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Form FWP ROYAL BANK OF CANADA Filed by: ROYAL BANK OF CANADA

August 17, 2022 10:21 AM EDT

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Filed Pursuant to Rule 433
Registration Statement No. 333-259205




 
The information in this preliminary terms supplement is not complete and may be changed.
 
 

Preliminary Terms Supplement
Subject to Completion:
Dated August 17, 2022
Pricing Supplement Dated August __, 2022 to the Product Prospectus Supplement ERN-EI-1, the Prospectus Supplement and the Prospectus, each Dated September 14, 2021

$__________
Buffered Enhanced Return Notes Linked
to a Basket of Equity Indices, Due
September 21, 2023
Royal Bank of Canada




Royal Bank of Canada is offering the Buffered Enhanced Return Notes (the “Notes”) linked to the performance of an equally-weighted basket (the “Basket”) consisting of three indices (each, a “Basket Component”).
Basket Component
Component Weight
Initial Level(1)
Dow Jones Industrial AverageTM (“INDU”)
1/3
34,152.01
Nasdaq-100 Index® (“NDX”)
1/3
13,635.21
Russell 2000® Index (“RTY”)
 1/3
2,020.529
(1) The Initial Level of each Basket Component was its closing level on August 16, 2022.

The Notes provide a 300% leveraged positive return if the value of the Basket increases from the Initial Basket Level to the Final Basket Level, subject to the Maximum Redemption Amount of 116.80% of the principal amount.

If the Final Basket Level is less than the Initial Basket Level by no more than 10%, investors will receive the principal amount. However, investors will lose 1% of the principal amount of the Notes for each 1% decrease from the Initial Basket Level to the Final Basket Level of more than 10%.

Any payments on the Notes are subject to our credit risk.

The Notes do not pay interest.

The Notes will not be listed on any securities exchange.
Issue Date: August 22 2022
Maturity Date: September 21, 2023
CUSIP: 78016FS62
Investing in the Notes involves a number of risks. See “Selected Risk Considerations” beginning on page P-8 of this terms supplement, “Additional Risk Factors Specific to the Notes” beginning on page PS-6 of the product prospectus supplement dated September 14, 2021, and “Risk Factors” beginning on page S-2 of the prospectus supplement dated September 14, 2021.
The Notes will not constitute deposits insured by the Canada Deposit Insurance Corporation, the U.S. Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation or any other Canadian or U.S. government agency or instrumentality. The Notes are not subject to conversion into our common shares under subsection 39.2(2.3) of the Canada Deposit Insurance Corporation Act.
Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of the Notes or determined that this terms supplement is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

Per Note

Total
Price to public(1)
100.00%

$
Underwriting discounts and commissions(1)
0.05%

$
Proceeds to Royal Bank of Canada
99.95%

$
(1) Certain dealers who purchase the Notes for sale to certain fee-based advisory accounts may forego some or all of their underwriting discount or selling concessions. The public offering price for investors purchasing the Notes in these accounts may be between $999.50 and $1,000 per $1,000 in principal amount.
If the Notes priced on the date of this terms supplement, RBC Capital Markets, LLC (“RBCCM”), acting as our agent, would receive a commission of approximately $0.50 per $1,000 in principal amount of the Notes and would use a portion of that commission to allow selling concessions to other dealers of up to approximately $0.50 per $1,000 in principal amount of the Notes. The other dealers may forgo, in their sole discretion, some or all of their selling concessions. See “Supplemental Plan of Distribution (Conflicts of Interest)” below.
The initial estimated value of the Notes as of the Trade Date is expected to be between $945 and $995 per $1,000 in principal amount, and will be less than the price to public. The final pricing supplement relating to the Notes will set forth our estimate of the initial value of the Notes as of the Trade Date. The actual value of the Notes at any time will reflect many factors, cannot be predicted with accuracy, and may be less than this amount. We describe our determination of the initial estimated value in more detail below.

RBC Capital Markets, LLC



 

 
Buffered Enhanced Return Notes
Royal Bank of Canada
 
SUMMARY
The information in this “Summary” section is qualified by the more detailed information set forth in this terms supplement, the product prospectus supplement, the prospectus supplement, and the prospectus.
Issuer:
Royal Bank of Canada (“Royal Bank”)
Underwriter:
RBC Capital Markets, LLC (“RBCCM”)
Reference Assets:
The Notes are linked to the value of a basket (the “Basket”) of three equity indices (each, a “Basket Component,” collectively, the “Basket Components”). The Basket Components and their respective Component Weights are indicated in the table on the cover page of this document.
Denominations:
$1,000 and minimum denominations of $1,000 in excess thereof
Trade Date
(Pricing Date):
August 17, 2022
Issue Date:
August 22, 2022
Valuation Date:
September 18, 2023
Maturity Date:
September 21, 2023
Payment at
Maturity (if held
to maturity):
If the Final Basket Level is greater than the Initial Basket Level (that is, the Percentage Change is positive, then the investor will receive, for each $1,000 in principal amount, the lesser of:
1.$1,000 + [$1,000 x (Percentage Change x Leverage Factor)] and
2. The Maximum Redemption Amount.
If the Final Basket Level is less than or equal to the Initial Basket Level, but is not less than the Buffer Level (that is, the Percentage Change is between 0% and -10%), then the investor will receive the principal amount.
If the Final Basket Level is less than the Buffer Level (that is, the Percentage Change is between -10.01% and -100%), then the investor will receive, for each $1,000 in principal amount:
$1,000 + [$1,000 x (Percentage Change + Buffer Percentage)]
In this case, the payment on the Notes will be less than the principal amount, and you could lose some or a substantial portion of the principal amount.
Maximum
Redemption
Amount:
$1,168.00 per $1,000 in principal amount (116.80% multiplied by the principal amount)
Leverage
Factor:
300%
Buffer
Percentage:
10%

P-2
RBC Capital Markets, LLC


 

 
Buffered Enhanced Return Notes
Royal Bank of Canada
 
Initial Basket
Level:
The Initial Basket Level was set to 100 on August 16, 2022.
Buffer Level:
The Buffer Level was set to 90 on August 16, 2022.
Final Basket
Level:
The Final Basket Level will be calculated as follows:
100 × [1 + (the sum of, for each Basket Component, the Basket Component return multiplied by its Component Weight)]
Each of the Basket Component returns set forth above refers to the percentage change from the applicable Initial Level to the applicable Final Level, calculated as follows:
Final Level – Initial Level
Initial Level
Percentage
Change:
The Percentage Change of the Basket, expressed as a percentage and rounded to two decimal places, will be equal to:
Final Basket Level – Initial Basket Level
Initial Basket Level
Initial Level:
With respect to each Basket Component, its closing level on August 16, 2022. The Initial Level of each Basket Component is set forth on the cover page of this document.
Final Level:
With respect to each Basket Component, its closing level on the Valuation Date.
Principal at
Risk:
The Notes are NOT principal protected. You could lose a substantial portion of your principal amount at maturity if the Final Basket Level is less than the Buffer Level.
Calculation
Agent:
RBCCM
U.S. Tax
Treatment:
By purchasing a Note, each holder agrees (in the absence of a change in law, an administrative determination or a judicial ruling to the contrary) to treat the Note as a pre-paid cash-settled derivative contract in respect of the Basket for U.S. federal income tax purposes. However, the U.S. federal income tax consequences of your investment in the Notes are uncertain and the Internal Revenue Service could assert that the Notes should be taxed in a manner that is different from that described in the preceding sentence. Please see the section below, “Supplemental Discussion of U.S. Federal Income Tax Consequences,” and the discussion (including the opinion of our special U.S. tax counsel, Ashurst LLP) in the product prospectus supplement dated September 14, 2021 under “Supplemental Discussion of U.S. Federal Income Tax Consequences,” which apply to the Notes.
Secondary
Market:
RBCCM (or one of its affiliates), though not obligated to do so, may maintain a secondary market in the Notes after the issue date. The amount that you may receive upon sale of your Notes prior to maturity may be substantially less than the principal amount of your Notes.
Listing:
The Notes will not be listed on any securities exchange.

