Form 8-K ADOBE INC. For: Jan 13

January 18, 2022 5:15 PM EST

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EXHIBIT 3.1



















AMENDED AND RESTATED
 
BYLAWS
 
OF
 
ADOBE INC.
 
DATED JANUARY 13, 2022

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Table of Contents
 
 
 
 
 
Page
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
ARTICLE I
 
OFFICES
 
1
 
SECTION 1. Registered Office
 
1
 
SECTION 2. Other Offices
 
1
 
ARTICLE II
 
CORPORATE SEAL
 
1
 
SECTION 3. Corporate Seal
 
1
 
ARTICLE III
 
STOCKHOLDERS’ MEETINGS
 
1
 
SECTION 4. Place of Meetings
 
1
 
SECTION 5. Annual Meeting
 
1
 
SECTION 6. Proxy Access for Director Nominations
4
SECTION 7. Special Meetings
 
10
 
SECTION 8. Notice of Meetings
 
11
 
SECTION 9. Quorum
 
11
 
SECTION 10. Adjournment and Notice of Adjourned Meetings
 
12
 
SECTION 11. Voting Rights
 
12
 
SECTION 12. Joint Owners of Stock
 
12
 
SECTION 13. List of Stockholders
 
12
 
SECTION 14. Action Without Meeting
 
12
 
SECTION 15. Organization
 
12
 
ARTICLE IV
 
DIRECTORS
 
13
 
SECTION 16. Number and Term of Office
 
13
 
SECTION 17. Powers
 
13
 
SECTION 18. Vacancies
 
13
 
SECTION 19. Resignation
 
13
 
SECTION 20. Removal
 
14
 
SECTION 21. Meetings
 
14
 
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SECTION 22. Quorum and Voting
 
14
 
SECTION 23. Action Without Meeting
 
14
 
SECTION 24. Fees and Compensation
 
15
 
SECTION 25. Committees
 
15
 
SECTION 26. Organization
 
16
 
ARTICLE V
 
OFFICERS
 
16
 
SECTION 27. Officers Designated
 
16
 
SECTION 28. Tenure and Duties of Officers
 
16
 
SECTION 29. Delegation of Authority
 
17
 
SECTION 30. Resignations
 
17
 
SECTION 31. Removal
 
17
 
ARTICLE VI
 
EXECUTION OF CORPORATE INSTRUMENTS AND VOTING OF SECURITIES OWNED BY THE CORPORATION
 
17
 
SECTION 32. Execution of Corporate Instruments
 
17
 
SECTION 33. Voting of Securities Owned by the Corporation
 
17
 
ARTICLE VII
 
SHARES OF STOCK
 
18
 
SECTION 34. Form and Execution of Certificates
 
18
 
SECTION 35. Lost Certificates
 
18
 
SECTION 36. Transfers
 
18
 
SECTION 37. Fixing Record Dates
 
18
 
SECTION 38. Registered Stockholders
 
19
 
ARTICLE VIII
 
OTHER SECURITIES OF THE CORPORATION
 
19
 
SECTION 39. Execution of Other Securities
 
19
 
ARTICLE IX
 
DIVIDENDS
 
19
 
SECTION 40. Declaration of Dividends
 
19
 
SECTION 41. Dividend Reserve
 
19
 
ARTICLE X
 
FISCAL YEAR
 
19
 
SECTION 42. Fiscal Year
 
19
 
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ARTICLE XI
 
INDEMNIFICATION
 
20
 
SECTION 43. Indemnification of Directors, Executive Officers, Other Officers, Employees and Other Agents
 
20
 
ARTICLE XII
 
NOTICES
 
22
 
SECTION 44. Notices
 
22
 
ARTICLE XIII
 
AMENDMENTS
 
23
 
SECTION 45. Amendments
 
23
 
ARTICLE XIV
 
LOANS TO DIRECTORS OR EXECUTIVE OFFICERS
 
23
 
SECTION 46. Loans to Directors or Executive Officers
 
23
 
ARTICLE XV
MISCELLANEOUS
 
23
 
SECTION 47. Annual Report
 
23
 
 
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AMENDED AND RESTATED
 
BYLAWS
 
OF
 
ADOBE INC.
 
ARTICLE I
 
OFFICES
 
SECTION 1. Registered Office. The registered office of the corporation in the State of Delaware shall be in the City of Wilmington, County of New Castle.
 
SECTION 2. Other Offices. The corporation shall also have and maintain an office or principal place of business at such place as may be fixed by the Board of Directors, and may also have offices at such other places, both within and without the State of Delaware as the Board of Directors may from time to time determine or the business of the corporation may require.
 
ARTICLE II
 
CORPORATE SEAL
 
SECTION 3. Corporate Seal. The corporate seal shall consist of a die bearing the name of the corporation and the inscription, “Corporate Seal-Delaware.” Said seal may be used by causing it or a facsimile thereof to be impressed or affixed or reproduced or otherwise.
 
