Form 8-K Fisker Inc./DE For: May 24

May 24, 2022 8:13 AM EDT

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Exhibit 1.1

Execution Version

DISTRIBUTION AGREEMENT

May 24, 2022

J.P. Morgan Securities LLC

383 Madison Avenue

New York, New York 10179

Cowen and Company, LLC

599 Lexington Avenue

New York, NY 10022

Ladies and Gentlemen:

Fisker Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), confirms its agreement with J.P. Morgan Securities LLC and Cowen and Company, LLC, as agent and/or principal under any Terms Agreement (as defined in Section 1(a) below) (each, an “Agent” and collectively, the “Agents”), with respect to the issuance and sale from time to time by the Company, in the manner and subject to the terms and conditions described below in this Distribution Agreement (this “Agreement”), of Class A Common Stock, $0.00001 par value per share (the “Common Stock”), of the Company having an aggregate Gross Sales Price (as defined in Section 2(b) below) of up to $350,000,000 (the “Maximum Amount”) on the terms set forth in Section 1 of this Agreement. Such shares are hereinafter collectively referred to as the “Shares” and are described in the Prospectus referred to below.

The Company has filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (the “Commission”) a registration statement on Form S-3 (No. 333-261875) (the “registration statement”) for the registration of the Shares and other securities of the Company under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and the rules and regulations of the Commission thereunder (collectively, the “Act”); and such registration statement sets forth the terms of the offering, sale and plan of distribution of the Shares and contains additional information concerning the Company and its business. Except where the context otherwise requires, “Registration Statement,” as used herein, means the registration statement, as amended at the time of such registration statement’s effectiveness for purposes of Section 11 of the Act, as such section applies to the Agents, including (1) all documents filed as a part thereof or incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference therein and (2) any information contained or incorporated by reference in a prospectus filed with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) under the Act, to the extent such information is deemed, pursuant to Rule 430B or Rule 430C under the Act, to be part of the registration statement at the effective time. “Base Prospectus” means the prospectus dated January 4, 2022 filed as part of the Registration Statement, including the documents incorporated by reference therein as of the date of such prospectus; “Prospectus Supplement” means the most recent prospectus supplement relating to the Shares, to be filed by the Company with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) under the Act on or before the second business day after the date of its first use in connection with a public offering or sale of Shares pursuant hereto (or such earlier time as may be required under the Act), in the form furnished by the Company to the Agents in connection with the offering of the Shares;


Prospectus” means the Prospectus Supplement (and any additional prospectus supplement prepared in accordance with the provision of Section 4(h) of this Agreement and filed in accordance with the provisions of Rule 424(b)) together with the Base Prospectus attached to or used with the Prospectus Supplement; and “Permitted Free Writing Prospectus” has the meaning set forth in Section 3(b). Any reference herein to the Registration Statement, the Base Prospectus, the Prospectus Supplement, the Prospectus or any Permitted Free Writing Prospectus shall, unless otherwise stated, be deemed to refer to and include the documents, if any, incorporated by reference, or deemed to be incorporated by reference, therein (the “Incorporated Documents”), including, unless the context otherwise requires, the documents, if any, filed as exhibits to such Incorporated Documents. Any reference herein to the terms “amend,” “amendment” or “supplement” with respect to the Registration Statement, the Base Prospectus, the Prospectus Supplement, the Prospectus or any Permitted Free Writing Prospectus shall, unless stated otherwise, be deemed to refer to and include the filing of any document under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the rules and regulations thereunder (collectively, the “Exchange Act”) on or after the initial effective date of the Registration Statement, or the date of the Base Prospectus, the Prospectus Supplement, the Prospectus or such Permitted Free Writing Prospectus, as the case may be, and deemed to be incorporated therein by reference. References in this Agreement to financial statements or other information that is “contained,” “included,” “described,” “set forth” or “provided” in the Registration Statement, the Base Prospectus, the Prospectus Supplement, the Prospectus or any Permitted Free Writing Prospectus and any similar references shall, unless stated otherwise, include any information incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference therein.

The Company and each Agent agree as follows:

1. Issuance and Sale.

(a) Upon the basis of the representations, warranties and agreements and subject to the terms and conditions set forth herein and provided the Company provides such Agent with any due diligence materials and information reasonably requested by such Agent necessary for such Agent to satisfy its due diligence obligations, on any Exchange Business Day (as defined below) selected by the Company, the Company and such Agent shall enter into an agreement in accordance with Section 2 hereof regarding the number of Shares to be placed by the Agent, as agent, and the manner in which and other terms upon which such placement is to occur (each such transaction being referred to as an “Agency Transaction”). The Company may also offer to sell the Shares directly to an Agent, as principal, in which event such parties shall enter into a separate agreement (each, a “Terms Agreement”) in substantially the form of Exhibit A hereto (with such changes thereto as may be agreed upon by the Company and such Agent to accommodate a transaction involving additional underwriters), relating to such sale in accordance with Section 2(g) of this Agreement (each such transaction being referred to as a “Principal Transaction”). As used herein, (i) the “Term” shall be the period commencing on the date hereof and ending on the earlier of (x) the date on which the aggregate Gross Sales Price of Shares issued and sold pursuant to this Agreement and any Terms Agreements equal to the Maximum Amount and (y) any termination of this Agreement pursuant to Section 8, (ii) an “Exchange Business Day” means any day during the Term that is a trading day for the Exchange other than a day on which trading on the Exchange is scheduled to close prior to its regular weekday closing time, and (iii) “Exchange” means the New York Stock Exchange.

 

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(b) Subject to the terms and conditions set forth below, the Company appoints the applicable Agent as agent in connection with the offer and sale of Shares in any Agency Transactions entered into hereunder. Such Agent will use its respective commercially reasonable efforts, consistent with its normal trading and sales practices, to sell such Shares in accordance with the terms and subject to the conditions hereof and of the applicable Transaction Acceptance (as defined below). Neither the Company nor any Agent shall have any obligation to enter into an Agency Transaction. The Company shall be obligated to issue and sell through an Agent, and such Agent shall be obligated to use its commercially reasonable efforts, consistent with its normal trading and sales practices and as provided herein and in the applicable Transaction Acceptance, to place Shares only if and when the Company makes a Transaction Proposal to such Agent related to such an Agency Transaction and a Transaction Acceptance related to such Agency Transaction has been delivered to the Company by such Agent as provided in Section 2 below.

(c) Each Agent, as agent in any Agency Transaction, hereby covenants and agrees, severally and not jointly, not to make any sales of the Shares on behalf of the Company pursuant to this Agreement other than (A) by means of ordinary brokers’ transactions between members of the Exchange that qualify for delivery of a Prospectus in accordance with Rule 153 under the Act and meet the definition of an “at the market offering” under Rule 415(a)(4) under the Act (such transactions are hereinafter referred to as “At the Market Offerings”) and (B) such other sales of the Shares on behalf of the Company in its capacity as agent of the Company as shall be agreed by the Company and such Agent in writing.

(d) If Shares are to be sold in an Agency Transaction in an At the Market Offering, the applicable Agent will confirm in writing to the Company the number of Shares sold on any Exchange Business Day and the related Gross Sales Price and Net Sales Price (as each of such terms is defined in Section 2(b) below) no later than the opening of trading on the immediately following Exchange Business Day.

(e) If the Company shall default on its obligation to deliver Shares to an Agent pursuant to the terms of any Agency Transaction or Terms Agreement, the Company shall (i) indemnify and hold harmless such Agent and its successors and assigns from and against any and all losses, claims, damages, liabilities and expenses arising from or as a result of such default by the Company and (ii) notwithstanding any such default, pay to such Agent the commission to which such Agent would otherwise be entitled in connection with such sale in accordance with Section 2(b) below.

(f) The Company acknowledges and agrees that (i) there can be no assurance that an Agent will be successful in selling the Shares, (ii) no Agent shall incur any liability or obligation to the Company or any other person or entity if it does not sell Shares for any reason other than a failure by such Agent to use its commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices and applicable law and regulations to sell such Shares in accordance with the terms of this Agreement, and (iii) no Agent shall be under any obligation to purchase Shares on a principal basis pursuant to this Agreement, except as may otherwise be specifically agreed by such Agent and the Company in a Terms Agreement.

 

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2. Transaction Acceptances and Terms Agreements.

(a) The Company may, from time to time during the Term, propose to an Agent that the Company and such Agent enter into an Agency Transaction to be executed on a specified Exchange Business Day or over a specified period of Exchange Business Days, which proposal shall be made to such Agent by telephone or by email from any of the individuals listed as an authorized representative of the Company on Schedule A hereto to make such sales and shall set forth the information specified below (each, a “Transaction Proposal”). If such Agent agrees to the terms of such proposed Agency Transaction or if the Company and such Agent mutually agree to modified terms for such proposed Agency Transaction, then such Agent shall promptly deliver to the Company by email a notice (each, a “Transaction Acceptance”) confirming the terms of such proposed Agency Transaction as set forth in such Transaction Proposal or setting forth the modified terms for such proposed Agency Transaction as agreed by the Company and such Agent, as the case may be, whereupon such Agency Transaction shall become a binding agreement between the Company and such Agent. Each Transaction Proposal shall specify:

 

  (i)

the Exchange Business Day(s) on which the Shares subject to such Agency Transaction are intended to be sold (each, a “Purchase Date”);

 

  (ii)

the maximum number of Shares to be sold by such Agent (the “Specified Number of Shares”) on, or over the course of, such Purchase Date(s), or as otherwise agreed between the Company and such Agent and documented in the relevant Transaction Acceptance;

 

  (iii)

the lowest price, if any, at which the Company is willing to sell Shares on each such Purchase Date or a formula pursuant to which such lowest price shall be determined (each, a “Floor Price”); and

 

  (iv)

if other than 3.0% of the Gross Sales Price, the Agent’s discount or commission.

A Transaction Proposal shall not set forth a Specified Number of Shares that, when added to the aggregate number or aggregate Gross Sales Price of Shares previously purchased and to be purchased pursuant to pending Transaction Acceptances (if any) hereunder and any Terms Agreements, results or could result in a total Gross Sales Price that exceeds the Maximum Amount nor shall it set forth a Floor Price which is lower than the minimum price authorized from time to time by the Company’s board of directors or, if permitted by applicable law and the Company’s charter and by-laws, a duly authorized committee thereof. The Company shall have responsibility for maintaining records with respect to the aggregate number and aggregate Gross Sales Price of Shares sold and for otherwise monitoring the availability of Shares for sale under the Registration Statement and for ensuring that the aggregate number and aggregate Gross Sales Price of Shares offered and sold does not exceed, and the price at which any Shares are offered or sold is not lower than, the aggregate number and aggregate Gross Sales Price of Shares and the minimum price authorized from time to time by the Company’s board of directors or, if permitted by applicable law and the

 

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Company’s charter and by-laws, a duly authorized committee thereof. In the event that more than one Transaction Acceptance with respect to any Purchase Date(s) is delivered by the applicable Agent to the Company, the latest Transaction Acceptance shall govern any sales of Shares for the relevant Purchase Date(s), except to the extent of any action occurring pursuant to a prior Transaction Acceptance and prior to the delivery to the Company of the latest Transaction Acceptance. The Company or the applicable Agent may, upon notice to the other such party by telephone (confirmed promptly by e-mail), suspend or terminate the offering of the Shares pursuant to Agency Transactions for any reason; provided, however, that such suspension or termination shall not affect or impair the Company or such Agent’s respective obligations with respect to the Shares sold hereunder prior to the giving of such notice or their respective obligations under any Terms Agreement. Notwithstanding the foregoing, if the terms of any Agency Transaction contemplate that Shares shall be sold on more than one Purchase Date, then the Company and the applicable Agent shall mutually agree to such additional terms and conditions as they deem reasonably necessary in respect of such multiple Purchase Dates, and such additional terms and conditions shall be set forth in or confirmed by, as the case may be, the relevant Transaction Acceptance and be binding to the same extent as any other terms contained therein.

(b) The Purchase Date(s) in respect of the Shares deliverable pursuant to any Transaction Acceptance shall be set forth in or confirmed by, as the case may be, the applicable Transaction Acceptance. Except as otherwise agreed between the Company and an Agent, such Agent’s commission for any Shares sold through such Agent pursuant to this Agreement shall be a percentage, not to exceed 3.0%, of the actual sales price of such Shares (the “Gross Sales Price”), which commission shall be as set forth in or confirmed by, as the case may be, the applicable Transaction Acceptance; provided, however, that such commission shall not apply when such Agent acts as principal, in which case such commission or a discount shall be set forth in the applicable Terms Agreement. Notwithstanding the foregoing, in the event the Company engages an Agent for a sale of Shares in an Agency Transaction that would constitute a “distribution,” within the meaning of Rule 100 of Regulation M under the Exchange Act or a “block” within the meaning of Rule 10b-18(a)(5) under the Exchange Act, the Company will provide such Agent, at such Agent’s request and upon reasonable advance notice to the Company, on or prior to the Settlement Date the opinions of counsel, accountants’ letters and officers’ certificates pursuant to Section 5(a) hereof, each dated the Settlement Date, and such other documents and information as such Agent shall reasonably request, and the Company and such Agent will agree to compensation that is customary for such Agent with respect to such transaction. The Gross Sales Price less such Agent’s commission and after deduction for any transaction fees, transfer taxes or similar taxes or fees imposed by any governmental, regulatory or self-regulatory organization in respect of the sale of the applicable Shares is referred to herein at the “Net Sales Price.”