P-3
RBC Capital Markets, LLC


 

 
Buffered Enhanced Return Notes
Royal Bank of Canada
 
Clearance and
Settlement:
DTC global (including through its indirect participants Euroclear and Clearstream, Luxembourg as described under “Ownership and Book-Entry Issuance” in the prospectus dated September 14, 2021).
Terms
Incorporated in
the Master
Note:
All of the terms appearing on the cover page and above the item captioned “Secondary Market” on pages P-2 and P-3 of this terms supplement and the terms appearing under the captions “General Terms of the Notes” and “Supplemental Discussion of U.S. Federal Income Tax Consequences” in the product prospectus supplement dated September 14, 2021, as modified by this terms supplement.
The Trade Date, issue date and other dates set forth above are subject to change, and will be set forth in the final pricing supplement relating to the Notes.

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RBC Capital Markets, LLC


 

 
Buffered Enhanced Return Notes
Royal Bank of Canada
 
ADDITIONAL TERMS OF YOUR NOTES
You should read this terms supplement together with the prospectus dated September 14, 2021, as supplemented by the prospectus supplement dated September 14, 2021 and the product prospectus supplement dated September 14, 2021, relating to our Senior Global Medium-Term Notes, Series I, of which these Notes are a part. Capitalized terms used but not defined in this terms supplement will have the meanings given to them in the product prospectus supplement. In the event of any conflict, this terms supplement will control. The Notes vary from the terms described in the product prospectus supplement in several important ways. You should read this terms supplement carefully.
This terms supplement, together with the documents listed below, contains the terms of the Notes and supersedes all prior or contemporaneous oral statements as well as any other written materials including preliminary or indicative pricing terms, correspondence, trade ideas, structures for implementation, sample structures, brochures or other educational materials of ours. You should carefully consider, among other things, the matters set forth in “Risk Factors” in the prospectus supplement dated September 14, 2021 and “Additional Risk Factors Specific to the Notes” in the product prospectus supplement dated September 14, 2021, as the Notes involve risks not associated with conventional debt securities. We urge you to consult your investment, legal, tax, accounting and other advisors before you invest in the Notes. You may access these documents on the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) website at www.sec.gov as follows (or if that address has changed, by reviewing our filings for the relevant date on the SEC website):
Prospectus dated September 14, 2021:
Prospectus Supplement dated September 14, 2021:
Product Prospectus Supplement ERN-EI-1 dated September 14, 2021:
Our Central Index Key, or CIK, on the SEC website is 1000275. As used in this terms supplement, “we,” “us,” or “our” refers to Royal Bank of Canada.
Royal Bank of Canada has filed a registration statement (including a product prospectus supplement, a prospectus supplement, and a prospectus) with the SEC for the offering to which this terms supplement relates. Before you invest, you should read those documents and the other documents relating to this offering that we have filed with the SEC for more complete information about us and this offering. You may obtain these documents without cost by visiting EDGAR on the SEC website at www.sec.gov. Alternatively, Royal Bank of Canada, any agent or any dealer participating in this offering will arrange to send you the product prospectus supplement, the prospectus supplement and the prospectus if you so request by calling toll-free at 1-877-688-2301.

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RBC Capital Markets, LLC


 

 
Buffered Enhanced Return Notes
Royal Bank of Canada
 
HYPOTHETICAL RETURNS
The examples set out below are included for illustration purposes only. The hypothetical Percentage Changes of the Basket used to illustrate the calculation of the Payment at Maturity are not estimates or forecasts of the level of any Basket Component on any trading day prior to the Maturity Date. All examples are based on the Initial Basket Level of 100, the Buffer Level of 90, the Buffer Percentage of 10%, the Leverage Factor of 300%, the Maximum Redemption Amount of 116.80% of the principal amount, that an investor purchased $1,000 in principal amount of the Notes, and that no market disruption event occurs on the Valuation Date.

Example 1—
Calculation of the Payment at Maturity where the Percentage Change is positive.

Percentage Change:
5%

Payment at Maturity:
$1,000 + [$1,000 x (5% x 300%)] = $1,150.00

On a $1,000 investment, a 5% Percentage Change results in a Payment at Maturity of $1,150.00, a 15% return on the Notes.

Example 2—
Calculation of the Payment at Maturity where the Percentage Change is positive, but the payment on the Notes is subject to the Maximum Redemption Amount.

Percentage Change:
10%

Payment at Maturity:
$1,000 + [$1,000 x (10% x 300%)] = $1,300

On a $1,000 investment, a 10% Percentage Change result would result in a Payment at Maturity of $1,300. However, the Maximum Redemption Amount is $1,168. Accordingly, the payment on the Notes will be $1,168, equal to a return of 16.80%.

Example 3—
Calculation of the Payment at Maturity where the Percentage Change is negative (but the Final Basket Level is not less than the Initial Basket Level by more than the Buffer Percentage).

Percentage Change:
-5%

Payment at Maturity:
$1,000

On a $1,000 investment, a -5% Percentage Change results in a Payment at Maturity of $1,000, a 0% return on the Notes.

Example 4—
Calculation of the Payment at Maturity where the Final Basket Level is less than the Buffer Level.

Percentage Change:
-40%

Payment at Maturity:
$1,000 + [$1,000 x (-40% + 10%)] = $700

On a $1,000 investment, a -40% Percentage Change results in a Payment at Maturity of $700, a -30% return on the Notes.

