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Form FWP ROYAL BANK OF CANADA Filed by: ROYAL BANK OF CANADA

July 5, 2022 11:05 AM EDT

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Filed Pursuant to Rule 433
Registration Statement No. 333-259205




The information in this preliminary terms supplement is not complete and may be changed.
 
 

Preliminary Terms Supplement

Dated July 5, 2022

Pricing Supplement Dated July __, 2022, to the Product Prospectus Supplement ERN-EI-1, the Prospectus Supplement and the Prospectus, Each Dated September 14, 2021

$
Fixed Coupon Barrier Notes Linked to the
S&P 500® Index, due July 20, 2023

Royal Bank of Canada




Royal Bank of Canada is offering Fixed Coupon Barrier Notes (the “Notes”) linked to the performance of the S&P 500® Index (the “Reference Asset”). The Notes offered are senior unsecured obligations of Royal Bank of Canada, will pay a monthly coupon at the interest rate specified below, and will have the terms described in the documents described above, as supplemented or modified by this terms supplement, as set forth below.
The Notes do not guarantee any return of principal at maturity. All payments on the Notes are subject to our credit risk.
Investing in the Notes involves a number of risks. See “Selected Risk Considerations” beginning on page P-7 of this terms supplement, “Additional Risk Factors Specific to the Notes” beginning on page PS-4 of the product prospectus supplement dated September 14, 2021, and “Risk Factors” on page S-2 of the prospectus supplement dated September 14, 2021.
The Notes will not constitute deposits insured by the Canada Deposit Insurance Corporation, the U.S. Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation or any other Canadian or U.S. government agency or instrumentality. The Notes are not subject to conversion into our common shares under subsection 39.2(2.3) of the Canada Deposit Insurance Corporation Act.
Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of the Notes or determined that this terms supplement is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.
Issuer:
Royal Bank of Canada
Stock Exchange Listing:
None
Trade Date:
July 15, 2022
Principal Amount:
$1,000 per Note
Issue Date:
July 20, 2022
Maturity Date:
July 20, 2023
Coupon Payment:
Each coupon will be paid in equal monthly payments.
Final Level:
The closing level of the Reference Asset on the Valuation Date.
Payment at Maturity (if
held to maturity):
For each $1,000 in principal amount of the Notes, the investor will receive at maturity $1,000 plus any accrued and unpaid interest, unless the Final Level is less than the Barrier Level.
If the Final Level is less than the Barrier Level, then the investor will receive at maturity, for each $1,000 in principal amount, in addition to accrued and unpaid interest, a cash payment equal to: $1,000 + ($1,000 x Percentage Change)
Investors could lose some or all of their principal amount if the Final Level is less than the Barrier Level.
Monitoring Period:
The Valuation Date.
Reference Asset
 
Annual
Coupon Rate
 
Initial Level
 
Barrier Level
 
CUSIP
 
Principal Amount
 
Price to
Public(1)
 
Underwriting Discounts and Commissions(1)
 
Proceeds to
Royal Bank of
Canada
S&P 500® Index (SPX)
 
[7.00% - 7.50%] (to be determined on the Trade Date)
     
75% of the Initial Level
 
78016FNP5
 
$
 
100%
 
$
1.25%
 
$
98.75%

(1) Certain dealers who purchase the Notes for sale to certain fee-based advisory accounts may forego some or all of their underwriting discount or selling concessions. The public offering price for investors purchasing the Notes in these accounts may be between $987.50 and $1,000 per $1,000 in principal amount.

If the Notes priced on the date of this terms supplement, RBC Capital Markets, LLC ("RBCCM"), acting as our agent, would receive a commission of approximately $12.50 per $1,000 in principal amount of the Notes and would use a portion of that commission to allow selling concessions to other dealers of up to approximately $12.50 per $1,000 in principal amount of the Notes. The other dealers may forgo, in their sole discretion, some or all of their selling concessions. See “Supplemental Plan of Distribution (Conflicts of Interest)” below.

The initial estimated value of the Notes as of the Trade Date is expected to be between $925 and $975 per $1,000 in principal amount, and will be less than the price to public. The final pricing supplement relating to the Notes will set forth our estimate of the initial estimated value of the Notes as of the Trade Date. The actual value of the Notes at any time will reflect many factors, cannot be predicted with accuracy, and may be less than this amount. We describe our determination of the initial estimated value in more detail below.

RBC Capital Markets, LLC



 

 
Fixed Coupon Barrier Notes

Royal Bank of Canada
 
SUMMARY
The information in this “Summary” section is qualified by the more detailed information set forth in this terms supplement, the product prospectus supplement, the prospectus supplement, and the prospectus.

General:
This terms supplement relates to an offering of Fixed Coupon Barrier Notes (the “Notes”) linked to the Reference Asset.
Issuer:
Royal Bank of Canada (“Royal Bank”)
Trade Date (Pricing
Date):
July 15, 2022
Issue Date:
July 20, 2022
Valuation Date:
July 17, 2023
Maturity Date:
July 20, 2023
Denominations:
Minimum denomination of $1,000, and integral multiples of $1,000 thereafter.
Coupon Payment
Dates:
The coupon will be paid in monthly installments on August 18, 2022, September 20, 2022, October 20, 2022, November 18, 2022, December 20, 2022, January 20, 2023, February 21, 2023, March 20, 2023, April 20, 2023, May 18, 2023, June 21, 2023 and the Maturity Date, subject to postponement as set forth in the product supplement.
Record Dates:
The record date for each Coupon Payment Date will be the date one business day prior to that scheduled Coupon Payment Date; provided, however, that any coupon payable at maturity will be payable to the person to whom the payment at maturity will be payable.
Percentage Change:
Expressed as a percentage, an amount equal to:
Initial Level:
The closing level of the Reference Asset on the Trade Date.
Barrier Level:
75% of the Initial Level.
Final Level:
The closing level of the Reference Asset on the Valuation Date.
Payment at Maturity (if
held to maturity):
For each $1,000 in principal amount of the Notes, the investor will receive $1,000 plus accrued and unpaid interest at maturity, unless the Final Level is less than the Barrier Level.
If the Final Level is below the Barrier Level, you will receive at maturity, for each $1,000 in principal amount, in addition to accrued and unpaid interest, a cash payment equal to:
$1,000 + ($1,000 x Percentage Change).
The amount of cash that you receive will be less than your principal amount, if anything, resulting in a loss that is proportionate to the decline of the Reference Asset from the Trade Date to the Valuation Date. Investors in the Notes could lose some or all of their investment at maturity if the Final Level is less than the Barrier Level.
Calculation Agent:
RBC Capital Markets, LLC

P2
RBC Capital Markets, LLC


 

 
Fixed Coupon Barrier Notes

Royal Bank of Canada
 

Secondary Market:
RBC Capital Markets, LLC (or one of its affiliates), though not obligated to do so, may maintain a secondary market in the Notes after the issue date. The amount that an investor may receive upon sale of the Notes prior to maturity may be less than the principal amount.
Listing:
None
Settlement:
DTC global notes
Terms Incorporated in
the Master Note:
All of the terms appearing on the cover page and on pages P2 and P3 of this terms supplement above the caption "Secondary Market" and the terms appearing under the caption “General Terms of the Notes” in the product prospectus supplement.
The Trade Date, issue date and other dates set forth above are subject to change, and will be set forth in the final pricing supplement relating to the Notes.