(c) Payment of the Net Sales Price for Shares sold by the Company on any Purchase Date pursuant to a Transaction Acceptance shall be made to the Company by wire transfer of immediately available funds to the account of the Company (which the Company shall provide to the applicable Agent at least one Exchange Business Day prior to the applicable Agency

 

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Settlement Date (as defined below)) against delivery of such Shares to the applicable Agent’s account, or an account of such Agent’s designee, at The Depository Trust Company through its Deposit and Withdrawal at Custodian System (“DWAC”) or by such other means of delivery as may be agreed to by the Company and such Agent. Such payment and delivery shall be made at or about 10:00 a.m. (New York City time) on the second Exchange Business Day (or such other day as may, from time to time, become standard industry practice for settlement of such a securities issuance or as agreed to by the Company and such Agent) following each Purchase Date (each, an “Agency Settlement Date”).

(d) If, as set forth in or confirmed by, as the case may be, the related Transaction Acceptance, a Floor Price has been agreed to by the parties with respect to a Purchase Date, and the applicable Agent thereafter determines and notifies the Company that the Gross Sales Price for such Agency Transaction would not be at least equal to such Floor Price, then the Company shall not be obligated to issue and sell through such Agent, and such Agent shall not be obligated to place, the Shares proposed to be sold pursuant to such Agency Transaction on such Purchase Date, unless the Company and such Agent otherwise agree in writing.

(e) If any party hereto has reason to believe that the exemptive provisions set forth in Rule 101(c)(1) of Regulation M under the Exchange Act are not satisfied with respect to the Shares, it shall promptly notify the other parties hereto and sales of the Shares under this Agreement, any Transaction Acceptance or any Terms Agreement shall be suspended until that or other exemptive provisions have been satisfied in the judgment of each party hereto. On or prior to the delivery of a prospectus that is required (whether physically or through compliance with Rule 172 under the Act or any similar rule) in connection with the offering or sale of the Shares, the Company shall calculate the average daily trading volume (as defined under “ADTV” by Rule 100 of Regulation M under the Exchange Act) of the Common Stock based on market data provided by Bloomberg L.P. or such other sources as agreed upon by the Company and the Agents.

 

  (f)

(i) If the Company wishes to issue and sell the Shares to an Agent pursuant to this Agreement but other than as set forth in Section 2(a) of this Agreement, it will notify the applicable Agent of the proposed terms of the Principal Transaction. If such Agent, acting as principal, wishes to accept such proposed terms (which it may decline to do for any reason in its sole discretion) or, following discussions with the Company, wishes to accept amended terms, the Company and such Agent shall enter into a Terms Agreement setting forth the terms of such Principal Transaction.

(ii) The terms set forth in a Terms Agreement shall not be binding on the Company or an Agent unless and until the Company and such Agent have each executed and delivered such Terms Agreement accepting all of the terms of such Terms Agreement. In the event of a conflict between the terms of this Agreement and the terms of a Terms Agreement, the terms of such Terms Agreement shall control.

 

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(g) Each sale of the Shares to an Agent in a Principal Transaction shall be made in accordance with the terms of this Agreement and a Terms Agreement, which shall provide for the sale of such Shares to, and the purchase thereof by, such Agent. A Terms Agreement may also specify certain provisions relating to the reoffering of such Shares by the Agent. The commitment of such Agent to purchase the Shares pursuant to any Terms Agreement shall be deemed to have been made on the basis of the representations, warranties and agreements of the Company contained, and shall be subject to the terms and conditions set forth, in this Agreement and such Terms Agreement. Any such Terms Agreement shall specify the number of the Shares to be purchased by the applicable Agent pursuant thereto, the price to be paid to the Company for such Shares, any provisions relating to rights of, and default by, underwriters, if any, acting together with such Agent in the reoffering of the Shares, and the time and date (each such time and date being referred to herein as a “Principal Settlement Date”; and, together with any Agency Settlement Date, a “Settlement Date”) and place of delivery of and payment for such Shares.

(h) Notwithstanding any other provision of this Agreement, the Company shall not offer, sell or deliver, or request the offer or sale, of any Shares pursuant to this Agreement (whether in an Agency Transaction or a Principal Transaction) and, by notice to the applicable Agent given by telephone (confirmed promptly by email), shall cancel any instructions for the offer or sale of any Shares, and no Agent shall be obligated to offer or sell any Shares, (i) during any period in which the Company’s insider trading policy, as it exists on the date of this Agreement, would prohibit the purchases or sales of the Company’s Common Stock by any of its officers or directors, (ii) during any period in which the Company is, or could be deemed to be, in possession of material non-public information or (iii) at any time from and including the date on which the Company shall issue a press release containing, or shall otherwise publicly announce, its earnings, revenues or other results of operations (an “Earnings Announcement”) through and including the time that is 24 hours after the time that the Company files a Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q or an Annual Report on Form 10-K that includes consolidated financial statements as of and for the same period or periods, as the case may be, covered by such Earnings Announcement.

(i) The Company agrees that any offer to sell, any solicitation of an offer to buy, or any sales of Shares by the Company shall be effected only by or through one Agent on any Exchange Business Day.

(j) Anything in this Agreement to the contrary notwithstanding, the Company shall not authorize the issuance and sale of, and no Agent, as sales agent, shall be obligated to use its commercially reasonable efforts, consistent with its normal trading and sales practices, to sell, any Shares at a price lower than the minimum price, or in a number or with an aggregate gross or net sales price in excess of the number or aggregate gross or net sales price, as the case may be, authorized from time to time to be issued and sold under this Agreement and any Terms Agreement, in each case by the Company’s board of directors or, if permitted by applicable law and the Company’s charter and by-laws, a duly authorized committee thereof, or in a number in excess of the number of Shares approved for listing on the Exchange, or in excess of the number or amount of Shares available for issuance on the Registration Statement or as to which the Company has paid the applicable registration fee, it being understood and agreed by the parties hereto that compliance with any such limitations shall be the sole responsibility of the Company.

 

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3. Representations, Warranties and Agreements of the Company. The Company represents and warrants to, and agrees with, each Agent, on and as of (i) the date hereof, (ii) each date on which the Company receives a Transaction Acceptance (the “Time of Acceptance”), (iii) each date on which the Company executes and delivers a Terms Agreement, (iv) each Time of Sale (as defined in Section 3(a)), (v) each Settlement Date and (vi) each Bring-Down Delivery Date (as defined in Section 6(b)) (each such date listed in (i) through (vi), a “Representation Date”), as follows:

(a) The Registration Statement was declared effective by the Commission not earlier than three years prior to the date hereof; there is no order preventing or suspending the use of the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or any Permitted Free Writing Prospectus, and, to the knowledge of the Company, no proceeding for that purpose or pursuant to Section 8A of the Act against the Company or related to the offering has been initiated or threatened by the Commission; no notice of objection of the Commission to the use of such Registration Statement pursuant to Rule 401(g)(2) under the Act has been received by the Company; the Registration Statement complied when it initially became effective, complies as of the date hereof and, as then amended or supplemented, as of each other Representation Date will comply, in all material respects, with the requirements of the Act; the conditions to the use of Form S-3 in connection with the offering and sale of the Shares as contemplated hereby have been satisfied; the Registration Statement meets, and the offering and sale of the Shares as contemplated hereby comply with, the requirements of Rule 415 under the Act (including, without limitation, Rule 415(a)(5)); the Prospectus complied or will comply, at the time it was or will be filed with the Commission, and will comply, as then amended or supplemented, as of each Representation Date, in all material respects, with the requirements of the Act; the Registration Statement did not, as of the time of its initial effectiveness, and does not or will not, as then amended or supplemented, as of each Representation Date, contain an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading; as of each Representation Date, the Prospectus, as then amended or supplemented, together with all of the then issued Permitted Free Writing Prospectuses, if any, will not contain an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading; provided, however, that the Company makes no representation or warranty with respect to any statement in or omission from the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or any Permitted Free Writing Prospectus made in reliance upon and in conformity with information concerning any Agent and furnished in writing by or on behalf of any Agent expressly for use in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or such Permitted Free Writing Prospectus (it being understood that such information consists solely of the information specified in Section 9(b)). As used herein, “Time of Sale” means (i) with respect to each offering of Shares pursuant to this Agreement, the time of the applicable Agent’s initial entry into contracts with investors for the sale of such Shares and (ii) with respect to each offering of Shares pursuant to any relevant Terms Agreement, the time of sale of such Shares.

(b) Prior to the execution of this Agreement, the Company has not, directly or indirectly, offered or sold any of the Shares by means of any “prospectus” (within the meaning of the Act) or used any “prospectus” (within the meaning of the Act) in connection with the offer or sale of the Shares, in each case other than the Base Prospectus. The Company represents and agrees that, unless it obtains the prior consent of the Agents, until the termination of this

 

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Agreement, it has not made and will not make any offer relating to the Shares that would constitute an “issuer free writing prospectus” (as defined in Rule 433 under the Act) or that would otherwise constitute a “free writing prospectus” (as defined in Rule 405 under the Act) other than any Permitted Free Writing Prospectus. Any such free writing prospectus relating to the Shares consented to by the Agents (including any Free Writing Prospectus prepared by the Company solely for use in connection with the offering contemplated by a particular Terms Agreement) is hereinafter referred to as a “Permitted Free Writing Prospectus”. The Company has complied and will comply in all material respects with the requirements of Rule 433 under the Act applicable to any Permitted Free Writing Prospectus, including timely filing with the Commission where required, legending and record keeping. The conditions set forth in one or more of subclauses (i) through (iv), inclusive, of Rule 433(b)(1) under the Act are satisfied, and the registration statement relating to the offering of the Shares contemplated hereby, as initially filed with the Commission, includes a prospectus that, other than by reason of Rule 433 under the Act, satisfies the requirements of Section 10 of the Act; the Company is not disqualified, by reason of Rule 164(f) or (g) under the Act, from using, in connection with the offer and sale of the Shares, “free writing prospectuses” (as defined in Rule 405 under the Act) pursuant to Rules 164 and 433 under the Act. The Company has paid or, no later than the business day after the date of this Agreement, will pay, the registration fee for the offering of the Maximum Amount of Shares pursuant to Rule 457 under the Act.

(c) The Incorporated Documents, when they were filed with the Commission (or, if any amendment with respect to any such document was filed, when such amendment was filed), conformed in all material respects to the requirements of the Act or the Exchange Act, as applicable, and none of such documents contained any untrue statement of a material fact or omitted to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein, in light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading; and any further documents so filed during the Term and incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or any Permitted Free Writing Prospectus, when such documents become effective or are filed with the Commission, as the case may be, will conform in all material respects to the requirements of the Act or the Exchange Act, as applicable, and will not contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein, in light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading.

(d) The financial statements and the related notes thereto of the Company and its consolidated subsidiaries included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or any Permitted Free Writing Prospectus comply in all material respects with the applicable requirements of the Act and the Exchange Act, as applicable, and present fairly in all material respects the consolidated financial position of the Company and its consolidated subsidiaries as of the dates indicated and the results of their operations and the changes in their cash flows for the periods specified, it being understood that any unaudited interim financial statements are subject to normal year-end adjustments; such financial statements have been prepared in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”) in the United States applied on a consistent basis throughout the periods covered thereby; and the other financial information included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement has been derived from the accounting records of the Company and its consolidated subsidiaries and presents fairly in all material respects the information shown thereby in the Registration Statement.

 

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(e) Since the respective dates as of which information is given in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus and any Permitted Free Writing Prospectus, except as otherwise stated therein, (i) there has not been any material change in the capital stock (other than the issuance of shares of Common Stock upon the exercise of stock options described in, and the grant of options and awards under existing equity incentive plans described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, the issuance of the shares pursuant to this Agreement, short-term debt or long-term debt of the Company or any of its subsidiaries), or any dividend or distribution of any kind declared, set aside for payment, paid or made by the Company on any class of capital stock, or any material adverse change, or any development involving a prospective material adverse change, in or affecting the business, properties, management, financial position, stockholders’ equity or results of operations or prospects of the Company and its subsidiaries taken as a whole; (ii) neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries has entered into any transaction or agreement that is material to the Company and its subsidiaries taken as a whole or incurred any liability or obligation, direct or contingent, that is material to the Company and its subsidiaries taken as a whole; and (iii) neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries has sustained any material loss or interference with its business from fire, explosion, flood or other calamity, whether or not covered by insurance, or from any labor disturbance or dispute or any action, order or decree of any court or arbitrator or governmental or regulatory authority, except in each case as otherwise disclosed in each of the Registration Statement, the Prospectus and any Permitted Free Writing Prospectus.

(f) The Company and each of its subsidiaries have been duly organized and are validly existing and in good standing under the laws of their respective jurisdictions of organization (to the extent that such concepts are applicable in such jurisdiction), are duly qualified as foreign corporations to do business and are in good standing in each other jurisdiction in which their respective ownership or leasing of property or the conduct of their respective businesses requires such qualification (to the extent that such concepts are applicable in such jurisdiction), and have all power and authority necessary to own or hold their respective properties and to conduct the businesses in which they are engaged, except where the failure to be so qualified or in good standing or have such power or authority (to the extent that such concepts are applicable in such jurisdiction) would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a material adverse effect on the business, properties, management, financial position, stockholders’ equity, results of operations or prospects of the Company and its subsidiaries taken as a whole or on the performance by the Company of its obligations under this Agreement or any Terms Agreement (a “Material Adverse Effect”). The Company does not own or control, directly or indirectly, any corporation, association or other entity other than the subsidiaries listed in Exhibit E to this Agreement are the only significant subsidiaries of the Company.