P-6
RBC Capital Markets, LLC


 

 
Buffered Enhanced Return Notes
Royal Bank of Canada
 
The table set forth below is included for illustration purposes only. The table illustrates the hypothetical Redemption Amount of the Notes for a hypothetical range of performance for the Basket, based on the Initial Basket Level of 100, the Buffer Level of 90, the Buffer Percentage of 10%, the Leverage Factor of 300%, and the Maximum Redemption Amount of 116.80% of the principal amount.
Hypothetical Final Basket Levels are shown in the first column on the left.  The second column shows the hypothetical Percentage Changes for these hypothetical Final Basket Levels.  The third column shows the Redemption Amount for these hypothetical Final Basket Levels, expressed as a percentage of the principal amount of the Notes. The fourth column shows the Redemption Amount to be paid on the Notes per $1,000 in principal amount.
Hypothetical Final Basket Level
Hypothetical Percentage Change
 Redemption Amount as
Percentage of Principal
Amount
Redemption Amount
per $1,000 in
Principal Amount
140.00
 40.00%
 116.80%
$1,168.00
130.00
30.00%
116.80%
$1,168.00
120.00
20.00%
116.80%
$1,168.00
110.00
10.00%
116.80%
$1,168.00
105.60
5.60%
116.80%
$1,168.00
105.00
5.00%
115.00%
$1,150.00
102.50
2.50%
107.50%
$1,075.00
100.00
0.00%
100.00%
$1,000.00
98.00
-2.00%
100.00%
$1,000.00
95.00
-5.00%
100.00%
$1,000.00
90.00
-10.00%
100.00%
$1,000.00
80.00
-20.00%
90.00%
$900.00
70.00
-30.00%
80.00%
$800.00
60.00
-40.00%
70.00%
$700.00
40.00
-60.00%
50.00%
$500.00
20.00
-80.00%
30.00%
$300.00
10.00
-90.00%
20.00%
$200.00
0.00
-100.00%
10.00%
$100.00

P-7
RBC Capital Markets, LLC


 

 
Buffered Enhanced Return Notes
Royal Bank of Canada
 
SELECTED RISK CONSIDERATIONS
An investment in the Notes involves significant risks. Investing in the Notes is not equivalent to investing directly in any of the securities included in any Basket Component. These risks are explained in more detail in the section “Additional Risk Factors Specific to the Notes” in the product prospectus supplement. In addition to the risks described in the prospectus supplement and the product prospectus supplement, you should consider the following:
Risks Relating to the Terms of the Notes
You May Receive Less than the Principal Amount at Maturity – Investors in the Notes will lose some or a substantial portion of their principal amount if the Final Basket Level is less than the Buffer Level. In such a case, you will lose 1% of the principal amount of your Notes for each 1% that the Percentage Change is less than -10%. You could lose up to 90% of the principal amount at maturity.
The Notes Do Not Pay Interest and Your Return May Be Lower than the Return on a Conventional Debt Security of Comparable Maturity – There will be no periodic interest payments on the Notes as there would be on a conventional fixed-rate or floating-rate debt security having the same maturity. The return that you will receive on the Notes, which could be negative, may be less than the return you could earn on other investments. Even if your return is positive, your return may be less than the return you would earn if you purchased one of our conventional senior interest bearing debt securities.
Your Potential Payment at Maturity Is Limited  The Notes will provide less opportunity to participate in the appreciation of the Basket Components than an investment in a security linked to the Basket Components providing full participation in the appreciation, because the payment at maturity will not exceed the Maximum Redemption Amount. Accordingly, your return on the Notes may be less than your return would be if you made an investment in a security directly linked to the positive performance of the Basket.
You Will Not Have Any Rights to the Securities Included in the Basket Components – As a holder of the Notes, you will not have voting rights or rights to receive cash dividends or other distributions or other rights that holders of securities included in a Basket Component would have. The Final Levels of the Basket Components will not reflect any dividends paid on the securities included in the Basket Components; accordingly, any positive return on the Notes may be less than the potential positive return on those securities.
Payments on the Notes Are Subject to Our Credit Risk, and Changes in Our Credit Ratings Are Expected to Affect the Market Value of the Notes – The Notes are our senior unsecured debt securities. As a result, your receipt of the amount due on the Maturity Date is dependent upon our ability to repay our obligations at that time. This will be the case even if the value of the Basket increases after the date that initial Levels were determined. No assurance can be given as to what our financial condition will be at the maturity of the Notes.
Changes in the Level of One Basket Component May Be Offset by Changes in the Level of the Other Basket Components – A change in the level of one Basket Component may not correlate with changes in the level of the other Basket Components. The level of one Basket Component may increase, while the levels of the other Basket Components may not increase as much, or may even decrease. Therefore, in determining the value of the Basket as of any time, increases in the level of one Basket Component may be moderated, or wholly offset, by lesser increases or decreases in the level of the other Basket Components.

P-8
RBC Capital Markets, LLC


 

 
Buffered Enhanced Return Notes
Royal Bank of Canada
 
Risks Relating to the Secondary Market for the Notes
There May Not Be an Active Trading Market for the Notes—Sales in the Secondary Market May Result in Significant Losses — There may be little or no secondary market for the Notes. The Notes will not be listed on any securities exchange. RBCCM and our other affiliates may make a market for the Notes; however, they are not required to do so. RBCCM or any of our other affiliates may stop any market-making activities at any time. Even if a secondary market for the Notes develops, it may not provide significant liquidity or trade at prices advantageous to you. We expect that transaction costs in any secondary market would be high. As a result, the difference between bid and asked prices for your Notes in any secondary market could be substantial.
Risks Relating to the Estimated Value of the Notes
The Initial Estimated Value of the Notes Will Be Less than the Price to the Public —The initial estimated value that will be set forth on the cover page of the final pricing supplement for the Notes does not represent a minimum price at which we, RBCCM or any of our affiliates would be willing to purchase the Notes in any secondary market (if any exists) at any time. If you attempt to sell the Notes prior to maturity, their market value may be lower than the price you paid for them and the initial estimated value. This is due to, among other things, changes in the value of the Basket, the borrowing rate we pay to issue securities of this kind, and the inclusion in the price to the public of the underwriting discount and the estimated costs relating to our hedging of the Notes. These factors, together with various credit, market and economic factors over the term of the Notes, are expected to reduce the price at which you may be able to sell the Notes in any secondary market and will affect the value of the Notes in complex and unpredictable ways. Assuming no change in market conditions or any other relevant factors, the price, if any, at which you may be able to sell your Notes prior to maturity may be less than your original purchase price, as any such sale price would not be expected to include the underwriting discount and the hedging costs relating to the Notes. In addition to bid-ask spreads, the value of the Notes determined by RBCCM for any secondary market price is expected to be based on the secondary rate rather than the internal funding rate used to price the Notes and determine the initial estimated value. As a result, the secondary price will be less than if the internal funding rate was used. The Notes are not designed to be short-term trading instruments. Accordingly, you should be able and willing to hold your Notes to maturity.
The Initial Estimated Value of the Notes that We Will Provide in the Final Pricing Supplement Will Be an Estimate Only, Calculated as of the Time the Terms of the Notes Are Set — The initial estimated value of the Notes will be based on the value of our obligation to make the payments on the Notes, together with the mid-market value of the derivative embedded in the terms of the Notes. See “Structuring the Notes” below. Our estimate will be based on a variety of assumptions, including our credit spreads, expectations as to dividends, interest rates and volatility, and the expected term of the Notes. These assumptions are based on certain forecasts about future events, which may prove to be incorrect. Other entities may value the Notes or similar securities at a price that is significantly different than we do.
The value of the Notes at any time after the Trade Date will vary based on many factors, including changes in market conditions, and cannot be predicted with accuracy. As a result, the actual value you would receive if you sold the Notes in any secondary market, if any, should be expected to differ materially from the initial estimated value of your Notes.
Risks Relating to Conflicts of Interest and Our Trading Activities
Our Business Activities May Create Conflicts of Interest — We and our affiliates expect to engage in trading activities related to the Basket Components that are not for the account of holders of the Notes or on their behalf. These trading activities may present a conflict between the holders’ interests in the Notes and the interests we and our affiliates will have in their proprietary accounts, in facilitating transactions, including options and other derivatives transactions, for their customers and in accounts under their management. These trading activities, if they influence the level of a Basket Component, could be adverse to the interests of the holders of the Notes. We and one or more of our affiliates may, at present or in the future, engage in business with companies included in the Basket