P3
RBC Capital Markets, LLC


 

 
Fixed Coupon Barrier Notes

Royal Bank of Canada
 
ADDITIONAL TERMS OF YOUR NOTES
You should read this terms supplement together with the prospectus dated September 14, 2021, as supplemented by the prospectus supplement dated September 14, 2021 and the product prospectus supplement dated September 14, 2021, relating to our Senior Global Medium-Term Notes, Series I, of which these Notes are a part. Capitalized terms used but not defined in this terms supplement will have the meanings given to them in the product prospectus supplement. In the event of any conflict, this terms supplement will control. The Notes vary from the terms described in the product prospectus supplement in several important ways. You should read this terms supplement carefully.
This terms supplement, together with the documents listed below, contains the terms of the Notes and supersedes all prior or contemporaneous oral statements as well as any other written materials including preliminary or indicative pricing terms, correspondence, trade ideas, structures for implementation, sample structures, brochures or other educational materials of ours. You should carefully consider, among other things, the matters set forth in “Risk Factors” in the prospectus supplement dated September 14, 2021 and “Additional Risk Factors Specific to the Notes” in the product prospectus supplement dated September 14, 2021, as the Notes involve risks not associated with conventional debt securities. We urge you to consult your investment, legal, tax, accounting and other advisors before you invest in the Notes. You may access these documents on the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) website at www.sec.gov as follows (or if that address has changed, by reviewing our filings for the relevant date on the SEC website):
Prospectus dated September 14, 2021:
Prospectus Supplement dated September 14, 2021:
Product Prospectus Supplement ERN-EI-1 dated September 14, 2021:
Our Central Index Key, or CIK, on the SEC website is 1000275. As used in this terms supplement, “we,” “us,” or “our” refers to Royal Bank of Canada.
Royal Bank of Canada has filed a registration statement (including a product prospectus supplement, a prospectus supplement, and a prospectus) with the SEC for the offering to which this terms supplement relates. Before you invest, you should read those documents and the other documents relating to this offering that we have filed with the SEC for more complete information about us and this offering. You may obtain these documents without cost by visiting EDGAR on the SEC website at www.sec.gov. Alternatively, Royal Bank of Canada, any agent or any dealer participating in this offering will arrange to send you the product prospectus supplement, the prospectus supplement and the prospectus if you so request by calling toll-free at 1-877-688-2301.

P4
RBC Capital Markets, LLC


 

 
Fixed Coupon Barrier Notes

Royal Bank of Canada
 
HYPOTHETICAL EXAMPLES OF AMOUNTS PAYABLE AT MATURITY
The examples set forth below are provided for illustration purposes only. The assumptions in each of the examples are purely hypothetical and do not relate to the actual performance of the Reference Asset. The hypothetical terms do not purport to be representative of every possible scenario concerning increases or decreases in the Final Level of the Reference Asset relative to the Initial Level. We cannot predict the actual performance of the Reference Asset.
The table below illustrates the Payment at Maturity of the Notes (excluding the final Coupon Payment) for a hypothetical range of performance for the Reference Asset, assuming an Initial Level of 100, a Barrier Level of 75.00 and an initial investment of $1,000. For this purpose, we have assumed that there will be no market disruption events. Hypothetical Final Levels of the Reference Asset are shown in the first column on the left. The second column shows the Percentage Change for the Reference Asset. The third column shows the Payment at Maturity as a percentage of the principal amount. The last column shows the hypothetical Payment at Maturity per $1,000 in principal amount of the Notes.
Hypothetical Final Level
Payment at Maturity as
Percentage of Principal Amount
Payment at Maturity
150.00
100.00%
$1,000.00
140.00
100.00%
$1,000.00
130.00
100.00%
$1,000.00
120.00
100.00%
$1,000.00
110.00
100.00%
$1,000.00
100.00
100.00%
$1,000.00
90.00
100.00%
$1,000.00
80.00
100.00%
$1,000.00
75.00
100.00%
$1,000.00
74.99
74.99%
$749.90
70.00
70.00%
$700.00
60.00
60.00%
$600.00
50.00
50.00%
$500.00
40.00
40.00%
$400.00
30.00
30.00%
$300.00
20.00
20.00%
$200.00
10.00
10.00%
$100.00
0.00
0%
$0.00

The amounts above are entirely hypothetical; they are based on hypothetical levels of the Reference Asset that may not be achieved on the Valuation Date, and on assumptions that may prove to be erroneous. The hypothetical Initial Level is not the expected actual Initial Level; the actual Initial Level will be set forth on the cover page of the final pricing supplement. The actual market value of your Notes on the Maturity Date or at any other time, including any time you may wish to sell your Notes, may bear little relation to the hypothetical Payments at Maturity shown above, and those amounts should not be viewed as an indication of the financial return on an investment in the Notes or on an investment in the Reference Asset. Please read “Additional Risk Factors Specific to Your Notes” and “Hypothetical Returns on Your Notes” in the accompanying product prospectus supplement.

P5
RBC Capital Markets, LLC


 

 
Fixed Coupon Barrier Notes

Royal Bank of Canada
 
Hypothetical Examples of Amounts Payable at Maturity
The following hypothetical examples illustrate how the payments set forth in the table above are calculated.
Example 1: The level of the Reference Asset increases by 25% from the Initial Level of 100.00 to a Final Level of 125.00. Because the Final Level of the Reference Asset on the Valuation Date is greater than the Barrier Level, the investor receives at maturity, in addition to the final Coupon Payment, a cash payment of $1,000 per security, despite the 25% appreciation in the level of the Reference Asset.
Example 2: The level of the Reference Asset decreases by 10% from the Initial Level of 100.00 to a Final Level of 90.00. Because the Final Level of the Reference Asset is greater than the Barrier Level, the investor receives at maturity, in addition to the final Coupon Payment, a cash payment of $1,000 per security, despite the 10% decline in the level of the Reference Asset.
Example 3: The level of the Reference Asset decreases by 50% from the Initial Level of $100.00 to a Final Level of 50.00. Because the Final Level of the Reference Asset is less than the Barrier Level, we will pay an amount in cash that will be calculated as follows:
$1,000 + ($1,000 x -50%) = $500.00
* * *
The actual market value of your Notes on the Maturity Date or at any other time, including any time you may wish to sell your Notes, may bear little relation to the hypothetical Payments at Maturity shown above, and those amounts should not be viewed as an indication of the financial return on an investment in the Notes.

