of COVID-19 caused, and is continuing to cause, severe disruptions in the worldwide and U.S. economy, including the global and domestic demand for oil and natural gas, which could have an adverse effect on our operators and, in turn, on our business, financial condition and cash flows. Moreover, since the beginning of January 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic has caused significant disruption in the financial markets both globally and in the United States. The continued spread of COVID-19 could also negatively impact the availability of key personnel necessary to conduct our business. If COVID-19 continues to spread or the response to contain or mitigate the COVID-19 pandemic through the development and availability of effective treatments and vaccines, including the vaccines recently approved by the FDA for emergency use in the U.S., is unsuccessful, we could continue to experience material adverse effects on our business, financial condition and cash available for distribution to our unitholders. Due to the rapid development and fluidity of this situation, we cannot make any prediction as to the ultimate material adverse impact of the COVID -19 pandemic on our business, financial condition and cash available for distribution to our unitholders.

The sharp decline in oil and natural gas prices and continued volatility in the oil and natural gas markets have negatively impacted, and are likely to continue to negatively impact, exploration and production activities of our operators and, as a result, our revenue and cash available for distribution to our unitholders. In addition, lower oil and natural gas prices may adversely affect the borrowing base under our revolving credit facility and estimates of our proved reserves.

In early March 2020, oil prices dropped sharply and then continued to decline reaching negative levels. This was a result of multiple factors affecting the supply and demand in global oil and natural gas markets, including actions taken by OPEC members and other exporting nations impacting commodity price and production levels and a significant decrease in demand due to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. While OPEC members and certain other nations agreed in April 2020 to cut production and subsequently extended such production cuts through December 2020, which helped to reduce a portion of the excess supply in the market and improve crude oil prices, they agreed to increase production by 500,000 barrels per day beginning in January 2021. As a result, downward pressure on commodity prices has continued and could continue for the foreseeable future. We cannot predict if or when commodity prices will stabilize and at what levels.

As a result of the reduction in crude oil demand caused by factors discussed above, Diamondback and other operators on properties in which we have mineral and royalty interests lowered their 2020 capital budgets and production guidance, curtailed near term production and reduced their rig count, all of which may be subject to further reductions or curtailments if the commodity markets and macroeconomic conditions worsen. Although Diamondback and certain of our other operators have moved to restore curtailed production, actions taken by our operators in response to the COVID-19 pandemic and depressed commodity pricing environment have had and are expected to continue to have an adverse effect on our business, financial results and cash flows.

Based on the results of the quarterly ceiling test, we were required to record an impairment on our proved oil and natural gas interests for the year ended December 31, 2020. If commodity prices fall below current levels, we may be required to record impairments in future periods and such impairments could be material. Further, if commodity prices decrease, our production, proved reserves and cash flows will be adversely impacted. Lower oil and natural gas prices may also result in a reduction in the borrowing base under the Operating Company’s revolving credit facility, which may be determined at the discretion of our lenders.

Other significant factors that are likely to continue to affect commodity prices in future periods include, but are not limited to, actions by OPEC members and other oil exporting nations, the effect of U.S. energy, monetary and trade policies, U.S. and global economic conditions, U.S. and global political and economic developments, including the Biden Administration’s energy and environmental policies and the impact of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic on conditions in the
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U.S. oil and natural gas industry, all of which are beyond our control. Our business may be also adversely impacted by any future government rule, regulation or order that may impose production limits, as well as pipeline capacity and storage constraints, in the Permian Basin or Eagle Ford Shale where we have mineral and royalty interests. We cannot predict the ultimate impact of these factors on our business, financial condition and cash available for distribution to our unitholders.

Increased costs of capital could adversely affect our business.

Our business could be harmed by factors such as the availability, terms and cost of capital, increases in interest rates or a reduction in our credit rating. Changes in any one or more of these factors could cause our cost of doing business to increase, limit our access to capital, limit our ability to pursue acquisition opportunities, reduce our cash flows available and place us at a competitive disadvantage. Continuing disruptions and volatility in the global financial markets may lead to an increase in interest rates or a contraction in credit availability impacting our ability to finance our activities. A significant reduction in the availability of credit could materially and adversely affect our ability to achieve our business strategy and cash flows.

We may not have sufficient available cash to pay any quarterly distribution on our common units, our cash available for distribution may vary significantly from quarter to quarter and the board of directors of our general partner has recently modified, and may in the future further modify or revoke, our cash distribution policy at any time at its discretion. Our distribution policy could limit our ability to grow and make acquisitions.

We may not have sufficient available cash each quarter to enable us to pay any distributions to our common unitholders. Furthermore, our partnership agreement does not require us to pay distributions on a quarterly basis or otherwise. The amount of cash we have to distribute each quarter principally depends primarily upon the amount of royalty income we generate, which are dependent upon the volumes of production sold and the prices that our operators realize from the sale of such production. In addition, the actual amount of cash we will have to distribute each quarter under our cash distribution policy will be reduced by replacement capital expenditures, payments in respect of debt service and other contractual obligations and fixed charges and increases in reserves for future operating or capital needs that the board of directors may determine is appropriate. During 2020, our general partner made certain modifications to our distribution policy that reduced the distribution amount and may in the future further modify or revoke our distribution policy at any time at its discretion. For information regarding our distribution policy and the recent modifications, see “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.” As a result, quarterly distributions paid to our unitholders may vary significantly from quarter to quarter and may be zero.

As a result of our cash distribution policy, we have limited cash available to reinvest in our business or to fund acquisitions, and we will rely primarily upon external financing sources, including commercial bank borrowings and the issuance of debt and equity securities, to fund our acquisitions and growth capital expenditures. As such, to the extent we are unable to finance growth externally, our distribution policy will significantly impair our ability to grow.

To the extent we issue additional units in connection with any acquisitions or growth capital expenditures or as in-kind distributions, the payment of distributions on those additional units may increase the risk that we will be unable to maintain or increase our per unit distribution level. There are no limitations in our partnership agreement on our ability to issue additional units, including units ranking senior to the common units.

We use derivative instruments to economically hedge exposure to changes in commodity price and, as a result, are exposed to credit risk and market risk.

We use fixed price swap contracts, fixed price basis swap contracts and costless collar contracts with corresponding put and call options to reduce price volatility associated with certain of our royalty income. Our derivative contracts are based upon reported settlement prices on commodity exchanges, with crude oil derivative settlements based on New York Mercantile Exchange West Texas Intermediate pricing (Cushing and Midland-Cushing) and with natural gas derivative settlements based on the New York Mercantile Exchange Henry Hub and Waha Hub pricing. By using derivative instruments to economically hedge exposure to changes in commodity prices, we expose ourselves to credit risk and market risk due to the failure of the counterparty to perform under the terms of the derivative contract. When the fair value of a derivative contract is positive, the counterparty owes us, which creates credit risk. Our counterparties have been determined to have an acceptable credit risk; therefore, we do not require collateral from our counterparties. By using derivative instruments, we also may not realize the benefit of any short-term increase in the price of oil and natural gas.


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We depend on two operators for a substantial portion of the development and production on the properties underlying our mineral interests. A reduction in the expected number of wells to be drilled on our acreage by these operators or the failure of either operator to adequately and efficiently develop and operate our acreage could have an adverse effect on our expected growth and our results of operations.

For the year ended December 31, 2020, we received approximately 64% and 11% of our royalty revenue from properties operated by Diamondback and Concho Resources, respectively. The failure of Diamondback or Concho Resources to adequately or efficiently perform operations or an operator’s failure to act in ways that are in our best interests could reduce production and revenues. Any development and production activities on our properties are subject to our operators’ reasonable discretion. The level, success and timing of drilling and development activities on our properties, and whether the operators elect to drill any additional wells on our acreage, depends on a number of factors that will be largely outside of our control, including; commodity prices; the timing and amount of capital expenditures by our operators, which could be significantly more than anticipated; the ability of our operators to access capital; the availability of suitable drilling equipment, production and transportation infrastructure and qualified operating personnel; the operators’ expertise, operating efficiency and financial resources; approval of other participants in drilling wells; the operators’ expected return on investment in wells drilled on our acreage as compared to opportunities in other areas; the selection of technology; the selection of counterparties for the sale of production; and the rate of production of the reserves.

The operators may elect not to undertake development activities, or may undertake such activities in an unanticipated fashion, which may result in significant fluctuations in our royalty revenues and cash available for distribution to our unitholders. If reductions in production by the operators are implemented on our properties and sustained, our revenues may also be substantially affected. Additionally, if an operator were to experience financial difficulty, the operator might not be able to pay its royalty payments or continue its operations, which could have a material adverse impact on us.

The development of our proved undeveloped reserves may take longer and may require higher levels of capital expenditures than we currently anticipate.

Approximately 27% of our total estimated proved reserves as of December 31, 2020 were proved undeveloped reserves and may not be ultimately developed or produced. Recovery of proved undeveloped reserves requires significant capital expenditures and successful drilling operations. The reserve data included in the reserve reports of our independent petroleum engineers assume that substantial capital expenditures are required to develop such reserves. We cannot be certain that the estimated costs of the development of these reserves are accurate, that development will occur as scheduled or that the results of such development will be as estimated. Delays in the development of our reserves, increases in costs to drill and develop such reserves, or further decreases in commodity prices will reduce the future net revenues of our estimated proved undeveloped reserves and may result in some projects becoming uneconomical. In addition, delays in the development of reserves could force us to reclassify certain of our proved reserves as unproved reserves.

Our future success depends on finding, developing or acquiring additional reserves.

Our future success depends upon our ability to find, develop or acquire additional oil and natural gas reserves that are economically recoverable. Our proved reserves will generally decline as reserves are depleted, except to the extent that successful exploration or development activities are conducted on our properties or we acquire properties containing proved reserves, or both. To increase reserves and production, we would need to undertake development, exploration and other replacement activities or use third parties to accomplish these activities. Substantial capital expenditures will be necessary for the development, production, exploration and acquisition of oil and natural gas reserves. Neither we nor our third-party operators may have sufficient resources to acquire additional reserves or to undertake exploration, development, production or other replacement activities, such activities may not result in significant additional reserves and efforts to drill productive wells at low finding and development costs may be unsuccessful. In addition, we do not expect to retain cash from our operations for replacement capital expenditures. Furthermore, although our revenues and cash available for distribution may increase if prevailing oil and natural gas prices increase significantly, finding costs for additional reserves could also increase.

We may not be able to terminate our leases if any of our operators declare bankruptcy, and we may experience delays and be unable to replace operators that do not make royalty payments.

A failure on the part of the operators to make royalty payments gives us the right to terminate the lease, repossess the property and enforce payment obligations under the lease. If we repossessed any of our properties, we would seek a replacement operator. However, we might not be able to find a replacement operator and, if we did, we might not be able to enter into a new lease on favorable terms within a reasonable period of time. In addition, the outgoing operator could be subject
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to bankruptcy proceedings that could prevent the execution of a new lease or the assignment of the existing lease to another operator. In addition, if we enter into a new lease, the replacement operator may not achieve the same levels of production or sell oil or natural gas at the same price as the operator it replaced.

Our producing properties are primarily located in the Permian Basin of West Texas, making us vulnerable to risks associated with operating in a single geographic area. In addition, we have a large amount of proved reserves attributable to a small number of producing horizons within this area.

Our producing properties are currently geographically concentrated in the Permian Basin of West Texas. As a result of this concentration, we may be disproportionately exposed to the impact of regional supply and demand factors, delays or interruptions of production from wells in this area caused by governmental regulation, processing or transportation capacity constraints, availability of equipment, facilities, personnel or services market limitations or interruption of the processing or transportation of crude oil, natural gas or natural gas liquids and extreme weather conditions, such as the recent severe winter storms in the Permian Basin, and their adverse impact on production volumes, availability of electric power, road accessibility and transportation facilities. In addition, the effect of fluctuations on supply and demand may become more pronounced within specific geographic oil and natural gas producing areas such as the Permian Basin, which may cause these conditions to occur with greater frequency or magnify the effects of these conditions. Due to the concentrated nature of our portfolio of properties, a number of our properties could experience any of the same conditions at the same time, resulting in a relatively greater impact on our results of operations than they might have on other companies that have a more diversified portfolio of properties. Such delays or interruptions could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

In addition to the geographic concentration of our producing properties described above, as of December 31, 2020, all of our proved reserves were attributable to the Midland and Delaware basins and the Eagle Ford Shale. This concentration of assets within a small number of producing horizons exposes us to additional risks, such as changes in field-wide rules and regulations that could cause us to permanently or temporarily shut-in all of our wells within a field.

Our failure to successfully identify, complete and integrate acquisitions of properties or businesses could slow our growth and adversely affect our results of operations and cash available for distribution.

There is intense competition for acquisition opportunities in our industry. The successful acquisition of producing properties requires an assessment of several factors, including; recoverable reserves, future oil and natural gas prices and their applicable differentials, operating costs and potential environmental and other liabilities. The accuracy of these assessments is inherently uncertain and we may not be able to identify attractive acquisition opportunities. In connection with these assessments, we perform a review of the subject properties that we believe to be generally consistent with industry practices. Our review will not reveal all existing or potential problems nor will it permit us to become sufficiently familiar with the properties to assess fully their deficiencies and capabilities. Inspections may not always be performed on every well, and environmental problems, such as groundwater contamination, are not necessarily observable even when an inspection is undertaken. Even when problems are identified, the seller may be unwilling or unable to provide effective contractual protection against all or part of the problems. Even if we do identify attractive acquisition opportunities, we may not be able to complete the acquisition or do so on commercially acceptable terms. Unless our operators further develop our existing properties, we will depend on acquisitions to grow our reserves, production and cash flow.

Competition for acquisitions may increase the cost of, or cause us to refrain from, completing acquisitions. Our ability to complete acquisitions is dependent upon, among other things, our ability to obtain debt and equity financing and, in some cases, regulatory approvals. Further, these acquisitions may be in geographic regions in which we do not currently hold properties. If we enter into new geographic markets, we may be subject to additional and unfamiliar legal and regulatory requirements and other unforeseen difficulties. Compliance with regulatory requirements may impose substantial additional obligations on us and our management, cause us to expend additional time and resources in compliance activities and increase our exposure to penalties or fines for non-compliance with such additional legal requirements. Further, the success of any completed acquisition will depend on our ability to integrate effectively the acquired business into our existing operations. The process of integrating acquired businesses may involve unforeseen difficulties and may require a disproportionate amount of our managerial and financial resources. In addition, possible future acquisitions may be larger and for purchase prices significantly higher than those paid for earlier acquisitions.

No assurance can be given that we will be able to identify suitable acquisition opportunities, negotiate acceptable terms, obtain financing for acquisitions on acceptable terms or successfully acquire identified targets. Our failure to achieve consolidation savings, to integrate the acquired businesses and assets into our existing operations successfully or to minimize any unforeseen operational difficulties could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash available for distribution. The inability to effectively manage the integration of acquisitions could reduce our focus on
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subsequent acquisitions and current operations, which, in turn, could negatively impact our growth, results of operations and cash available for distribution.

We may incur losses as a result of title defects in the properties in which we have an interest.

When acquiring oil and natural gas leases, we may not elect to incur the expense of retaining lawyers to examine the title to the mineral interest. Rather, we may rely upon the judgment of oil and gas lease brokers or landmen who perform the fieldwork in examining records in the appropriate governmental office before attempting to acquire a lease in a specific mineral interest. The existence of a material title deficiency can render an interest worthless and can adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition and cash available for distribution.

Project areas on our properties, which are in various stages of development, may not yield oil or natural gas in commercially viable quantities.

Project areas on our properties are in various stages of development, ranging from project areas with current drilling or production activity to project areas that have limited drilling or production history. If the wells in the process of being completed are on our property and do not produce sufficient revenues or if dry holes are drilled, our financial condition, results of operations and cash available for distribution may be materially affected.

Our method of accounting for investments in oil and natural gas properties may result in impairments in future periods.