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RBC Capital Markets, LLC


 

 
Buffered Enhanced Return Notes
Royal Bank of Canada
 
Components, including making loans to or providing advisory services. These services could include investment banking and merger and acquisition advisory services. These activities may present a conflict between our or one or more of our affiliates’ obligations and your interests as a holder of the Notes. Moreover, we, and our affiliates may have published, and in the future expect to publish, research reports with respect to the Basket Components. This research is modified from time to time without notice and may express opinions or provide recommendations that are inconsistent with purchasing or holding the Notes. Any of these activities by us or one or more of our affiliates may affect the level of each Basket Component, and therefore, the market value of the Notes.
Risks Relating to the Basket Components
An Investment in the Notes Linked to the RTY Is Subject to Risks Associated in Investing in Stocks With a Small Market Capitalization  The RTY consists of stocks issued by companies with relatively small market capitalizations. These companies often have greater stock price volatility, lower trading volume and less liquidity than large-capitalization companies. As a result, the level of the RTY may be more volatile than that of a market measure that does not track solely small-capitalization stocks. Stock prices of small-capitalization companies are also generally more vulnerable than those of large-capitalization companies to adverse business and economic developments, and the stocks of small-capitalization companies may be thinly traded, and be less attractive to many investors if they do not pay dividends. In addition, small capitalization companies are often less well-established and less stable financially than large-capitalization companies and may depend on a small number of key personnel, making them more vulnerable to loss of those individuals. Small capitalization companies tend to have lower revenues, less diverse product lines, smaller shares of their target markets, fewer financial resources and fewer competitive strengths than large-capitalization companies. These companies may also be more susceptible to adverse developments related to their products or services.
An Investment in the Notes Linked to the NDX Is Subject to Risks Relating to Non-U.S. Securities Markets — Because certain securities included in the NDX are issued by non-U.S. issuers and/or are traded outside of the U.S., an investment in the Notes involves particular risks. For example, the relevant non-U.S. securities markets may be more volatile than the U.S. securities markets, and market developments may affect these markets differently from the U.S. or other securities markets.
Are Subject to Postponement Due to Market Disruption Events and Adjustments — The Payment at Maturity and the Valuation Date are subject to adjustment as described in the product prospectus supplement. For a description of what constitutes a market disruption event as well as the consequences of that market disruption event, see “General Terms of the Notes—Market Disruption Events” in the product prospectus supplement.

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RBC Capital Markets, LLC


 

 
Buffered Enhanced Return Notes
Royal Bank of Canada
 
INFORMATION REGARDING THE BASKET COMPONENTS
All disclosures contained in this terms supplement regarding the Basket Components, including, without limitation, their make-up, method of calculation, and changes in their components, have been derived from publicly available sources prepared by the sponsors of the Basket Components. Such information reflects the policies of, and is subject to change by the sponsor. The sponsors have no obligation to continue to publish, and may discontinue publication of, the Basket Components. The consequences of an index sponsor discontinuing publication of a Basket Component are discussed in the section of the product prospectus supplement entitled “General Terms of the Notes—Unavailability of the Level of the Reference Asset.” Neither we nor RBCCM accepts any responsibility for the calculation, maintenance or publication of any Basket Component or any successor index.
Dow Jones Industrial AverageTM (“INDU”)
The INDU is designed to provide an indication of the composite performance of 30 common stocks of corporations representing a broad cross-section of U.S. industry. The corporations represented in the INDU tend to be market leaders in their respective industries and their stocks are typically widely held by individuals and institutional investors. The INDU is a price-weighted index, which means an underlying stock’s weight in the INDU is based on its price per share rather than the total market capitalization of the issuer.
The INDU is maintained by an Averages Committee. The committee is composed of three representatives of S&P Dow Jones Indices and two representatives of The Wall Street Journal. The Averages Committee was created in 2010, when Dow Jones Indexes became part of CME Group Index Services, LLC, a joint venture company owned by CME Group Inc. and by Dow Jones & Company. Generally, composition changes occur only after mergers, corporate acquisitions or other dramatic shifts in a component’s core business. When such an event necessitates that one component be replaced, the entire index is reviewed. As a result, when changes are made they typically involve more than one component. While there are no rules for component selection, a stock typically is added only if it has an excellent reputation, demonstrates sustained growth, is of interest to a large number of investors and accurately represents the sector(s) covered by the average.
Changes in the composition of the INDU are made entirely by the Averages Committee without consultation with the corporations represented in the INDU, any stock exchange, any official agency or us. Unlike most other indices, which are reconstituted according to a fixed review schedule, constituents of the INDU are reviewed on an as-needed basis. Changes to the common stocks included in the INDU tend to be made infrequently, and the underlying stocks of the INDU may be changed at any time for any reason. The companies currently represented in the INDU are incorporated in the United States and its territories and their stocks are listed on the New York Stock Exchange and Nasdaq.
In addition to the daily governance of the INDU, at least once within any 12-month period, the Averages Committee reviews the methodology to ensure that the INDU continues to achieve its stated objectives, and that the data and methodology remain effective. In certain instances, S&P Dow Jones Indices may publish a consultation inviting comments from external parties.
The INDU initially consisted of 12 common stocks and was first published in the WSJ in 1896. The INDU was increased to include 20 common stocks in 1916 and to 30 common stocks in 1928. The number of common stocks in the INDU has remained at 30 since 1928, and, in an effort to maintain continuity, the constituent corporations represented in the INDU have been changed on a relatively infrequent basis.
Computation of the INDU
The level of the INDU is the sum of the primary exchange prices of each of the 30 component stocks included in the INDU, divided by a divisor that is designed to provide a meaningful continuity in the level of the INDU. Because the INDU is price-weighted, stock splits or changes in the component stocks could result in distortions in the index level. In order to

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RBC Capital Markets, LLC


 