(g) The Company has an authorized capitalization as set forth in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus and any Permitted Free Writing Prospectus; all the outstanding shares of capital stock of the Company have been duly and validly authorized, have been or will be duly and validly issued, fully paid and non-assessable and are not or will not subject to any

 

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preemptive or similar rights which have not been duly and validly waived or satisfied; except as disclosed in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus and any Permitted Free Writing Prospectus, there are no outstanding rights (including, without limitation, pre-emptive rights), warrants or options to acquire, or instruments convertible into or exchangeable for, any shares of capital stock or other equity interest in the Company or any of its subsidiaries, or any contract, commitment, agreement, understanding or arrangement of any kind relating to the issuance of any capital stock of the Company or any such subsidiary, any such convertible or exchangeable securities or any such rights, warrants or options; the capital stock of the Company conforms in all material respects to the description thereof contained in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus and any Permitted Free Writing Prospectus; and all the outstanding shares of capital stock or other equity interests of each subsidiary owned, directly or indirectly, by the Company have been duly and validly authorized and issued, are fully paid and non-assessable (to the extent that such concepts are applicable in such jurisdiction and except as otherwise described in each of the Registration Statement, the Prospectus and any Permitted Free Writing Prospectus) and are owned directly or indirectly by the Company, free and clear of any lien, charge, encumbrance, security interest, restriction on voting or transfer or any other claim of any third party.

(h) With respect to the stock options and any other equity-based awards (collectively the “Equity-Based Grants”) granted pursuant to the equity-based compensation plans of the Company and its subsidiaries (the “Company Stock Plans”), (i) each Equity-Based Grant intended to qualify as an “incentive stock option” under Section 422 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), so qualifies, (ii) each grant of an Equity-Based Grant was duly authorized no later than the date on which the grant of such Equity-Based Grant was by its terms to be effective (the “Grant Date”) by all necessary corporate action, including, as applicable, approval by the board of directors of the Company (or a duly constituted and authorized committee thereof) and any required stockholder approval by the necessary number of votes or written consents, and the award agreement governing such grant (if any) was duly executed and delivered by each party thereto, (iii) each such grant was made in accordance with the terms of the Company Stock Plans, the Exchange Act and all other applicable laws and regulatory rules or requirements, including the rules of the Exchange and any other exchange on which Company securities are traded and (iv) each such grant was accounted for in accordance with GAAP in the financial statements (including the related notes) of the Company and disclosed in the Company’s filings with the Commission in accordance with the Exchange Act and all other applicable laws, except, in the case of clauses (i) through (iv) above, as would not reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect.

(i) This Agreement has been duly authorized, executed and delivered by the Company and any Terms Agreement will have been duly authorized, executed and delivered by the Company.

(j) The Shares to be issued and sold by the Company hereunder or under any Terms Agreement have been duly authorized by the Company and, when issued and delivered and paid for as provided herein or in any Terms Agreement, as the case may be, will be duly and validly issued, will be fully paid and nonassessable and will conform to the description thereof in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus, and any Permitted Free Writing Prospectus; and the issuance and sale of the Shares are not and will not be subject to any preemptive or similar rights.

 

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(k) The Company has full corporate right, power and authority to execute and deliver this Agreement and any Terms Agreement and perform its obligations hereunder or thereunder, including the Company’s issuance, sale and delivery of the Shares as provided herein and therein; and all corporate action required to be taken for the due and proper authorization, execution and delivery by it of each of this Agreement and any Terms Agreement and the consummation by it of the transactions contemplated hereby and thereby has been duly and validly taken (or, in the case of any Terms Agreement, such action will have been duly and validly authorized).

(l) This Agreement conforms, and each Terms Agreement will conform, in all material respects to the description thereof contained in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus and any Permitted Free Writing Prospectus.

(m) Neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries is (i) in violation of its charter or by-laws or other Organizational Documents (as defined below); (ii) in default, and no event has occurred that, with notice or lapse of time or both, would constitute such a default, in the due performance or observance of any term, covenant or condition contained in any indenture, mortgage, deed of trust, loan agreement or other agreement or instrument to which the Company or any of its subsidiaries is a party or by which the Company or any of its subsidiaries is bound or to which any property or asset of the Company or any of its subsidiaries is subject; or (iii) in violation of any law or statute or any judgment, order, rule or regulation of any court or arbitrator or governmental or regulatory authority, except, in the case of clauses (ii) and (iii) above, for any such default or violation that would not, individually or in the aggregate, have a Material Adverse Effect. As used herein, the term “Organizational Documents” means, (i) with respect to a corporation, its charter and by-laws, (ii) with respect to a limited or general partnership, its partnership agreement and certificate of partnership (or similar document), (iii) with respect to a limited liability company, its limited liability company agreement and certificate of limited liability company (or similar document), and (iv) with respect to any other entity, its similar organizational documents.

(n) The execution, delivery and performance by the Company of this Agreement and any Terms Agreement, the issuance and sale of the Shares, the compliance by the Company with the terms hereof and of any Terms Agreement and the consummation of the transactions contemplated hereby or by any Terms Agreement will not (i) conflict with or result in a breach or violation of any of the terms or provisions of, or constitute a default under, or result in the creation or imposition of any lien, charge or encumbrance upon any property, right or asset of the Company or any of its subsidiaries pursuant to, any indenture, mortgage, deed of trust, loan agreement or other agreement or instrument to which the Company or any of its subsidiaries is a party or by which the Company or any of its subsidiaries is bound or to which any property, right or asset of the Company or any of its subsidiaries is subject, (ii) result in any violation of the provisions of the charter or by-laws or other Organizational Documents of the Company or any of its subsidiaries or (iii) result in the violation of any law or statute or any judgment, order, rule or regulation of any court or arbitrator or governmental or regulatory authority, except, in the case of clauses (i) and (iii) above, for any such conflict, breach, violation or default that would not, individually or in the aggregate, have a Material Adverse Effect.

 

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(o) No consent, approval, authorization, order, license, registration or qualification of or with any court or arbitrator or governmental or regulatory authority is required for the execution, delivery and performance by the Company of this Agreement or any Terms Agreement, the issuance and sale of the Shares, compliance by the Company with the terms of this Agreement or of any Terms Agreement and the consummation of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement or any Terms Agreement, except as have been made or obtained, except as may be required by and made in accordance with or obtained under state securities laws or regulations, and except for such filings of Permitted Free Writing Prospectuses and any amendments or supplements to the Registration Statement or the Prospectus or any documents incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference therein as may be required by the Act or the Exchange Act from time to time, and except for such filings as the Exchange may require from time to time.

(p) Except as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, there are no legal, governmental or regulatory investigations, actions, demands, claims, suits, arbitrations, inquiries or proceedings pending to which the Company or any of its subsidiaries is or, to the knowledge of the Company, may be a party or to which any property of the Company or any of its subsidiaries is or, to the knowledge of the Company, may be the subject that, individually or in the aggregate, if determined adversely to the Company or any of its subsidiaries, could reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect; to the knowledge of the Company, no such investigations, actions, suits or proceedings are threatened or contemplated by any governmental or regulatory authority or threatened by others; and (i) there are no current or pending legal, governmental or regulatory actions, suits or proceedings that are required under the Act or the Exchange Act to be described in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus or any document incorporated by reference therein that are not so described as required and (ii) there are no statutes, regulations or contracts or other documents that are required under the Act or the Exchange Act to be filed as exhibits to the Registration Statement or any document incorporated by reference therein or described in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus or any document incorporated by reference therein that are not so filed as exhibits or so described as required.

(q) PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP and Deloitte & Touche LLP, whose reports on certain consolidated financial statements of the Company and its consolidated subsidiaries are included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, is each an independent registered public accounting firm with respect to the Company and its subsidiaries within the applicable rules and regulations adopted by the Commission and the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board and as required by the Act.

(r) The Company and its subsidiaries have good and marketable title in fee simple (in the case of real property) to, or have valid rights to lease or otherwise use, all items of real and personal property that are material to the respective businesses of the Company and its subsidiaries taken as a whole, in each case free and clear of all liens, charges, encumbrances, claims and defects and imperfections of title except those that (i) do not materially interfere with the use made and proposed to be made of such property by the Company and its subsidiaries, or (ii) could not reasonably be expected, individually or in the aggregate, to have a Material Adverse Effect.

 

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(s) Except as otherwise set forth in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus and any Permitted Free Writing Prospectus, (i) the Company and its subsidiaries own or have the right to use all material patents, patent applications, trademarks, service marks, trade names, trademark registrations, service mark registrations, domain names and other source indicators, copyrights and copyrightable works, know-how, trade secrets, systems, procedures, proprietary or confidential information and all other worldwide intellectual property, industrial property and proprietary rights (collectively, “Intellectual Property”) used in the conduct of their respective businesses; (ii) to the knowledge of the Company, the Company and its subsidiaries’ conduct of their respective businesses does not infringe, misappropriate or otherwise violate any Intellectual Property of any person; (iii) the Company and its subsidiaries have not received any written notice of any claim relating to Intellectual Property; and (iv) to the knowledge of the Company, the Intellectual Property of the Company and their subsidiaries is not being infringed, misappropriated or otherwise violated by any person, except in each case with respect to clauses (i) through (iv) hereof, as would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect.

(t) No relationship, direct or indirect, exists between or among the Company or any of its subsidiaries, on the one hand, and the directors, officers, stockholders, customers, suppliers or other affiliates of the Company or any of its subsidiaries, on the other, that would be required by the Act to be described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus and that is not so described in such documents and in any Permitted Free Writing Prospectus.

(u) The Company is not and, immediately after giving effect to the offering and sale of the Shares and the application of the proceeds thereof as described in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or any Permitted Free Writing Prospectus, the Company will not be required to register as an “investment company” within the meaning of the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended, and the rules and regulations of the Commission thereunder (collectively, the “Investment Company Act”).

(v) The Company and its subsidiaries have paid all federal, state, local and foreign taxes required to be paid and filed all tax returns required to be filed through the date hereof, except where such failure to pay or file would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect; and except as otherwise disclosed in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus and any Permitted Free Writing Prospectus, there is no tax deficiency that has been, or could reasonably be expected to be, asserted against the Company or any of its subsidiaries or any of their respective properties or assets, except as would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect.

(w) The Company and its subsidiaries possess all licenses, sub-licenses, certificates, permits and other authorizations issued by, and have made all declarations and filings with, the appropriate federal, state, local or foreign governmental or regulatory authorities that are necessary for the ownership or leasing of their respective properties or the conduct of their respective businesses as described in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus and any Permitted Free Writing Prospectus, except where the failure to possess or make the same would not, individually or in the aggregate, have a Material Adverse Effect; and except as described in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus and any Permitted Free Writing Prospectus, neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries has received notice of any revocation or modification of any such license, sub-license, certificate, permit or authorization or has any reason to believe that any such license, sub-license, certificate, permit or authorization will not be renewed in the ordinary course, except as would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect.

 

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(x) No labor disturbance by or material dispute with employees of the Company or any of its subsidiaries exists or, to the knowledge of the Company, is contemplated or threatened, and the Company is not aware of any existing or imminent labor disturbance by, or dispute with, the employees of any of its or its subsidiaries’ principal suppliers, contractors or customers, except as would not have a Material Adverse Effect. Neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries has received any notice of cancellation or termination with respect to any collective bargaining agreement to which it is a party.

(y) Except as described in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus and any Permitted Free Writing Prospectus, (i) the Company and its subsidiaries (x) are in compliance with all applicable federal, state, local and foreign laws (including common law), rules, regulations, requirements, decisions, judgments, decrees, orders and other legally enforceable requirements relating to pollution or the protection of human health or safety, the environment, natural resources, hazardous or toxic substances or wastes, pollutants or contaminants (collectively, “Environmental Laws”); (y) have received and are in compliance with all permits, licenses, certificates or other authorizations or approvals required of them under any Environmental Laws to conduct their respective businesses; and (z) have not received written notice of any actual or potential liability or obligation under or relating to, or any actual or potential violation of, any Environmental Laws, including for the investigation or remediation of any disposal or release of hazardous or toxic substances or wastes, pollutants or contaminants, and have no knowledge of any event or condition that would reasonably be expected to result in any such notice, and (ii) there are no costs or liabilities associated with Environmental Laws of or relating to the Company or its subsidiaries, except in the case of each of (i) and (ii) above, for any such matter as would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect; and (iii) except as described in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus and any Permitted Free Writing Prospectus, (x) there is no proceeding that is pending, or that is known to be contemplated, against the Company or any of its subsidiaries under any Environmental Laws in which a governmental entity is also a party, other than such proceedings regarding which it is reasonably believed no monetary sanctions of $100,000 or more will be imposed, (y) the Company and its subsidiaries are not aware of any facts or issues regarding compliance with Environmental Laws, or liabilities or other obligations under Environmental Laws or concerning hazardous or toxic substances or wastes, pollutants or contaminants, that could reasonably be expected to have a material adverse effect on the capital expenditures, earnings or competitive position of the Company and its subsidiaries, and (z) none of the Company or its subsidiaries anticipates material capital expenditures relating to any Environmental Laws.