P6
RBC Capital Markets, LLC


 

 
Fixed Coupon Barrier Notes

Royal Bank of Canada
 
SELECTED RISK CONSIDERATIONS
An investment in the Notes involves significant risks. Investing in the Notes is not equivalent to investing directly in the Reference Asset. These risks are explained in more detail in the section “Additional Risk Factors Specific to Your Notes” in the product prospectus supplement. In addition to the risks described in the prospectus supplement and the product prospectus supplement, you should consider the following:
Risks Relating to the Terms and Structure of the Notes

You May Lose Some or All of the Principal Amount at Maturity — Investors in the Notes could lose some or all of their principal amount if there is a decline in the level of the Reference Asset between the Trade Date and the Valuation Date. If the Final Level is less than the Barrier Level, the amount of cash that you receive at maturity will represent a loss of your principal that is proportionate to the decline in the closing level of the Reference Asset from the Trade Date to the Valuation Date. The rate of interest payable on the Notes may not be sufficient to compensate for any such loss.

The Payments on the Notes Are Limited  The payments on the Notes will be limited to the Coupon Payments. Accordingly, your return on the Notes may be less than your return would be if you made an investment in the Reference Asset, the securities included in the Reference Asset, or in a security directly linked to the positive performance of the Reference Asset.

Your Return May Be Lower than the Return on a Conventional Debt Security of Comparable Maturity —The return that you will receive on the Notes, which could be negative, may be less than the return you could earn on other investments. Your return may be less than the return you would earn if you bought one of our conventional senior interest bearing debt securities.

Payments on the Notes Are Subject to Our Credit Risk, and Changes in Our Credit Ratings Are Expected to Affect the Market Value of the Notes — The Notes are our senior unsecured debt securities. As a result, your receipt of the payments due on the Notes is dependent upon our ability to repay our obligations on the applicable payment date. This will be the case even if the level of the Reference Asset increases after the Trade Date. No assurance can be given as to what our financial condition will be at any time during the term of the Notes.

The Tax Treatment of the Notes Is Uncertain — The U.S. federal income tax treatment of an investment in the Notes is uncertain. We do not plan to request a ruling from the Internal Revenue Service (the "IRS") regarding the tax treatment of an investment in the Notes, and the IRS or a court may not agree with the tax treatment described in this document.
Risks Relating to the Secondary Market for the Notes

There May Not Be an Active Trading Market for the NotesSales in the Secondary Market May Result in Significant Losses — There may be little or no secondary market for the Notes. The Notes will not be listed on any securities exchange. RBCCM and our other affiliates may make a market for the Notes; however, they are not required to do so. RBCCM or any of our other affiliates may stop any market-making activities at any time. Even if a secondary market for the Notes develops, it may not provide significant liquidity or trade at prices advantageous to you. We expect that transaction costs in any secondary market would be high. As a result, the difference between bid and asked prices for your Notes in any secondary market could be substantial.
Risks Relating to the Initial Estimated Value of the Notes

The Initial Estimated Value of the Notes Will Be Less than the Price to the Public  The initial estimated value that will be set forth on the cover page of the final pricing supplement for the Notes does not represent a minimum price at which we, RBCCM or any of our affiliates would be willing to purchase the Notes in any secondary market (if any exists) at any time. If you attempt to sell the Notes prior to maturity, their market value

P7
RBC Capital Markets, LLC


 

 
Fixed Coupon Barrier Notes

Royal Bank of Canada
 
may be lower than the price you paid for them and the initial estimated value. This is due to, among other things, changes in the level of the Reference Asset, the borrowing rate we pay to issue securities of this kind, and the inclusion in the price to the public of the underwriting discount and the estimated costs relating to our hedging of the Notes. These factors, together with various credit, market and economic factors over the term of the Notes, are expected to reduce the price at which you may be able to sell the Notes in any secondary market and will affect the value of the Notes in complex and unpredictable ways. Assuming no change in market conditions or any other relevant factors, the price, if any, at which you may be able to sell your Notes prior to maturity may be less than your original purchase price, as any such sale price would not be expected to include the underwriting discount and our hedging costs relating to the Notes. In addition to bid-ask spreads, the value of the Notes determined by RBCCM for any secondary market price is expected to be based on the secondary rate rather than the internal funding rate used to price the Notes and determine the initial estimated value. As a result, the secondary price will be less than if the internal funding rate was used. The Notes are not designed to be short-term trading instruments. Accordingly, you should be able and willing to hold your Notes to maturity.

The Initial Estimated Value of the Notes that We Will Provide in the Final Pricing Supplement Will Be an Estimate Only, Calculated as of the Time the Terms of the Notes Are Set — The initial estimated value of the Notes will be based on the value of our obligation to make the payments on the Notes, together with the mid-market value of the derivative embedded in the terms of the Notes. See “Structuring the Notes” below. Our estimate will be based on a variety of assumptions, including our credit spreads, expectations as to dividends, interest rates and volatility, and the expected term of the Notes. These assumptions are based on certain forecasts about future events, which may prove to be incorrect. Other entities may value the Notes or similar securities at a price that is significantly different than we do.
The value of the Notes at any time after the Trade Date will vary based on many factors, including changes in market conditions, and cannot be predicted with accuracy. As a result, the actual value you would receive if you sold the Notes in any secondary market, if any, should be expected to differ materially from the initial estimated value of your Notes.
Risks Relating to the Reference Asset

Owning the Notes Is Not the Same as Owning the Securities Represented by the Reference Asset — The return on your Notes is unlikely to reflect the return you would realize if you actually owned the securities represented by the Reference Asset. For instance, you will not receive or be entitled to receive any dividend payments or other distributions on those securities during the term of your Notes. As an owner of the Notes, you will not have voting rights or any other rights that holders of the Reference Asset may have. Further, the level of the Reference Asset may increase substantially during the term of the Notes, while your return on the Notes is limited to the Coupon Payments.

The Payments on the Notes Are Subject to Postponement Due to Market Disruption Events and Adjustments — The Maturity Date and the Valuation Date are subject to adjustment as to the Reference Asset as described in the product prospectus supplement. For a description of what constitutes a market disruption event as well as the consequences of that market disruption event, see “General Terms of the Notes—Market Disruption Events” in the product prospectus supplement.
Risks Relating to Conflicts of Interest

We May Issue Research Reports that Are Inconsistent with an Investment in the Notes — We or our affiliates may issue research reports on securities that are, or may become, components of the Reference Asset. We may also publish research from time to time on financial markets and other matters that may influence the level of the Reference Asset or the value of the Notes, or express opinions or provide recommendations that may be inconsistent with purchasing or holding the Notes or with the investment view implicit in the Notes or the Reference Asset. You should make your own independent investigation of the merits of investing in the Notes and the Reference Asset.