 
Buffered Enhanced Return Notes
Royal Bank of Canada
 
prevent these distortions related to extrinsic factors, the divisor is periodically changed in accordance with a mathematical formula that reflects adjusted proportions within the INDU.
License Agreement
S&P® is a registered trademark of Standard & Poor’s Financial Services LLC and Dow Jones® is a registered trademark of Dow Jones Trademark Holdings LLC (“Dow Jones”). These trademarks have been licensed for use by S&P. “Standard & Poor’s®”, “S&P 500®” and “S&P®” are trademarks of Standard & Poor’s Financial Services LLC. These trademarks have been sublicensed for certain purposes by us. The INDU is a product of S&P and/or its affiliates and has been licensed for use by us.
The Notes are not sponsored, endorsed, sold or promoted by S&P Dow Jones Indices LLC, Standard & Poor’s Financial Services LLC or any of their respective affiliates (collectively, “S&P Dow Jones Indices”). S&P Dow Jones Indices make no representation or warranty, express or implied, to the holders of the Notes or any member of the public regarding the advisability of investing in securities generally or in the Notes particularly or the ability of the INDU to track general market performance. S&P Dow Jones Indices’ only relationship to us with respect to the INDU is the licensing of the INDU and certain trademarks, service marks and/or trade names of S&P Dow Jones Indices and/or its third party licensors. The INDU is determined, composed and calculated by S&P Dow Jones Indices without regard to us or the Notes. S&P Dow Jones Indices have no obligation to take our needs or the needs of holders of the Notes into consideration in determining, composing or calculating the INDU. S&P Dow Jones Indices are not responsible for and have not participated in the determination of the prices, and amount of the Notes or the timing of the issuance or sale of the Notes or in the determination or calculation of the equation by which the Notes are to be converted into cash. S&P Dow Jones Indices have no obligation or liability in connection with the administration, marketing or trading of the Notes. There is no assurance that investment products based on the INDU will accurately track index performance or provide positive investment returns. S&P Dow Jones Indices LLC and its subsidiaries are not investment advisors. Inclusion of a security or futures contract within an index is not a recommendation by S&P Dow Jones Indices to buy, sell, or hold such security or futures contract, nor is it considered to be investment advice. Notwithstanding the foregoing, CME Group Inc. and its affiliates may independently issue and/or sponsor financial products unrelated to the Notes currently being issued by us, but which may be similar to and competitive with the Notes. In addition, CME Group Inc. and its affiliates may trade financial products which are linked to the performance of the INDU. It is possible that this trading activity will affect the value of the Notes.
S&P DOW JONES INDICES DO NOT GUARANTEE THE ADEQUACY, ACCURACY, TIMELINESS AND/OR THE COMPLETENESS OF THE INDU OR ANY DATA RELATED THERETO OR ANY COMMUNICATION, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO, ORAL OR WRITTEN COMMUNICATION (INCLUDING ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATIONS) WITH RESPECT THERETO. S&P DOW JONES INDICES SHALL NOT BE SUBJECT TO ANY DAMAGES OR LIABILITY FOR ANY ERRORS, OMISSIONS, OR DELAYS THEREIN. S&P DOW JONES INDICES MAKE NO EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, AND EXPRESSLY DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES, OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE OR USE OR AS TO RESULTS TO BE OBTAINED BY US, HOLDERS OF THE NOTES, OR ANY OTHER PERSON OR ENTITY FROM THE USE OF THE INDU OR WITH RESPECT TO ANY DATA RELATED THERETO. WITHOUT LIMITING ANY OF THE FOREGOING, IN NO EVENT WHATSOEVER SHALL S&P DOW JONES INDICES BE LIABLE FOR ANY INDIRECT, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL, PUNITIVE, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO, LOSS OF PROFITS, TRADING LOSSES, LOST TIME OR GOODWILL, EVEN IF THEY HAVE BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, TORT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR OTHERWISE. THERE ARE NO THIRD PARTY BENEFICIARIES OF ANY AGREEMENTS OR ARRANGEMENTS BETWEEN S&P DOW JONES INDICES AND US, OTHER THAN THE LICENSORS OF S&P DOW JONES INDICES.

P-12
RBC Capital Markets, LLC


 

 
Buffered Enhanced Return Notes
Royal Bank of Canada
 
Nasdaq-100 Index® (“NDX”)
The NDX is a modified market capitalization-weighted index of the 100 largest stocks of both U.S. and non-U.S. non-financial companies listed on The Nasdaq Stock Market. It does not contain securities of financial companies, including investment companies. The Nasdaq-100 Index®, which includes companies across a variety of major industry groups, was launched on January 31, 1985, with a base index value of 250.00. On January 1, 1994, the base index value was reset to 125.00. The Nasdaq, Inc. (“Nasdaq”) publishes the NDX. Current information regarding the market value of the NDX is available from Nasdaq, as well as numerous market information services.
The share weights of the component securities of the NDX at any time are based upon the total shares outstanding in each of those securities and are additionally subject, in certain cases, to rebalancing. Accordingly, each underlying stock’s influence on the level of the NDX is directly proportional to the value of its share weight.
Index Calculation
At any moment in time, the level of the NDX equals the aggregate value of the then-current share weights of each of the component securities, which are based on the total shares outstanding of each such component security, multiplied by each such security’s respective last sale price on The Nasdaq Stock Market (which may be the official closing price published by The Nasdaq Stock Market), and divided by a scaling factor (the “divisor”), which becomes the basis for the reported level of the NDX. The divisor serves the purpose of scaling such aggregate value to a lower order of magnitude, which is more desirable for reporting purposes.
Underlying Stock Eligibility Criteria and Annual Ranking Review
Initial Eligibility Criteria
To be eligible for initial inclusion in the NDX, a security must be listed on The Nasdaq Stock Market and meet the following criteria:

the security’s U.S. listing must be exclusively on the Nasdaq Global Select Market or the Nasdaq Global Market;

the security must be issued by a non-financial company;

the security may not be issued by an issuer currently in bankruptcy proceedings;

the security must generally be a common stock, ordinary share, American Depositary Receipt, or tracking stock (closed-end funds, convertible debentures, exchange traded funds, limited liability companies, limited partnership interests, preferred stocks, rights, shares or units of beneficial interests, warrants, units and other derivative securities are not included in the NDX, nor are the securities of investment companies);

the security must have a three-month average daily trading volume of at least 200,000 shares;

if the security is issued by an issuer organized under the laws of a jurisdiction outside the United States, it must have listed options on a recognized market in the United States or be eligible for listed-options trading on a recognized options market in the United States;

the issuer of the security may not have entered into a definitive agreement or other arrangement which would likely result in the security no longer being eligible;

the issuer of the security may not have annual financial statements with an audit opinion that is currently withdrawn; and

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RBC Capital Markets, LLC


 