(z) (i) Each employee benefit plan, within the meaning of Section 3(3) of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, as amended (“ERISA”), for which the Company or any member of its “Controlled Group” (defined as any entity, whether or not incorporated, that is under common control with the Company within the meaning of Section 4001(a)(14) of ERISA or any entity that would be regarded as a single employer with the Company under Section 414(b),(c),(m) or (o) of the Code) would have any liability (each, a

 

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Plan”) has been maintained in compliance with its terms and the requirements of any applicable statutes, orders, rules and regulations, including but not limited to ERISA and the Code, except for noncompliance that could not reasonably be expected to result in material liability to the Company or its subsidiaries; (ii) no prohibited transaction, within the meaning of Section 406 of ERISA or Section 4975 of the Code, has occurred with respect to any Plan, excluding transactions effected pursuant to a statutory or administrative exemption; (iii) for each Plan that is subject to the funding rules of Section 412 of the Code or Section 302 of ERISA, no Plan has failed (whether or not waived), or is reasonably expected to fail, to satisfy the minimum funding standards (within the meaning of Section 302 of ERISA or Section 412 of the Code) applicable to such Plan; (iv) no Plan is, or is reasonably expected to be, in “at risk status” (within the meaning of Section 303(i) of ERISA), and no Plan that is a “multiemployer plan” within the meaning of Section 4001(a)(3) of ERISA is in “endangered status” or “critical status” (within the meaning of Sections 304 and 305 of ERISA); (v) the fair market value of the assets of each Plan exceeds the present value of all benefits accrued under such Plan (determined based on those assumptions used to fund such Plan); (vi) no “reportable event” (within the meaning of Section 4043(c) of ERISA and the regulations promulgated thereunder) has occurred or is reasonably expected to occur; (vii) each Plan that is intended to be qualified under Section 401(a) of the Code is so qualified, and nothing has occurred, whether by action or by failure to act, which would cause the loss of such qualification; (viii) neither the Company nor any member of the Controlled Group has incurred, nor reasonably expects to incur, any liability under Title IV of ERISA (other than contributions to the Plan or premiums to the Pension Benefit Guarantee Corporation, in the ordinary course and without default) in respect of a Plan (including a “multiemployer plan” within the meaning of Section 4001(a)(3) of ERISA); and (ix) none of the following events has occurred or is reasonably likely to occur: (A) a material increase in the aggregate amount of contributions required to be made to all Plans by the Company or its Controlled Group affiliates in the current fiscal year of the Company and its Controlled Group affiliates compared to the amount of such contributions made in the Company’s and its Controlled Group affiliates’ most recently completed fiscal year; or (B) a material increase in the Company and its subsidiaries’ “accumulated post-retirement benefit obligations” (within the meaning of Accounting Standards Codification Topic 715-60) compared to the amount of such obligations in the Company and its subsidiaries’ most recently completed fiscal year, except in each case with respect to the events or conditions set forth in (i) through (ix) hereof, as would not, individually or in the aggregate, have a Material Adverse Effect.

(aa) Except as disclosed in the Registration Statement, the Company maintains an effective system of “disclosure controls and procedures” (as defined in Rule 13a-15(e) of the Exchange Act) that complies with the requirements of the Exchange Act and that has been designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by the Company in reports that it files or submits under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in the Commission’s rules and forms, including controls and procedures designed to ensure that such information is accumulated and communicated to the Company’s management as appropriate to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosure. The Company has carried out evaluations of the effectiveness of their disclosure controls and procedures as required by Rule 13a-15 of the Exchange Act.

 

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(bb) Except as disclosed in the Registration Statement, the Company maintains a system of “internal control over financial reporting” (as defined in Rule 13a-15(f) of the Exchange Act) that complies with the requirements of the Exchange Act and has been designed by, or under the supervision of, its principal executive and principal financial officers, or persons performing similar functions, to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with GAAP, including, but not limited to, internal accounting controls sufficient to provide reasonable assurance that (i) transactions are executed in accordance with management’s general or specific authorizations; (ii) transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP and to maintain asset accountability; (iii) access to assets is permitted only in accordance with management’s general or specific authorization; (iv) the recorded accountability for assets is compared with the existing assets at reasonable intervals and appropriate action is taken with respect to any differences and (v) interactive data in eXtensible Business Reporting Language (“XBRL Data”) included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement fairly presents the information called for in all material respects and is prepared in accordance with the Commission’s rules and guidelines applicable thereto. Except as disclosed in the Registration Statement, based on the Company’s most recent evaluation of its internal controls over financial reporting pursuant to Rule 13a-15(c) of the Exchange Act, there are no material weaknesses in the Company’s internal controls. The Company’s auditors and the Audit Committee of the Board of Directors of the Company have been advised of: (i) all significant deficiencies and material weaknesses in the design or operation of internal controls over financial reporting which are reasonably likely to adversely affect the Company’s ability to record, process, summarize and report financial information; and (ii) any fraud, whether or not material, that involves management or other employees who have a significant role in the Company’s internal controls over financial reporting.

(cc) The XBRL Data included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement or the documents incorporated by reference therein fairly presents the information called for in all material respects and has been prepared in accordance with the Commission’s rules and guidelines applicable thereto.

(dd) Except as would not reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect, the Company and its subsidiaries have insurance covering their respective properties, operations, personnel and businesses, including business interruption insurance, which insurance is in amounts and insures against such losses and risks as the Company considers to be in accordance with customary industry practice for companies of comparable size, market capitalization and stage of business to protect the Company and its subsidiaries and their respective businesses, taken as a whole; and neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries has (i) received notice from any insurer or agent of such insurer that capital improvements or other expenditures are required or necessary to be made in order to continue such insurance or (ii) any reason to believe that it will not be able to renew its existing insurance coverage as and when such coverage expires or to obtain similar coverage at reasonable cost from similar insurers as may be necessary to continue its business as now conducted and at a cost that would not reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect.

(ee) Neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries, nor any director or officer of the Company or any of its subsidiaries, nor to the knowledge of the Company, any employee of the Company or any of its subsidiaries or any agent, affiliate or other person associated with or acting on behalf of the Company or any of its subsidiaries has (i) used any corporate funds for

 

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any unlawful contribution, gift, entertainment or other unlawful expense relating to political activity; (ii) made or taken an act in furtherance of an offer, promise or authorization of any direct or indirect unlawful payment or benefit to any foreign or domestic government official or employee, including of any government-owned or controlled entity or of a public international organization, or any person acting in an official capacity for or on behalf of any of the foregoing, or any political party or party official or candidate for political office; (iii) violated or is in violation of, to the extent applicable to the Company, any provision of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, as amended, or any applicable law or regulation implementing the OECD Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions, or committed an offence under the Bribery Act 2010 of the United Kingdom, or any other applicable anti-bribery or anti-corruption law; or (iv) made, offered, agreed, requested or taken an act in furtherance of any unlawful bribe or other unlawful benefit, including, without limitation, any rebate, payoff, influence payment, kickback or other unlawful or improper payment or benefit. The Company and its subsidiaries have instituted, maintain and enforce, and will continue to maintain and enforce, policies and procedures designed to promote and ensure compliance with all applicable anti-bribery and anti-corruption laws. Neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries will use, directly or indirectly, the proceeds of the offering in furtherance of an offer, payment, promise to pay, or authorization of the payment or giving of money, or anything else of value, to any person in violation of any applicable anti-corruption laws.

(ff) The operations of the Company and its subsidiaries are and have been conducted at all times in material compliance with applicable financial recordkeeping and reporting requirements, including those of the Currency and Foreign Transactions Reporting Act of 1970, as amended, the applicable money laundering statutes of all jurisdictions where the Company or any of its subsidiaries conducts business, the rules and regulations thereunder and any related or similar rules, regulations or guidelines issued, administered or enforced by any governmental agency having jurisdiction over the Company or any of its subsidiaries (collectively, the “Anti-Money Laundering Laws”) and no action, suit or proceeding by or before any court or governmental agency, authority or body or any arbitrator involving the Company or any of its subsidiaries with respect to the Anti-Money Laundering Laws is pending or, to the knowledge of the Company, threatened.

(gg) Neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries, nor any director or officer of the Company or any of its subsidiaries, nor, to the knowledge of the Company, any employee of the Company or any of its subsidiaries or any agent, affiliate or other person associated with or acting on behalf of the Company or any of its subsidiaries is currently the subject or the target of any sanctions administered or enforced by the U.S. government, (including, without limitation, the Office of Foreign Assets Control of the U.S. Department of the Treasury (“OFAC”) or the U.S. Department of State and including, without limitation, the designation as a “specially designated national” or “blocked person”), the United Nations Security Council (“UNSC”), the European Union, Her Majesty’s Treasury (“HMT”), or other relevant sanctions authority with jurisdiction over the Company’s activities (collectively, “Sanctions”), nor is the Company or any of its subsidiaries located, organized or resident in a country or territory that is the subject or target of Sanctions, including, without limitation, the so-called Donetsk People’s Republic, or so-called Luhansk People’s Republic or any other Covered Region of Ukraine identified pursuant to Executive Order 14065, the Crimea region of Ukraine, Cuba, Iran, North Korea and Syria (each, a “Sanctioned Country”); and the Company will not directly or indirectly use the proceeds of

 

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the offering of the Shares hereunder, or lend, contribute or otherwise make available such proceeds to any subsidiary, joint venture partner or other person or entity (i) to fund or facilitate any activities of or business with any person that, at the time of such funding or facilitation, is the subject or target of Sanctions, (ii) to fund or facilitate any activities of or business in any Sanctioned Country or (iii) in any other manner that will result in a violation by any person (including any person participating in the transaction, whether as agent, underwriter, advisor, investor or otherwise) of Sanctions. For the past five years, the Company and its subsidiaries have not knowingly engaged in and are not now knowingly engaged in any dealings or transactions with any person that at the time of the dealing or transaction is or was the subject or the target of Sanctions or with any Sanctioned Country.

(hh) No subsidiary of the Company is currently prohibited, directly or indirectly, under any agreement or other instrument to which it is a party or is subject, from paying any dividends to the Company, from making any other distribution on such subsidiary’s capital stock or similar ownership interest, from repaying to the Company any loans or advances to such subsidiary from the Company or from transferring any of such subsidiary’s properties or assets to the Company or any other subsidiary of the Company.

(ii) Neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries is a party to any contract, agreement or understanding with any person (other than this Agreement or any Terms Agreement) that would give rise to a valid claim against the Company or any of its subsidiaries or the Agent for a brokerage commission, finder’s fee or like payment in connection with the offering and sale of the Shares.

(jj) No person has the right to require the Company or any of its subsidiaries to register any securities for sale under the Act by reason of the filing of the Registration Statement with the Commission or the offering, issuance or sale of the Shares.

(kk) The Company has not taken, directly or indirectly, any action designed to or that could reasonably be expected to cause or result in any stabilization or manipulation of the price of the Shares.

(ll) The application of the proceeds received by the Company from the issuance, sale and delivery of the Shares as described in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus and any Permitted Free Writing Prospectus will not violate Regulation T, U or X of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System or any other regulation of such Board of Governors.

(mm) There is and has been no failure on the part of the Company or, to the knowledge of the Company, any of the Company’s directors or officers, in their capacities as such, to comply in all material respects with any provision of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, as amended and the rules and regulations promulgated in connection therewith (the “Sarbanes-Oxley Act”), including Section 402 related to loans and Sections 302 and 906 related to certifications.

 

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(nn) No forward-looking statement (within the meaning of Section 27A of the Act and Section 21E of the Exchange Act) contained or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or any Permitted Free Writing Prospectus has been made or reaffirmed without a reasonable basis or has been disclosed other than in good faith.

(oo) Nothing has come to the attention of the Company that has caused the Company to believe that the statistical and market-related data included in the Registration Statement, any Permitted Free Writing Prospectus and the Prospectus is not based on or derived from sources that are reliable and accurate in all material respects.

(pp) All of the Shares that have been or may be sold under this Agreement and any Terms Agreement have been approved for listing, subject only to official notice of issuance, on the Exchange.

(qq) The Common Stock is an “actively-traded security” excepted from the requirements of Rule 101 of Regulation M under the Exchange Act by Rule 101 (c)(1) thereunder.

(rr) The Company and its subsidiaries’ information technology assets and equipment, computers, systems, networks, hardware, software, websites, applications, and databases (collectively, “IT Systems”) are adequate for, and operate and perform in all material respects as required in connection with the operation of the business of the Company and its subsidiaries as currently conducted, and, to the knowledge of the Company and its subsidiaries, free and clear of all material bugs, errors, defects, Trojan horses, time bombs, malware and other corruptants. The Company and its subsidiaries have implemented and maintained commercially reasonable controls, policies, procedures, and safeguards to maintain and protect their material confidential information and the integrity, continuous operation, redundancy and security of all IT Systems and data (including all personal, personally identifiable, sensitive, confidential or regulated data (“Personal Data”)) used in connection with their businesses, and, to the knowledge of the Company, there have been no breaches, violations, outages or unauthorized uses of or accesses to same, except for those that have been remedied without material cost or liability or the duty to notify any other person, nor any incidents under internal review or investigations relating to the same. The Company and its subsidiaries are presently in material compliance with all applicable laws or statutes and all judgments, orders, rules and regulations of any court or arbitrator or governmental or regulatory authority, internal policies and contractual obligations relating to the privacy and security of IT Systems and Personal Data and to the protection of such IT Systems and Personal Data from unauthorized use, access, misappropriation or modification. The Company and its subsidiaries have taken, or prior to their effect will have taken, all necessary actions to prepare to comply with the European Union General Data Protection Regulation (and all other applicable laws and regulations with respect to Personal Data that have been announced as of the date hereof as becoming effective within 12 months after the date hereof, and for which any non-compliance with same would be reasonably likely to create a material liability) as soon they take effect.

(ss) Any certificate signed by any officer, general partner, managing member or other authorized representative of the Company or any subsidiary of the Company and delivered to the Agent or to counsel to the Agent pursuant to or in connection with this Agreement or any Terms Agreement shall be deemed a representation and warranty by the Company to the Agent as to the matters covered thereby.