P8
RBC Capital Markets, LLC


 

 
Fixed Coupon Barrier Notes

Royal Bank of Canada
 
U.S. FEDERAL TAX INFORMATION
The following section supplements the discussion of U.S. federal income taxation in the accompanying prospectus and prospectus supplement, and supersedes the discussion in the product supplement under the caption “Supplemental Discussion of U.S. Federal Income Tax Consequences.” It applies only to those holders who are not excluded from the discussion of U.S. federal income taxation in the accompanying prospectus. This discussion applies only to U.S. holders and non-U.S. holders that will purchase the Notes upon original issuance and will hold the Notes as capital assets for U.S. federal income tax purposes. This discussion does not apply to holders subject to special rules including accrual method taxpayers subject to special tax accounting rules under Section 451(b) of the Code.
You should consult your tax advisor concerning the U.S. federal income tax and other tax consequences of your investment in the Notes in your particular circumstances, including the application of state, local or other tax laws and the possible effects of changes in federal or other tax laws.
We will not attempt to ascertain whether the issuer of any of the component stocks included in the Reference Asset would be treated as a “passive foreign investment company” within the meaning of Section 1297 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), or a “U.S. real property holding corporation” within the meaning of Section 897 of the Code. If the issuer of one or more of such stocks were so treated, certain adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences could possibly apply to a holder. You should refer to any available information filed with the SEC and other authorities by the issuers of the component stock included in the Reference Asset and consult your tax advisor regarding the possible consequences to you in this regard, if any.
NO STATUTORY, JUDICIAL OR ADMINISTRATIVE AUTHORITY DIRECTLY DISCUSSES HOW THE NOTES SHOULD BE TREATED FOR U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX PURPOSES. AS A RESULT, THE U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSEQUENCES OF AN INVESTMENT IN THE NOTES ARE UNCERTAIN. BECAUSE OF THE UNCERTAINTY, YOU SHOULD CONSULT YOUR TAX ADVISOR IN DETERMINING THE U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX AND OTHER TAX CONSEQUENCES OF YOUR INVESTMENT IN THE NOTES, INCLUDING THE APPLICATION OF STATE, LOCAL OR OTHER TAX LAWS AND THE POSSIBLE EFFECTS OF CHANGES IN FEDERAL OR OTHER TAX LAWS.
In the opinion of our counsel, Ashurst LLP, it would generally be reasonable to treat your Notes as an investment unit consisting of (i) a non-contingent debt instrument subject to the rules governing short-term debt instruments issued by us to you (the “Short-Term Debt Portion”) and (ii) a put option with respect to the Reference Asset written by you and purchased by us (the “Put Option”). The balance of this disclosure assumes this treatment is proper and will be respected for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Pursuant to this treatment, [_]% of each [_]% Coupon Payment will be treated as an interest payment and [_]% of each [_]% Coupon Payment will be treated as payment for the Put Option for U.S. federal income tax purposes.
Treatment as an Investment Unit
If your Notes are properly treated as an investment unit consisting of a Debt Portion and Put Option, it is likely that the Short-Term Debt Portion of your Notes would be treated as having been issued for the principal amount of the Notes (if you are an initial purchaser) and that Coupon Payments on the Notes would be treated in part as payments of interest and in part as payments for the Put Option. Amounts treated as interest would be subject to the general rules governing interest payments on short-term debt securities (as described under “Tax Consequences—United States Taxation—Original Issue Discount—Short-Term Debt Securities” in the accompanying prospectus) and would be required to be accrued by accrual-basis taxpayers (and cash-basis taxpayers who so elect) on either a straight-line basis or under the constant-yield method, based on daily compounding Cash-basis taxpayers (who do not elect to accrue interest currently) would include interest in income upon receipt of such interest. Amounts treated as payment for the Put Option would be deferred and accounted for upon the sale, call, or maturity of the Notes, as discussed below.
If you were to receive a cash payment of the full principal amount of your Notes upon the call or maturity of your Notes, such payment would likely be treated as (i) payment in full of the principal amount of the Short-Term Debt Portion (which would not result in the recognition of gain or loss if you are an initial purchaser of your Notes) and (ii) the lapse

P9
RBC Capital Markets, LLC


 

 
Fixed Coupon Barrier Notes

Royal Bank of Canada
 
of the Put Option which would likely result in your recognition of short-term capital gain in an amount equal to the amount paid to you for the Put Option and deferred as described above. If you were to receive a cash payment upon the maturity of your Notes (excluding cash received as a Coupon Payment) of less than the full principal amount of your Notes, such payment would likely be treated as (i) payment in full of the principal amount of the Short-Term Debt Portion (which would not result in the recognition of gain or loss if you are an initial purchaser of your Notes) and (ii) the cash settlement of the Put Option pursuant to which you paid to us an amount equal to the excess of the principal amount of your Notes over the amount that you received upon the maturity of your Notes (excluding cash received as a Coupon Payment) in order to settle the Put Option. If the aggregate amount paid to you for the Put Option and deferred as described above is greater than the amount you are deemed to have paid to us to settle the Put Option, you will likely recognize short-term capital gain in an amount that is equal to such excess. Conversely, if the amount paid to you for the Put Option and deferred as described above is less than the amount you are deemed to have paid to us to settle the Put Option, you will likely recognize short-term capital loss in an amount that is equal to such difference. The deductibility of capital losses is subject to limitations.
Upon the sale of your Notes, you would be required to apportion the value of the amount you receive between the Short-Term Debt Portion and Put Option on the basis of the values thereof on the date of the sale. You would recognize gain or loss with respect to the Short-Term Debt Portion in an amount equal to the difference between (i) the amount apportioned to the Short-Term Debt Portion and (ii) your adjusted U.S. federal income tax basis in the Short-Term Debt Portion (which would generally be equal to the principal amount of your Notes if you are an initial purchaser of your Notes). Except to the extent attributable to accrued but unpaid interest with respect to the Short-Term Debt Portion, such gain or loss would be short-term capital gain or loss. If you are a cash-basis taxpayer and do not elect to accrue interest currently, your adjusted basis in your Notes should generally be the purchase price of your Notes. If you are an accrual basis holder, or a cash basis holder that elects to accrue interest on your Notes currently, your adjusted basis in your Notes should generally be the purchase price of your Notes increased by the amount of accrued interest and decreased by any interest that is paid in respect of the Short-Term Debt Portion.
Upon your sale of the Notes, the amount of cash that you receive that is apportioned to the Put Option (together with any amount of premium received in respect thereof and deferred as described above) would be treated as short-term capital gain. If the value of the Short-Term Debt Portion on the date of the sale of your Notes is in excess of the amount you receive upon such sale, you would likely be treated as having made a payment (to the purchaser in the case of a sale) equal to the amount of such excess in order to extinguish your rights and obligations under the Put Option. In such a case, you would likely recognize short-term capital gain or loss in an amount equal to the difference between the premium you previously received in respect of the Put Option and the amount of the deemed payment made by you to extinguish the Put Option. The deductibility of capital losses is subject to limitations.
If you are a secondary purchaser of your Notes, you would be required to allocate your purchase price for your Notes between the Short-Term Debt Portion and Put Option based on the respective fair market values of each on the date of purchase. If the portion of your purchase price allocated to the Short-Term Debt Portion is in excess of the principal amount of your Notes, you may be subject to the amortizable bond premium rules described in the accompanying prospectus under “Tax Consequences—United States Taxation—Debt Securities Purchased at a Premium” with respect to the Short-Term Debt Portion. If the portion of your purchase price allocated to the Short-Term Debt Portion is at a discount from the principal amount of the Notes, special discount market rules applicable to short-term debt instruments may apply. You should consult your tax advisor with respect to such rules in such case. The portion of your purchase price that is allocated to the Put Option would likely be offset for tax purposes against amounts you subsequently receive with respect to the Put Option (including amounts received upon a sale of the Notes that are attributable to the Put Option), thereby reducing the amount of gain or increasing the amount of loss you would recognize with respect to the Put Option or with respect to the sale of the Reference Asset you receive upon the exercise of the Put Option. If, however, the portion of your purchase price allocated to the Short-Term Debt Portion as described above is in excess of your purchase price for your Notes, you would likely be treated for tax purposes as having received a payment for the Put Option (which will be deferred as described above) in an amount equal to such excess.