We account for our oil and natural gas producing activities using the full cost method of accounting. Accordingly, all costs incurred in the acquisition, exploration and development of proved oil and natural gas properties, including the costs of abandoned properties, dry holes, geophysical costs and annual lease rentals are capitalized. All general and administrative corporate costs unrelated to drilling activities are expensed as incurred. Sales or other dispositions of oil and natural gas properties are accounted for as adjustments to capitalized costs, with no gain or loss recorded unless the ratio of cost to proved reserves would significantly change. Depletion of evaluated oil and natural gas properties is computed on the units of production method, whereby capitalized costs are amortized over total proved reserves.

The net capitalized costs of proved oil and natural gas properties are subject to a full cost ceiling limitation in which the costs are not allowed to exceed their related estimated future net revenues discounted at 10%. To the extent capitalized costs of evaluated oil and natural gas properties, net of accumulated depreciation, depletion, amortization and impairment, exceed the discounted future net revenues of proved oil and natural gas reserves, the excess capitalized costs are charged to expense. We use the unweighted arithmetic average first day of the month price for oil and natural gas for the 12-month period preceding the calculation date in estimating discounted future net revenues.

We recorded an impairment for the year ended December 31, 2020. No impairments on proved oil and natural gas properties were recorded for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018. See “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of OperationsCritical Accounting Policies—Method of Accounting for Oil and Natural Gas Properties.” If the prices of oil and natural gas continue to decline, we may be required to further write-down the value of our oil and natural gas properties in the future, which could negatively affect our results of operations.

Our estimated reserves are based on many assumptions that may turn out to be inaccurate. Any material inaccuracies in these reserve estimates or underlying assumptions will materially affect the quantities and present value of our reserves.

Oil and natural gas reserve engineering is not an exact science and requires subjective estimates of underground accumulations of oil and natural gas and assumptions concerning future oil and natural gas prices, production levels, ultimate recoveries and operating and development costs. As a result, estimated quantities of proved reserves, projections of future production rates and the timing of development expenditures may be incorrect. Over time, we may make material changes to reserve estimates taking into account the results of actual drilling, testing and production. Also, certain assumptions regarding future oil and natural gas prices, production levels and operating and development costs may prove incorrect. Any significant variance from these assumptions to actual figures could greatly affect our estimates of reserves, the economically recoverable quantities of oil and natural gas attributable to any particular group of properties, the classifications of reserves based on risk of recovery and estimates of future net cash flows. A substantial portion of our reserve estimates are made without the benefit of a lengthy production history, which are less reliable than estimates based on a lengthy production history. Numerous changes over time to the assumptions on which our reserve estimates are based, as described above, often result in the actual quantities of oil and natural gas that we ultimately recover being different from our reserve estimates. Reserve estimates do not include any value for probable or possible reserves that may exist, nor do they include any value for unproved undeveloped acreage.

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Conservation measures and technological advances could reduce demand for oil and natural gas.

Fuel conservation measures, alternative fuel requirements, increasing consumer demand for alternatives to oil and natural gas, technological advances in fuel economy and energy generation devices could reduce demand for oil and natural gas. The impact of the changing demand for oil and natural gas services and products may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash available for distribution.

The results of the 2020 U.S. presidential and congressional elections may create regulatory uncertainty for the oil and natural gas industry. Changes in environmental laws could increase our operators’ costs and adversely impact our business, financial condition and cash flows.

The results of the 2020 U.S. presidential election, as well as a closely divided Congress, may create regulatory uncertainty in the oil and natural gas industry. During his first weeks in office, President Biden has issued several executive orders promoting various programs and initiatives designed to, among other things, curtail climate change, control the release of methane from new and existing oil and natural gas operations, and pause new oil and natural gas leasing on public lands. It remains unclear what additional actions President Biden will take and what support he will have for any potential legislative changes from Congress. Further, it is uncertain to what extent any new environmental laws or regulations, or any repeal of existing environmental laws or regulations, may affect our or our operators’ business. However, such actions could significantly increase our operators’ costs or impair their ability to explore and develop other projects, which could adversely impact our business, financial condition and cash flows.

We are dependent on electrical power, internet and telecommunication infrastructure and information and computer systems. If any of these systems are compromised or unavailable, our business could be adversely affected.

We are dependent on electric power, internet and telecommunication infrastructure and our information systems and computer based programs. If any of such infrastructure, systems or programs were to fail or become unavailable or compromised, or create erroneous information in our hardware or software network infrastructure, our ability to safely and effectively conduct our business will be limited and any such consequence could have a material adverse effect on our business.

We are subject to cyber security risks. A cyber incident could occur and result in information theft, data corruption, operational disruption and/or financial loss.

The oil and natural gas industry has become increasingly dependent on digital technologies to conduct certain exploration, development, production, and processing activities, including digital technologies to interpret seismic data, manage drilling rigs, production equipment and gathering systems, conduct reservoir modeling and reserves estimation, and process and record financial and operating data. At the same time, cyber incidents, including deliberate attacks or unintentional events, have increased. The U.S. government has issued public warnings that indicate that energy assets might be specific targets of cyber security threats. Our and our operators’ technologies, systems, networks, and those of vendors, suppliers and other business partners, may become the target of cyberattacks or information security breaches that could result in the unauthorized release, gathering, monitoring, misuse, loss or destruction of proprietary and other information, or other disruption of business activities. In addition, certain cyber incidents, such as surveillance, may remain undetected for an extended period. Our systems for protecting against cyber security risks may not be sufficient. As cyber incidents continue to evolve, we may be required to expend additional resources to continue to modify or enhance our protective measures or to investigate and remediate any vulnerability to cyber incidents. We maintain specialized insurance for possible liability resulting from a cyberattack on our assets, however, we cannot assure you that the insurance coverage will be adequate to cover claims that may arise, or that we will be able to maintain adequate insurance at rates we consider reasonable. A loss not fully covered by insurance could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and cash flows.

Risks Related to Our Indebtedness

We have in the past, and we expect in the future to incur borrowings under the Operating Company’s revolving credit facility. Unless we are able to repay borrowings under the revolving credit facility with cash flow from operations and proceeds from equity offerings, implementing our capital programs may require an increase in our total leverage through additional debt issuances. In addition, a reduction in availability under the revolving credit facility and the inability to otherwise obtain financing for our capital programs could require us to curtail our capital expenditures.

As a result of our cash distribution policy, we have limited cash available to reinvest in our business or to fund acquisitions and have historically relied on availability under the Operating Company’s revolving credit facility to fund a portion of our capital expenditures and for other purposes. We expect that we will continue to fund a portion of our capital
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expenditures and other needs with borrowings under the revolving credit facility and from the proceeds of debt and equity offerings. In the past, we have created availability under the revolving credit facility by repaying outstanding borrowings with the proceeds from equity and debt offerings. We cannot assure you that we will choose to or be able to access the capital markets to repay any such future borrowings. If the availability under the revolving credit facility were reduced, and we were otherwise unable to secure other sources of financing, we may be required to curtail our capital expenditures, which could result in an inability to complete acquisitions or finance the capital expenditures necessary to replace our reserves.

Our substantial level of indebtedness could adversely affect our financial condition and prevent us from fulfilling our obligations under the Notes and our other indebtedness.

As of December 31, 2020, we had total long-term debt of $563.9 million, consisting of $479.9 million aggregate principal amount of our outstanding 5.375% senior notes due 2027, which we refer to herein as the Notes, and $84.0 million in outstanding borrowings under the Operating Company’s revolving credit facility which has a maximum credit amount of $2.0 billion and the borrowing base (based on our oil and natural gas reserves and other factors) was set at $580.0 million, borrowings subject to scheduled semi-annual and other borrowing base redeterminations. We and the Operating Company may in the future incur significant additional indebtedness under our revolving credit facilities or otherwise in order to make acquisitions or for other purposes.

Our level of indebtedness could have important consequences to you and affect our operations in several ways, including the following: it may become more difficult for us to satisfy our obligations with respect to the notes, including any repurchase obligations that may arise thereunder; a significant portion of our cash flows could be used to service the Notes and our other indebtedness, which could reduce the funds available to us for operations and other purposes; our vulnerability to general adverse economic and industry conditions could potentially increase; the covenants contained in the agreements governing our outstanding indebtedness will limit our ability to borrow additional funds, dispose of assets, pay distributions and make certain investments; we may be placed at a competitive disadvantage compared to our competitors that are less leveraged and, therefore, our competitors may be able to take advantage of opportunities that our indebtedness would prevent us from pursuing; our debt covenants may also limit management’s discretion in operating our business and our flexibility in planning for, and reacting to, changes in the economy and in our industry; it may become more likely that a reduction in the borrowing base following a periodic redetermination could require us and the Operating Company to repay a portion of the then-outstanding bank borrowings; potentially could limit our ability to access the capital markets to raise capital on favorable terms; it may impair our ability to obtain additional financing in the future for working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions, general corporate or other purposes; and we may be vulnerable to interest rate increases, as the borrowings under the Operating Company’s revolving credit facility are at variable interest rates.

We may still be able to incur substantial additional indebtedness in the future, which could further exacerbate the risks that we and our subsidiaries face.

Restrictive covenants in the Operating Company’s revolving credit facility, the indenture governing the Notes and future debt instruments may limit our ability to respond to changes in market conditions or pursue business opportunities.

The Operating Company’s revolving credit facility and the indenture governing the Notes outstanding contain, and the terms of any future indebtedness may contain, restrictive covenants that limit our and the Operating Company’s ability to, among other things: incur or guarantee additional indebtedness; make certain investments; create additional liens; sell or transfer assets; lease property as a lessee; issue redeemable or preferred equity; voluntarily redeem or prepay debt (including the Notes); merge or consolidate with another entity; pay dividends or make distributions; designate certain of our subsidiaries as unrestricted subsidiaries; create unrestricted subsidiaries; engage in transactions with affiliates; enter into gas imbalance, take-or-pay and similar agreements; and enter into certain swap agreements.

We may be prevented from taking advantage of business opportunities that arise because of the limitations imposed on us and the Operating Company by the restrictive covenants contained in the revolving credit facility and the indenture that govern the Notes. In addition, the revolving credit facility requires us to maintain certain financial ratios and tests. The requirement that we comply with these provisions may materially adversely affect our ability to react to changes in market conditions, take advantage of business opportunities we believe to be desirable, obtain future financing, fund needed capital expenditures or withstand a continuing or future downturn in our business.

Our and the Operating Company’s future ability to comply with these restrictions and covenants is uncertain and will be affected by the levels of cash flow from our operations and other events or circumstances beyond our control. If market or other economic conditions deteriorate, our ability to comply with these covenants may be impaired. A breach of any of these restrictive covenants could result in default under the revolving credit facility. If a default occurs, the lenders under the
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revolving credit facility may elect to declare all borrowings outstanding, together with accrued interest and other fees, to be immediately due and payable, which would result in an event of default under the indenture governing the Notes. The lenders will also have the right in these circumstances to terminate any commitments they have to provide further borrowings. If we and the Operating Company are unable to repay outstanding borrowings when due, the lenders under the revolving credit facility will also have the right to proceed against the collateral granted to them to secure the indebtedness. If the indebtedness under the revolving credit facility and the Notes were to be accelerated, we cannot assure you that our assets would be sufficient to repay in full that indebtedness.

Any significant reduction in the borrowing base under the Operating Company’s revolving credit facility as a result of the periodic borrowing base redeterminations or otherwise may negatively impact our ability to fund our operations, and we may not have sufficient funds to repay borrowings under the revolving credit facility if required as a result of a borrowing base redetermination.

A decline in commodity prices could result in a redetermination that lowers the borrowing base. Any significant reduction in the borrowing base as a result of such borrowing base redeterminations or otherwise may negatively impact our liquidity and our ability to fund our operations and, as a result, may have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operation and cash flow. Further, if the outstanding borrowings under the revolving credit facility were to exceed the borrowing base as a result of any such redetermination, we and the Operating Company would be required to repay the excess. We may not have sufficient funds to make such repayments. If we do not have sufficient funds and we are otherwise unable to negotiate renewals of the borrowings or arrange new financing, we may have to sell significant assets. Any such sale could have a material adverse effect on our business and financial results.

Servicing our indebtedness requires a significant amount of cash, and we may not have sufficient cash flow from our business to pay our substantial indebtedness.

Our ability to make scheduled payments of the principal of, to pay interest on or to refinance our indebtedness depends on our future performance, which is subject to economic, financial, competitive and other factors beyond our control. We are dependent on cash flow generated by the Operating Company to repay the Notes. The Operating Company’s business may not generate cash flow from operations in the future sufficient to service our debt and make necessary capital expenditures. If the Operating Company is unable to generate such cash flow, we may be required to adopt one or more alternatives, such as reducing or delaying capital expenditures, selling assets, restructuring debt or obtaining additional capital on terms that may be onerous or highly dilutive. However, we cannot assure you that undertaking alternative financing plans, if necessary, would allow us to meet our debt obligations. In the absence of such cash flows, we could have substantial liquidity problems and might be required to sell material assets or operations to attempt to meet our debt service and other obligations. The Operating Company’s revolving credit facility and the indenture governing the Notes outstanding restrict our ability to use the proceeds from asset sales. We may not be able to consummate those asset sales to raise capital or sell assets at prices that we believe are fair, and proceeds that we do receive may not be adequate to meet any debt service obligations then due. Our ability to refinance our indebtedness will depend on the capital markets and our financial condition at the time. We may not be able to engage in any of these activities or engage in these activities on desirable terms, which could result in a default on our debt obligations and have an adverse effect on our financial condition.

If we experience liquidity concerns, we could face a downgrade in our debt ratings which could restrict our access to, and negatively impact the terms of, current or future financings or trade credit.

Our ability to obtain financings and trade credit and the terms of any financings or trade credit is, in part, dependent on the credit ratings assigned to our debt by independent credit rating agencies. We cannot provide assurance that any of our current ratings will remain in effect for any given period of time or that a rating will not be lowered or withdrawn entirely by a rating agency if, in its judgment, circumstances so warrant. Factors that may impact our credit ratings include debt levels, planned asset purchases or sales and near-term and long-term production growth opportunities, liquidity, asset quality, cost structure, product mix and commodity pricing levels. A ratings downgrade could adversely impact our ability to access financings or trade credit and increase our or the Operating Company’s borrowing costs.

The borrowings under the Operating Company’s revolving credit facility expose us to interest rate risk.

Our earnings are exposed to interest rate risk associated with borrowings under the Operating Company’s revolving credit facility which provides for interest on borrowings at a floating rate equal to, an alternative base rate tied to LIBOR. LIBOR tends to fluctuate based on multiple facts, including general short-term interest rates, rates set by the U.S. Federal Reserve and other central banks, the supply of and demand for credit in the London interbank market and general economic conditions. We have not hedged our interest rate exposure with respect to our floating rate debt. Accordingly, our interest
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expense for any particular period will fluctuate based on LIBOR and other variable interest rates. If interest rates increase, so will our interest costs, which may have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.

On July 27, 2017, the U.K. Financial Conduct Authority (the authority that regulates LIBOR) announced that it intends to stop compelling banks to submit rates for the calculation of LIBOR after 2021. It is unclear whether new methods of calculating LIBOR will be established such that it continues to exist after 2021. The U.S. Federal Reserve, in conjunction with the Alternative Reference Rates Committee, is considering replacing U.S. dollar LIBOR with a newly created index. It is not possible to predict the effect of these changes, other reforms or the establishment of alternative reference rates in the United States or elsewhere.
Risks Related to Our Operators and Other Working Interest Owners

The operators of our properties are subject to additional risks and uncertainties, including those described below, and, as the owner of mineral interests, we are indirectly exposed to the same risks and uncertainties.