ARTICLE III
 
STOCKHOLDERS’ MEETINGS
 
SECTION 4. Place of Meetings. Meetings of the stockholders of the corporation may be held at such place, either within or without the State of Delaware, as may be designated from time to time by the Board of Directors, or, if not so designated, then at the office of the corporation required to be maintained pursuant to Section 2. The Board of Directors may, in its sole discretion, determine that the meeting shall not be held at any place, but may instead be held solely by means of remote communication as provided under the Delaware General Corporation Law (the “DGCL”).
 
SECTION 5. Annual Meeting.

(a) The annual meeting of the stockholders of the corporation, for the purpose of election of directors and for such other business as may properly come before it, shall be held on such date and at such time as may be designated from time to time by the Board of Directors. At an annual meeting only such business shall be conducted as is a proper matter for stockholder action under the DGCL and as shall have been properly brought before the meeting. Matters may be properly brought before the annual meeting only as follows: (A) brought before the meeting and specified pursuant to the corporation’s notice of meeting of the stockholders, (B) otherwise brought specifically by or at the direction of the Board of Directors, (C) brought by any stockholder of the corporation who was a stockholder of record who is entitled to vote at the meeting and who complied with the notice procedures set forth in this Section 5; PROVIDED, that if such matter is proposed on behalf of a beneficial owner it may only be properly brought before the meeting if such beneficial owner was the beneficial owner of shares of the corporation at the time of the giving of the stockholder’s notice provided for in Section 5(b) below, or (D) with respect to director nominations, brought by any Eligible Holder (as defined in Section 6) whose Nominee (as defined in Section 6) is included in the corporation’s notice of meeting of stockholders and proxy statement for the relevant annual meeting of the stockholders. Clause (C) above shall be the exclusive means for a stockholder to make nominations and submit other business (other than matters properly included in the corporation’s notice of meeting of stockholders and proxy statement under Section 6 below or Rule 14a-8 under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the rules and regulations thereunder (the “1934 Act”)) before an annual meeting of the stockholders.
 
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(b) At an annual meeting of the stockholders, the following procedures shall apply in order for a matter to be properly brought before the meeting by a stockholder.
 
(i) For nominations for election to the Board of Directors to be properly brought before an annual meeting by a stockholder pursuant to clause (C) of Section 5(a), the stockholder must deliver written notice to the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the corporation on a timely basis as set forth in Section 5(b)(iii) and must update and supplement such written notice on a timely basis as set forth in Section 5(c). Such stockholder’s notice shall set forth: (A) as to each nominee such stockholder proposes to nominate at the meeting: (1) the name, age, business address and residence address of such nominee, (2) the principal occupation or employment of such nominee, (3) the class and number of shares of each class of capital stock of the corporation which are owned of record and beneficially by such nominee, (4) the date or dates on which such shares were acquired and the investment intent of such acquisition, (5) a statement whether such nominee, if elected, intends to tender promptly following such person’s failure to receive the required vote for election or re-election at the next meeting at which such person would face election or re-election, an irrevocable resignation effective upon acceptance of such resignation by the Board of Directors, in accordance with the corporation’s Corporate Governance Guidelines, (6) a statement whether such nominee, if elected, intends to comply with the corporation’s policies and procedures as applicable to members of the Board of Directors, including those set forth in the corporation’s Corporate Governance Guidelines, (7) with respect to each nominee for election or re-election to the Board of Directors, include a completed and signed questionnaire, representation and agreement required by Section 5(e), and (8) such other information concerning such nominee as would be required to be disclosed in a proxy statement soliciting proxies for the election of such nominee as a director in an election contest (even if an election contest is not involved), or that is otherwise required to be disclosed pursuant to Section 14 of the 1934 Act and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder (including such person’s written consent to being named as a nominee and to serving as a director if elected); and (B) the information required by Section 5(b)(iv). The corporation may require any proposed nominee to furnish such other information as it may reasonably require to determine the eligibility of such proposed nominee to serve as an independent director of the corporation or that could be material to a reasonable stockholder’s understanding of the independence, or lack thereof, of such proposed nominee.
 
(ii) For business other than nominations for election to the Board of Directors to be properly brought before an annual meeting by a stockholder pursuant to clause (C) of Section 5(a), the stockholder must deliver written notice to the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the corporation on a timely basis as set forth in Section 5(b)(iii), and must update and supplement such written notice on a timely basis as set forth in Section 5(c). Such stockholder’s notice shall set forth: (A) as to each matter such stockholder proposes to bring before the meeting, (1) a brief description of the business desired to be brought before the meeting and the reasons for conducting such business at such meeting, (2) the text of the proposal to be presented at the meeting, (3) a statement in support of the proposal, (4) a representation that such stockholder intends to appear in person, by remote communication, if applicable, or by proxy at the meeting to bring such business before the meeting, (5) the name and address, as they appear on the corporation’s books, of the stockholder proposing such business, (6) the class, series and number of shares of the corporation which are owned of record and beneficially owned by the stockholder, and (7) any material interest (including any anticipated benefit of such business to any Proponent (as defined below) other than solely as a result of its ownership of the corporation’s capital stock, that is material to any Proponent individually, or to the Proponents in the aggregate) in such business of any Proponent; and (B) the information required by Section 5(b)(iv).
 