 
Buffered Enhanced Return Notes
Royal Bank of Canada
 

the security must have traded for at least three full calendar months, not including the month of initial listing, on an “eligible exchange,” as determined under the index rules.
Continued Eligibility Criteria
In addition, to be eligible for continued inclusion in the NDX the following criteria apply:

the security’s U.S. listing must be exclusively on the Nasdaq Global Select Market or the Nasdaq Global Market;

the security must be issued by a non-financial company;

the security may not be issued by an issuer currently in bankruptcy proceedings;

the security must have an average daily trading volume of at least 200,000 shares in the previous three‑month trading period as measured annually during the ranking review process described below;

if the issuer of the security is organized under the laws of a jurisdiction outside the United States, then such security must have listed options on a recognized market in the United States or be eligible for listed‑options trading on a recognized options market in the United States, as measured annually during the ranking review process;

the issuer of the security may not have entered into a definitive agreement or other arrangement that would likely result in the security no longer being eligible;

the security must have an adjusted market capitalization equal to or exceeding 0.10% of the aggregate adjusted market capitalization of the NDX at each month-end. In the event that a company does not meet this criterion for two consecutive month-ends, it will be removed from the NDX effective after the close of trading on the third Friday of the following month; and

the issuer of the security may not have annual financial statements with an audit opinion that is currently withdrawn.
These eligibility criteria may be revised from time to time by Nasdaq without regard to the Notes.
Annual Ranking Review
The component securities are evaluated on an annual basis (the “Ranking Review”), except under extraordinary circumstances, which may result in an interim evaluation, as follows. Securities that meet the applicable eligibility criteria are ranked by market value. Eligible securities that are already in the NDX and that are ranked in the top 100 eligible securities (based on market capitalization) are retained in the NDX. A security that is ranked 101 to 125 is also retained, provided that such security was ranked in the top 100 eligible securities as of the previous Ranking Review or was added to the NDX subsequent to the previous Ranking Review. Securities not meeting such criteria are replaced. The replacement securities chosen are those eligible securities not currently in the NDX that have the largest market capitalization. The data used in the ranking includes end of October market data and is updated for total shares outstanding submitted in a publicly filed SEC document via EDGAR through the end of November.
Replacements are made effective after the close of trading on the third Friday in December. Moreover, if at any time during the year other than the Ranking Review, a component security is determined by Nasdaq to become ineligible for continued inclusion in the NDX, the security will be replaced with the largest market capitalization security meeting the eligibility criteria listed above and not currently included in the NDX.

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RBC Capital Markets, LLC


 

 
Buffered Enhanced Return Notes
Royal Bank of Canada
 
Index Maintenance
In addition to the Ranking Review, the securities in the NDX are monitored every day by Nasdaq with respect to changes in total shares outstanding arising from corporate events, such as stock dividends, stock splits and certain spin-offs and rights issuances. Nasdaq has adopted the following quarterly scheduled weight adjustment procedures with respect to those changes. If the change in total shares outstanding arising from a corporate action is greater than or equal to 10%, that change will be made to the NDX as soon as practical, normally within ten days of such corporate action. Otherwise, if the change in total shares outstanding is less than 10%, then all such changes are accumulated and made effective at one time on a quarterly basis after the close of trading on the third Friday in each of March, June, September and December.
In either case, the share weights for those component securities are adjusted by the same percentage amount by which the total shares outstanding have changed in those securities. Ordinarily, whenever there is a change in the share weights, a change in a component security, or a change to the price of a component security due to spin-off, rights issuances or special cash dividends, Nasdaq adjusts the divisor to ensure that there is no discontinuity in the level of the NDX that might otherwise be caused by any of those changes. All changes will be announced in advance.
Index Rebalancing
The NDX is rebalanced on a quarterly basis in March, June, September and December in accordance with Nasdaq’s rules. Rebalance changes become effective after the close of trading on the third Friday in March, June, September and December. A special rebalance may be conducted at any time based on specified weighting restrictions if it is determined to be necessary to maintain the integrity of the underlying index.
Ordinarily, new rebalanced weights will be determined by applying the above procedures to the current share weights. However, Nasdaq may from time to time determine rebalanced weights, if necessary, by instead applying the above procedure to the actual current market capitalization of the component securities. In those instances, Nasdaq would announce the different basis for rebalancing prior to its implementation.
License Agreement
The Notes are not sponsored, endorsed, sold or promoted by Nasdaq, Inc. or its affiliates (collectively, “Nasdaq”). Nasdaq has not passed on the legality or suitability of, or the accuracy or adequacy of descriptions and disclosures relating to, the Notes. Nasdaq makes no representation or warranty, express or implied to the owners of the Notes, or any member of the public regarding the advisability of investing in securities generally or in the Notes particularly, or the ability of the NDX to track general stock market performance. Nasdaq’s only relationship to us is in the licensing of the Nasdaq®, NDX trademarks or service marks, and certain trade names of Nasdaq and the use of the NDX which are determined, composed and calculated by Nasdaq without regard to us or the securities. Nasdaq has no obligation to take the needs of us or the owners of the Notes into consideration in determining, composing or calculating the NDX. Nasdaq is not responsible for and has not participated in the determination of the timing of, prices at, or quantities of the Notes to be issued or in the determination or calculation of the equation by which the Notes are to be converted into cash. Nasdaq has no liability in connection with the administration, marketing or trading of the Notes.
NASDAQ DOES NOT GUARANTEE THE ACCURACY AND/OR UNINTERRUPTED CALCULATION OF THE NDX OR ANY DATA INCLUDED THEREIN. NASDAQ MAKES NO WARRANTY, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, AS TO RESULTS TO BE OBTAINED BY LICENSEE, OWNERS OF THE NOTES, OR ANY OTHER PERSON OR ENTITY FROM THE USE OF THE NDX OR ANY DATA INCLUDED THEREIN. NASDAQ MAKES NO EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, AND EXPRESSLY DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE OR USE WITH RESPECT TO THE NDX OR ANY DATA INCLUDED THEREIN. WITHOUT LIMITING ANY OF THE FOREGOING, IN NO EVENT SHALL NASDAQ HAVE ANY LIABILITY FOR ANY LOST PROFITS OR SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL, PUNITIVE, INDIRECT, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES, EVEN IF NOTIFIED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES. NASDAQ®, NASDAQ 100® AND NASDAQ 100 INDEX® ARE TRADE OR SERVICE MARKS OF NASDAQ AND ARE INCENSED FOR USE BY US. THE NOTES HAVE NOT BEEN PASSED ON BY NASDAQ AS TO

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RBC Capital Markets, LLC


 