Development and exploration operations require substantial capital and our operators may be unable to obtain needed capital or financing on satisfactory terms or at all, which could lead to a loss of properties and a decline in our oil and natural gas reserves;
The potential drilling locations identified by the operators of our properties are susceptible to uncertainties that could materially alter the occurrence or timing of their drilling;
Acreage must be drilled before lease expiration, generally within three to five years, to hold the acreage by production. Our operators’ failure to drill sufficient wells to hold acreage may result in a loss of the lease and prospective drilling opportunities;
The unavailability, high cost or shortages of rigs, equipment, raw materials, supplies, oilfield services or personnel may restrict operations on our properties;
Restrictions on the ability of our operators to obtain water may have an adverse effect on our cash flows;
The results of our operators’ exploratory drilling in shale plays will be subject to risks associated with drilling and completion techniques and drilling results may not meet our expectations for reserves or production;
The marketability of oil and natural gas production is dependent upon transportation and other facilities, certain of which neither we nor the operators of our properties control. If these facilities are unavailable, our operators’ operations could be interrupted and our financial results and cash available for distribution could be adversely affected;
Oil and natural gas operations are subject to various governmental laws and regulations which require compliance that can be burdensome and expensive and could result in significant liabilities. See “Items 1 and 2. Business and Properties-Regulation” for a description of the laws and regulations that affect our operators;
Drilling for and producing oil and natural gas are high-risk activities with many uncertainties that may adversely affect our and our operators’ business and financial condition and our cash available for distribution;
Operating hazards and uninsured risks may result in substantial losses and could adversely affect our results of operations and cash available for distribution;
Our operators’ use of 2-D and 3-D seismic data is subject to interpretation and may not accurately identify the presence of oil and natural gas, which could adversely affect the results of their drilling operations; and
Our operators may not be able to keep pace with technological developments in our industry.

Risks Inherent in an Investment in Us

Diamondback owns and controls our general partner, which has sole responsibility for conducting our business and managing our operations. Our general partner and its affiliates, including Diamondback, have conflicts of interest with us and limited duties, and they may favor their own interests to the detriment of us and our unitholders.

Diamondback owns and controls our general partner and appoints all of the directors of our general partner. All of the executive officers and certain of the directors of our general partner are also officers and/or directors of Diamondback. Although our general partner has a duty to manage us in a manner that it believes is not adverse to our interest, the executive officers and directors of our general partner have a fiduciary duty to manage our general partner in a manner beneficial to Diamondback. Therefore, conflicts of interest may arise between Diamondback or any of its affiliates, including our general partner, on the one hand, and us or any of our unitholders, on the other hand. In resolving these conflicts of interest, our general partner may favor its own interests and the interests of its affiliates over the interests of our common unitholders. These
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conflicts include the following situations, among others. Our general partner is allowed to take into account the interests of parties other than us, such as Diamondback, in exercising certain rights under our partnership agreement. Neither our partnership agreement nor any other agreement requires Diamondback to pursue a business strategy that favors us. Our partnership agreement replaces the fiduciary duties that would otherwise be owed by our general partner with contractual standards governing its duties, limits our general partner’s liabilities and restricts the remedies available to our unitholders for actions that, without such limitations, might constitute breaches of fiduciary duty. Except in limited circumstances, our general partner has the power and authority to conduct our business without unitholder approval. Our general partner determines the amount and timing of asset purchases and sales, borrowings, issuances of additional partnership securities and the level of cash reserves, each of which can affect the amount of cash that is distributed to our unitholders. Our general partner determines which costs incurred by it and its affiliates are reimbursable by us. Our partnership agreement does not restrict our general partner from causing us to pay it or its affiliates for any services rendered to us or entering into additional contractual arrangements with its affiliates on our behalf. Our general partner intends to limit its liability regarding our contractual and other obligations. Our general partner may exercise its right to call and purchase common units if it and its affiliates own more than 80% of the common units. Our general partner controls the enforcement of obligations that it and its affiliates owe to us. Our general partner decides whether to retain separate counsel, accountants or others to perform services for us. In addition, Diamondback or its affiliates, may compete with us.

Neither we nor our general partner have any employees, and we rely solely on the employees of Diamondback to manage our business. The management team of Diamondback, which includes the individuals who manage us, also perform similar services for Diamondback and certain of its affiliates, and thus are not solely focused on our business.

Neither we nor our general partner have any employees and we rely solely on Diamondback to operate our assets and perform other management, administrative and operating services for us and our general partner. Diamondback provides similar activities with respect to its own assets and operations and those of certain of its affiliates. Because Diamondback provides services to us that are similar to those performed for itself and its affiliates, Diamondback may not have sufficient human, technical and other resources to provide those services at a level that Diamondback would be able to provide to us if it were solely focused on our business and operations. Diamondback may make internal decisions on how to allocate its available resources and expertise that may not always be in our best interest compared to Diamondback’s interests. There is no requirement that Diamondback favor us over itself or others in providing its services. If the employees of Diamondback and their affiliates do not devote sufficient attention to the management and operation of our business, our financial results may suffer and our ability to make distributions to our unitholders may be reduced. Many key responsibilities within our business have been assigned to a small number of individuals. The loss of their services could adversely affect our business. In particular, the loss of the services of one or more members of the executive team of our general partner, including the Chief Executive Officer, President and Chief Financial Officer of our general partner, Travis D. Stice, Kaes Van’t Hof and Teresa L. Dick, respectively, could disrupt our business. Further, we do not maintain “key person” life insurance policies on any of our executive team or other key personnel. As a result, we are not insured against any losses resulting from the death of these key individuals.

Our partnership agreement replaces our general partner’s fiduciary duties to our unitholders.

Our partnership agreement contains provisions that eliminate and replace the fiduciary standards to which our general partner would otherwise be held by state fiduciary duty law. For example, our partnership agreement permits our general partner to make a number of decisions in its individual capacity, as opposed to in its capacity as our general partner, or otherwise free of fiduciary duties to us and our unitholders. This entitles our general partner to consider only the interests and factors that it desires and relieves it of any duty or obligation to give any consideration to any interest of, or factors affecting, us, our affiliates or our limited partners. Examples of decisions that our general partner may make in its individual capacity include; how to allocate business opportunities among us and its affiliates, whether to exercise its call right, how to exercise its voting rights with respect to the units it owns, whether to exercise its registration rights and whether or not to consent to any merger or consolidation of the partnership or any amendment to the partnership agreement.

By purchasing a common unit, a unitholder is treated as having consented to the provisions in the partnership agreement, including the provisions discussed above.

Our partnership agreement restricts the remedies available to holders of our units for actions taken by our general partner that might otherwise constitute breaches of fiduciary duty.

Our partnership agreement contains provisions that restrict the remedies available to unitholders for actions taken by our general partner that might otherwise constitute breaches of fiduciary duty under state fiduciary duty law. For example, our partnership agreement provides that (i) whenever our general partner makes a determination or takes, or declines to take, any
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other action in its capacity as our general partner, our general partner is generally required to make such determination, or take or decline to take such other action, in good faith, and will not be subject to any higher standard imposed by our partnership agreement, Delaware law, or any other law, rule or regulation, or at equity, (ii) our general partner and its executive officers and directors will not be liable for monetary damages or otherwise to us or our limited partners resulting from any act or omission unless there has been a final and non-appealable judgment entered by a court of competent jurisdiction determining that such losses or liabilities were the result of conduct in which our general partner or its executive officers or directors engaged in bad faith, willful misconduct or fraud or, with respect to any criminal conduct, with knowledge that such conduct was unlawful; and
(iii) our general partner will not be in breach of its obligations under the partnership agreement or its duties to us or our limited partners if a transaction, even a transaction with an affiliate or the resolution of a conflict of interest, is (a) approved by the conflicts committee of the board of directors of our general partner, although our general partner is not obligated to seek such approval or (b) approved by the vote of a majority of the outstanding common units, excluding any common units owned by our general partner and its affiliates.

In connection with a situation involving a transaction with an affiliate or a conflict of interest, other than one where our general partner is permitted to act in its sole discretion, any determination by our general partner must be made in good faith. If an affiliate transaction or the resolution of a conflict of interest is not approved by our unitholders or the conflicts committee then it will be presumed that, in making its decision, taking any action or failing to act, the board of directors of our general partner acted in good faith, and in any proceeding brought by or on behalf of any limited partner or the partnership, the person bringing or prosecuting such proceeding will have the burden of overcoming such presumption.

Diamondback and other affiliates of our general partner may compete with us.

Our partnership agreement provides that our general partner is restricted from engaging in any business activities other than acting as our general partner, engaging in activities incidental to its ownership interest in us and providing management, advisory and administrative services to its affiliates or to other persons. However, affiliates of our general partner, including Diamondback, are not prohibited from engaging in other businesses or activities, including those that might be in direct competition with us. In addition, Diamondback may compete with us for investment opportunities and may own an interest in entities that compete with us. Further, Diamondback and its affiliates, may acquire, develop or dispose of additional oil and natural gas properties or other assets in the future, without any obligation to offer us the opportunity to purchase or develop any of those assets.

Diamondback is an established participant in the oil and natural gas industry and has resources greater than ours, which factors may make it more difficult for us to compete with Diamondback with respect to commercial activities as well as for potential acquisitions. As a result, competition from Diamondback and its affiliates could adversely impact our results of operations and cash available for distribution to our common unitholders.

Pursuant to the terms of our partnership agreement, the doctrine of corporate opportunity, or any analogous doctrine, does not apply to our general partner or any of its affiliates, including its executive officers and directors, and Diamondback. Any such person or entity that becomes aware of a potential transaction, agreement, arrangement or other matter that may be an opportunity for us will not have any duty to communicate or offer such opportunity to us. Any such person or entity will not be liable to us or to any limited partner for breach of any fiduciary duty or other duty by reason of the fact that such person or entity pursues or acquires such opportunity for itself, directs such opportunity to another person or entity or does not communicate such opportunity or information to us. This may create actual and potential conflicts of interest between us and affiliates of our general partner and result in less than favorable treatment of us and our unitholders.

Holders of our units have limited voting rights and are not entitled to elect our general partner or its directors, which could reduce the price at which our common units will trade.

Unlike the holders of common stock in a corporation, unitholders have only limited voting rights on matters affecting our business and, therefore, limited ability to influence management’s decisions regarding our business. Unitholders have no right on an annual or ongoing basis to elect our general partner or its board of directors. The board of directors of our general partner, including the independent directors, is chosen entirely by Diamondback, as a result of it owning our general partner, and not by our unitholders. Unlike publicly traded corporations, we do not conduct annual meetings of our unitholders to elect directors or conduct other matters routinely conducted at annual meetings of stockholders of corporations. As a result of these limitations, the price at which the common units will trade could be diminished because of the absence or reduction of a takeover premium in the trading price.


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Even if holders of our units are dissatisfied, they cannot initially remove our general partner without its consent.

If our unitholders are dissatisfied with the performance of our general partner, they have limited ability to remove our general partner. Unitholders will be unable to remove our general partner without its consent because affiliates of our general partner own sufficient units to be able to prevent its removal. The vote of the holders of at least 66 2/3% of all outstanding units, voting as a single class, is required to remove our general partner.

Our partnership agreement restricts the voting rights of unitholders owning 20% or more of our units (other than our general partner and its affiliates and permitted transferees).

Our partnership agreement restricts unitholders’ voting rights by providing that any units held by a person or group that owns 20% or more of any class of units then outstanding, other than our general partner, its affiliates, their transferees and persons who acquired such units with the prior approval of the board of directors of our general partner, may not vote on any matter. Our partnership agreement also contains provisions limiting the ability of unitholders to call meetings or to acquire information about our operations, as well as other provisions limiting the ability of our unitholders to influence the manner or direction of management.

Cost reimbursements due to our general partner and its affiliates for services provided to us or on our behalf will reduce cash available for distribution to our common unitholders. There is no limit on the amount of expenses for which our general partner and its affiliates may be reimbursed. The amount and timing of such reimbursements will be determined by our general partner.

Prior to making any distribution to its unitholders, including us, the Operating Company will reimburse our general partner and its affiliates for all expenses they incur and payments they make on our behalf. There is no limit on the amount of expenses for which our general partner and its affiliates may be reimbursed, and the amounts may be substantial. These expenses include salary, bonus, incentive compensation and other amounts paid to persons who perform services for us or on our behalf and expenses allocated to our general partner by its affiliates. Our general partner will determine the expenses that are allocable to us. The reimbursement of expenses and payment of fees, if any, to our general partner and its affiliates will reduce the amount of cash available for distribution from the Operating Company to us and from us to our common unitholders.

In addition, we have entered into a tax sharing agreement with Diamondback pursuant to which we are required to reimburse Diamondback for our share of state and local income and other taxes borne by Diamondback as a result of our results being included in a combined or consolidated tax return filed by Diamondback with respect to taxable periods including or beginning on the closing date of our IPO.

Our general partner interest or the control of our general partner may be transferred to a third party without unitholder consent.

Our general partner may transfer its general partner interest to a third party without the consent of our unitholders. Furthermore, our partnership agreement does not restrict the ability of the owner of our general partner to transfer its membership interests in our general partner to a third party. After any such transfer, the new member or members of our general partner would then be in a position to replace the board of directors and executive officers of our general partner with its own designees and thereby exert significant control over the decisions taken by the board of directors and executive officers of our general partner. This effectively permits a “change of control” without the vote or consent of the unitholders.

Common unitholders may have liability to repay distributions and in certain circumstances may be personally liable for the obligations of the partnership.

Under certain circumstances, common unitholders may have to repay amounts wrongfully returned or distributed to them. Under Section 17-607 of the Revised Uniform Limited Partnership Act, or the Delaware Act, we may not make a distribution to our unitholders if the distribution would cause our liabilities to exceed the fair value of our assets. Delaware law provides that for a period of three years from the date of the impermissible distribution, limited partners who received the distribution and who knew at the time of the distribution that it violated Delaware law will be liable to the limited partnership for the distribution amount. Liabilities to partners on account of their partnership interests and liabilities that are non-recourse to the partnership are not counted for purposes of determining whether a distribution is permitted.


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A limited partner that participates in the control of our business within the meaning of the Delaware Act may be held personally liable for our obligations under the laws of Delaware, to the same extent as our general partner. This liability would extend to persons who transact business with us under the reasonable belief that the limited partner is a general partner. Neither our partnership agreement nor the Delaware Act specifically provides for legal recourse against our general partner if a limited partner were to lose limited liability through any fault of our general partner.

Our general partner has a call right that may require unitholders to sell their common units at an undesirable time or price.

If at any time our general partner and its affiliates (including Diamondback) own more than 80% of the units, our general partner will have the right, which it may assign to any of its affiliates or to us, but not the obligation, to acquire all, but not less than all, of the common units held by unaffiliated persons at a price equal to the greater of (i) the average of the daily closing price of the common units over the 20 trading days preceding the date three days before notice of exercise of the call right is first mailed and (ii) the highest per-unit price paid by our general partner or any of its affiliates for common units during the 90-day period preceding the date such notice is first mailed. As a result, unitholders may be required to sell their common units at an undesirable time or price and may not receive any return or a negative return on their investment. Unitholders may also incur a tax liability upon a sale of their units. Our general partner is not obligated to obtain a fairness opinion regarding the value of the common units to be repurchased by it upon exercise of the limited call right. There is no restriction in our partnership agreement that prevents our general partner from causing us to issue additional common units and then exercising its call right. If our general partner exercised its limited call right, the effect would be to take us private and, if the units were subsequently deregistered, we would no longer be subject to the reporting requirements of the Exchange Act. The common units and Class B units are considered limited partner interests of a single class for these provisions. As of December 31, 2020, Diamondback owned approximately 58% of our total units outstanding.

We may issue additional common units and other equity interests without unitholder approval, which would dilute existing unitholder ownership interests.

Under our partnership agreement, we are authorized to issue an unlimited number of additional interests, including common units, without a vote of the unitholders. The issuance by us of additional common units or other equity interests of equal or senior rank will have the following effects; the proportionate ownership interest of unitholders in us immediately prior to the issuance will decrease, the amount of cash distributions on each common unit may decrease, the ratio of our taxable income to distributions may increase, the relative voting strength of each previously outstanding common unit may be diminished, and the market price of the common units may decline.

There are no limitations in our partnership agreement on our ability to issue units ranking senior to the common units.

In accordance with Delaware law and the provisions of our partnership agreement, we may issue additional partnership interests that are senior to the common units in right of distribution, liquidation and voting. The issuance by us of units of senior rank may (i) reduce or eliminate the amount of cash available for distribution to our common unitholders; (ii) diminish the relative voting strength of the total common units outstanding as a class; or (iii) subordinate the claims of the common unitholders to our assets in the event of our liquidation.