P10
RBC Capital Markets, LLC


 

 
Fixed Coupon Barrier Notes

Royal Bank of Canada
 
Alternative Characterizations
There is no judicial or administrative authority discussing how your Notes should be treated for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Therefore, other treatments would also be reasonable and the Internal Revenue Service might assert that treatment other than that described above is more appropriate.
For example, the IRS might assert that your Notes should be treated as a single debt instrument as described in “Tax Consequences—United States Taxation” in the accompanying prospectus. Pursuant to such characterization, the Notes would generally be subject to the rules concerning short-term debt instruments as described under the heading “Tax Consequences—United States Taxation—Original Issue Discount—Short-Term Debt Securities” in the accompanying prospectus. It is also possible that you may be required to include the entire coupon in income when it is received. Further, your Note may be characterized in whole or in part as a notional principal contract or as a different type of derivative contract.  In addition, if the term of your Notes exceed one year in the event of a market disruption event, your Notes may be treated as notes with a term in excess of one year.  In such case, your Notes would be subject to rules applicable to debt instruments with a term exceeding one year and holders should consult their tax advisors as to the applicable tax consequences for U.S. federal income tax purposes.
In addition, the Internal Revenue Service has released a notice that may affect the taxation of holders of “prepaid forward contracts” and similar instruments. According to the notice, the Internal Revenue Service and the U.S. Treasury Department are actively considering whether the holder of such instruments should be required to accrue ordinary income on a current basis. While it is not clear whether the Notes would be viewed as similar to such instruments, it is possible that any future guidance could materially and adversely affect the tax consequences of an investment in the Notes, possibly with retroactive effect. Further, future legislation, including legislation based on bills previously introduced in Congress, may tax all derivative instruments on a mark-to-market basis, requiring holders of such derivative instruments to take into account annually gains and losses on such instruments as ordinary income. The adoption of such legislation or similar proposals may significantly impact the tax consequences from an investment in the Notes, including the timing and character of income and gain on the Notes. You should consult your tax advisor as to the tax consequences of possible alternative characterizations of your Note for U.S. federal income tax purposes and proposals to change the taxation of certain derivative instruments.
Because of the absence of authority regarding the appropriate tax characterization of your Note, it is possible that the Internal Revenue Service could seek to characterize your Note in a manner that results in tax consequences to you that are different from those described above. For example, it is possible that you may be required to include the entire Coupon Payment into income when it is received. It is also possible that your note may be characterized in whole or in part as a notional principal contract or as a different type of derivative contract. You should consult your tax advisor as to the tax consequences of possible alternative characterizations of your note for U.S. federal income tax purposes.
Backup Withholding and Information Reporting
Payments made with respect to the Notes and proceeds from the call, sale or maturity of the Notes may be subject to a backup withholding tax unless, in general, the holder complies with certain procedures or is an exempt recipient. Any amounts so withheld generally will be refunded by the IRS or allowed as a credit against the holder’s U.S. federal income tax liability, provided the holder makes a timely filing of an appropriate tax return or refund claim to the IRS.
Reports will be made to the IRS and to holders that are not exempted from the reporting requirements.
Individual holders that own “specified foreign financial assets” may be required to include certain information with respect to such assets with their U.S. federal income tax return. You are urged to consult your own tax advisor regarding such requirements with respect to the Notes.
Non-U.S. Holders
The following discussion applies to non-U.S. holders of the Notes. You are a non-U.S. holder if you are a beneficial owner of the Notes and are for U.S. federal income tax purposes a non-resident alien individual, a foreign corporation, or a foreign estate or trust.

P11
RBC Capital Markets, LLC


 

 
Fixed Coupon Barrier Notes

Royal Bank of Canada
 
The U.S. federal income tax treatment of the Notes is uncertain. We intend to withhold (or expect the applicable withholding agent will withhold) U.S. federal income tax at a 30% rate (or at a lower rate under an applicable income tax treaty) in respect of Coupon Payments made on the Notes to a non-U.S. holder unless such payments are effectively connected with the conduct by the non-U.S. holder of a trade or business in the United States (in which case, to avoid withholding, the non-U.S. holder will be required to provide a Form W-8ECI). We will not pay any additional amounts in respect of such withholding.
To claim benefits under an income tax treaty, a non-U.S. holder must obtain a taxpayer identification number and certify as to its eligibility under the appropriate treaty’s limitations on benefits article, if applicable (which certification may generally be made on a Form W-8BEN or W-8BEN-E, or a substitute or successor form). In addition, special rules may apply to claims for treaty benefits made by corporate non-U.S. holders. A non-U.S. holder that is eligible for a reduced rate of U.S. federal withholding tax pursuant to an income tax treaty may obtain a refund of any excess amounts withheld by filing an appropriate claim for refund with the IRS. The availability of a lower rate of withholding or an exemption from withholding under an applicable income tax treaty will depend on the proper characterization of the Coupon Payments under U.S. federal income tax laws and whether such treaty rate or exemption applies to such Coupon Payments. No assurance can be provided on the proper characterization of the Coupon Payments for U.S. federal income tax purposes and, accordingly, no assurance can be provided on the availability of benefits under any income tax treaty. Non-U.S. holders must consult their tax advisors in this regard.
Except as discussed below, you will generally not be subject to U.S. federal income or withholding tax on any gain upon the sale or maturity of the Notes, provided that (i) you comply with applicable certification requirements, which certification may be made on Form W-8BEN or W-8BEN-E (or a substitute or successor form) on which you certify, under penalties of perjury, that you are not a U.S. person and provide your name and address, (ii) your gain is not effectively connected with your conduct of a U.S. trade or business, and (iii) if you are a non-resident alien individual, you are not present in the U.S. for 183 days or more during the taxable year of the sale or maturity of the Notes. In the case of (ii) above, you generally would be subject to U.S. federal income tax with respect to any income or gain in the same manner as if you were a U.S. holder and, if you are a corporation, you may also be subject to a branch profits tax equal to 30% (or such lower rate provided by an applicable U.S. income tax treaty) of a portion of your earnings and profits for the taxable year that are effectively connected with its conduct of a trade or business in the U.S., subject to certain adjustments. Payments made to you may be subject to information reporting and to backup withholding unless you comply with applicable certification and identification requirements as to your foreign status.
Under Section 871(m) of the Code, a “dividend equivalent” payment is treated as a dividend from sources within the United States. Such payments generally would be subject to a 30% U.S. withholding tax if paid to a non-U.S. holder. Under U.S. Treasury Department regulations, payments (including deemed payments) with respect to equity-linked instruments (“ELIs”) that are “specified ELIs” may be treated as dividend equivalents if such specified ELIs, directly or indirectly, reference an interest in an “underlying security,” which is generally any interest in an entity taxable as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes if a payment with respect to such interest could give rise to a U.S. source dividend. However, the IRS has issued guidance that states that the U.S. Treasury Department and the IRS intend to amend the effective dates of the U.S. Treasury Department regulations to provide that withholding on dividend equivalent payments will not apply to specified ELIs that are not delta-one instruments and that are issued before January 1, 2023. Based on our determination that the Notes are not delta-one instruments, non-U.S. holders should not be subject to withholding on dividend equivalent payments, if any, under the Notes. However, it is possible that the Notes could be treated as deemed reissued for U.S. federal income tax purposes upon the occurrence of certain events affecting the Reference Asset or the Notes (for example, upon the Reference Asset rebalancing), and following such occurrence the Notes could be treated as subject to withholding on dividend equivalent payments. Non-U.S. holders that enter, or have entered, into other transactions in respect of the Reference Asset or the Notes should consult their tax advisors as to the application of the dividend equivalent withholding tax in the context of the Notes and their other transactions. If any payments are treated as dividend equivalents subject to withholding, we (or the applicable withholding agent) would be entitled to withhold taxes without being required to pay any additional amounts with respect to amounts so withheld.
As discussed above, alternative characterizations of the Notes for U.S. federal income tax purposes are possible. Should an alternative characterization, by reason of change or clarification of the law, by regulation or otherwise, cause