 
Buffered Enhanced Return Notes
Royal Bank of Canada
 
THEIR LEGALITY OR SUITABILITY. THE NOTES ARE NOT ISSUED, ENDORSED, SOLD OR PROMOTED BY NASDAQ. NASDAQ MAKES NO WARRANTIES AND BEARS NO LIABILITY WITH RESPECT TO THE NOTES.
Russell 2000® Index (“RTY”)
The RTY was developed by Russell Investments (“Russell”) before FTSE International Limited and Russell combined in 2015 to create FTSE Russell, which is wholly owned by London Stock Exchange Group. Russell began dissemination of the RTY (Bloomberg L.P. index symbol “RTY”) on January 1, 1984. FTSE Russell calculates and publishes the RTY. The RTY was set to 135 as of the close of business on December 31, 1986. The RTY is designed to track the performance of the small capitalization segment of the U.S. equity market. As a subset of the Russell 3000® Index, the RTY consists of the smallest 2,000 companies included in the Russell 3000® Index. The Russell 3000® Index measures the performance of the largest 3,000 U.S. companies, representing approximately 98% of the investable U.S. equity market. The RTY is determined, comprised, and calculated by FTSE Russell without regard to the Notes.
Selection of Stocks Underlying the RTY
All companies eligible for inclusion in the RTY must be classified as a U.S. company under FTSE Russell’s country-assignment methodology. If a company is incorporated, has a stated headquarters location, and trades in the same country (American Depositary Receipts and American Depositary Shares are not eligible), then the company is assigned to its country of incorporation. If any of the three factors are not the same, FTSE Russell defines three Home Country Indicators (“HCIs”): country of incorporation, country of headquarters, and country of the most liquid exchange (as defined by a two-year average daily dollar trading volume) (“ADDTV”) from all exchanges within a country. Using the HCIs, FTSE Russell compares the primary location of the company’s assets with the three HCIs. If the primary location of its assets matches any of the HCIs, then the company is assigned to the primary location of its assets. If there is insufficient information to determine the country in which the company’s assets are primarily located, FTSE Russell will use the primary country from which the company’s revenues are primarily derived for the comparison with the three HCIs in a similar manner. FTSE Russell uses the average of two years of assets or revenues data to reduce potential turnover. If conclusive country details cannot be derived from assets or revenues data, FTSE Russell will assign the company to the country of its headquarters, which is defined as the address of the company’s principal executive offices, unless that country is a Benefit Driven Incorporation “BDI” country, in which case the company will be assigned to the country of its most liquid stock exchange. BDI countries include: Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Aruba, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bermuda, Bonaire, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Channel Islands, Cook Islands, Curacao, Faroe Islands, Gibraltar, Guernsey, Isle of Man, Jersey, Liberia, Marshall Islands, Panama, Saba, Sint Eustatius, Sint Maarten, and Turks and Caicos Islands. For any companies incorporated or headquartered in a U.S. territory, including countries such as Puerto Rico, Guam, and U.S. Virgin Islands, a U.S. HCI is assigned. “N-shares” of companies controlled by individuals or entities in mainland China are not eligible for inclusion.
All securities eligible for inclusion in the RTY must trade on a major U.S. exchange. Stocks must have a closing price at or above $1.00 on their primary exchange on the last trading day in May to be eligible for inclusion during annual reconstitution. However, in order to reduce unnecessary turnover, if an existing member’s closing price is less than $1.00 on the last day of May, it will be considered eligible if the average of the daily closing prices (from its primary exchange) during the month of May is equal to or greater than $1.00. Initial public offerings are added each quarter and must have a closing price at or above $1.00 on the last day of their eligibility period in order to qualify for index inclusion. If an existing stock does not trade on the “rank day” (typically the last trading day in May, but a confirmed timetable is announced each spring), but does have a closing price at or above $1.00 on another eligible U.S. exchange, that stock will be eligible for inclusion.
An important criterion used to determine the list of securities eligible for the RTY is total market capitalization, which is defined as the market price as of the rank day in May for those securities being considered at annual reconstitution times the total number of shares outstanding. Where applicable, common stock, non-restricted exchangeable shares and partnership units/membership interests are used to determine market capitalization. Any other form of shares such as preferred stock, convertible preferred stock, redeemable shares, participating preferred stock, warrants, rights, installment receipts or trust receipts, are excluded from the calculation. If multiple share classes of common stock exist, they are

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RBC Capital Markets, LLC


 

 
Buffered Enhanced Return Notes
Royal Bank of Canada
 
combined to determine total shares outstanding. In cases where the common stock share classes act independently of each other (e.g., tracking stocks), each class is considered for inclusion separately. If multiple share classes exist, the pricing vehicle will be designated as the share class with the highest two-year trading volume as of the rank day in May.
Companies with a total market capitalization of less than $30 million are not eligible for the RTY. Similarly, companies with only 5% or less of their shares available in the marketplace are not eligible for the RTY. Royalty trusts, limited liability companies, closed-end investment companies (companies that are required to report Acquired Fund Fees and Expenses, as defined by the SEC, including business development companies), blank check companies, special purpose acquisition companies, and limited partnerships are also ineligible for inclusion. Exchange traded funds and mutual funds are also excluded. Bulletin board, pink sheets, and over-the-counter (“OTC”) traded securities are not eligible for inclusion.
Annual reconstitution is a process by which the RTY is completely rebuilt. Based on closing levels of the company’s common stock on its primary exchange on the rank day of May of each year, FTSE Russell reconstitutes the composition of the RTY using the then existing market capitalizations of eligible companies. Reconstitution of the RTY occurs on the last Friday in June or, when the last Friday in June is the 29th or 30th, reconstitution occurs on the prior Friday. In addition, FTSE Russell adds initial public offerings to the RTY on a quarterly basis based on total market capitalization ranking within the market-adjusted capitalization breaks established during the most recent reconstitution.
After membership is determined, a security’s shares are adjusted to include only those shares available to the public. This is often referred to as “free float.” The purpose of the adjustment is to exclude from market calculations the capitalization that is not available for purchase and is not part of the investable opportunity set.
License Agreement
FTSE Russell and Royal Bank have entered into a non-exclusive license agreement providing for the license to Royal Bank, and certain of its affiliates, in exchange for a fee, of the right to use indices owned and published by FTSE Russell in connection with some securities, including the Notes.
FTSE Russell does not guarantee the accuracy and/or the completeness of the RTY or any data included in the RTY and has no liability for any errors, omissions, or interruptions in the RTY. FTSE Russell makes no warranty, express or implied, as to results to be obtained by the Calculation Agent, holders of the Notes, or any other person or entity from the use of the RTY or any data included in the RTY in connection with the rights licensed under the license agreement described in this document or for any other use. FTSE Russell makes no express or implied warranties, and hereby expressly disclaims all warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose with respect to the RTY or any data included in the RTY. Without limiting any of the above information, in no event will FTSE Russell have any liability for any special, punitive, indirect or consequential damages, including lost profits, even if notified of the possibility of these damages.
The Notes are not sponsored, endorsed, sold or promoted by FTSE Russell. FTSE Russell makes no representation or warranty, express or implied, to the owners of the Notes or any member of the public regarding the advisability of investing in securities generally or in the Notes particularly or the ability of the RTY to track general stock market performance or a segment of the same. FTSE Russell’s publication of the RTY in no way suggests or implies an opinion by FTSE Russell as to the advisability of investment in any or all of the stocks upon which the RTY is based. FTSE Russell’s only relationship to Royal Bank is the licensing of certain trademarks and trade names of FTSE Russell and of the RTY, which is determined, composed and calculated by FTSE Russell without regard to Royal Bank or the Notes. FTSE Russell is not responsible for and has not reviewed the Notes nor any associated literature or publications and FTSE Russell makes no representation or warranty express or implied as to their accuracy or completeness, or otherwise. FTSE Russell reserves the right, at any time and without notice, to alter, amend, terminate or in any way change the RTY. FTSE Russell has no obligation or liability in connection with the administration, marketing or trading of the Notes.
“Russell 2000®” and “Russell 3000®” are registered trademarks of FTSE Russell in the U.S. and other countries.