The market price of our common units could be adversely affected by sales of substantial amounts of our common units in the public or private markets.

Sales by holders of a substantial number of our common units in the public markets, or the perception that such sales might occur, could have a material adverse effect on the price of our common units or could impair our ability to obtain capital through an offering of equity securities. In addition, we have provided registration rights to Diamondback. Pursuant to these registration rights, we have registered, under the Securities Act, all of the common units owned by Diamondback for resale (including common units issuable in respect of the Class B units and the OpCo units). Under our partnership agreement, our general partner and its affiliates have registration rights relating to the offer and sale of any common units that they hold.

Nasdaq does not require a publicly traded limited partnership like us to comply with certain of its corporate governance requirements.

Our common units are listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market. Because we are a publicly traded partnership, Nasdaq does not require us to have a majority of independent directors on our general partner’s board of directors or to establish a compensation committee or a nominating and corporate governance committee. Accordingly, unitholders do not have the same protections afforded to stockholders of certain corporations that are subject to all of Nasdaq’s corporate governance requirements.
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Our partnership agreement includes exclusive forum, venue and jurisdiction provisions. By purchasing a common unit, a limited partner is irrevocably consenting to these provisions regarding claims, suits, actions or proceedings and submitting to the exclusive jurisdiction of Delaware courts. Our partnership agreement also provides that any unitholder bringing an unsuccessful action will be obligated to reimburse us for any costs we have incurred in connection with such unsuccessful action.

Our partnership agreement is governed by Delaware law. Our partnership agreement includes exclusive forum, venue and jurisdiction provisions designating Delaware courts as the exclusive venue for most claims, suits, actions and proceedings involving us or our officers, directors and employees. In addition, if any person brings any of the aforementioned claims, suits, actions or proceedings and such person does not obtain a judgment on the merits that substantially achieves, in substance and amount, the full remedy sought, then such person shall be obligated to reimburse us and our affiliates for all fees, costs and expenses of every kind and description, including but not limited to all reasonable attorneys’ fees and other litigation expenses, that the parties may incur in connection with such claim, suit, action or proceeding. By purchasing a common unit, a limited partner is irrevocably consenting to these limitations and provisions regarding claims, suits, actions or proceedings and submitting to the exclusive jurisdiction of Delaware courts.

Our general partner may amend our partnership agreement, as it determines necessary or advisable, to permit the general partner to redeem the units of certain unitholders.

Our general partner may amend our partnership agreement, as it determines necessary or advisable, to obtain proof of the U.S. federal income tax status and/or the nationality, citizenship or other related status of our limited partners (and their owners, to the extent relevant) and to permit our general partner to redeem the units held by any person (i) whose tax status has or is reasonably likely to have a material adverse effect on the maximum applicable rates chargeable to our customers, (ii) whose nationality, citizenship or related status creates substantial risk of cancellation or forfeiture of any of our property and/or (iii) who fails to comply with the procedures established to obtain such proof. The redemption price in the case of such a redemption will be the average of the daily closing prices per unit for the 20 consecutive trading days immediately prior to the date set for redemption.

We are treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes and our cash available for distribution to our common unitholders may be substantially reduced.
We are a Delaware limited partnership and, prior to May 10, 2018, we were treated as a pass-through entity for federal income tax purposes. On May 10, 2018, we elected to be treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes. As a result, we are now subject to tax as a corporation at the corporate tax rate of 21%. While we may not have taxable income in the next three years due to an agreement between Diamondback and us to specially allocate to Diamondback priority allocations of the Operating Company’s income and gains over losses and deductions (but before depletion), there is no guarantee that we will not have any taxable income as a result of our equity interests in the Operating Company. Because an entity-level tax is imposed on us due to our status as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes, our distributable cash flow may be substantially reduced by our tax liabilities.

Distributions to common unitholders may be taxable as dividends.
Because we are treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes, if we make distributions to our common unitholders from current or accumulated earnings and profits as computed for U.S. federal income tax purposes, such distributions will be treated as distributions on corporate stock for U.S. federal income tax purposes, and generally be taxable to our common unitholders as ordinary dividend income for U.S. federal income tax purposes (to the extent of our current and accumulated earnings and profits). Such dividend distributions paid to non-corporate U.S. unitholders will be subject to U.S. federal income tax at preferential rates, provided that certain holding period and other requirements are satisfied. Any portion of our distributions to common unitholders that exceeds our current and accumulated earnings and profits as computed for U.S. federal income tax purposes will constitute a non-taxable return of capital distribution to the extent of a unitholder’s basis in its common units, and thereafter as gain on the sale or exchange of such common units.
Future U.S. tax legislations may adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flow.

From time to time, legislation has been proposed that, if enacted into law, would make significant changes to U.S. federal and state income tax laws affecting the oil and natural gas industry, including (i) eliminating the immediate deduction for intangible drilling and development costs, (ii) the repeal of the percentage depletion allowance for oil and natural gas properties; and (iii) an extension of the amortization period for certain geological and geophysical expenditures. No accurate
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prediction can be made as to whether any such legislative changes will be proposed or enacted in the future or, if enacted, what the specific provisions or the effective date of any such legislation would be. These proposed changes in the U.S. tax law, if adopted, or other similar changes that would impose additional tax on our activities or reduce or eliminate deductions currently available with respect to natural gas and oil exploration, development or similar activities, could adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flow.

ITEM 1B.     UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

None.

ITEM 3.     LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

Due to the nature of our business, we are, from time to time, involved in routine litigation or subject to disputes or claims related to our business activities. In the opinion of our management, none of the pending litigation, disputes or claims against us, if decided adversely, will have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, cash flows or results of operations. See Note 12—Commitments and Contingencies.

ITEM 4.     MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES

Not applicable.

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PART II

ITEM 5.     MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED UNITHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

Listing and Holders of Record

Our common units are listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “VNOM.” There were four holders of record of our common units on February 19, 2021.

Cash Distribution Policy

Beginning with the first quarter of 2020, the board of directors of our general partner revised the distribution policy to provide that the Operating Company would distribute 25% of its available cash in the first and second quarters of 2020 to its unitholders (including Diamondback and us) rather than all of its available cash as it had previously done. The Operating Company’s distribution policy was further revised in October 2020 to provide for the distribution of 50% of its available cash beginning with the third quarter of 2020 to its unitholders. We in turn distribute all of the available cash we receive from the Operating Company to our common unitholders. Our available cash, and the available cash of the Operating Company, for each quarter is determined by the board of directors of our general partner following the end of such quarter. The Operating Company’s available cash generally equals our Adjusted EBITDA for the quarter, less cash needed for debt service and other contractual obligations, fixed charges and reserves for future operating or capital needs that the board of directors of our general partner deems necessary or appropriate, if any. Our available cash for each quarter generally equals our Adjusted EBITDA (which is our proportional share of the available cash of the Operating Company for the quarter), less cash needed for the payment of income taxes by us, if any, and the preferred distribution. Immediately prior to the revisions to the distribution policy described above, the Operating Company’s policy was to distribute all of its available cash quarterly to its unitholders. The distribution policy changes noted above were made to enable the Operating Company to continue to retain cash flow to help strengthen our balance sheet, while also expanding the return of capital program through our common unit repurchase program.

We do not have a minimum quarterly distribution or employ structures intended to consistently maintain or increase distributions over time. The board of directors of our general partner may change our distribution policy at any time. Our partnership agreement does not require us to pay distributions to our common unitholders on a quarterly or other basis.

Repurchases of Equity Securities

Our common unit repurchase activity for the three months ended December 31, 2020 was as follows:
PeriodTotal Number of Units Purchased
Average Price Paid Per Unit(1)
Total Number of Units Purchased as Part of Publicly Announced Plan
Approximate Dollar Value of Units that May Yet Be Purchased Under the Plan(2)
(In thousands, except unit amounts)
October 1, 2020 - October 31, 2020$— $— 
November 1, 2020 - November 30, 2020720,000$10.50 720,000$92,441 
December 1, 2020 - December 31, 20201,325,000$12.43 1,325,000$75,974 
Total2,045,000$11.75 2,045,000
(1)The average price paid per common unit is net of any commissions paid to repurchase common unit.
(2)In November 2020, our board of directors approved a common unit repurchase program to acquire up to $100.0 million of our outstanding common units through December 31, 2021. This repurchase program may be suspended from time to time, modified, extended or discontinued by the board of directors of our general partner at any time.

Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities

None.

ITEM 6.     SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA

[Reserved.]
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ITEM 7.MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

The following discussion and analysis should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and notes thereto presented in this Annual Report. The following discussion contains “forward-looking statements” that reflect our future plans, estimates, beliefs, and expected performance. Actual results and the timing of events may differ materially from those contained in these forward-looking statements due to a number of factors. See “Item 1A. Risk Factors” and “Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward-Looking Statements.”

Overview

We are a publicly traded Delaware limited partnership formed by Diamondback to own and acquire mineral and royalty interests in oil and natural gas properties primarily in the Permian Basin. We operate in one reportable segment. Since May 10, 2018, we have been treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes.

As of December 31, 2020, our general partner held a 100% general partner interest in us, and Diamondback, either directly or through one of its subsidiaries, owned 731,500 common units and beneficially owned all of our 90,709,946 outstanding Class B units, representing approximately 58% of our total units outstanding. Diamondback also owns and controls our general partner.

The following discussion includes a comparison of our results of operations, including changes in our operating income, and liquidity and capital resources for fiscal year 2020 and fiscal year 2019. A discussion of changes in our results of operations from fiscal year 2018 to fiscal year 2019 has been omitted from this report, but may be found in “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019, filed with the SEC on February 18, 2020, and is incorporated by reference in this report from such prior Annual Report on Form 10-K.

2020 Transactions and Recent Developments

COVID-19 and Collapse in Commodity Prices

On March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization characterized the global outbreak of the novel strain of coronavirus, COVID-19, as a “pandemic.” To limit the spread of COVID-19, governments have taken various actions including the issuance of stay-at-home orders and social distancing guidelines, causing some businesses to suspend operations and a reduction in demand for many products from direct or ultimate customers. Although many stay-at-home orders have expired and certain restrictions on conducting business have been lifted, the COVID-19 pandemic resulted in a widespread health crisis and a swift and unprecedented reduction in international and U.S. economic activity which, in turn, has adversely affected the demand for oil and natural gas and caused significant volatility and disruption of the financial markets.

In early March 2020, oil prices dropped sharply and continued to decline reaching negative levels. During 2020, the posted price for West Texas intermediate light sweet crude oil, or NYMEX WTI, price for crude oil has ranged from $(37.63) to $63.27 Bbl, and the NYMEX Henry Hub price of natural gas has ranged from $1.48 to $3.35 per MMBtu. On January 29, 2021, the NYMEX WTI price for crude oil was $52.20 per Bbl and the NYMEX Henry Hub price of natural gas was $2.56 per MMBtu. In response to recent volatility in commodity prices, many producers have reduced their capital expenditure budgets. This was a result of multiple factors affecting the supply and demand in global oil and natural gas markets, including actions taken by OPEC members and other exporting nations impacting commodity price and production levels and a significant decrease in demand due to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. While OPEC members and certain other nations agreed in April 2020 to cut production and subsequently extended such production cuts through December 2020, which helped to reduce a portion of the excess supply in the market and improve crude oil prices, they agreed to increase production by 500,000 barrels per day beginning in January 2021. As a result, downward pressure on commodity prices has continued and could continue for the foreseeable future. We cannot predict if or when commodity prices will stabilize and at what levels.

As a result of the reduction in crude oil demand caused by factors discussed above, Diamondback and other operators on properties in which we have mineral and royalty interests lowered their 2020 capital budgets and production guidance, curtailed near term production and reduced their rig count, all of which may be subject to further reductions or curtailments if the commodity markets and macroeconomic conditions worsen. Although Diamondback and certain of our other operators have restored curtailed production, actions taken by our operators in response to the COVID-19 pandemic and depressed commodity pricing environment have had and are expected to continue to have an adverse effect on our business, financial results and cash flows.

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Based on the results of the quarterly ceiling test, we recorded an impairment expense of $69.2 million as a result of the decline in commodity prices for the year ended December 31, 2020. If commodity prices fall below current levels, we may be required to record impairments in future periods and such impairments could be material. Further, if commodity prices fail to stabilize or decrease further, our production, proved reserves and cash flows will be adversely impacted. Our business may be also further adversely impacted by any pipeline capacity and storage constraints.

Given the dynamic nature of the events described above, we cannot reasonably estimate the period of time that the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, the depressed commodity prices, the reduce demand for oil and the adverse macroeconomic will persist, the full extent of the impact they will have on our industry and our business, financial condition or cash flows, or the pace or extent of any subsequent recovery.

Acquisitions and Divestitures Update

During the year ended December 31, 2020, we acquired, from unrelated third-party sellers, mineral interests representing 4,948 gross (417 net royalty) acres for an aggregate of approximately $64.2 million. We funded these acquisitions with cash on hand and borrowings under the Operating Company’s revolving credit facility. We divested 370 net royalty acres for an aggregate of approximately $38.4 million, leaving our footprint of mineral and royalty interests at a total of 24,350 net royalty acres at December 31, 2020.

During the third and fourth quarters of 2020, we divested our equity interest in a limited partnership for approximately $10.8 million.

Cash Distribution Update

On February 19, 2021, the board of directors of our general partner declared a cash distribution for the three months ended December 31, 2020 of $0.14 per common unit, maintaining our distribution for the fourth quarter of 2020 at 50% of cash available for distribution. The distribution is payable on March 11, 2021 to eligible common unitholders of record at the close of business on March 4, 2021. With net debt decreasing in the fourth quarter of 2020 from peak levels due to strong free cash flow generation, as well as an improved forward outlook for production, realized pricing and free cash flow yield, driven primarily by Diamondback’s anticipated development plan and benefiting from our hedging arrangements rolling off in 2021, we expect to increase our return on capital to common unitholders in future quarters.

Implementation of Common Unit Repurchase Program

On November 6, 2020, the board of directors of our general partner approved an expansion of our return of capital program with the implementation of a common unit repurchase program to acquire up to $100.0 million of our outstanding common units. During the year ended December 31, 2020, we repurchased approximately $24.0 million of common units under our repurchase program. As of December 31, 2020, $76.0 million remains available for us to repurchase units under our common unit repurchase program. The common unit repurchase program is authorized to extend through December 31, 2021 and we intend to purchase common units under the repurchase program opportunistically with funds from cash on hand, free cash flow from operations and potential liquidity events such as the sale of assets. This repurchase program may be suspended from time to time, modified, extended or discontinued by the board of directors of our general partner at any time.

Production and Operational Update

Our business has rebounded strongly from the unprecedented volatility experienced throughout 2020 as commodity prices increased and activity has returned to our acreage. There are currently 27 gross rigs operating on our mineral and royalty acreage, four of which are operated by Diamondback. Our production and free cash flow outlook is expected to be driven by Diamondback’s continued focus on developing our acreage, as well as our exposure to other well-capitalized operators in the Permian Basin. We expect that the production impact from the recent winter storms in the Permian Basin will be in the range of four to five days of total net production lost during February 2021 for Diamondback operated properties, with a slightly higher negative impact expected for third party operated properties.