 

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4. Certain Covenants of the Company. The Company hereby agrees with each Agent:

(a) For so long as the delivery of a prospectus is required (whether physically or through compliance with Rule 172 under the Act or any similar rule) in connection with the offering or sale of Shares, before using or filing any Permitted Free Writing Prospectus and before using or filing any amendment or supplement to the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or any Permitted Free Writing Prospectus (in each case, other than due to the filing of an Incorporated Document), to furnish to each Agent a copy of each such proposed Permitted Free Writing Prospectus, amendment or supplement within a reasonable period of time before filing with the Commission or using any such Permitted Free Writing Prospectus, amendment or supplement and the Company will not use or file any such Permitted Free Writing Prospectus or any such proposed amendment or supplement to which an Agent reasonably objects, unless the Company’s legal counsel has advised the Company that use or filing of such document is required by law; and the Company will not use or file any such Permitted Free Writing Prospectus or proposed, amendment or supplement to which an Agent reasonably objects unless the Company’s legal counsel has advised the Company that use or filing of such document is required by law.

(b) To file the Prospectus, each Prospectus Supplement and any other amendments or supplements to the Prospectus pursuant to, and within the time period required by, Rule 424(b) under the Act (without reference to Rule 424(b)(8)) and to file any Permitted Free Writing Prospectus to the extent required by Rule 433 under the Act and to provide copies of the Prospectus, each Prospectus Supplement, any other amendments or supplements to the Prospectus and each Permitted Free Writing Prospectus (to the extent not previously delivered or filed on the Commission’s Electronic Data Gathering, Analysis and Retrieval system or any successor system thereto (collectively, “EDGAR”)) to the Agents via e-mail in “.pdf” format on such filing date to an e-mail account designated by such Agent and, at an Agent’s request, to also furnish copies of the Prospectus, each Prospectus Supplement, any other amendments or supplements to the Prospectus and each Permitted Free Writing Prospectus to each exchange or market on which sales were effected as may be required by the rules or regulations of such exchange or market.

(c) To file timely all reports and any definitive proxy or information statements required to be filed by the Company with the Commission pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act for so long as the delivery of a prospectus is required (whether physically or through compliance with Rule 172 under the Act or any similar rule) in connection with the offering or sale of the Shares, and during such same period to advise the Agents, promptly after the Company receives notice thereof, (i) of the time when any amendment to the Registration Statement has been filed or has become effective or any supplement to the Prospectus or any Permitted Free Writing Prospectus or any amended Prospectus has been filed with the Commission; (ii) of the issuance by the Commission of any stop order or any order preventing or suspending the use of any prospectus relating to the Shares or the initiation or threatening of any proceeding for that purpose, pursuant to Section 8A of the Act; (iii) of any objection by the Commission to the use of Form S-3ASR by the Company pursuant to Rule 401(g)(2) under the Act; (iv) of the suspension of the qualification of the Shares for offering or sale in any jurisdiction or of the initiation or threatening of any proceeding for any such purpose; (v) of any request by the Commission for the amendment of the Registration

 

21


Statement or the amendment or supplementation of the Prospectus (in each case including any documents incorporated by reference therein) or for additional information; (vi) of the occurrence of any event as a result of which the Prospectus or any Permitted Free Writing Prospectus as then amended or supplemented includes any untrue statement of a material fact or omits to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances existing when the Prospectus or any such Permitted Free Writing Prospectus is delivered to a purchaser, not misleading; and (vii) of the receipt by the Company of any notice of objection of the Commission to the use of the Registration Statement or any post-effective amendment thereto.

(d) In the event of the issuance of any such stop order or of any such order preventing or suspending the use of any such prospectus or suspending any such qualification, or of any notice of objection pursuant to Rule 401(g)(2) under the Act, to use promptly its commercially reasonable efforts to obtain its withdrawal.

(e) To furnish such information as may be required and otherwise cooperate in qualifying the Shares for offering and sale under the securities or blue sky laws of such states or other jurisdictions as any Agent may reasonably designate and to use its commercially reasonable efforts to maintain such qualifications in effect so long as required for the distribution of the Shares; provided that the Company shall not be required to qualify as a foreign corporation, become a dealer of securities, or become subject to taxation in, or to consent to the service of process under the laws of, any such state or other jurisdictions (except service of process with respect to the offering and sale of the Shares); and to promptly advise the Agents of the receipt by the Company of any notification with respect to the suspension of the qualification of the Shares for sale in any jurisdiction or the initiation of any proceeding for such purpose.

(f) To make available to the Agents at their respective offices in New York City, without charge, as soon as reasonably practicable after the Registration Statement becomes effective, and thereafter from time to time to furnish to the Agents, as many copies of the Prospectus and the Prospectus Supplement (or of the Prospectus or Prospectus Supplement as amended or supplemented if the Company shall have made any amendments or supplements thereto and documents incorporated by reference therein after the effective date of the Registration Statement) and each Permitted Free Writing Prospectus as the Agents may reasonably request for so long as the delivery of a prospectus is required (whether physically or through compliance with Rule 172 under the Act or any similar rule); and for so long as this Agreement is in effect, the Company will prepare and file promptly such amendment or amendments to the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or any Permitted Free Writing Prospectus as may be necessary to comply with the requirements of Section 10(a)(3) of the Act.

(g) To furnish or make available to the Agents during the Term (i) copies of any reports or other communications which the Company shall send to its shareholders or shall from time to time publish or publicly disseminate and (ii) copies of all annual, quarterly and current reports filed with the Commission on Forms 10-K, 10-Q and 8-K, or such other similar form as may be designated by the Commission, and to furnish to the Agents from time to time during the Term such other information as the Agents may reasonably request regarding the Company or its subsidiaries, in each case as soon as such reports, communications, documents or information becomes available or promptly upon the request of the Agents, as applicable; provided, however, that the Company shall have no obligation to provide the Agents with any document filed on EDGAR or included on the Company’s Internet website.

 

22


(h) If, at any time during the Term, any event shall occur or condition shall exist as a result of which it is necessary in the reasonable opinion of counsel for the Agents or counsel for the Company, to further amend or supplement the Prospectus or any Permitted Free Writing Prospectus as then amended or supplemented in order that the Prospectus or any such Permitted Free Writing Prospectus will not include an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state any material fact required to be stated therein or necessary in order to make the statements therein not misleading, in light of the circumstances existing at the time the Prospectus or any such Permitted Free Writing Prospectus is delivered to a purchaser, or if it shall be necessary, in the reasonable opinion of either such counsel, to amend or supplement the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or any Permitted Free Writing Prospectus in order to comply with the requirements of the Act, in the case of such a determination by counsel to the Company, immediate notice shall be given, and confirmed in writing, to the Agents to cease the solicitation of offers to purchase the Shares in the Agents’ capacity as agents, and, in either case, the Company will, subject to Section 4(a) above, promptly prepare and file with the Commission such amendment or supplement, whether by filing documents pursuant to the Act, the Exchange Act or otherwise, as may be necessary to correct such untrue statement or omission or to make the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or any such Permitted Free Writing Prospectus comply with such requirements.

(i) To generally make available to its security holders as soon as reasonably practicable, but not later than 16 months after the first day of each fiscal quarter referred to below, an earnings statement (in form complying with the provisions of Section 11(a) under the Act and Rule 158 of the Commission promulgated thereunder) covering each twelve-month period beginning, in each case, not later than the first day of the Company’s fiscal quarter next following each “effective date” (as defined in such Rule 158) of the Registration Statement with respect to each sale of Shares.

(j) To apply the net proceeds from the sale of the Shares in the manner described in the Prospectus Supplement under the caption “Use of Proceeds.”

(k) Not to, and to cause its subsidiaries not to, take, directly or indirectly, any action designed to cause or result in, or that constitutes or might reasonably be expected to constitute, the stabilization or manipulation of the price of any security of the Company to facilitate the sale or resale of the Shares; provided that nothing herein shall prevent the Company from filing or submitting reports under the Exchange Act or issuing press releases in the ordinary course of business.

(l) Except as otherwise agreed between the Company and the Agents, to pay all costs, expenses, fees and taxes in connection with (i) the preparation and filing of the Registration Statement, the Prospectus, any Permitted Free Writing Prospectus, and any amendments or supplements thereto, and the printing and furnishing of copies of each thereof to the Agents and to dealers (including costs of mailing and shipment), (ii) the registration, issue and delivery of the Shares, (iii) the qualification of the Shares for offering and sale under the securities or blue sky laws of such states or other jurisdictions as the Agents may reasonably

 

23


designate as aforesaid (including filing fees and the reasonable legal fees and disbursements of counsel to the Agents in connection therewith) and the printing and furnishing of copies of any blue sky surveys to the Agents, (iv) the listing of the Shares on the Exchange and any registration thereof under the Exchange Act, (v) any filing for review, and any review, of the public offering of the Shares by FINRA (including filing fees and the reasonable legal fees and disbursements of counsel to the Agents in connection therewith), (vi) the fees and disbursements of counsel to the Company and of the Company’s independent registered public accounting firm, (vii) the performance of the Company’s other obligations hereunder and under any Terms Agreement and (viii) the reasonable and documented out-of-pocket expenses of the Agents, including the reasonable fees and disbursements of counsel to the Agents in connection with this Agreement and ongoing services in connection with the transactions contemplated hereunder; provided that, except as otherwise agreed with the Company, the Agents shall be responsible for any transfer taxes on resale of Shares by them, any costs and expenses associated with the sale and marketing of the Shares, and legal costs of the Agents other than as specifically provided above.

(m) With respect to the offering(s) contemplated by this Agreement or any Terms Agreement, the Company will not offer shares of Common Stock or any securities convertible into or exchangeable or exercisable for shares of the Common Stock in a manner in violation of the Act or the Exchange Act; and the Company will not distribute any offering material in connection with the offer and sale of the Shares, other than the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or any Permitted Free Writing Prospectus and any amendments or supplements thereto.

(n) Unless the Company has given written notice to the Agents that the Company has suspended activity under this Agreement and there are no pending Agency Transactions or Principal Transactions, the Company will not, without (A) giving the Agents at least three Exchange Business Days’ prior written notice specifying the nature of the proposed sale and the date of such proposed sale and (B) the Agents suspending activity under this program for such period of time as requested by the Company or deemed appropriate by the Agents in light of the proposed sale, (i) offer, pledge, sell, contract to sell, sell any option or contract to purchase, purchase any option or contract to sell, grant any option, right or warrant to purchase, lend, or otherwise transfer or dispose of, directly or indirectly, any shares of Common Stock or other equity securities of the Company or any securities convertible into or exercisable, redeemable or exchangeable for Common Stock or other equity securities of the Company, or submit to, or file with, the Commission any registration statement under the Act with respect to any of the foregoing (other than a registration statement on Form S-8 or post-effective amendment to the Registration Statement), or publicly announce the intention to undertake any of the foregoing, or (ii) enter into any swap or other agreement that transfers, in whole or in part, any of the economic consequences of ownership of Common Stock or other equity securities of the Company, whether any such transaction described in clause (i) or (ii) above is to be settled by delivery of shares of Common Stock or other securities, in cash or otherwise. The foregoing sentence shall not apply to (A) Shares offered and sold under this Agreement or any Terms Agreement or (B) securities issued pursuant to any of the Company’s equity incentive plans described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus or upon the exercise of options granted thereunder. Any lock-up provisions relating to a Principal Transaction shall be set forth in the applicable Terms Agreement.

 

24


(o) The Company will, pursuant to reasonable procedures developed in good faith, retain copies of each Permitted Free Writing Prospectus that is not filed with the Commission in accordance with Rule 433 under the Act.

(p) The Company will use commercially reasonable efforts to cause the Shares to be listed on the Exchange.

(q) The Company consents to each Agent trading in the Common Stock for the Agent’s own account and for the account of its clients at the same time as sales of the Shares occur pursuant to this Agreement or any Terms Agreement.

(r) If immediately prior to the third anniversary (the “Renewal Deadline”) of the initial effective date of the Registration Statement, the aggregate Gross Sales Price of Shares sold by the Company is less than the Maximum Amount and this Agreement has not expired or been terminated, the Company will, prior to the Renewal Deadline, file, if it has not already done so and is eligible to do so, an automatic shelf registration statement relating to the Shares, in a form satisfactory to the Agents. If the Company is not eligible to file an automatic shelf registration statement, the Company will, prior to the Renewal Deadline, if it has not already done so, file a new shelf registration statement relating to the Shares, in a form satisfactory to the Agents, and will use its best efforts to cause such registration statement to be declared effective within 60 days after the Renewal Deadline. The Company will take all other action necessary or appropriate to permit the issuance and sale of the Shares to continue as contemplated in the expired registration statement relating to the Shares. References herein to the Registration Statement shall include such new automatic shelf registration statement or such new shelf registration statement, as the case may be.