P12
RBC Capital Markets, LLC


 

 
Fixed Coupon Barrier Notes

Royal Bank of Canada
 
payments as to the Notes to become subject to withholding tax, or if we or the institution through which you hold the Notes determine withholding is appropriate under current law, we or such institution will withhold tax at the applicable statutory rate. We will not be required to pay any additional amounts in respect of such withholding. Prospective investors should consult their own tax advisors in this regard.
Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act
The Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act (“FATCA”) imposes a 30% U.S. withholding tax on certain U.S. source payments, including interest (and original issue discount), dividends, and other fixed or determinable annual or periodical gain, profits, and income (“Withholdable Payments”), if paid to a foreign financial institution (including amounts paid to a foreign financial institution on behalf of a holder), unless such institution enters into an agreement with the U.S. Treasury Department to collect and provide to the U.S. Treasury Department certain information regarding U.S. financial account holders, including certain account holders that are foreign entities with U.S. owners, with such institution, or otherwise complies with the legislation.  In addition, the Notes may constitute a “financial account” for these purposes and, thus, be subject to information reporting requirements pursuant to FATCA.  FATCA also generally imposes a withholding tax of 30% on Withholdable Payments made to a non-financial foreign entity unless such entity provides the withholding agent with a certification that it does not have any substantial U.S. owners or a certification identifying the direct and indirect substantial U.S. owners of the entity.  Under certain circumstances, a holder may be eligible for refunds or credits of such taxes.
The U.S. Treasury Department has proposed regulations that eliminate the requirement of FATCA withholding on payments of gross proceeds upon the sale or disposition of financial instruments of a type which can produce U.S. source interest or dividends.  The U.S. Treasury Department has indicated that taxpayers may rely on these proposed regulations pending their finalization, and the discussion above assumes the proposed regulations will be finalized in their proposed form with retroactive effect.
If we (or the applicable withholding agent) determine withholding is appropriate with respect to the Notes, tax will be withheld at the applicable statutory rate, and we (or the applicable withholding agent) will not pay any additional amounts in respect of such withholding. Therefore, if such withholding applies, any payments on the Notes will be significantly less than what you would have otherwise received. Depending on your circumstances, these amounts withheld may be creditable or refundable to you. Foreign financial institutions and non-financial foreign entities located in jurisdictions that have an intergovernmental agreement with the United States governing FATCA may be subject to different rules. Prospective investors are urged to consult with their own tax advisors regarding the possible implications of FATCA on their investment in the Notes.

P13
RBC Capital Markets, LLC


 

 
Fixed Coupon Barrier Notes

Royal Bank of Canada
 
INFORMATION REGARDING THE REFERENCE ASSET
All disclosures contained in this document regarding the Reference Asset, including, without limitation, its make-up, method of calculation, and changes in its components, have been derived from publicly available sources. The information reflects the policies of, and is subject to change by, S&P Dow Jones Indices LLC (“S&P”). S&P, which owns the copyright and all other rights to the Reference Asset, has no obligation to continue to publish, and may discontinue publication of, the Reference Asset. The consequences of S&P discontinuing publication of the Reference Asset are discussed in the section of the product prospectus supplement entitled “General Terms of the Notes— Unavailability of the Level of the Reference Asset.” Neither we nor RBCCM accepts any responsibility for the calculation, maintenance or publication of the Reference Asset or any successor index.

The Reference Asset is intended to provide an indication of the pattern of price movements among large-cap U.S. stocks. The calculation of the level of the Reference Asset is based on the relative value of the aggregate market value of the common stocks of 500 companies as of a particular time compared to the aggregate average market value of the common stocks of 500 similar companies during the base period of the years 1941 through 1943.

S&P calculates the Reference Asset by reference to the prices of the constituent stocks of the Reference Asset without taking account of the value of dividends paid on those stocks. As a result, the return on the Notes will not reflect the return you would realize if you actually owned the Reference Asset constituent stocks and received the dividends paid on those stocks.

Effective with the September 2015 rebalance, consolidated share class lines will no longer be included in the Reference Asset. Each share class line will be subject to public float and liquidity criteria individually, but the company’s total market capitalization will be used to evaluate each share class line. This may result in one listed share class line of a company being included in the Reference Asset while a second listed share class line of the same company is excluded.

Computation of the Reference Asset

While S&P currently employs the following methodology to calculate the Reference Asset, no assurance can be given that S&P will not modify or change this methodology in a manner that may affect the Payment at Maturity.

Historically, the market value of any component stock of the Reference Asset was calculated as the product of the market price per share and the number of then outstanding shares of such component stock. In March 2005, S&P began shifting the Reference Asset halfway from a market capitalization weighted formula to a float-adjusted formula, before moving the Reference Asset to full float adjustment on September 16, 2005. S&P’s criteria for selecting stocks for the Reference Asset did not change with the shift to float adjustment. However, the adjustment affects each company’s weight in the Reference Asset.