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The following table summarizes our gross well information:

Diamondback OperatedThird Party OperatedTotal
Horizontal wells turned to production (fourth quarter 2020)(1):
Gross wells215980
Net 100% royalty interest wells1.20.92.1
Average percent net royalty interest5.6 %1.6 %2.6 %
Horizontal wells turned to production (year ended December 31, 2020)(2):
Gross wells151363514
Net 100% royalty interest wells9.14.713.8
Average percent net royalty interest6.0 %1.3 %2.7 %
Horizontal producing well count (fourth quarter 2020):
Gross wells1,1323,4994,631
Net 100% royalty interest wells88.853.1141.9
Average percent net royalty interest7.8 %1.5 %3.1 %
Horizontal active development well count (as of February 8, 2021)(3):
Gross wells91438529
Net 100% royalty interest wells5.52.68.2
Average percent net royalty interest6.1 %0.6 %1.5 %
Line of sight wells (as of February 8, 2021)(4):
Gross wells83455538
Net 100% royalty interest wells4.64.49.0
Average percent net royalty interest5.6 %1.0 %1.7 %

(1) Average lateral length of 10,012.
(2) Average lateral length of 9,395.
(3) The total 529 gross wells currently in the process of active development are those wells that have been spud and are expected to be turned to production within approximately the next six to eight months.
(4) The total 538 line-of-sight wells are those that are not currently in the process of active development, but for which Viper has reason to believe that they will be turned to production within approximately the next 15 to 18 months. The expected timing of these line-of-sight wells is based primarily on permitting by third party operators or Diamondback’s current expected completion schedule. Existing permits or active development of our royalty acreage does not ensure that those wells will be turned to production given the current depressed oil prices.

    

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Results of Operations
    
The following table summarizes our income and expenses for the periods indicated:
Year Ended December 31,
20202019
 (In thousands)
Operating Results:
Operating income:
Royalty income$246,981 $293,811 
Lease bonus income2,585 4,117 
Other operating income1,060 355 
Total operating income250,626 298,283 
Costs and expenses:
Production and ad valorem taxes19,844 19,076 
Depletion100,501 78,178 
Impairment69,202 — 
General and administrative expenses8,165 7,489 
Total costs and expenses197,712 104,743 
Income (loss) from operations52,914 193,540 
Other income (expense):
Interest expense, net(33,000)(21,076)
Gain (loss) on derivative instruments, net(63,591)— 
Gain (loss) on revaluation of investment(8,556)4,832 
Other income, net1,286 2,332 
Total other expense, net(103,861)(13,912)
Income (loss) before income taxes(50,947)179,628 
Provision for (benefit from) income taxes142,466 (41,582)
Net income (loss)(193,413)221,210 
Net income (loss) attributable to non-controlling interest(1,109)174,929 
Net income (loss) attributable to Viper Energy Partners LP$(192,304)$46,281 


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The following table summarizes our production data, average sales prices and average costs for the periods indicated:
Year Ended December 31,
20202019
(In thousands)
Production Data:
Oil (MBbls)5,956 5,123 
Natural gas (MMcf)11,486 7,657 
Natural gas liquids (MBbls)1,848 1,459 
Combined volumes (MBOE)(1)
9,718 7,858 
Average daily oil volumes (BO/d)(2)
16,272 14,035 
Average daily combined volumes (BOE/d)(2)
26,551 21,529 
Average sales prices(2):
Oil ($/Bbl)$36.58 $51.61 
Natural gas ($/Mcf)(3)
$0.79 $1.06 
Natural gas liquids ($/Bbl)$10.88 $14.63 
Combined ($/BOE)$25.41 $37.39 
Oil, hedged ($/Bbl)(4)
$32.00 $51.61 
Natural gas, hedged ($/Mcf)(4)
$0.02 $1.06 
Natural gas liquids ($/Bbl)(4)
$10.88 $14.63 
Combined price, hedged ($/BOE)(4)
$21.71 $37.39 
Average costs ($/BOE):
Production and ad valorem taxes$2.04 $2.43 
General and administrative - cash component(5)
0.71 0.72 
Total operating expense - cash$2.75 $3.15 
General and administrative - non-cash unit compensation expense$0.13 $0.23 
Interest expense, net$3.40 $2.68 
Depletion$10.34 $9.95 
(1)Bbl equivalents are calculated using a conversion rate of six Mcf per one Bbl.
(2)Average daily volumes and average sales prices presented are based on actual production volumes and not calculated utilizing the rounded production volumes presented in the table above.
(3)The average realized price of natural gas was calculated in accordance with the pricing terms under our operators’ natural gas delivery contracts, which are generally tied to the NYMEX price quoted at Henry Hub. Actual volumetric prices realized from the sale of natural gas, however, differ from the quoted NYMEX price as a result of quality and location differentials. Our operators may have varying terms under which they sell their natural gas, but we are primarily impacted by location differences resulting from supply and demand imbalances and limited takeaway capacity within the Permian Basin.
(4)Hedged prices reflect the impact of cash settlements on our matured commodity derivative transactions on our average sales prices. We did not have any derivative contracts prior to February of 2020.
(5)Excludes non-cash unit compensation for the respective periods presented.


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Comparison of the Years Ended December 31, 2020 and 2019

Royalty Income

    Our royalty income is a function of oil, natural gas liquids and natural gas production volumes sold and average prices received for those volumes.

The following table presents the impact of pricing and production changes on our royalty income for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019:
2020 vs. 2019
Change in prices
Production volumes(1)
Total net dollar effect of change
(Dollars in thousands except change in prices)
Effect of changes in price:
Oil$(15.03)5,956 $(89,488)
Natural gas$(0.27)11,486 (3,114)
Natural gas liquids$(3.75)1,848 (6,928)
Total income due to change in price$(99,530)
2020 vs. 2019
Change in production volumes(1)
Prior period average pricesTotal net dollar effect of change
(Dollars in thousands except average prices)
Effect of changes in production volumes:
Oil833 $51.61 $42,971 
Natural gas3,829 $1.06 4,046 
Natural gas liquids389 $14.63 5,683 
Total income due to change in production volumes52,700 
Total change in income$(46,830)
(1)Production volumes are presented in MBbls for oil and natural gas liquids and MMcf for natural gas.

Production and Ad Valorem Taxes

The following table presents the production and ad valorem taxes for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019:

Year Ended December 31,
20202019
Amount
(In thousands)
Per BOEPercentage of Royalty IncomeAmount
(In thousands)
Per BOEPercentage of Royalty Income
Production taxes$12,101 $1.25 4.9 %$14,354 $1.83 4.9 %
Ad valorem taxes7,743 0.79 3.1 4,722 0.60 1.6 
Total production and ad valorem taxes$19,844 $2.04 8.0 %$19,076 $2.43 6.5 %

Production taxes as a percentage of royalty income for the year ended December 31, 2020 compared to the year ended December 31, 2019 remained relatively flat. Ad valorem taxes as a percentage of royalty income for the same period in 2020 compared to 2019 increased due to an increase in the valuation of oil and natural gas interests period over period, primarily due to acquisitions and drilling activity, while royalty income declined due to lower prices.


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Depletion

The $22.3 million, or 29%, increase in depletion expense for the year ended December 31, 2020 compared to the same period in 2019 was due primarily to an increase in the depletion rate to $10.34 for the year ended December 31, 2020 compared to $9.95 for the year ended December 31, 2019, which largely resulted from higher production levels and an increase in net book value on new reserves added to the depletion base.

Impairment

The Partnership recorded an impairment expense of $69.2 million as a result of the decline in commodity prices for the year ended December 31, 2020. There was no impairment recorded for the year ended December 31, 2019.

Net Interest Expense

    Net interest expense for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 was $33.0 million and $21.1 million, respectively. The increase of $11.9 million was due to increased borrowings during 2020 compared to 2019, as a result of issuing the Notes during the fourth quarter of 2019. This increase was partially offset by repayments of borrowings under the Operating Company’s revolving credit facility and the Notes.

Derivative Instruments

We recorded a loss on derivative instruments for the year ended December 31, 2020 of $63.6 million, which includes cash payments of $37.0 million on settlements of commodity derivative contracts during the period. We had no derivative instruments outstanding during the year ended December 31, 2019. We are required to recognize all derivative instruments on our balance sheet as either assets or liabilities measured at fair value. We have not designated our derivative instruments as hedges for accounting purposes. As a result, we mark our derivative instruments to fair value and recognize the cash and non-cash changes in fair value on derivative instruments in our consolidated statements of operations under the line item captioned “Gain (loss) on derivative instruments, net.”

Gain (loss) on revaluation of investment

We recorded a loss on revaluation of investment of $8.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2020 and a gain of $4.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2019. The decrease of $13.4 million was due to a decrease in current fair value prior to the divestiture of our equity interest in a limited partnership during the third and fourth quarters of 2020.

Provision for (Benefit from) Income Taxes

We recorded an income tax expense of $142.5 million and an income tax benefit of $41.6 million for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively. The change in our income tax provision was primarily due to the application of a valuation allowance on our deferred tax assets during the year ended December 31, 2020, and the revision during the year ended December 31, 2019 of estimated deferred taxes recognized as a result of our change in federal income tax status. The total income tax provision for the year ended December 31, 2020 differed from amounts computed by applying the federal statutory tax rate to pre-tax loss for the period primarily due to impact of recording a valuation allowance on our deferred tax assets and net income attributable to the non-controlling interest. See Note 9—Income Taxes for further details.

Comparison of the Years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018

Refer to “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019 for a discussion of our 2019 results compared to 2018, which discussion is incorporated herein by reference.

Non-GAAP Financial Measures

Adjusted EBITDA
    
Adjusted EBITDA is a supplemental non-GAAP financial measure that is used by management and external users of our financial statements, such as industry analysts, investors, lenders and rating agencies. We believe Adjusted EBITDA is useful because it allows us to more effectively evaluate our operating performance and compare the results of our operations
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from period to period without regard to our financing methods or capital structure. In addition, management uses Adjusted EBITDA in evaluating cash flow that will be available to pay distributions to our common unitholders.
We define Adjusted EBITDA as net income (loss) plus interest expense, net, non-cash unit-based compensation expense, depletion expense, impairment expense, (gain) loss on revaluation of investment, non-cash (gain) loss on derivative instruments, (gain) loss on extinguishment of debt and provision for (benefit from) income taxes. Adjusted EBITDA is not a measure of net income (loss) as determined by GAAP. We exclude the items listed above from net income (loss) in arriving at Adjusted EBITDA because these amounts can vary substantially from company to company within our industry depending upon accounting methods and book values of assets, capital structures and the method by which the assets were acquired. Certain items excluded from Adjusted EBITDA are significant components in understanding and assessing a company’s financial performance, such as a company’s cost of capital and tax structure, as well as the historic costs of depreciable assets, none of which are components of Adjusted EBITDA.

Adjusted EBITDA should not be considered as an alternative to, or more meaningful than, net income (loss), royalty income, cash flow from operating activities or any other measure of financial performance or liquidity presented as determined in accordance with GAAP. Our computations of Adjusted EBITDA may not be comparable to other similarly titled measures of other companies.

The following table presents a reconciliation of Adjusted EBITDA and cash available for distribution, to net income (loss), our most directly comparable GAAP financial measure for the periods indicated:
Year Ended December 31,
20202019
 (In thousands)
Net income (loss)$(193,413)$221,210 
Interest expense, net33,000 21,076 
Non-cash unit-based compensation expense1,272 1,822 
Depletion100,501 78,178 
Impairment69,202 — 
(Gain) loss on revaluation of investment8,556 (4,832)
Non-cash (gain) loss on derivative instruments26,593 — 
(Gain) loss on extinguishment of debt— 
Provision for (benefit from) income taxes142,466 (41,582)
Consolidated Adjusted EBITDA188,183 275,872 
Less: Adjusted EBITDA attributable to non-controlling interest(1)
107,859 151,498 
Adjusted EBITDA attributable to Viper Energy Partners LP$80,324 $124,374 
Adjustments to reconcile Adjusted EBITDA to cash available for distribution:
Income taxes payable$— $(150)
Debt service, contractual obligations, fixed charges and reserves(13,155)(10,388)
Units repurchased for tax withholding(384)(353)
Units - dividend equivalent rights(44)(22)
Preferred distributions(179)(160)
Cash available for distribution to Viper Energy Partners LP unitholders$66,562 $113,301 
Common limited partner units outstanding65,817 67,806 
Cash available for distribution per limited partner unit$1.01 $1.67 
Cash per unit approved for distribution$0.37 $1.76 
(1) Does not take into account special income allocation consideration.


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Cash Distributions

The distribution for the fourth quarter of 2020 is payable on March 11, 2021 to common unitholders of record at the close of business on March 4, 2021. Based on the common units and Operating Company units held by Diamondback on February 22, 2021, the distribution payable to Diamondback for the fourth quarter of 2020 on March 11, 2021 will be approximately $12.8 million. See Note 7—Unitholders' Equity and Distributions for further discussion of our distributions.

Liquidity and Capital Resources

Overview

Our primary sources of liquidity have been cash flows from operations, proceeds from sales of non-core assets and investments, equity and debt offerings and borrowings under our credit agreement. Our primary uses of cash have been distributions to our unitholders, repayments of debt, capital expenditures for the acquisition of our mineral interests and royalty interests in oil and natural gas properties, and repurchases of our common units. We intend to finance future expenditures through a combination of cash on hand, borrowings under our credit agreement and, subject to market conditions and other factors, proceeds from one or more capital market transactions, which may include debt or equity offerings. Our ability to generate cash is subject to several factors, some of which are beyond our control, including commodity prices and general economic, financial, competitive, legislative, regulatory and other factors, including extreme weather conditions, such as, for example, the recent severe winter storms in the Permian Basin that have impacted production volumes on our mineral and royalty acreage. Continued prolonged volatility in the capital, financial and/or credit markets due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the depressed commodity markets and/or adverse macroeconomic conditions, may limit our access to, or increase our cost of, capital or make capital unavailable on terms acceptable to us or at all.

Cash Flows

The following table presents our cash flows for the period indicated:
Year Ended December 31,
20202019
(In thousands)
Cash Flow Data:
Net cash provided by (used in) operating activities$196,556 $236,691 
Net cash provided by (used in) investing activities(16,283)(530,572)
Net cash provided by (used in) financing activities(164,754)274,807 
Net increase (decrease) in cash$15,519 $(19,074)

Operating Activities

Our operating cash flow is sensitive to many variables, the most significant of which are the volatility of prices for oil and natural gas and the volume of oil and natural gas sold by our producers. Prices for these commodities are determined primarily by prevailing market conditions. Regional and worldwide economic activity, extreme weather conditions and other substantially variable factors influence market conditions for these products. These factors are beyond our control and are difficult to predict. The decrease in net cash provided by operating activities during the year ended December 31, 2020, was primarily due to a decrease in royalty income as discussed in “Results of Operations” above, and an increase in cash paid for derivative contract settlements. This decrease was partially offset by changes in our working capital accounts, most notably in our accounts receivable.

Investing Activities

Net cash used in investing activities during the year ended December 31, 2020, was primarily related to acquisitions of oil and natural gas interests, partially offset by proceeds from the sale of oil and natural gas assets and investments.

Net cash used in investing activities during the year ended December 31, 2019, was primarily related to acquisitions of oil and natural gas interests.

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Financing Activities

Net cash used in financing activities during the year ended December 31, 2020, was primarily related to distributions of $108.0 million to our unitholders, $24.0 million of common units repurchased as part of our unit repurchase program, repurchases of the Notes totaling $19.7 million, net of discounts during the second quarter of 2020, and net payments for borrowings under the Operating Company’s revolving credit facility of $12.5 million.

Net cash provided by financing activities during the year ended December 31, 2019, was primarily related to issuance of $500.0 million of the Notes and net proceeds of $340.9 million from our public offerings of common units, partially offset by net repayments of $314.5 million of borrowings under the Operating Company’s revolving credit facility and distributions of $240.4 million to our unitholders during 2019. See Note 7—Unitholders' Equity and Distributions for further discussion of our 2019 equity offering.

Indebtedness

The Operating Company’s Revolving Credit Facility

On July 20, 2018, we, as guarantor, entered into an amended and restated credit agreement with the Operating Company, as borrower, Wells Fargo, as administrative agent, and the other lenders. The credit agreement, as amended to date, provides for a revolving credit facility in the maximum credit amount of $2.0 billion, with a borrowing base of $580.0 million as of December 31, 2020, and a maturity date of November 1, 2022. The Operating Company had $84.0 million of outstanding borrowings and $496.0 million available for future borrowings under the Operating Company’s revolving credit facility as of December 31, 2020. The borrowing base of $580.0 million was reaffirmed by the lenders during the regularly scheduled (semi-annual) fall 2020 redetermination in November 2020. The next semi-annual redetermination is scheduled to occur in May 2021. During the year ended December 31, 2020, the weighted average interest rate on borrowings under the Operating Company’s revolving credit facility was 2.20%.