5. Execution of Agreement. Each Agent’s obligations under this Agreement shall be subject to the satisfaction of the following conditions in connection with and on the date of the execution of this Agreement:

(a) the Company shall have delivered to the Agents:

 

  (i)

an officers’ certificate signed by two officers of the Company (one of whom shall be the Chief Financial Officer or other senior financial officer) certifying as to the matters set forth in Exhibit B hereto;

 

  (ii)

an opinion and 10b-5 statement of Orrick Herrington & Sutcliffe LLP, counsel for the Company, addressed to the Agents and dated the date of this Agreement, in the form of Exhibit C, hereto;

 

  (iii)

a “comfort” letter from each of PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP and Deloitte & Touche LLP, addressed to the Agents and dated the date of this Agreement, addressing such matters as the Agents may reasonably request;

 

  (iv)

a certificate signed by the Company’s Chief Financial Officer, in the form of Exhibit D hereto, certifying as to certain financial, numerical and statistical data not covered by the “comfort” letter referred to in Section 5(a)(iii) hereof;

 

25


  (v)

evidence reasonably satisfactory to the Agents and their counsel that the Shares have been approved for listing on the Exchange, subject only to notice of issuance on or before the date hereof;

 

  (vi)

resolutions duly adopted by the Company’s board of directors, and certified by an officer of the Company, authorizing the Company’s execution of this Agreement and the consummation by the Company of the transactions contemplated hereby, including the issuance and sale of the Shares; and

 

  (vii)

such other documents as the Agents shall reasonably request; and

(b) The Agents shall have received a letter or letters, which shall include legal opinions and negative assurance statements, of Davis Polk & Wardwell LLP, counsel to the Agents, addressed to the Agents and dated the date of this Agreement, addressing such matters as the Agents may reasonably request.

6. Additional Covenants of the Company. The Company further covenants and agrees with the Agent as follows:

(a) Each Transaction Proposal made by the Company that is accepted by the Agent by means of a Transaction Acceptance and each execution and delivery by the Company of a Terms Agreement shall be deemed to be (i) an affirmation that the representations, warranties and agreements of the Company herein contained and contained in any certificate delivered to the Agents pursuant hereto are true and correct at such Time of Acceptance or the date of such Terms Agreement, as the case may be, and (ii) an undertaking that such representations, warranties and agreements will be true and correct on any applicable Time of Sale and Settlement Date, as though made at and as of each such time (it being understood that such representations, warranties and agreements shall relate to the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or any Permitted Free Writing Prospectus as amended and supplemented to the time of such Transaction Acceptance or Terms Agreement, as the case may be).

(b) Each time that (i) the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or any Permitted Free Writing Prospectus shall be amended or supplemented (including, except as noted in the proviso at the end of this Section 6(b), by the filing of any Incorporated Document), (ii) there is a Principal Settlement Date pursuant to a Terms Agreement, or (iii) the Agents shall reasonably request (each date referred to clauses (i), (ii) and (iii) above, a “Bring-Down Delivery Date”), the Company shall, unless the Agents agree otherwise, furnish or cause to be furnished to the Agents certificates, dated as of such Bring-Down Delivery Date and delivered within one Exchange Business Day after the applicable Bring-Down Delivery Date or, in the case of a Bring-Down Delivery Date resulting from a Principal Settlement Date, delivered on such Principal Settlement Date, of the same tenor as the certificates referred to in Sections 5(a)(i) and 5(a)(iv) hereof, modified as necessary to relate to the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or any Permitted Free Writing Prospectus as amended and supplemented to the time of delivery of

 

26


such certificates and, in the case of the Chief Financial Officer’s certificate, covering such other financial, numerical and statistical data that is not covered by the accountants’ “comfort” letter dated as of such Bring-Down Delivery Date as the Agents may reasonably request, or, in lieu of such certificates, certificates to the effect that the statements contained in the certificates referred to in Sections 5(a)(i) and, unless the Agents shall have requested that the Chief Financial Officers’ certificate cover different or additional data as aforesaid, 5(a)(iv) hereof furnished to Agents are true and correct as of such Bring-Down Delivery Date as though made at and as of such date (except that such statements shall be deemed to relate to the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or any Permitted Free Writing Prospectus as amended and supplemented to the time of delivery of such certificate); provided, however, that the filing of a Current Report on Form 8-K will not constitute a Bring-Down Delivery Date under clause (i) above unless either (A) (x) such Current Report on Form 8-K is filed at any time during which either a Transaction Acceptance is binding and the Company has not suspended the use thereof (and prior to the settlement of the Shares specified therein) or a prospectus relating to the Shares is required to be delivered under the Act (whether physically or through compliance with Rule 172 under the Act or any similar rule) or such Current Report on Form 8-K is filed at any time from and including the date of a Terms Agreement through and including the related Settlement Date and (y) any Agent has reasonably requested that such date be deemed to be a Bring-Down Delivery Date based upon the event or events reported in such Current Report on Form 8-K or (B) such Current Report on Form 8-K contains capsule financial information, historical or pro forma financial statements, supporting schedules or other financial data, including any Current Report on Form 8-K or part thereof under Item 2.02 of Regulation S-K of the Commission that is considered “filed” under the Exchange Act; and provided, further, that an amendment or supplement to the Registration Statement or the Prospectus relating to the offering of other securities pursuant to the Registration Statement will not constitute a Bring-Down Delivery Date.

(c) Each Bring-Down Delivery Date, the Company shall, unless the Agent agrees otherwise, cause to be furnished to Agent (A) the written opinion and, if not included in such opinion, negative assurance letter of Orrick Herrington & Sutcliffe LLP, counsel to the Company, and the written opinion and, if not included in such opinion, negative assurance letter of Davis Polk & Wardwell LLP, counsel to the Agents, each dated as of the applicable Bring-Down Delivery Date and delivered within one Exchange Business Day after the applicable Bring-Down Delivery Date or, in the case of a Bring-Down Delivery Date resulting from a Principal Settlement Date, dated and delivered on such Principal Settlement Date, of the same tenor as the opinions and letters referred to in Section 5(a)(ii) or Section 5(b) hereof, as applicable, but modified as necessary to relate to the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or any Permitted Free Writing Prospectus as amended and supplemented to the time of delivery of such opinions and letters, or, in lieu of such opinions and letters, each such counsel shall furnish the Agent with a letter substantially to the effect that the Agent may rely on the opinion and letter of such counsel referred to in Section 5(a)(ii) or Section 5(b), as applicable, furnished to the Agents, to the same extent as though they were dated the date of such letter authorizing reliance (except that statements in such last opinion and letter of such counsel shall be deemed to relate to the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or any Permitted Free Writing Prospectus as amended and supplemented to the time of delivery of such letters authorizing reliance).

 

27


(d) Each Bring-Down Delivery Date, the Company shall, unless the Agents agree otherwise, cause each of PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP and Deloitte & Touche LLP to furnish to the Agents a “comfort” letter, dated as of the applicable Bring-Down Delivery Date and delivered within one Exchange Business Day after the applicable Bring-Down Delivery Date or, in the case of a Bring-Down Delivery Date resulting from a Principal Settlement Date, delivered on such Principal Settlement Date, of the same tenor as the letter referred to in Section 5(a)(iii) hereof, but modified to relate to the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or any Permitted Free Writing Prospectus as amended and supplemented to the date of such letter, and, if the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or any Permitted Free Writing Prospectus shall include or incorporate by reference the financial statements of any entity or business (other than the consolidated financial statements of the Company and its subsidiaries), the Company shall, if requested by the Agents, cause a firm of independent public accountants to furnish to the Agents a “comfort” letter, dated as of the applicable Bring-Down Delivery Date and delivered within one Exchange Business Day after the applicable Bring-Down Delivery Date or, in the case of a Bring-Down Delivery Date resulting from a Principal Settlement Date, delivered on such Principal Settlement Date, addressing such matters as the Agents may reasonably request.

(e) (i) No order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement shall be in effect, and no proceeding for such purpose or pursuant to Section 8A under the Act shall be pending before or threatened by the Commission; the Prospectus and each Permitted Free Writing Prospectus shall have been timely filed with the Commission under the Act (in the case of a Permitted Free Writing Prospectus, to the extent required by Rule 433 under the Act); and all requests by the Commission for additional information shall have been complied with to the satisfaction of the Agents and no suspension of the qualification of the Shares for offering or sale in any jurisdiction, or of the initiation or threatening of any proceedings for any of such purposes, shall have occurred and be in effect at the time the Company delivers a Transaction Proposal to the Agents or the time the Agents deliver a Transaction Acceptance to the Company; and (ii) the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or any Permitted Free Writing Prospectus shall not contain an untrue statement of material fact or omit to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading at the time the Company delivers a Transaction Proposal to the Agents or the time the Agents deliver a Transaction Acceptance to the Company.

(f) The Company shall reasonably cooperate with any reasonable due diligence review requested by the Agents or their counsel from time to time in connection with the transactions contemplated hereby or any Terms Agreement, including, without limitation, (i) at the commencement of each intended Purchase Date and any Time of Sale or Settlement Date, providing information and making available appropriate documents and appropriate corporate officers of the Company and, upon reasonable request, representatives of PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP and Deloitte & Touche LLP (and, if the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or any Permitted Free-Writing Prospectus shall include or incorporate by reference the financial statements of any entity or business (other than the consolidated financial statements of the Company and its subsidiaries), representatives of the independent public accountants that audited or reviewed such financial statements) for an update on diligence matters with representatives of each Agent and (ii) at each Bring-Down Delivery Date and otherwise as the Agents may reasonably request, providing information and making available documents and appropriate corporate officers of the Company and representatives of PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP and Deloitte & Touche LLP (and, if the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or any Permitted Free-Writing Prospectus shall include or incorporate by

 

28


reference the financial statements of any entity or business (other than the consolidated financial statements of the Company and its subsidiaries), representatives of the independent public accountants that audited or reviewed such financial statements) for one or more due diligence sessions with representatives of each Agent and their counsel.

(g) The Company shall disclose, in its quarterly reports on Form 10-Q and in its annual report on Form 10-K and, if requested by the Agents, in supplements to the Prospectus to be filed by the Company with the Commission from time to time, the number of the Shares sold through the Agents under this Agreement and any Terms Agreement, and the gross and net proceeds to the Company from the sale of the Shares and the compensation paid by the Company with respect to sales of the Shares pursuant to this Agreement during the relevant quarter or, in the case of any such prospectus supplement, such shorter period as the Agents may reasonably request or, in the case of an Annual Report on Form 10-K, during the fiscal year covered by such Annual Report and the fourth quarter of such fiscal year.

(h) Notwithstanding the foregoing, the requirements (i) to provide the officers’ certificate, opinions and letters of counsel and accountants’ letter specified in Section 6(b) through 6(d) and (ii) to reasonably cooperate with any reasonable due diligence review specified in Section 6(f) shall be waived for any Bring-Down Delivery Date occurring at a time at which no Transaction Proposal or offers to enter into a Terms Agreement is pending, which waiver shall continue until the earlier to occur of the date the Company delivers a Transaction Proposal or offers to enter into a Terms Agreement hereunder (which for such calendar quarter shall be considered a Bring-Down Delivery Date) and the next occurring Bring-Down Delivery Date.

All opinions, letters and other documents referred to in Sections 6(b) through (d) above shall be reasonably satisfactory in form and substance to the Agents. The Agents will provide the Company with such notice (which may be oral, and in such case, will be confirmed via e-mail as soon as reasonably practicable thereafter) as is reasonably practicable under the circumstances when requesting an opinion, letter or other document referred to in Sections 6(b) through (d) above.

7. Conditions of the Agents’ Obligation. The Agent’s obligation to solicit purchases on an agency basis for the Shares or otherwise take any action pursuant to a Transaction Acceptance and to purchase the Shares pursuant to any Terms Agreement shall be subject to the satisfaction of the following conditions:

(a) At the Time of Acceptance, at the time of the commencement of trading on the Exchange on the Purchase Date(s) and at the relevant Time of Sale and Agency Settlement Date, or with respect to a Principal Transaction pursuant to a Terms Agreement, at the time of execution and delivery of the Terms Agreement by the Company and at the relevant Time of Sale and Principal Settlement Date:

 

  (i)

The representations, warranties and agreements on the part of the Company herein contained or contained in any certificate of an officer or officers, general partner, managing member or other authorized representative of the Company or any subsidiary of the Company delivered pursuant to the provisions hereof shall be true and correct in all respects.

 

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  (ii)

The Company shall have performed and observed its covenants and other obligations hereunder and/or under any Terms Agreement, as the case may be, in all material respects.

 

  (iii)

In the case of an Agency Transaction, from the Time of Acceptance until the Agency Settlement Date, or, in the case of a Principal Transaction pursuant to a Terms Agreement, from the time of execution and delivery of the Terms Agreement by the Company until the Principal Settlement Date, trading in the Common Stock on the Exchange shall not have been suspended.

 

  (iv)

From the date of this Agreement, no event or condition of a type described in Section 3(e) hereof shall have occurred or shall exist, which event or condition is not described in a Permitted Free Writing Prospectus (excluding any amendment or supplement thereto) or the Prospectus (excluding any amendment or supplement thereto) and the effect of which in the judgment of the applicable Agent makes it impracticable or inadvisable to proceed with the offering, sale or delivery of the Shares on the applicable Settlement Date on the terms and in the manner contemplated by this Agreement, any Terms Agreement, any Permitted Free Writing Prospectus and the Prospectus.

 

  (v)

Subsequent to the relevant Time of Acceptance or, in the case of a Principal Transaction, subsequent to execution of the applicable Terms Agreement, (A) no downgrading shall have occurred in the rating accorded any debt securities or preferred equity securities of or guaranteed by the Company or any of its subsidiaries by any “nationally recognized statistical rating organization”, as such term is defined by the Commission for purposes of Section 3(a)(62) of the Exchange Act and (B) no such organization shall have publicly announced that it has under surveillance or review, or has changed its outlook with respect to, its rating of any debt securities or preferred equity securities of or guaranteed by the Company or any of its subsidiaries (other than an announcement with positive implications of a possible upgrading) in each case that has not been described in any Permitted Free Writing Prospectus issued prior to any related Time of Sale.