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RBC Capital Markets, LLC


 

 
Buffered Enhanced Return Notes
Royal Bank of Canada
 
Historical Information
The graph below sets forth the information relating to the historical performance of each Basket Component for the period from January 1, 2012 through August 16, 2022.
We obtained the information regarding the historical performance of the Basket Components in the graphs below from Bloomberg Financial Markets. We have not independently verified the accuracy or completeness of the information obtained from Bloomberg Financial Markets. The historical performance of should not be taken as an indication of its future performance, and no assurance can be given as to the future levels of any Basket Component.
INDU

PAST PERFORMANCE IS NOT INDICATIVE OF FUTURE RESULTS

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RBC Capital Markets, LLC


 

 
Buffered Enhanced Return Notes
Royal Bank of Canada
 
NDX
PAST PERFORMANCE IS NOT INDICATIVE OF FUTURE RESULTS
RTY

PAST PERFORMANCE IS NOT INDICATIVE OF FUTURE RESULTS

P-19
RBC Capital Markets, LLC


 

 
Buffered Enhanced Return Notes
Royal Bank of Canada
 
SUPPLEMENTAL DISCUSSION OF
U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSEQUENCES
The following disclosure supplements, and to the extent inconsistent supersedes, the discussion in the product prospectus supplement dated September 14, 2021 under “Supplemental Discussion of U.S. Federal Income Tax Consequences.”
Under Section 871(m) of the Code, a “dividend equivalent” payment is treated as a dividend from sources within the United States. Such payments generally would be subject to a 30% U.S. withholding tax if paid to a non-U.S. holder. Under U.S. Treasury Department regulations, payments (including deemed payments) with respect to equity-linked instruments (“ELIs”) that are “specified ELIs” may be treated as dividend equivalents if such specified ELIs reference an interest, directly or indirectly, in an “underlying security,” which is generally any interest in an entity taxable as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes if a payment with respect to such interest could give rise to a U.S. source dividend. However, the Internal Revenue Service (the “IRS”) has issued guidance that states that the U.S. Treasury Department and the IRS intend to amend the effective dates of the U.S. Treasury Department regulations to provide that withholding on dividend equivalent payments will not apply to specified ELIs that are not delta-one instruments and that are issued before January 1, 2023. Based on our determination that the Notes are not delta-one instruments, non-U.S. holders should not be subject to withholding on dividend equivalent payments, if any, under the Notes. However, it is possible that the Notes could be treated as deemed reissued for U.S. federal income tax purposes upon the occurrence of certain events affecting the Basket Components or the Notes (for example, upon a Basket Component rebalancing), and following such occurrence the Notes could be treated as subject to withholding on dividend equivalent payments. Non-U.S. holders that enter, or have entered, into other transactions in respect of the Basket Components or the Notes should consult their tax advisors as to the application of the dividend equivalent withholding tax in the context of the Notes and their other transactions. If any payments are treated as dividend equivalents subject to withholding, we (or the applicable withholding agent) would be entitled to withhold taxes without being required to pay any additional amounts with respect to amounts so withheld.

P-20
RBC Capital Markets, LLC


 

 
Buffered Enhanced Return Notes
Royal Bank of Canada
 
SUPPLEMENTAL PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION (CONFLICTS OF INTEREST)
We expect that delivery of the Notes will be made against payment for the Notes on or about August 22, 2022, which is the third (3rd) business day following the Trade Date (this settlement cycle being referred to as “T+3”). See “Plan of Distribution” in the prospectus dated September 14, 2021. For additional information as to the relationship between us and RBCCM, please see the section “Plan of Distribution—Conflicts of Interest” in the prospectus dated September 14, 2021.
We expect to deliver the Notes on a date that is greater than two business days following the Trade Date. Under Rule 15c6-1 of the Exchange Act, trades in the secondary market generally are required to settle in two business days, unless the parties to any such trade expressly agree otherwise. Accordingly, purchasers who wish to trade the Notes more than two business days prior to the original issue date will be required to specify alternative settlement arrangements to prevent a failed settlement.
In the initial offering of the Notes, they will be offered to investors at a purchase price equal to par, except with respect to certain accounts as indicated on the cover page of this document.
The value of the Notes shown on your account statement may be based on RBCCM’s estimate of the value of the Notes if RBCCM or another of our affiliates were to make a market in the Notes (which it is not obligated to do). That estimate will be based upon the price that RBCCM may pay for the Notes in light of then prevailing market conditions, our creditworthiness and transaction costs. For a period of approximately 3 months after the issue date of the Notes, the value of the Notes that may be shown on your account statement may be higher than RBCCM’s estimated value of the Notes at that time. This is because the estimated value of the Notes will not include the underwriting discount and our hedging costs and profits; however, the value of the Notes shown on your account statement during that period may be a higher amount, reflecting the addition of RBCCM’s underwriting discount and our estimated costs and profits from hedging the Notes. This excess is expected to decrease over time until the end of this period. After this period, if RBCCM repurchases your Notes, it expects to do so at prices that reflect their estimated value.
We may use this terms supplement in the initial sale of the Notes. In addition, RBCCM or another of our affiliates may use this terms supplement in a market-making transaction in the Notes after their initial sale. Unless we or our agent informs the purchaser otherwise in the confirmation of sale, this terms supplement is being used in a market-making transaction.

P-21
RBC Capital Markets, LLC


 

 
Buffered Enhanced Return Notes
Royal Bank of Canada
 
STRUCTURING THE NOTES
The Notes are our debt securities, the return on which is linked to the performance of the Basket Components. As is the case for all of our debt securities, including our structured notes, the economic terms of the Notes reflect our actual or perceived creditworthiness at the time of pricing. In addition, because structured notes result in increased operational, funding and liability management costs to us, we typically borrow the funds under these Notes at a rate that is more favorable to us than the rate that we might pay for a conventional fixed or floating rate debt security of comparable maturity. Using this relatively lower implied borrowing rate rather than the secondary market rate, is a factor that is likely to reduce the initial estimated value of the Notes at the time their terms are set. Unlike the estimated value that will be included in the final pricing supplement, any value of the Notes determined for purposes of a secondary market transaction may be based on a different funding rate, which may result in a lower value for the Notes than if our initial internal funding rate were used.
In order to satisfy our payment obligations under the Notes, we may choose to enter into certain hedging arrangements (which may include call options, put options or other derivatives) on the issue date with RBCCM or one of our other subsidiaries. The terms of these hedging arrangements take into account a number of factors, including our creditworthiness, interest rate movements, the volatility of the Basket Components, and the tenor of the Notes. The economic terms of the Notes and their initial estimated value depend in part on the terms of these hedging arrangements.
The lower implied borrowing rate is a factor that reduces the economic terms of the Notes to you. The initial offering price of the Notes also reflects the underwriting discount and our estimated hedging costs. These factors result in the initial estimated value for the Notes on the Trade Date being less than their public offering price. See “Selected Risk Considerations—The Initial Estimated Value of the Notes Will Be Less than the Price to the Public” above.


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RBC Capital Markets, LLC



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