As of December 31, 2020, the Operating Company was in compliance with all financial maintenance covenants under its credit agreement.

The Notes Offering
 
On October 16, 2019, we issued our 5.375% senior notes due 2027 in the aggregate principal amount of $500.0 million. We received net proceeds of approximately $490.0 million from the Notes Offering and loaned the gross proceeds from this offering to the Operating Company, which used them to repay then outstanding borrowings under its revolving credit facility. Interest on the Notes accrues at a rate of 5.375% per annum, payable semi-annually on May 1 and November 1 of each year, commencing on May 1, 2020. The Notes will mature on November 1, 2027.

During the year ended December 31, 2020, we repurchased $20.1 million of the outstanding principal of the Notes at cash prices ranging from 97.5% to 98.5% of the aggregate principal amount, which resulted in an immaterial gain on extinguishment of debt, and $479.9 million in aggregate principal amount remained outstanding.

See additional discussion in Note 6—Debt for further details.


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Contractual Obligations
    
The following table summarizes our contractual obligations and commitments as of December 31, 2020:
Payments Due by Period
Total20212022-20232024-2025Thereafter
(In thousands)
Credit agreement(1)
$84,000 $— $84,000 $— $— 
Senior notes479,938 — — — 479,938 
Interest expense related to the senior notes(2)
180,576 25,797 51,593 51,593 51,593 
$744,514 $25,797 $135,593 $51,593 $531,531 
(1)Includes the outstanding principal amount under the credit agreement, the table does not include interest expense or other fees payable under this floating rate facility as we cannot predict the timing of future borrowings and repayments or interest rates to be charged.
(2)Interest represents the scheduled cash payments on the Notes.

Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates

The discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations are based upon our consolidated financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with GAAP.

Certain amounts included in or affecting our consolidated financial statements and related disclosures must be estimated by our management, requiring certain assumptions to be made with respect to values or conditions that cannot be known with certainty at the time the consolidated financial statements are prepared. These estimates and assumptions affect the amounts we report for assets and liabilities and our disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the consolidated financial statements. Critical accounting policies cover accounting estimates that are inherently uncertain because the future resolution of such matters is unknown and actual results could differ from those estimates.

We evaluate these estimates on an ongoing basis, using historical experience, consultation with experts and other methods we consider reasonable in the particular circumstances. Any effects on our business, financial position or results of operations resulting from revisions to these estimates are recorded in the period in which the facts that give rise to the revision become known. Significant items subject to such estimates and assumptions include (i) the method of accounting for our oil and natural gas properties, (ii) estimates of proved oil and natural gas reserves and related present value estimates of future net cash flows therefrom, (iii) impairments of the carrying value of oil and natural gas properties, (iv) fair value of derivatives, and (v) estimates of income taxes.

Below, we have provided expanded discussion of our more significant accounting policies, estimates and judgments.

Royalty Interest and Revenue Recognition

The Partnership records revenue in the month production is delivered to the purchaser. However, settlement statements for certain oil, natural gas and natural gas liquids sales may not be received for 30 to 90 days after the date production is delivered. To the extent actual volumes and prices of oil and natural gas sales are unavailable for a given reporting period because of timing or information not received from third parties, the royalties related to expected sales volumes and prices for those properties are estimated and recorded based upon the Partnership’s interest. The Partnership records the differences between its estimates and the actual amounts received for royalties in the month that payment is received from the producer. The Partnership has existing internal controls for its revenue estimation process and related accruals, and any identified differences between its revenue estimates and actual revenue received historically have not been significant, but could differ materially in future periods.

Method of Accounting for Oil and Natural Gas Properties

We account for oil and natural gas producing activities using the full cost method of accounting. Accordingly, all costs incurred in the acquisition of proved oil and natural gas properties, including the costs of abandoned properties are capitalized. Sales or other dispositions of oil and natural gas properties are accounted for as adjustments to capitalized costs, with no gain or loss recorded unless the ratio of cost to proved reserves would significantly change.

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Depletion of evaluated oil and natural gas properties is computed on the units of production method, whereby capitalized costs are depleted over total proved reserves. If our production remains at approximately the same level from year to year, depletion expense may be significantly different if our estimate of remaining reserves changes significantly.

Costs associated with unevaluated properties are excluded from the full cost pool until we have made a determination as to the existence of proved reserves. We assess all items classified as unevaluated property on an annual basis for possible impairment. We assess properties on an individual basis or as a group if properties are individually insignificant. The assessment includes consideration of the following factors, among others: intent of the operator to drill, remaining lease term with the current operator; geological and geophysical evaluations; drilling results and activity; the assignment of proved reserves; and the economic viability of development if proved reserves are assigned. During any period in which these factors indicate an impairment, the cumulative drilling costs incurred to date for such property and all or a portion of the associated leasehold costs are transferred to the full cost pool and are then subject to amortization.

Impairment

The net capitalized costs of proved oil and natural gas properties are subject to a full cost ceiling limitation in which the costs are not allowed to exceed their related estimated future net revenues discounted at 10%. To the extent capitalized costs of evaluated oil and natural gas properties, net of accumulated depreciation, depletion, amortization, impairment and deferred income taxes exceed the discounted future net revenues of proved oil and natural gas reserves, less any related income tax effects, the excess capitalized costs are charged to expense. Significant inputs included in the calculation of future net revenues discounted at 10% used in the impairment analysis include our estimate of operating and development costs, anticipated production of proved reserves and other relevant data. Impairments of our evaluated oil and natural gas properties are not reversible.

Oil and Natural Gas Reserve Quantities and Standardized Measure of Discounted Future Net Cash Flows

Our independent engineers and technical staff prepare our estimates of oil and natural gas reserves and associated future net cash flows. The SEC has defined proved reserves as the estimated quantities of oil and natural gas which geological and engineering data demonstrate with reasonable certainty to be recoverable in future years from known reservoirs under existing economic and operating conditions. The process of estimating oil and natural gas reserves is complex, requiring significant decisions in the evaluation of available geological, geophysical, engineering and economic data. The data for a given property may also change substantially over time as a result of numerous factors, including additional development activity, evolving production history and a continual reassessment of the viability of production under changing economic conditions. As a result, material revisions to existing reserve estimates occur from time to time. Although every reasonable effort is made to ensure that reserve estimates reported represent the most accurate assessments possible, the subjective decisions and variances in available data for various properties increase the likelihood of significant changes in these estimates. If such changes are material, they could significantly affect future amortization of capitalized costs and result in impairment of assets that may be material.

There are numerous uncertainties inherent in estimating quantities of proved oil and natural gas reserves. Oil and natural gas reserve engineering is a subjective process of estimating underground accumulations of oil and natural gas that cannot be precisely measured and the accuracy of any reserve estimate is a function of the quality of available data and of engineering and geological interpretation and judgment. Results of drilling, testing and production subsequent to the date of the estimate may justify revision of such estimate. Accordingly, reserve estimates are often different from the quantities of oil and natural gas that are ultimately recovered.

Derivative Instruments

In order to reduce uncertainty around commodity prices received for our oil and natural gas operators’ production, we enter into commodity price derivative contracts from time to time. We exercise significant judgment in determining the types of instruments to be used, the level of production volumes to include in our commodity derivative contracts, the prices at which we enter into commodity derivative contracts and the counterparties’ creditworthiness.

We have not designated our derivative instruments as hedges for accounting purposes and, as a result, mark our derivative instruments to fair value and recognize the cash and non-cash change in fair value on derivative instruments for each period in the consolidated statements of operations. We are also required to recognize our derivative instruments on the consolidated balance sheets as assets or liabilities at fair value with such amounts classified as current or long-term based on their anticipated settlement dates. The accounting for the changes in fair value of a derivative depends on the intended use of the derivative and resulting designation, and is generally determined using established index prices and other sources which are
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based upon, among other things, futures prices and time to maturity. These fair values are recorded by netting asset and liability positions, including any deferred premiums, that are with the same counterparty and are subject to contractual terms which provide for net settlement. Changes in the fair values of our commodity derivative instruments have a significant impact on our net income because we follow mark-to-market accounting and recognize all gains and losses on such instruments in earnings in the period in which they occur.

Income Taxes

Prior to May 10, 2018, we were treated as a pass-through entity for federal income tax purposes. On May 10, 2018, we elected to be treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes.
The amount of income taxes we record requires interpretations of complex rules and regulations of federal, state, and provincial tax jurisdictions. We use the asset and liability method of accounting for income taxes, under which deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future tax consequences of (i) temporary differences between the financial statement carrying amounts and the tax bases of existing assets and liabilities and (ii) operating loss and tax credit carryforwards. Deferred income tax assets and liabilities are based on enacted tax rates applicable to the future period when those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect of a change in tax rates on deferred tax assets and liabilities is recognized in income in the period the rate change is enacted. A valuation allowance is provided for deferred tax assets when it is more likely than not the deferred tax assets will not be realized after considering all positive and negative evidence available concerning the realizability of our deferred tax assets. During the year ended December 31, 2020, we established a valuation allowance for the full amount of our deferred tax assets.
The accruals for deferred tax assets and liabilities are often based on assumptions that are subject to a significant amount of judgment by management. These assumptions and judgments are reviewed and adjusted as facts and circumstances change. Material changes to our income tax accruals may occur in the future based on the progress of ongoing audits, changes in legislation or resolution of pending matters.

Recent Accounting Pronouncements

See Note 2—Summary of Significant Accounting Policies to our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report for a full listing of our significant accounting policies.

Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements

We currently have no off-balance sheet arrangements.

ITEM 7A.    QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK

We are exposed to market risk, including the effects of adverse changes in commodity prices and interest rates as described below. The primary objective of the following information is to provide quantitative and qualitative information about our potential exposure to market risks. The term “market risk” refers to the risk of loss arising from adverse changes in oil and natural gas prices and interest rates. The disclosures are not meant to be precise indicators of expected future losses, but rather indicators of reasonably possible losses.

Commodity Price Risk

Our major market risk exposure is in the pricing applicable to the oil and natural gas production of our operators. Realized prices are driven primarily by the prevailing worldwide price for crude oil and prices for natural gas in the United States. Both crude oil and natural gas realized prices are also impacted by the quality of the product, supply and demand balances in local physical markets and the availability of transportation to demand centers. Pricing for oil and natural gas production has been historically volatile and unpredictable and the prices that our operators receive for production depend on many factors outside of our or their control. Further, oil prices dropped sharply in early March 2020 and then continued to decline reaching negative levels. This was as a result of multiple factors affecting supply and demand in the global oil and gas markets, including actions taken by OPEC members and other exporting nations and impacting commodity price and production levels and a significant decrease in demand due to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, which resulted in a widespread health crisis and significant volatility, uncertainty and turmoil in the global economy, financial markets and oil and natural gas industry. While OPEC members and certain other nations agreed in April of 2020 to cut production, which helped to reduce a portion of the excess supply in the market and improve oil prices, demand for crude oil has remained below historic
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levels and downward pressure on commodity prices has continued and could continue for the foreseeable future. We cannot predict if or when commodity prices will stabilize and at what levels.

During 2020, we used fixed price swap contracts, fixed price basis swap contracts and costless collars with corresponding put and call options to reduce price volatility associated with certain of our royalty income. With respect to our fixed price swap contracts and fixed price basis swap contracts, the counterparty is required to make a payment to us if the settlement price for any settlement period is less than the swap or basis price, and we are required to make a payment to the counterparty if the settlement price for any settlement period is greater than the swap or basis price. With respect to the costless collar contracts, each collar has an established floor price and ceiling price. When the settlement price is below the floor price, the counterparty is required to make a payment to the Partnership and when the settlement price is above the ceiling price, the Partnership is required to make a payment to the counterparty. When the settlement price is between the floor and the ceiling, there is no payment required.

At December 31, 2020, we had a net liability derivative position related to our commodity price derivatives of $26.6 million, related to our costless collars. We did not have any derivative contracts prior to February 2020. Utilizing actual derivative contractual volumes under our contracts as of December 31, 2020, a 10% increase in forward curves associated with the underlying commodity would have increased the net liability position to $29.7 million, an increase of $3.1 million, while a 10% decrease in forward curves associated with the underlying commodity would have decreased the net liability derivative position to $23.5 million, a decrease of $3.1 million. However, any cash derivative gain or loss would be substantially offset by a decrease or increase, respectively, in the actual sales value of production covered by the derivative instrument.

Credit Risk

We are subject to risk resulting from the concentration of royalty interest revenues in producing oil and natural gas properties and receivables with a limited number of several significant purchasers. For the year ended December 31, 2020, four purchasers accounted for more than 10% of our revenue. For the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, three purchasers each accounted for more than 10% of our revenue. See Note 2—Summary of Significant Accounting Policies for further details. We do not require collateral and the failure or inability of our significant purchasers to meet their obligations to us due to their liquidity issues, bankruptcy, insolvency or liquidation may adversely affect our financial results. The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, depressed commodity pricing environment and adverse macroeconomic conditions may enhance our purchaser credit risk.

Interest Rate Risk
We are subject to market risk exposure related to changes in interest rates on our indebtedness under the Operating Company’s credit agreement. The terms of the credit agreement provide for interest on borrowings at a floating rate equal to an alternative base rate (which is equal to the greatest of the prime rate, the Federal Funds effective rate plus 0.50% and 3-month LIBOR plus 1.0%) or LIBOR, in each case plus the applicable margin. The applicable margin ranges from 0.75% to 1.75% in the case of the alternative base rate and from 1.75% to 2.75% per annum in the case of LIBOR, in each case depending on the amount of the loans outstanding in relation to the borrowing base. We entered into this credit agreement on July 8, 2014, as subsequently amended and restated, and as of December 31, 2020, we had $84.0 million in outstanding borrowings. Our weighted average interest rate was 2.20% for the year ended December 31, 2020.

ITEM 8.     FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA

The information required by this item appears beginning on page F-1 of this report.

ITEM 9.    CHANGES IN AND DISAGREEMENTS WITH ACCOUNTANTS ON ACCOUNTING AND FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE

None.

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ITEM 9A.          CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES

Evaluation of Disclosure Control and Procedures. Under the direction of the Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer of our general partner, we have established disclosure controls and procedures, as defined in Rule 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e) under the Exchange Act, that are designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by us in the reports that we file or submit under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in the SEC’s rules and forms. The disclosure controls and procedures are also intended to ensure that such information is accumulated and communicated to management, including the Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer of our general partner, as appropriate to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosures. In designing and evaluating the disclosure controls and procedures, management recognizes that any controls and procedures, no matter how well designed and operated, can provide only reasonable assurance of achieving the desired control objectives. In addition, the design of disclosure controls and procedures must reflect the fact that there are resource constraints and that management is required to apply judgment in evaluating the benefits of possible controls and procedures relative to their costs.

As of December 31, 2020, an evaluation was performed under the supervision and with the participation of management, including the Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer of our general partner, of the effectiveness of the design and operation of our disclosure controls and procedures pursuant to Rule 13a-15(b) under the Exchange Act. Based upon the evaluation, the Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer of our general partner have concluded that as of December 31, 2020, our disclosure controls and procedures are effective.

Changes in Internal Control over Financial Reporting. There have not been any changes in our internal control over financial reporting that occurred during the quarter ended December 31, 2020 that have materially affected, or are reasonably likely to materially affect, internal controls over financial reporting.

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MANAGEMENT’S REPORT ON INTERNAL CONTROL OVER FINANCIAL REPORTING

The management of our general partner is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting of the Partnership. The Partnership’s internal control over financial reporting is a process designed under the supervision of the Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer of our general partner to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of the Partnership’s financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles.

Management conducted an evaluation of the effectiveness of the Partnership’s internal control over financial reporting based on the framework in the 2013 Internal Control-Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission. Based on its evaluation under the framework in the 2013 Internal Control-Integrated Framework, management did not identify any material weaknesses in the Partnership’s internal control over financial reporting and determined that the Partnership maintained effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2020.

Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.

Grant Thornton LLP, the independent registered public accounting firm that audited the consolidated financial statements of the Partnership included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, has issued their report on the effectiveness of the Partnership’s internal control over financial reporting at December 31, 2020. The report, which expresses an unqualified opinion on the effectiveness of the Partnership’s internal control over financial reporting at December 31, 2020, is included in this Item under the heading “Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm.”

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REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM

General Partner and Unitholders
Viper Energy Partners LP

Opinion on internal control over financial reporting
We have audited the internal control over financial reporting of Viper Energy Partners LP (a Delaware limited partnership) and subsidiary (collectively, the “Partnership”) as of December 31, 2020, based on criteria established in the 2013 Internal Control-Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (“COSO”). In our opinion, the Partnership maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2020, based on criteria established in the 2013 Internal Control-Integrated Framework issued by COSO.

We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (“PCAOB”), the consolidated financial statements of the Partnership as of and for the year ended December 31, 2020, and our report dated February 25, 2021 expressed an unqualified opinion on those financial statements.

Basis for opinion
The Partnership’s management is responsible for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting, included in the accompanying Management’s Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Partnership’s internal control over financial reporting based on our audit. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Partnership in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.

We conducted our audit in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects. Our audit included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, assessing the risk that a material weakness exists, testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control based on the assessed risk, and performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our audit provides a reasonable basis for our opinion.

Definition and limitations of internal control over financial reporting
A company’s internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. A company’s internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (1) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (2) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (3) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the company’s assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.

Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.


/s/ GRANT THORNTON LLP

Oklahoma City, Oklahoma
February 25, 2021

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ITEM 9B.     OTHER INFORMATION

None.

PART III

ITEM 10.     DIRECTORS, EXECUTIVE OFFICERS AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

Management of Viper Energy Partners LP

We are managed and operated by the board of directors and the executive officers of our general partner, the latter of whom are employed by Diamondback.

Diamondback owns all of the membership interests in our general partner. As a result of owning our general partner, Diamondback has the right to appoint all members of the board of directors of our general partner, including the independent directors. Our common unitholders are not entitled to elect our general partner or its directors or otherwise directly participate in our management or operation. Our general partner owes certain duties to our common unitholders as well as a fiduciary duty to its owner.

The executive officers of our general partner manage the day-to-day affairs of our business. All of the executive officers of our general partner also serve as executive officers of Diamondback. The executive officers listed below allocate their time between managing our business and the business of Diamondback. In addition, Messrs. Stice, Van’t Hof and Zmigrosky and Ms. Dick allocate a portion of their time to Rattler Midstream LP, Diamondback’s other publicly traded subsidiary, which we refer to as Rattler.
    
Executive Officers and Directors of Our General Partner

The following table shows information for the executive officers and directors of our general partner as of January 31, 2021. Directors hold office until their successors have been elected or qualified or until the earlier of their death, resignation, removal or disqualification. Executive officers serve at the discretion of the board of directors of our general partner. There are no family relationships among any of our general partner’s directors or executive officers.
NameAgePosition With Our General Partner
Travis D. Stice59Chief Executive Officer and Director
Kaes Van't Hof34President
Teresa L. Dick51Chief Financial Officer, Executive Vice President and Assistant Secretary
Russell Pantermuehl61Executive Vice President and Chief Engineer
Thomas F. Hawkins67Executive Vice President—Land
Matt Zmigrosky42Executive Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary
Steven E. West60Chairman of the Board
W. Wesley Perry64Director
Spencer D. Armour66Director
James L. Rubin36Director
Rosalind Redfern Grover79Director

Travis D. Stice. Mr. Stice has served as Chief Executive Officer and a director of our general partner since February 2014. He has served as Chief Executive Officer of Diamondback since January 2012 and as a director since November 2012. Mr. Stice has also served as the Chief Executive Officer and a director of the general partner of Rattler since July 2018. Prior to these positions with our general partner, Diamondback and Rattler’s general partner, Mr. Stice served as Diamondback’s President and Chief Operating Officer from April 2011 to January 2012. From November 2010 to April 2011, Mr. Stice served as a Production Manager of Apache Corporation, an oil and gas exploration company. Mr. Stice served as a Vice President of Laredo Petroleum Holdings, Inc., an oil and gas exploration company, from September 2008 to September 2010 and as a Development Manager of ConocoPhillips/Burlington Resources Mid-Continent Business Unit, an oil and gas exploration company, from April 2006 until August 2008. Prior to that, Mr. Stice held a series of positions at Burlington Resources, an oil and gas exploration company, most recently as a General Manager, Engineering, Operations and Business Reporting of its Mid Continent Division from January 2001 until Burlington Resources’ acquisition by ConocoPhillips in March 2006. Mr. Stice has over 35 years of experience in production operations, reservoir engineering, production engineering and unconventional oil and
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gas exploration and over 20 years of management experience. Mr. Stice graduated from Texas A&M University with a Bachelor of Science degree in Petroleum Engineering. He is a registered engineer in the State of Texas, and is a 35-year member of the Society of Petroleum Engineers.

We believe Mr. Stice’s expertise and extensive industry and executive management experience, including at Diamondback, make him a valuable asset to the board of directors of our general partner.

Kaes Van’t Hof. Mr. Van't Hof has served as President of our general partner since March 2017. He has served as Diamondback’s Chief Financial Officer and Executive Vice President of Business Development since March 2019 after joining Diamondback in July 2016 as Vice President and serving as its Senior Vice President—Strategy and Corporate Development from February 2017 to February 2019. Mr. Van’t Hof has also served as President and director of the general partner of Rattler since July 2018. Prior to his positions with our general partner, Diamondback and Rattler’s general partner, Mr. Van't Hof served as Chief Executive Officer for Bison Drilling and Field Services from September 2012 to June 2016. From August 2011 to August 2012, Mr. Van't Hof was an analyst for Wexford Capital LP responsible for developing operating models and business plans, including in connection with our initial public offering, and before that worked for the Investment Banking-Financial Institutions Group of Citigroup Global Markets, Inc. from February 2010 to August 2011. Mr. Van't Hof was a professional tennis player from May 2008 to January 2010. Mr. Van't Hof received a Bachelor of Science in Accounting and Business Administration from the University of Southern California.

Teresa L. Dick. Ms. Dick has served as Chief Financial Officer, Executive Vice President and Assistant Secretary of our general partner since February 2017 and served as Chief Financial Officer, Senior Vice President and Assistant Secretary from February 2014 to February 2017. She has also served as Diamondback’s Executive Vice President and Chief Accounting Officer since March 2019. Ms. Dick served as Diamondback’s Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer from February 2017 to February 2019, as its Assistant Secretary since October 2012, as its Chief Financial Officer and Senior Vice President from November 2009 to February 2017 and as its Corporate Controller from November 2007 until November 2009. Ms. Dick has also served as Chief Financial Officer, Executive Vice President and Assistant Secretary of the general partner of Rattler since July 2018. From June 2006 to November 2007, Ms. Dick held a key management position as the Controller/Tax Director at Hiland Partners, a publicly traded midstream energy master limited partnership. Ms. Dick has over 20 years of accounting experience, including over nine years of public company experience in both audit and tax areas. Ms. Dick received her Bachelor of Business Administration degree in Accounting from the University of Northern Colorado. She is a certified public accountant and a member of the American Institute of CPAs and the Council of Petroleum Accountants Societies.

Russell Pantermuehl. Mr. Pantermuehl has served as Executive Vice President and Chief Engineer of our general partner and Diamondback since March 2019. Mr. Pantermuehl served as Executive Vice President—Reservoir Engineering of our general partner from February 2017 to February 2019 and served as Vice President—Reservoir Engineering from February 2014 to February 2017. He has also served as Diamondback’s Executive Vice President—Reservoir Engineering from February 2017 to March 2019, and served as Vice President-Reservoir Engineering from August 2011 to February 2017. Prior to his positions with us and Diamondback, Mr. Pantermuehl served as a reservoir engineering supervisor for Concho Resources Inc., an oil and gas exploration company, from March 2010 to August 2011. Mr. Pantermuehl worked for ConocoPhillips Company as a reservoir engineering advisor from January 2005 to March 2010. Mr. Pantermuehl also worked as an independent consultant in the oil and gas industry from March 2000 to December 2004. He received a Bachelor of Science degree in Petroleum Engineering from Texas A&M University.

Thomas F. Hawkins. Mr. Hawkins has served as Executive Vice President—Land of our general partner and Diamondback since March 2019. Prior to these positions, he served as Senior Vice President—Land of our general partner and Diamondback from March 2017 to February 2019. Prior to his positions with us and Diamondback, Mr. Hawkins was an independent consultant for land activities from July 2016 to February 2017. Mr. Hawkins has over 40 years of experience in the oil and gas industry. Mr. Hawkins spent seven years with Oasis Petroleum Inc., an oil and gas company, as its Senior Vice President of Land or in related capacities from March 2009 to June 2016. Until February 2009, Mr. Hawkins spent 31 years with ConocoPhillips and Burlington Resources (which ConocoPhillips acquired in 2006). During that time, Mr. Hawkins held various operations and managerial positions in the land, marketing, planning and the corporate acquisitions and divestitures groups. Mr. Hawkins has worked in several major regions in the continental United States, including the San Juan Basin, the Williston Basin and the Austin Chalk/Wilcox Trends in South Texas. Mr. Hawkins holds a Bachelor of Business Administration in Finance from the University of Texas at El Paso.

Matt Zmigrosky. Mr. Zmigrosky has served as Executive Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary of our general partner since February 2019. Since February 2019, Mr. Zmigrosky has also served as Executive Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary of both Diamondback and the general partner of Rattler. Before joining us, Diamondback and Rattler’s general partner, Mr. Zmigrosky was in the private practice of law, most recently as a partner in the corporate section of Akin
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Gump Strauss Hauer & Feld LLP from October 2012 to February 2019, where he worked extensively with Diamondback and its subsidiaries. Mr. Zmigrosky received a Bachelor of Science in Management degree in finance from Tulane University and a Juris Doctorate degree from Southern Methodist University Dedman School of Law.

Steven E. West. Mr. West has served as Chairman of the Board of our general partner since February 2014 and as a director and chairman of the general partner of Rattler since May 2019. Mr. West has also served as a director of Diamondback since December 2011 and as its Chairman of the Board since October 2012. He served as Diamondback's Chief Executive Officer from January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2011. From January 2011 until December 2016, Mr. West was a partner at Wexford Capital LP, focusing on Wexford’s private equity energy investments. From August 2006 until December 2010, Mr. West served as senior portfolio advisor at Wexford. From August 2003 until August 2006, he was the chief financial officer of Sunterra Corporation, a former Wexford portfolio company. From December 1993 until July 2003, Mr. West held senior financial positions at Coast Asset Management and IndyMac Bank. Prior to that, he worked at First Nationwide Bank, Lehman Brothers and Peat Marwick Mitchell & Co., the predecessor of KPMG LLP. Mr. West earned a Bachelor of Science degree in Accounting from California State University, Chico.

We believe that Mr. West’s background in finance, accounting and private equity energy investments, as well as his executive management skills developed as part of his career with Wexford, its portfolio companies and other financial institutions qualify him to serve on the board of directors of our general partner. In particular, we believe Mr. West’s strengths in the following core competencies provide value to our board of directors: Corporate Governance; Finance/Capital Markets; Financial Reporting/Accounting Experience; Industry Background; Executive Experience; Executive Compensation; and Risk Management.

W. Wesley Perry. Mr. Perry has been a member of the board of directors of our general partner since June 2014. Mr. Perry has served as a director of Genie Energy Ltd., an independent retail energy provider, since October 2011, currently serves as the chair of its audit committee and a member of its compensation, nominating, corporate governance and technology committees and has served as the chairman of the board of directors of Genie Energy International Corporation since September 2009. Mr. Perry also serves as manager of PBEX, LLC, an oil and gas exploration and development company, a position he has held since July 2012. Mr. Perry has served as manager of S.E.S. Investments, Ltd., an oil and gas investment company, since 1985. He served as Chief Executive Officer of E.G.L. Resources, Inc., an oil and gas production company, from July 2008 until December 2019 and served as its President from 2003 to July 2008. Mr. Perry was a director of UTG, Inc., an insurance holding company, from 2001 to 2013 and served on its Audit Committee. Mr. Perry served on the Midland City Council from 2002 to 2008 and as Mayor of Midland from 2008 through 2014. He is the Chairman of the Milagros Foundation and a trustee of the Abell-Hangar Foundation. He has a Bachelor of Science degree in Engineering from the University of Oklahoma.

We believe that Mr. Perry’s extensive experience in the oil and gas industry and his strong financial background qualify him to serve on the board of directors of our general partner.

Spencer D. Armour. Mr. Armour has been a member of the board of directors of our general partner since July 2017. Mr. Armour has over 30 years of executive and entrepreneurial experience in the energy services industry. Mr. Armour has served as a partner of Geneses Investments since February 2019. He served as President of PT Petroleum LLC in Midland, Texas from March 2013 until January 2019. He was the Vice President of Corporate Development for Basic Energy Services, Inc. from 2007 to 2008, which acquired Sledge Drilling Corp., a company Mr. Armour co-founded and served as Chief Executive Officer for from 2005 to 2006. From 1998 through 2005, he served as Executive Vice President of Patterson-UTI Energy, Inc., which acquired Lone Star Mud, Inc., a company Mr. Armour founded and served as President from 1986 to 1997. Mr. Armour has served as a director of ProPetro Holding Corp. since February 2013 and as a director of CES Energy since December 2018. Mr. Armour also served on the Patterson-UTI Board of Directors from 1999 through 2001. Mr. Armour received a Bachelor of Science in Economics from the University of Houston and was appointed to the University of Houston System Board of Regents in 2011 by former Texas Governor Rick Perry.

We believe that Mr. Armour’s extensive experience in the oil and gas industry qualify him to serve on the board of directors of our general partner.

James L. Rubin. Mr. Rubin has been a member of the board of directors of our general partner since June 2014. He has served as a partner at Wexford since 2012 and currently serves as Portfolio Manager and Co-Head of Equities and as a member of Wexford’s hedge fund investment committee. From 2006 to 2012, he served as an analyst and later as Vice President, focusing on Wexford’s public and private energy investments. Mr. Rubin graduated cum laude from Yale University with a Bachelor of Arts degree with honors in political science and economics.
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We believe that Mr. Rubin’s strong financial background qualifies him to serve on the board of directors of our general partner.

Rosalind Redfern Grover. Ms. Grover has been a member of the board of directors of our general partner since December 2014. Ms. Grover served as Chairman of the Board of Flag-Redfern Oil Company until the company was sold to Kerr-McGee Corporation in 1988. She has served as the President of Redfern Enterprises, Inc., an independent oil and gas producer, since 1989 and as the Chief Executive Officer of Redfern & Grover Resources, LLC, an independent oil and gas producer, since 2014. Ms. Grover holds Bachelors and Masters degrees from the University of Arizona.

We believe that Ms. Grover’s extensive experience in the oil and gas industry, including with oil and gas partnerships, qualifies her to serve on the board of directors of our general partner.

Director Independence

The board of directors of our general partner has six directors, four of whom are independent as defined under the independence standards established by Nasdaq and the Exchange Act. Steven E. West, W. Wesley Perry, Spencer D. Armour and Rosalind Redfern Grover serve as the independent members of the board of directors of our general partner. Although a majority of the board of directors of our general partner is independent, Nasdaq does not require a listed publicly traded partnership, such as ours, to have a majority of independent directors on the board of directors of our general partner or to establish a compensation committee or a nominating and corporate governance committee. However, our general partner is required to have an audit committee of at least three members, and all its members are required to meet the independence and experience standards established by Nasdaq and the Exchange Act.