Under float adjustment, the share counts used in calculating the Reference Asset reflect only those shares that are available to investors, not all of a company’s outstanding shares. Float adjustment excludes shares that are closely held by control groups, other publicly traded companies or government agencies.

In September 2012, all shareholdings representing more than 5% of a stock’s outstanding shares, other than holdings by “block owners,” were removed from the float for purposes of calculating the Reference Asset. Generally, these “control holders” will include officers and directors, private equity, venture capital and special equity firms, other publicly traded companies that hold shares for control, strategic partners, holders of restricted shares, ESOPs, employee and family trusts, foundations associated with the company, holders of unlisted share classes of stock, government entities at all levels (other than government retirement/pension funds) and any individual person who controls a 5% or greater stake in a company as reported in regulatory filings. However, holdings by block owners, such as depositary banks, pension funds, mutual funds and ETF providers, 401(k) plans of the company, government retirement/pension funds, investment funds of insurance companies, asset managers and investment funds, independent foundations and savings and investment plans, will ordinarily be considered part of the float.

P14
RBC Capital Markets, LLC


 

 
Fixed Coupon Barrier Notes

Royal Bank of Canada
 
Treasury stock, stock options, equity participation units, warrants, preferred stock, convertible stock, and rights are not part of the float. Shares held in a trust to allow investors in countries outside the country of domicile, such as depositary shares and Canadian exchangeable shares are normally part of the float unless those shares form a control block.

For each stock, an investable weight factor (“IWF”) is calculated by dividing the available float shares by the total shares outstanding. Available float shares are defined as the total shares outstanding less shares held by control holders. This calculation is subject to a 5% minimum threshold for control blocks. For example, if a company’s officers and directors hold 3% of the company’s shares, and no other control group holds 5% of the company’s shares, S&P would assign that company an IWF of 1.00, as no control group meets the 5% threshold. However, if a company’s officers and directors hold 3% of the company’s shares and another control group holds 20% of the company’s shares, S&P would assign an IWF of 0.77, reflecting the fact that 23% of the company’s outstanding shares are considered to be held for control. As of July 31, 2017, companies with multiple share class lines are no longer eligible for inclusion in the Reference Asset. Constituents of the Reference Asset prior to July 31, 2017 with multiple share class lines were grandfathered in and continue to be included in the Reference Asset. If a constituent company of the Reference Asset reorganizes into a multiple share class line structure, that company will remain in the Reference Asset at the discretion of the S&P Index Committee in order to minimize turnover.

The Reference Asset is calculated using a base-weighted aggregate methodology. The level of the Reference Asset reflects the total market value of all 500 component stocks relative to the base period of the years 1941 through 1943. An indexed number is used to represent the results of this calculation in order to make the level easier to use and track over time. The actual total market value of the component stocks during the base period of the years 1941 through 1943 has been set to an indexed level of 10. This is often indicated by the notation 1941-43 = 10. In practice, the daily calculation of the Reference Asset is computed by dividing the total market value of the component stocks by the “index divisor.” By itself, the index divisor is an arbitrary number. However, in the context of the calculation of the Reference Asset, it serves as a link to the original base period level of the Reference Asset. The index divisor keeps the Reference Asset comparable over time and is the manipulation point for all adjustments to the Reference Asset, which is index maintenance.

Index Maintenance
Index maintenance includes monitoring and completing the adjustments for company additions and deletions, share changes, stock splits, stock dividends, and stock price adjustments due to company restructuring or spinoffs. Some corporate actions, such as stock splits and stock dividends, require changes in the common shares outstanding and the stock prices of the companies in the Reference Asset, and do not require index divisor adjustments.

To prevent the level of the Reference Asset from changing due to corporate actions, corporate actions which affect the total market value of the Reference Asset require an index divisor adjustment. By adjusting the index divisor for the change in market value, the level of the Reference Asset remains constant and does not reflect the corporate actions of individual companies in the Reference Asset. Index divisor adjustments are made after the close of trading and after the calculation of the Reference Asset closing level.

Changes in a company’s total shares outstanding of 5% or more due to public offerings are made as soon as reasonably possible. Other changes of 5% or more (for example, due to tender offers, Dutch auctions, voluntary exchange offers, company stock repurchases, private placements, acquisitions of private companies or non-index companies that do not trade on a major exchange, redemptions, exercise of options, warrants, conversion of preferred stock, notes, debt, equity participations, at-the-market stock offerings or other recapitalizations) are made weekly, and are generally announced on Fridays for implementation after the close of trading the following Friday (one week later). If a 5% or more share change causes a company’s IWF to change by five percentage points or more, the IWF is updated at the same time as the share change. IWF changes resulting from partial tender offers are considered on a case-by-case basis.

P15
RBC Capital Markets, LLC


 

 
Fixed Coupon Barrier Notes

Royal Bank of Canada
 
License Agreement
S&P® is a registered trademark of Standard & Poor’s Financial Services LLC and Dow Jones® is a registered trademark of Dow Jones Trademark Holdings LLC (“Dow Jones”). These trademarks have been licensed for use by S&P. “Standard & Poor’s®”, “S&P 500®” and “S&P®” are trademarks of Standard & Poor’s Financial Services LLC. These trademarks have been sublicensed for certain purposes by us. The Reference Asset is a product of S&P and/or its affiliates and has been licensed for use by us.

The Notes are not sponsored, endorsed, sold or promoted by S&P Dow Jones Indices LLC, Standard & Poor’s Financial Services LLC or any of their respective affiliates (collectively, “S&P Dow Jones Indices”). S&P Dow Jones Indices make no representation or warranty, express or implied, to the holders of the Notes or any member of the public regarding the advisability of investing in securities generally or in the Notes particularly or the ability of the Reference Asset to track general market performance. S&P Dow Jones Indices’ only relationship to us with respect to the Reference Asset is the licensing of the Reference Asset and certain trademarks, service marks and/or trade names of S&P Dow Jones Indices and/or its third party licensors. The Reference Asset is determined, composed and calculated by S&P Dow Jones Indices without regard to us or the Notes. S&P Dow Jones Indices have no obligation to take our needs or the needs of holders of the Notes into consideration in determining, composing or calculating the Reference Asset. S&P Dow Jones Indices are not responsible for and have not participated in the determination of the prices, and amount of the Notes or the timing of the issuance or sale of the Notes or in the determination or calculation of the equation by which the Notes are to be converted into cash. S&P Dow Jones Indices have no obligation or liability in connection with the administration, marketing or trading of the Notes. There is no assurance that investment products based on the Reference Asset will accurately track index performance or provide positive investment returns. S&P Dow Jones Indices LLC and its subsidiaries are not investment advisors. Inclusion of a security or futures contract within an index is not a recommendation by S&P Dow Jones Indices to buy, sell, or hold such security or futures contract, nor is it considered to be investment advice. Notwithstanding the foregoing, CME Group Inc. and its affiliates may independently issue and/or sponsor financial products unrelated to the Notes currently being issued by us, but which may be similar to and competitive with the Notes. In addition, CME Group Inc. and its affiliates may trade financial products which are linked to the performance of the Reference Asset. It is possible that this trading activity will affect the value of the Notes.