 

  (vi)

The Shares to be issued pursuant to the Transaction Acceptance or pursuant to a Terms Agreement, as applicable, shall have been approved for listing on the Exchange, subject only to notice of issuance.

 

  (vii)

(A) No action shall have been taken and no statute, rule, regulation or order shall have been enacted, adopted or issued by any federal, state or foreign governmental or regulatory authority that would, as of the relevant Settlement Date, prevent the issuance or sale of the Shares and (B) no injunction or order of any federal, state or foreign court shall have been issued that would, as of the relevant Settlement Date, prevent the issuance or sale of the Shares.

 

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  (viii)

(A) No order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement shall be in effect, no proceeding for such purpose or pursuant to Section 8A of the Act shall be pending before or threatened by the Commission and no notice of objection of the Commission to the use of the Registration Statement pursuant to Rule 401(g)(2) under the Act shall have been received by the Company; (B) the Prospectus and each Permitted Free Writing Prospectus shall have been timely filed with the Commission under the Act (in the case of any Permitted Free Writing Prospectus, to the extent required by Rule 433 under the Act); (C) all requests by the Commission for additional information shall have been complied with to the satisfaction of the Agents; and (D) no suspension of the qualification of the Shares for offering or sale in any jurisdiction, and no initiation or threatening of any proceedings for any of such purposes, shall have occurred and be in effect. The Registration Statement, the Prospectus or any Permitted Free Writing Prospectus shall not contain an untrue statement of material fact or omit to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading at the time an Agent delivers a Transaction Acceptance to the Company or the Company and an Agent execute a Terms Agreement, as the case may be.

 

  (ix)

No amendment or supplement to the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or any Permitted Free Writing Prospectus shall have been filed to which the Agents shall have reasonably objected in writing.

(b) Within one Exchange Business Day after the applicable Bring-Down Delivery Date or, in the case of a Bring-Down Delivery Date resulting from a Principal Settlement Date, on such Principal Settlement Date, the Agent shall have received the officer’s certificates, opinions and negative assurance letters of counsel and “comfort” letters and other documents provided for under Sections 6(b) through (d), inclusive. For purposes of clarity and without limitation to any other provision of this Section 7 or elsewhere in this Agreement, the Company and each of the Agents agree that such Agent’s obligations, if any, to solicit purchases of Shares on an agency basis or otherwise take any action pursuant to a Transaction Acceptance shall, unless otherwise agreed in writing by such Agent, be suspended during the period from and including a Bring-Down Delivery Date through and including the time that such Agent shall have received the documents described in the preceding sentence.

 

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8. Termination.

 

  (a)      (i)

The Company may terminate this Agreement in its sole discretion at any time upon prior written notice to the Agents. Any such termination shall be without liability of any party to any other party, except that (A) with respect to any pending sale, the obligations of the Company, including in respect of compensation of the applicable Agent, shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination; and (B) the provisions of Sections 3, 4 (except that if no Shares have been previously sold hereunder or under any Terms Agreement, only Section 4(l)), 9, 13, 14 and 16 of this Agreement shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination.

 

  (ii)

In the case of any sale by the Company pursuant to a Terms Agreement, the obligations of the Company pursuant to such Terms Agreement and this Agreement may not be terminated by the Company without the prior written consent of the applicable Agent.

 

  (b)      (i)

Each Agent may terminate this Agreement with respect to itself at any time upon giving prior written notice to the Company; provided, however, that this Agreement will remain in full force and effect with respect to the Agent that has not so terminated the Agreement with respect to itself. Any such termination shall be without liability of any party to any other party, except that the provisions of Sections 3, 4 (except that if no Shares have been previously sold hereunder or under any Terms Agreement, only Section 4(l)), 9, 13, 14 and 16 of this Agreement shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination.

 

  (ii)

In the case of any purchase by an Agent pursuant to a Terms Agreement, the obligations of such Agent pursuant to such Terms Agreement shall be subject to termination by such Agent at any time prior to or at the Principal Settlement Date if (A) since the time of execution of the Terms Agreement or the respective dates as of which information is given in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus and any Permitted Free Writing Prospectus, (i) trading generally shall have been suspended or materially limited on or by any of the New York Stock Exchange, the Nasdaq Stock Market, the Chicago Board Options Exchange, the Chicago Mercantile Exchange or the Chicago Board of Trade; (ii) trading of any securities issued or guaranteed by the Company or any of its subsidiaries shall have been suspended on any exchange or in any over-the counter market, (iii) a general moratorium on commercial banking activities shall have been declared by federal or New York state authorities, (iv) there shall have occurred any outbreak or escalation of hostilities or any change in financial markets or any calamity or crisis, either within or outside the United States, that, solely in the case of events and conditions described in this clause (iv), in the Agent’s judgment, is material and adverse and makes it impracticable or inadvisable to proceed with the offering, sale or delivery of the Shares on the terms and in the manner contemplated in the Prospectus or such Terms Agreement. If the Agent elects to terminate its obligations pursuant to this Section 8(b)(ii), the Company shall be notified promptly in writing.

 

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(c) This Agreement shall remain in full force and effect until the earliest of (A) termination of the Agreement pursuant to Section 8(a) or 8(b) above or otherwise by mutual written agreement of the parties, (B) such date that the Maximum Amount of Shares has been sold in accordance with the terms of this Agreement and any Terms Agreements and (C) the May 24, 2025, in each case except that the provisions of Section 3, 4 (except that if no Shares have been previously sold hereunder or under any Terms Agreement, only Section 4(l)), 9, 13, 14 and 16 of this Agreement shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination.

(d) Any termination of this Agreement shall be effective on the date specified in such notice of termination; provided that, notwithstanding the foregoing, such termination shall not be effective until the close of business on the date of receipt of such notice by the Agent or the Company, as the case may be, or such later date as may be required pursuant to Section 8(a) or (b). If such termination shall occur prior to the Settlement Date for any sale of Shares, such sale shall settle in accordance with the provisions of Section 2 hereof.

9. Indemnity and Contribution.

(a) The Company agrees to indemnify and hold harmless each Agent, each Agent’s affiliates, directors and officers and each person, if any, who controls the Agent within the meaning of Section 15 of the Act or Section 20 of the Exchange Act, from and against any and all losses, claims, damages and liabilities (including, without limitation, reasonable and documented out-of-pocket legal fees and other expenses incurred in connection with defending or investigating any suit, action or proceeding or any claim asserted, as such fees and expenses are incurred), joint or several, that arise out of, or are based upon, (i) any untrue statement or alleged untrue statement of a material fact contained in the Registration Statement (or any amendment thereto) or caused by any omission or alleged omission to state therein a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary in order to make the statements therein, not misleading or (ii) any untrue statement or alleged untrue statement of a material fact contained in the Prospectus (or any amendment or supplement thereto), any Permitted Free Writing Prospectus (or any amendment or supplement thereto), any “issuer information” filed or required to be filed pursuant to Rule 433(d) under the Act or any road show as defined in Rule 433(h) under the Act (a “road show”) or any omission or alleged omission to state therein a material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein, in light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading, in each case except insofar as such losses, claims, damages or liabilities arise out of, or are based upon, any untrue statement or omission or alleged untrue statement or omission made in reliance upon and in conformity with any information relating to the Agents furnished to the Company in writing by the Agents expressly for use therein, it being understood and agreed that the only such information furnished by the Agents consists of the information described as such in subsection (b) below.

(b) Each Agent agrees, severally and not jointly, to indemnify and hold harmless the Company, its directors, its officers who signed the Registration Statement and each person, if any, who controls the Company within the meaning of Section 15 of the Act or Section 20 of the Exchange Act to the same extent as the indemnity set forth in paragraph (a) above, but only with respect to any losses, claims, damages or liabilities that arise out of, or are based upon, any untrue statement or omission or alleged untrue statement or omission made in reliance upon and in conformity with any information relating to the Agent furnished to the Company in writing by

 

33


the Agent expressly for use in the Registration Statement (or any amendment thereto), the Prospectus (or any amendment or supplement thereto), any Permitted Free Writing Prospectus (or any amendment or supplement thereto) or any road show, it being understood and agreed upon that such information shall consist solely of the following: the information appearing in the third and fifth sentence of the second paragraph and the fourth paragraph under the caption “Plan of Distribution” in the Prospectus Supplement.

(c) If any suit, action, proceeding (including any governmental or regulatory investigation), claim or demand shall be brought or asserted against any person in respect of which indemnification may be sought pursuant to either Section 9(a) or 9(b) above, such person (the “Indemnified Person”) shall promptly notify the person against whom such indemnification may be sought (the “Indemnifying Person”) in writing; provided that the failure to notify the Indemnifying Person shall not relieve it from any liability that it may have under this Section 9 except to the extent that it has been materially prejudiced (through the forfeiture of substantive rights or defenses) by such failure; and provided, further, that the failure to notify the Indemnifying Person shall not relieve it from any liability that it may have to an Indemnified Person otherwise than under this Section 9. If any such proceeding shall be brought or asserted against an Indemnified Person and it shall have notified the Indemnifying Person thereof, the Indemnifying Person shall retain counsel reasonably satisfactory to the Indemnified Person (who shall not, without the consent of the Indemnified Person, be counsel to the Indemnifying Person) to represent the Indemnified Person and any others entitled to indemnification pursuant to this Section 9 that the Indemnifying Person may designate in such proceeding and shall pay the reasonable and documented out-of-pocket fees and expenses in such proceeding and shall pay the reasonable and documented out-of-pocket fees and expenses of such counsel related to such proceeding, as incurred. In any such proceeding, any Indemnified Person shall have the right to retain its own counsel), but the fees and expenses of such counsel shall be at the expense of such Indemnified Person unless (i) the Indemnifying Person and the Indemnified Person shall have mutually agreed in writing to the contrary; (ii) the Indemnifying Person has failed within a reasonable time to retain counsel reasonably satisfactory to the Indemnified Person; (iii) the Indemnified Person shall have reasonably concluded that there may be legal defenses available to it that are different from or in addition to those available to the Indemnifying Person; or (iv) the named parties in any such proceeding (including any impleaded parties) included both the Indemnifying Person and the Indemnified Person and representation of both parties by the same counsel would be inappropriate due to actual or potential differing interests between them. It is understood and agreed that the Indemnifying Person shall not, in connection with any proceeding or related proceeding in the same jurisdiction, be liable for the reasonable and documented out of pocket fees and expenses of more than one separate firm (in addition to any local counsel) for (A) each Agent and its affiliates, directors and officers and its control persons, if any, or (B) the Company, its directors, its officers who signed the Registration Statement and its control persons, if any, as the case may be, and that all such reasonable fees and expenses shall be paid or reimbursed as they are incurred. Any such separate firm for the Agents and their affiliates, directors and officers and any control persons of the Agents, if any, shall be designated in writing by the Agents, and any such separate firm for the Company, its directors, its officers who signed the Registration Statement and its control persons, if any, shall be designated in writing by the Company. The Indemnifying Person shall not be liable for any settlement of any proceeding effected without its written consent, but if settled with such consent or if there be a final judgment for the plaintiff, the Indemnifying Person agrees to indemnify each Indemnified

 

34


Person from and against any loss or liability by reason of such settlement or judgment. Notwithstanding the foregoing sentence, if at any time an Indemnified Person shall have requested an Indemnifying Person to reimburse the Indemnified Person for fees and expenses of counsel as contemplated by this Section 9(c), the Indemnifying Person agrees that it shall be liable for any settlement of any proceeding effected without its written consent if (i) such settlement is entered into more than 30 days after receipt by such Indemnifying Person of the aforesaid request and (ii) such Indemnifying Person shall not have reimbursed the Indemnified Person in accordance with such request prior to the date of such settlement. No Indemnifying Person shall, without the written consent of the Indemnified Person, effect any settlement of any pending or threatened proceeding in respect of which any Indemnified Person is or could have been a party and indemnification is or could have been sought hereunder by such Indemnified Person, unless such settlement (x) includes an unconditional release of such Indemnified Person, in form and substance reasonably satisfactory to such Indemnified Person, from all liability on claims that are the subject matter of such proceeding and (y) does not include any statement as to or any admission of fault, culpability or a failure to act by or on behalf of any Indemnified Person.

(d) If the indemnification provided for in Sections 9(a) and 9(b) above is unavailable to an Indemnified Person or insufficient in respect of any losses, claims, damages or liabilities referred to therein, then each Indemnifying Person under such Sections, in lieu of indemnifying such Indemnified Person thereunder, shall contribute to the amount paid or payable by such Indemnified Person as a result of such losses, claims, damages or liabilities (i) in such proportion as is appropriate to reflect the relative benefits received by the Company, on the one hand, and the applicable Agent, on the other, from the offering of the Shares pursuant to this Agreement and any Terms Agreements or (ii) if the allocation provided by clause (i) is not permitted by applicable law, in such proportion as is appropriate to reflect not only the relative benefits referred to in clause (i) but also the relative fault of the Company, on the one hand, and the applicable Agent, on the other, in connection with the statements or omissions that resulted in such losses, claims, damages or liabilities, as well as any other relevant equitable considerations. The relative benefits received by the Company, on the one hand, and the applicable Agent, on the other, shall be deemed to be in the same respective proportions as the net proceeds (before deducting expenses) received by the Company from the sale of the Shares pursuant to this Agreement and any Terms Agreements and the total discounts and commissions received by the applicable Agent in connection therewith bear to the aggregate Gross Sales Price of such Shares. The relative fault of the Company, on the one hand, and the applicable Agent, on the other, shall be determined by reference to, among other things, whether the untrue or alleged untrue statement of a material fact or the omission or alleged omission to state a material fact relates to information supplied by the Company or by applicable Agents, and the parties’ relative intent, knowledge, access to information and opportunity to correct or prevent such statement or omission.