Board Leadership Structure and Role in Risk Oversight

Leadership of our general partner’s board of directors is vested in the chairman of the board. Steven E. West serves as the chairman of the board of directors of our general partner and as chairman of the board of Diamondback. Our general partner’s board of directors has determined that the combined roles of chairman of the board of directors of our general partner and chairman of the board of Diamondback allows the board of directors to take advantage of the leadership skills of Mr. West and that Mr. West’s in-depth knowledge of, and experience in, our business, history, structure and organization facilitates timely communications between the board of directors of Diamondback and the board of directors of our general partner.

As a partnership engaged in the oil and natural gas industry, we face a number of risks, including risks associated with supply of and demand for oil and natural gas, volatility of oil and natural gas prices, exploring for, developing, producing and delivering oil and natural gas, declining production, environmental and other government regulations and taxes, extreme weather conditions that can affect oil and natural gas operations over a wide area, adequacy of our insurance coverage, political instability or armed conflict in oil and natural gas producing regions and the overall economic environment. Management is responsible for the day-to-day management of risks we face as a partnership, while the board of directors of our general partner, as a whole and through its committees, has responsibility for the oversight of risk management. In its risk oversight role, the board of directors of our general partner has the responsibility to satisfy itself that the risk management processes designed and implemented by management are adequate and functioning as designed.

The board of directors of our general partner believes that full and open communication between management and the board is essential for effective risk management and oversight. The chairman of the board of directors of our general partner meets regularly with the Chief Executive Officer and the Chief Financial Officer to discuss strategy and risks facing the partnership. Executive officers may attend the board meetings of our general partner and are available to address any questions or concerns raised by the board on risk management-related and any other matters. Other members of our management team periodically attend the board meetings or are otherwise available to confer with the board to the extent their expertise is required to address risk management matters. Periodically, the board of directors of our general partner receives presentations from senior management on strategic matters involving our operations. During such meetings, the board also discusses strategies, key challenges, and risks and opportunities for the partnership with senior management.

While the board of directors of our general partner is ultimately responsible for risk oversight at the partnership, its two committees assist the board in fulfilling its oversight responsibilities in certain areas of risk. The audit committee assists the board in fulfilling its oversight responsibilities with respect to risk management in the areas of financial reporting, internal controls and compliance with legal and regulatory requirements, and discusses policies with respect to risk assessment and risk management. The conflicts committee assists the board in fulfilling its oversight responsibilities with respect to specific matters that the board believes may involve conflicts of interest.

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Meetings of the Board of Directors

During 2020, the board of directors of our general partner met six times. Each director attended 100% of the meetings of the board and the committees of the board on which he or she served that occurred during 2020.

Communications with Directors

Unitholders or interested parties may communicate directly with the board of directors of our general partner, any committee of the board, any independent directors, or any one director, by sending written correspondence by mail addressed to the board, committee or director to the attention of our Secretary at the following address: c/o Secretary, Viper Energy Partners LP, 500 West Texas, Suite 1200, Midland, Texas. Communications are distributed to the board of directors, committee of the board of directors, or director as appropriate, depending on the facts and circumstances outlined in the communication. Commercial solicitations or communications will not be forwarded.

Committees of the Board of Directors

The board of directors of our general partner has an audit committee and a conflicts committee. We do not have a compensation committee or a nominating and corporate governance committee. Rather, the board of directors of our general partner has authority over compensation matters and nominating and corporate governance matters.

Audit Committee

The audit committee assists the board of directors in its oversight of the integrity of our financial statements and our compliance with legal and regulatory requirements and partnership policies and controls. The audit committee has the sole authority to retain and terminate our independent registered public accounting firm, approve all auditing services and related fees and the terms thereof performed by our independent registered public accounting firm, and pre-approve any non-audit services and tax services to be rendered by our independent registered public accounting firm. The audit committee is also responsible for confirming the independence and objectivity of our independent registered public accounting firm. Our independent registered public accounting firm has unrestricted access to the audit committee and our management, as necessary. The audit committee has adopted a charter, which is available on our website under the “corporate governance” section at http://ir.viperenergy.com.

W. Wesley Perry, Spencer D. Armour and Rosalind Redfern Grover currently serve on the audit committee, and Mr. Perry serves as the chairman. The board of directors of our general partner has determined that each of W. Wesley Perry, Spencer D. Armour and Rosalind Redfern Grover meet the independence and experience standards established by the Nasdaq and the Exchange Act and that Mr. Perry is an “audit committee financial expert” as defined under SEC rules.

Conflicts Committee

Our conflicts committee reviews specific matters that the board believes may involve conflicts of interest and determines to submit to the conflicts committee for review. The conflicts committee determines if the resolution of the conflict of interest is in our best interest. The members of the conflicts committee may not be officers or employees of our general partner or directors, officers or employees of its affiliates, including Diamondback, and must meet the independence standards established by Nasdaq and the Exchange Act to serve on an audit committee of a board of directors, along with other requirements in our partnership agreement. Any matters approved by the conflicts committee will be conclusively deemed to be approved by us and all of our partners and not a breach by our general partner of any duties it may owe us or our unitholders. W. Wesley Perry, Spencer D. Armour and Rosalind Redfern Grover are the members of the conflicts committee.

Corporate Governance

The board of directors of our general partner has adopted a Code of Business Conduct and Ethics, or Code of Ethics, that applies to all employees, including executive officers, and directors of our general partner. Amendments to or waivers from the Code of Ethics will be disclosed on our website. We have also made the Code of Ethics available on our website under the “Corporate Governance” section at http://ir.viperenergy.com.

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Reimbursement of Expenses of our General Partner

Our partnership agreement requires us to reimburse our general partner and its affiliates, including Diamondback, for all expenses they incur and payments they make on our behalf in connection with operating our business. Our partnership agreement does not set a limit on the amount of expenses for which our general partner and its affiliates may be reimbursed. These expenses include salary, bonus, incentive compensation and other amounts paid to persons who perform services for us or on our behalf and expenses allocated to our general partner by its affiliates. Our partnership agreement provides that our general partner will determine the expenses that are allocable to us.

ITEM 11.     EXECUTIVE COMPENSATION

Compensation Discussion and Analysis

As is commonly the case for publicly traded limited partnerships, we have no officers. Our general partner has the sole responsibility for conducting our business and for managing our operations, and its board of directors and executive officers make decisions on our behalf. Our general partner’s executive officers are employed and compensated by Diamondback or a subsidiary of Diamondback. All of the executive officers that are responsible for managing our day-to-day affairs are also current executive officers of Diamondback.

All of the executive officers of our general partner have responsibilities to us, Diamondback and Rattler, Diamondback’s other publicly traded subsidiary, and allocate their time between managing our business and managing the businesses of Diamondback and Rattler. Since all of these executive officers are employed by Diamondback or one of its subsidiaries, the responsibility and authority for compensation-related decisions for them resides with Diamondback’s compensation committee. Diamondback has the ultimate decision-making authority with respect to the total compensation of the executive officers that are employed by Diamondback including, subject to the terms of the partnership agreement, the portion of that compensation that is allocated to us pursuant to Diamondback’s allocation methodology. Any such compensation decisions are not subject to any approvals by the board of directors of our general partner or any committees thereof. However, all determinations with respect to awards that are made to executive officers, key employees and non-employee directors under the LTIP are made by the board of directors of our general partner. Please see the description of the LTIP below under the heading “Long-Term Incentive Plan.”

The executive officers of our general partner, as well as the employees of Diamondback who provide services to us, may participate in employee benefit plans and arrangements sponsored by Diamondback, including plans that may be established in the future. Certain of our general partner’s executive officers and employees and certain employees of Diamondback who provide services to us currently hold grants under Diamondback’s and Rattler’s equity incentive plans. Except with respect to any awards that may be granted under the LTIP, the executive officers of our general partner do not receive separate amounts of compensation in relation to the services they provide to us. In accordance with the terms of our partnership agreement, we reimburse Diamondback for compensation related expenses attributable to the portion of the executive’s time dedicated to providing services to us. Although we bear an allocated portion of Diamondback’s costs of providing compensation and benefits to employees who serve as executive officers of our general partner, we have no control over such costs and did not establish and do not direct the compensation policies or practices of Diamondback. Except with respect to awards granted under the LTIP, compensation paid or awarded by us in 2020 consisted only of the portion of compensation paid by Diamondback that is allocated to us and our general partner pursuant to Diamondback’s allocation methodology and subject to the terms of the partnership agreement.

A full discussion of the compensation programs for Diamondback’s executive officers and the policies and philosophy of the compensation committee of Diamondback’s board of directors will be set forth in Diamondback’s 2021 proxy statement under the heading “Compensation Discussion and Analysis.” Specifically, compensation paid directly by us through our LTIP or indirectly by us through reimbursement pursuant to our partnership agreement will be included in the amounts set forth in certain of the tables included in Diamondback’s 2021 proxy statement, with awards outstanding pursuant to our LTIP separately identified.

Long-Term Incentive Plan

In order to incentivize our management and directors to continue to grow our business, the board of directors of our general partner adopted the LTIP for employees, officers, consultants and directors of our general partner and any of its affiliates, including Diamondback, who perform services for us.

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The purpose of the LTIP is to provide a means to attract and retain individuals who are essential to our growth and profitability and to encourage them to devote their best efforts to advancing our business by affording such individuals a means to acquire and maintain ownership of awards, the value of which is tied to the performance of our common units. The LTIP provides for the grant of unit options, unit appreciation rights, restricted units, unit awards, phantom units, distribution equivalent rights, cash awards, performance awards, other unit-based awards and substitute awards (collectively, “awards”). These awards are intended to align the interests of employees, officers, consultants and directors with those of our unitholders and to give such individuals the opportunity to share in our long-term performance. Any awards that are made under the LTIP will be approved by the board of directors of our general partner or a committee thereof that may be established for such purpose. We will be responsible for the cost of awards granted under the LTIP.

During 2020, our general partner made grants under the LTIP of phantom units to the non-employee directors of our general partner (see “Director Compensation” below for information regarding those awards). No grants under the LTIP were made to the executive officers of our general partner in 2020.

Administration

The LTIP is administered by the board of directors of our general partner pursuant to its terms and all applicable state, federal, or other rules or laws. The board of directors of our general partner has the power to determine to whom and when awards will be granted, determine the amount of awards (measured in cash or in shares of our common units), proscribe and interpret the terms and provisions of each award agreement (the terms of which may vary), accelerate the vesting provisions associated with an award, delegate duties under the LTIP and execute all other responsibilities permitted or required under the LTIP.

Change in Control

Upon a “change in control” (as defined in the LTIP), the committee may, in its discretion, (i) remove any forfeiture restrictions applicable to an award, (ii) accelerate the time of exercisability or vesting of an award, (iii) require awards to be surrendered in exchange for a cash payment, (iv) cancel unvested awards without payment or (v) make adjustments to awards as the committee deems appropriate to reflect the change in control.

Termination of Employment or Service

The consequences of the termination of a participant’s employment, consulting arrangement or membership on the board of directors of our general partner will be determined by the plan administrator in the terms of the relevant award agreement.

Compensation Report

Neither we nor the board of directors of our general partner has a compensation committee. The board of directors of our general partner has reviewed and discussed the Compensation Discussion and Analysis set forth above. Based on this review and discussion, the board of directors of our general partner has approved the Compensation Discussion and Analysis for inclusion in this Annual Report.
The Board of Directors of Viper Energy Partners GP LLC
Travis D. Stice
Steven E. West
W. Wesley Perry
Spencer D. Armour
James L. Rubin
Rosalind Redfern Grover

Director Compensation
The executive officers or employees of our general partner or of Diamondback who also serve as directors of our general partner do not receive additional compensation for their service as a director of our general partner. Directors of our general partner who are not executive officers or employees of our general partner or of Diamondback receive compensation as “non-employee directors” as set by our general partner’s board of directors.

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Each non-employee director receives a compensation package that consists of an annual cash retainer of $60,000 plus an additional annual payment of $15,000 for the chairperson and $10,000 for each other member of the audit committee and $10,000 for the chairperson and $5,000 for each other member of each other committee. In addition, each non-employee director receives an equity award of phantom units under the LTIP granted annually at the close of business on July 10th of each year or, if not a business day, the first business day thereafter. The number of phantom units awarded is calculated by dividing $100,000 by the average closing price of our common units for the five trading days immediately preceding the date of grant. The awards vest on the first anniversary of the grate date. Our directors are also reimbursed for out-of-pocket expenses in connection with attending meetings of the board of directors or its committees.

Each member of the board of directors of our general partner is indemnified for his or her actions associated with being a director to the fullest extent permitted under Delaware law.

The following table sets forth the aggregate dollar amount of all fees paid to each of the non-employee directors of our general partner during 2020 for their services on the board:
NameFees Earned or Paid in cash(a)Unit Awards(b)Total
Spencer D. Armour(c)(d)
$75,000 $97,905 $172,905 
Rosalind Redfern Grover(c)(d)
$75,000 $97,905 $172,905 
W. Wesley Perry(c)(d)
$85,000 $97,905 $182,905 
James L. Rubin(c)(d)
$60,000 $97,905 $157,905 
Steven E. West(c)(d)
$60,000 $97,905 $157,905 
(a)This column reflects the value of a director’s annual retainer.
(b)The amount in this column represents the aggregate grant date fair value of phantom units granted in the fiscal year calculated in accordance with Financial Accounting Standards Board Accounting Standards Codification Topic 718, “Compensation - Stock Compensation.” Distribution equivalent rights are not reflected in the aggregate grant date fair value of phantom unit awards.
(c)Each of Ms. Grover and Messrs. Armour, Perry, Rubin and West received a grant of 3,257 phantom units on July 10, 2019, which vested and settled on July 10, 2020, pursuant to the LTIP, with each unit having a grant date fair value of $31.96. Each phantom unit is the economic equivalent of one of our common units.
(d)Each of Ms. Grover and Messrs. Armour, Perry, Rubin and West received a grant of 9,970 phantom units on July 10, 2020, which will vest and settle on July 10, 2021, pursuant to the LTIP, with each unit having a grant date fair value of $9.82. Each phantom unit is the economic equivalent of one of our common units.

Mr. Stice is a director of our general partner, but is also an executive officer of our general partner and Mr. Stice is an employee of Diamondback E&P LLC. Mr. Stice has received awards pursuant to the LTIP for his service as an executive officer or employee, respectively, and unrelated to his service as director. These awards are reflected in the tables contained in Diamondback’s 2021 proxy statement under the heading “Compensation Discussion and Analysis.”

Compensation Committee Interlocks and Insider Participation

As previously noted, our general partner’s board of directors is not required to maintain, and does not maintain, a separate compensation committee. Mr. Stice, a director and executive officer of our general partner, is also a director and executive officer of Diamondback. However, all compensation decisions with respect to Mr. Stice are made by Diamondback and Mr. Stice does not receive any compensation directly from us or our general partner except for awards under our LTIP. As described in “–Compensation Discussion and Analysis,” decisions regarding the compensation of our general partner’s executive officers are made by Diamondback. Please read “Items 1 and 2. Business and Properties–Our Relationship with Diamondback” and “Item 13. Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence” for more information about relationships among us, our general partner and Diamondback.

Compensation Policies and Practices as They Relate to Risk Management

We do not have any employees. We are managed and operated by the directors and officers of our general partner and employees of Diamondback perform services on our behalf. Please read “–Compensation Discussion and Analysis” and “Items 1 and 2. Business and Properties–Our Relationship with Diamondback” for more information about this arrangement. For an analysis of any risks arising from Diamondback’s compensation policies and practices, please read Diamondback’s 2021 proxy statement. We have made awards of unit options subject to time-based vesting under our LTIP, which we believe drive a long-
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term perspective and which we believe make it less likely that executive officers will take unreasonable risks because the unit options retain value even in a depressed market.
    
ITEM 12.     SECURITY OWNERSHIP OF CERTAIN BENEFICIAL OWNERS AND MANAGEMENT AND RELATED UNITHOLDER MATTERS

Holdings of Officers and Directors

The following table presents information regarding the beneficial ownership of our common units as of January 31, 2021 by:

our general partner;
each of our general partner’s directors and executive officers; and
all of our general partner’s directors and executive officers as a group.
Name of Beneficial Owner
Common Units Beneficially Owned(1)
Percentage of Common Units Beneficially Owned