S&P DOW JONES INDICES DO NOT GUARANTEE THE ADEQUACY, ACCURACY, TIMELINESS AND/OR THE COMPLETENESS OF THE REFERENCE ASSET OR ANY DATA RELATED THERETO OR ANY COMMUNICATION, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO, ORAL OR WRITTEN COMMUNICATION (INCLUDING ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATIONS) WITH RESPECT THERETO. S&P DOW JONES INDICES SHALL NOT BE SUBJECT TO ANY DAMAGES OR LIABILITY FOR ANY ERRORS, OMISSIONS, OR DELAYS THEREIN. S&P DOW JONES INDICES MAKE NO EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, AND EXPRESSLY DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES, OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE OR USE OR AS TO RESULTS TO BE OBTAINED BY US, HOLDERS OF THE NOTES, OR ANY OTHER PERSON OR ENTITY FROM THE USE OF THE REFERENCE ASSET OR WITH RESPECT TO ANY DATA RELATED THERETO. WITHOUT LIMITING ANY OF THE FOREGOING, IN NO EVENT WHATSOEVER SHALL S&P DOW JONES INDICES BE LIABLE FOR ANY INDIRECT, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL, PUNITIVE, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO, LOSS OF PROFITS, TRADING LOSSES, LOST TIME OR GOODWILL, EVEN IF THEY HAVE BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, TORT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR OTHERWISE. THERE ARE NO THIRD PARTY BENEFICIARIES OF ANY AGREEMENTS OR ARRANGEMENTS BETWEEN S&P DOW JONES INDICES AND US, OTHER THAN THE LICENSORS OF S&P DOW JONES INDICES.

P16
RBC Capital Markets, LLC


 

 
Fixed Coupon Barrier Notes

Royal Bank of Canada
 
HISTORICAL INFORMATION
The following graph sets forth the recent historical performance of the Reference Asset from January 1, 2012 to July 1, 2022, based on a hypothetical Initial Level of 3,825.33, which was its closing level on July 1, 2022. The red horizontal line represents a hypothetical Barrier Level of 2,869.00, which is 75% of the hypothetical Initial Level (rounded to two decimal places).
We obtained the information regarding the historical performance of the Reference Asset from Bloomberg Financial Markets, without independent investigation.
The historical performance of the Reference Asset should not be taken as an indication of future performance, and no assurance can be given as to the market levels of the Reference Asset on the Valuation Date. We cannot give you assurance that the performance of the Reference Asset will not result in the loss of all or part of your investment.
Historical Information for the Reference Asset
PAST PERFORMANCE IS NOT INDICATIVE OF FUTURE RESULTS.

P17
RBC Capital Markets, LLC


 

 
Fixed Coupon Barrier Notes

Royal Bank of Canada
 
SUPPLEMENTAL PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION (CONFLICTS OF INTEREST)
We expect that delivery of the Notes will be made against payment for the Notes on or about July 20, 2022, which is the third (3rd) business day following the Trade Date (this settlement cycle being referred to as “T+3”). See “Plan of Distribution” in the prospectus dated September 14, 2021. For additional information as to the relationship between us and RBC Capital Markets, LLC, please see the section “Plan of Distribution—Conflicts of Interest” in the prospectus dated September 14, 2021.
We expect to deliver the Notes on a date that is greater than two business days following the Trade Date. Under Rule 15c6-1 of the Exchange Act, trades in the secondary market generally are required to settle in two business days, unless the parties to any such trade expressly agree otherwise. Accordingly, purchasers who wish to trade the Notes more than two business days prior to the original issue date will be required to specify alternative arrangements to prevent a failed settlement.
In the initial offering of the Notes, they will be offered to investors at a purchase price equal to par, except with respect to certain accounts as indicated on the cover page of this document. In addition to the underwriting discount set forth on the cover page, we or one of our affiliates may also pay an expected fee to a broker-dealer that is unaffiliated with us for providing certain electronic platform services with respect to this offering.
The value of the Notes shown on your account statement may be based on RBCCM’s estimate of the value of the Notes if RBCCM or another of our affiliates were to make a market in the Notes (which it is not obligated to do). That estimate will be based upon the price that RBCCM may pay for the Notes in light of then prevailing market conditions, our creditworthiness and transaction costs. For a period of approximately three months after the issue date of the Notes, the value of the Notes that may be shown on your account statement may be higher than RBCCM’s estimated value of the Notes at that time. This is because the estimated value of the Notes will not include the underwriting discount or our hedging costs and profits; however, the value of the Notes shown on your account statement during that period may initially be a higher amount, reflecting the addition of the underwriting discount and our estimated costs and profits from hedging the Notes. This excess is expected to decrease over time until the end of this period. After this period, if RBCCM repurchases your Notes, it expects to do so at prices that reflect their estimated value.
We may use this terms supplement in the initial sale of the Notes. In addition, RBC Capital Markets, LLC or another of our affiliates may use this terms supplement in a market-making transaction in the Notes after their initial sale. Unless we or our agent informs the purchaser otherwise in the confirmation of sale, this terms supplement is being used in a market-making transaction.

P18
RBC Capital Markets, LLC


 

 
Fixed Coupon Barrier Notes

Royal Bank of Canada
 
STRUCTURING THE NOTES
The Notes are our debt securities, the return on which is linked to the performance of the Reference Asset. As is the case for all of our debt securities, including our structured notes, the economic terms of the Notes reflect our actual or perceived creditworthiness at the time of pricing. In addition, because structured notes result in increased operational, funding and liability management costs to us, we typically borrow the funds under these Notes at a rate that is more favorable to us than the rate that we might pay for a conventional fixed or floating rate debt security of comparable maturity. Using this relatively lower implied borrowing rate, rather than the secondary market rate, is a factor that is likely to reduce the initial estimated value of the Notes at the time their terms are set. Unlike the estimated value that will be included in the final pricing supplement, any value of the Notes determined for purposes of a secondary market transaction may be based on a different funding rate, which may result in a lower value for the Notes than if our initial internal funding rate were used.
In order to satisfy our payment obligations under the Notes, we may choose to enter into certain hedging arrangements (which may include call options, put options or other derivatives) on the issue date with RBCCM or one of our other subsidiaries. The terms of these hedging arrangements take into account a number of factors, including our creditworthiness, interest rate movements, the volatility of the Reference Asset, and the tenor of the Notes. The economic terms of the Notes and their initial estimated value depend in part on the terms of these hedging arrangements.
The lower implied borrowing rate is a factor that reduces the economic terms of the Notes to you. The initial offering price of the Notes also reflects the underwriting commission and our estimated hedging costs. These factors result in the initial estimated value for the Notes on the Trade Date being less than their public offering price. See “Selected Risk Considerations—The Initial Estimated Value of the Notes Will Be Less than the Price to the Public” above.


P19
RBC Capital Markets, LLC



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