(e) The Company and the Agent agree that it would not be just and equitable if contribution pursuant to this Section 9 were determined by pro rata allocation or by any other method of allocation that does not take account of the equitable considerations referred to in Section 9(d) above. The amount paid or payable by an Indemnified Person as a result of the losses, claims, damages and liabilities referred to in Section 9(d) above shall be deemed to include, subject to the limitations set forth above, any reasonable and documented out of pocket

 

35


legal or other expenses incurred by such Indemnified Person in connection with any such action or claim. Notwithstanding the provisions of this Section 9, in no event shall an Agent be required to contribute any amount in excess of the amount by which the total discounts and commissions received by such Agent with respect to the offering of the Shares pursuant to this Agreement and any Terms Agreements exceeds the amount of any damages that such Agent has otherwise been required to pay by reason of such untrue or alleged untrue statement or omission or alleged omission. No person guilty of fraudulent misrepresentation (within the meaning of Section 11(f) of the Act) shall be entitled to contribution from any person who was not guilty of such fraudulent misrepresentation.

(f) The remedies provided for in this Section 9 are not exclusive and shall not limit any rights or remedies which may otherwise be available to any Indemnified Person at law or in equity.

10. Notices. All notices and other communications under this Agreement and any Terms Agreement shall be in writing and shall be deemed to have been duly given if mailed or transmitted and confirmed by any standard form of communication, and, if to the Agents, shall be sufficient in all respects if delivered or sent to J.P. Morgan Securities LLC, 383 Madison Avenue, 7th Floor, New York, New York 10179, to the attention of Special Equities Group, Stephanie Little (telephone number (312) 732-3229, email: [email protected]), Brett Chalmers (telephone number (212) 622-2252, email: [email protected]) and Preston Ryman (telephone number (212) 622-3132, email: [email protected]) and to Cowen and Company, LLC, 599 Lexington Avenue, New York, NY 10022, to the attention of the General Counsel, Bradley Friedman (email: [email protected]), and, if to the Company, shall be sufficient in all respects if delivered or sent to it at 1888 Rosecrans Avenue, Manhattan Beach, CA 90266, Attn: Dr. Geeta Gupta (email: [email protected]). Notwithstanding the foregoing, Transaction Proposals shall be delivered by the Company to the Agent by telephone or email to the Agents, to the attention of Stephanie Little (telephone number (312) 732-3229, email: [email protected]), Brett Chalmers (telephone number (212) 622-2252, email: [email protected]), Preston Ryman (telephone number (212) 622-3132, email: [email protected]) and Michael J. Murphy ([email protected]), William Follis ([email protected]) and Connor Leahey ([email protected]), with a copy (which shall not constitute notice) to Davis Polk & Wardwell LLP, attention: Derek Dostal ([email protected]); and Transaction Acceptances shall be delivered by the Agents to the Company by email to the attention of Scott Hodgdon (email: [email protected]).

11. No Fiduciary Relationship. The Company acknowledges and agrees that each Agent is acting solely in the capacity of an arm’s length contractual counterparty to the Company with respect to the offering of Shares contemplated hereby and any Terms Agreements (including in connection with determining the terms of the offering) and not as a financial advisor or a fiduciary to, or an agent of, the Company or any other person. Additionally, no Agent is advising the Company or any other person as to any legal, tax, investment, accounting or regulatory matters in any jurisdiction. The Company shall consult with its own advisors concerning such matters and shall be responsible for making their own independent investigation and appraisal of the transactions contemplated hereby, and no Agent shall have responsibility or liability to the Company with respect thereto. Any review by the Agents of the Company, the transactions contemplated hereby or other matters relating to such transactions will be performed solely for the benefit of the Agents and shall not be on behalf of the Company.

 

36


12. Adjustments for Stock Splits. The parties acknowledge and agree that all share related numbers contained in this Agreement, any Transaction Proposal and any Transaction Acceptance shall be adjusted to take into account any stock split effected with respect to the Shares.

13. Miscellaneous.

(a) Governing Law. This Agreement, any Terms Agreement and any claim, controversy or dispute arising under or relating to this Agreement or any Terms Agreement shall be governed by, and construed in accordance with, the laws of the State of New York.

(b) Submission to Jurisdiction. The Company and the Agents hereby submit to the exclusive jurisdiction of the U.S. federal and New York state courts in the Borough of Manhattan in The City of New York in any suit or proceeding arising out of or relating to this Agreement or the transactions contemplated hereby. The Company and the Agents waive any objection which it may now or hereafter have to the laying of venue of any such suit or proceeding in such courts. The Company and the Agents agree that final judgment in any such suit, action or proceeding brought in such court shall be conclusive and binding upon the Company and may be enforced in any court to the jurisdiction of which Company is subject by a suit upon such judgment.

(c) Waiver of Jury Trial. Each of the parties hereto hereby waives any right to trial by jury in any suit or proceeding arising out of or relating to this Agreement and any Terms Agreement.

14. Persons Entitled to Benefit of Agreement. This Agreement and any Terms Agreement shall inure to the benefit of and be binding upon the parties hereto and thereto, respectively, and their respective successors and the officers, directors, affiliates and controlling persons referred to in Section 9 hereof. Nothing in this Agreement or any Terms Agreement is intended or shall be construed to give any other person any legal or equitable right, remedy or claim under or in respect of this Agreement or any such Terms Agreement or any provision contained herein or therein. No purchaser of Shares from or through an Agent shall be deemed to be a successor merely by reason of purchase.

15. Counterparts. This Agreement and any Terms Agreement may be signed in counterparts (which may include counterparts delivered by any standard form of telecommunication), each of which shall be an original and all of which together shall constitute one and the same instrument. Counterparts may be delivered via facsimile, electronic mail (including any electronic signature covered by the U.S. federal ESIGN Act of 2000, Uniform Electronic Transactions Act, the Electronic Signatures and Records Act or other applicable law, e.g., www.docusign.com) or other transmission method and any counterpart so delivered shall be deemed to have been duly and validly delivered and be valid and effective for all purposes.

16. Survival. The respective indemnities, rights of contribution, representations, warranties and agreements of the Company and the Agents contained in this Agreement or any Terms Agreement or made by or on behalf of the Company or the Agent pursuant to this Agreement or any Terms Agreement or any certificate delivered pursuant hereto or thereto shall survive the delivery of and payment for the Shares and shall remain in full force and effect, regardless of any termination of this Agreement or any Terms Agreement or any investigation made by or on behalf of the Company or the Agents.

 

37


17. Certain Defined Terms. For purposes of this Agreement, except where otherwise expressly provided, the term “affiliate” has the meaning set forth in Rule 405 under Act; the term “business day” means any day other than a day on which banks are permitted or required to be closed in New York City; and the term “subsidiary” has the meaning set forth in Rule 405 under the Act.

18. Recognition of the U.S. Special Resolution Regimes.

(a) In the event that any Agent that is a Covered Entity becomes subject to a proceeding under a U.S. Special Resolution Regime, the transfer from such Agent of this Agreement or any Terms Agreement, and any interest and obligation in or under this Agreement or any Terms Agreement, will be effective to the same extent as the transfer would be effective under the U.S. Special Resolution Regime if this Agreement or any Terms Agreement, and any such interest and obligation, were governed by the laws of the United States or a state of the United States.

(b) In the event that any Agent that is a Covered Entity or a BHC Act Affiliate of such Agent becomes subject to a proceeding under a U.S. Special Resolution Regime, Default Rights under this Agreement or any Terms Agreement that may be exercised against such Agent are permitted to be exercised to no greater extent than such Default Rights could be exercised under the U.S. Special Resolution Regime if this Agreement or any Terms Agreement were governed by the laws of the United States or a state of the United States.

As used in this Section 18:

“BHC Act Affiliate” has the meaning assigned to the term “affiliate” in, and shall be interpreted in accordance with, 12 U.S.C. § 1841(k).

“Covered Entity” means any of the following:

(i) a “covered entity” as that term is defined in, and interpreted in accordance with, 12 C.F.R. § 252.82(b);

(ii) a “covered bank” as that term is defined in, and interpreted in accordance with, 12 C.F.R. § 47.3(b); or

(iii) a “covered FSI” as that term is defined in, and interpreted in accordance with, 12 C.F.R. § 382.2(b).

“Default Right” has the meaning assigned to that term in, and shall be interpreted in accordance with, 12 C.F.R. §§ 252.81, 47.2 or 382.1, as applicable.

“U.S. Special Resolution Regime” means each of (i) the Federal Deposit Insurance Act and the regulations promulgated thereunder and (ii) Title II of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act and the regulations promulgated thereunder.

 

38


19. Compliance with USA Patriot Act. In accordance with the requirements of the USA Patriot Act (Title III of Pub. L. 107-56 (signed into law October 26, 2001)), the Agent is required to obtain, verify and record information that identifies its clients, including the Company, which information may include the name and address of its clients, as well as other information that will allow the Agent to properly identify its clients.

20. Amendments or Waivers. No amendment or waiver of any provision of this Agreement or any Terms Agreement, nor any consent or approval to any departure therefrom, shall in any event be effective unless the same shall be in writing and signed by the parties hereto or thereto as the case may be.

21. Headings. The headings herein and in any Terms Agreement are included for convenience of reference only and are not intended to be part of, or to affect the meaning or interpretation of, this Agreement or any Terms Agreement.

[Signature Page Follows]

 

39


If the foregoing correctly sets forth the understanding between the Company and the Agents, please so indicate in the space provided below for that purpose, whereupon this letter and your acceptance shall constitute a binding agreement among the Company and the Agents.

 

Very truly yours,
FISKER INC.
By:  

/s/ Henrik Fisker

Name:   Henrik Fisker
Title:   Chairman of the Board,
President and Chief Executive Officer

 

40


Accepted and agreed to as of the date first above written:
J.P. MORGAN SECURITIES LLC
By:  

/s/ Stephanie Little

Name:   Stephanie Little
Title:   Executive Director

 

41


Accepted and agreed to as of the date first above written:
COWEN AND COMPANY, LLC
By:  

/s/ Connor Leahey

Name:   Connor Leahey
Title:   Director

 

42

Exhibit 5.1

 

     

LOGO

 

     

Orrick, Herrington & Sutcliffe LLP

222 Berkeley St., Suite 2000

Boston, MA 02116

 

+1 617 880 1800 

 

orrick.com

May 24, 2022

Fisker Inc.

1888 Rosecrans Avenue

Manhattan Beach, California 90266

 

Re:

Fisker Inc.

 

Registration Statement on Form S-3

Ladies and Gentlemen:

We have acted as counsel for Fisker Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), in connection with the offering by the Company of up to $350,000,000 of shares of the Company’s Class A common stock, par value $0.00001 (the “Shares”), pursuant to a registration statement on Form S-3 (Registration Statement No. 333-261875) (the “Registration Statement”), filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “Commission”) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Act”), the prospectus dated January 4, 2022 (the “Base Prospectus”), and the prospectus supplement dated May 24, 2022, filed with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) of the rules and regulations of the Act (the “Prospectus Supplement”). The Base Prospectus and the Prospectus Supplement are collectively referred to as the “Prospectus.” The Shares are to be sold by the Company in the manner described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus.

In connection with rendering this opinion, we have examined and relied upon originals or copies, certified or otherwise identified to our satisfaction, of (i) the Second Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation of the Company, as amended through the date hereof, (ii) the Amended and Restated Bylaws of the Company, as amended through the date hereof, (iii) certain resolutions of the Board of Directors of the Company relating to the issuance, sale and registration of the Shares, (iv) the Registration Statement, (v) the Prospectus and (vi) such corporate records of the Company, certificates of public officials, officers of the Company and other persons, and such other documents, agreements and instruments as we have deemed relevant and necessary or appropriate as a basis for the opinion set forth below.

In our examination, we have assumed the legal capacity of all natural persons, the genuineness of all signatures, the authenticity of all documents submitted to us as originals, the conformity to original documents of all documents submitted to us as facsimile, electronic, certified or photostatic copies, and the authenticity of the originals of such copies. In making our examination of documents executed or to be executed, we have assumed that the parties thereto, other than the Company, had or will have the power, corporate or other, to enter into and perform all obligations thereunder and have also assumed the due


Fisker Inc.

May 24, 2022

Page 2

 

authorization by all requisite action, corporate or other, and the execution and delivery by such parties of such documents and the validity and binding effect thereof on such parties. As to any facts material to the opinions expressed herein that we did not independently establish or verify, we have relied upon statements and representations of officers and other representatives of the Company and others and of public officials.

Based upon the foregoing and subject to the limitations, qualifications and assumptions set forth herein, we are of the opinion that the Shares have been duly authorized and, upon issuance, delivery and payment therefor in the manner contemplated by the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, will be validly issued, fully paid and non-assessable.

The opinion expressed herein is limited to the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware and the federal laws of the United States of America, and we express no opinion as to the effect on the matters covered by this letter of the laws of any other jurisdictions.

We hereby consent to the filing of this opinion letter as an exhibit to the Registration Statement and to the reference to our firm under the heading “Legal Matters” in the Prospectus. In giving such consent, we do not hereby admit that we are included in the category of persons whose consent is required under Section 7 of the Act or the rules and regulations of the Commission promulgated thereunder.

Very truly yours,

/s/ Orrick, Herrington & Sutcliffe LLP

Orrick, Herrington & Sutcliffe LLP



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