(iii) To be timely, (A) the written notice required by Section 5(b)(i) must be received by the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the corporation not later than the close of business on the 90th day nor earlier than the close of business on the 120th day prior to the first anniversary of the date on which the corporation released its proxy materials to its stockholders for the prior year’s annual meeting of stockholders or any longer period provided for by applicable law and (B) the written notice required by Section 5(b)(ii) must be received by the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the corporation not later than the close of business on the 120th day nor earlier than the close of business on the 150th day prior to the first anniversary of the date on which the corporation released its proxy materials to its stockholders for the prior year’s annual meeting of stockholders or any longer period provided for by applicable law; provided, however, that in the event that the date of the annual meeting is advanced more than 30 days prior to or delayed by more than 30 days after the anniversary of the preceding year’s annual meeting, for notice by the stockholder required by Section 5(b)(i) or 5(b)(ii) to be timely, such stockholder’s written notice must be delivered to the Secretary not later than the close of business on the 90th day prior to such annual meeting or the 10th day following the day on which public announcement of the date of such meeting is first made, whichever is later. Notwithstanding the foregoing, in no event shall the public announcement of an adjournment or postponement of an annual meeting commence a new time period for the giving of a stockholder’s notice as described above.
 
(iv) The written notice required by Section 5(b)(i) or 5(b)(ii) shall also set forth, as of the date of the notice and as to the stockholder giving the notice and the beneficial owner, if any, on whose behalf the
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nomination or proposal is made (each, a “Proponent” and collectively, the “Proponents”): (A) the name and address of each Proponent, as they appear on the corporation’s books; (B) the class, series and number of shares of the corporation that are owned beneficially and of record by each Proponent; (C) a description of any agreement, arrangement or understanding (whether oral or in writing) with respect to such nomination or proposal between or among any Proponent and any of its affiliates or associates, and any others (including their names) acting in concert, or otherwise under the agreement, arrangement or understanding, with any of the foregoing; (D) a representation that the Proponents are holders of record or beneficial owners, as the case may be, of shares of the corporation entitled to vote at the meeting and intend to appear in person or by proxy at the meeting to nominate the person or persons specified in the notice (with respect to a notice under Section 5(b)(i)) or to propose the business that is specified in the notice (with respect to a notice under Section 5(b)(ii)); (E) a representation as to whether the Proponents intend to deliver a proxy statement and form of proxy to holders of a sufficient number of holders of the corporation’s voting shares to elect such nominee or nominees (with respect to a notice under Section 5(b)(i)) or to carry such proposal (with respect to a notice under Section 5(b)(ii)); (F) to the extent known by any Proponent, the name and address of any other stockholder supporting the proposal on the date of such stockholder’s notice; and (G) a description of all Derivative Transactions (as defined below) by each Proponent during the previous 12 month period, including the date of the transactions and the class, series and number of securities involved in, and the material economic terms of, such Derivative Transactions.
 
For purposes of Sections 5 and 7, a “Derivative Transaction” means any agreement, arrangement, interest or understanding entered into by, or on behalf or for the benefit of, any Proponent or any of its affiliates or associates, whether record or beneficial:
 
(w) the value of which is derived in whole or in part from the value of any class or series of shares or other securities of the corporation,
 
(x) which otherwise provides any direct or indirect opportunity to gain or share in any gain derived from a change in the value of securities of the corporation,
 
(y) the effect or intent of which is to mitigate loss, manage risk or benefit of security value or price changes, or
 
(z) which provides the right to vote or increase or decrease the voting power of, such Proponent, or any of its affiliates or associates, with respect to any securities of the corporation,

which agreement, arrangement, interest or understanding may include, without limitation, any option, warrant, debt position, note, bond, convertible security, swap, stock appreciation right, short position, profit interest, hedge, right to dividends, voting agreement, performance-related fee or arrangement to borrow or lend shares (whether or not subject to payment, settlement, exercise or conversion in any such class or series), and any proportionate interest of such Proponent in the securities of the corporation held by any general or limited partnership, or any limited liability company, of which such Proponent is, directly or indirectly, a general partner or managing member.
 
(c) A stockholder providing written notice required by Section 5(b)(i) or (ii) shall update and supplement such notice in writing, if necessary, so that the information provided or required to be provided in such notice is true and correct in all material respects as of (i) the record date for the meeting and (ii) as of the date that is 5 business days prior to the meeting and, in the event of any adjournment or postponement thereof, 5 business days prior to any adjournment or postponement thereof. In the case of an update and supplement pursuant to clause (i) of this Section 5(c), such update and supplement shall be received by the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the corporation not later than 5 business days after the record date for the meeting. In the case of an update and supplement pursuant to clause (ii) of this Section 5(c), such update and supplement shall be delivered to, or mailed and received by, the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the corporation not later than 2 business days prior to the date for the meeting, and, in the event of any adjournment or postponement thereof, 2 business days prior to any adjournment or postponement thereof.
 
(d) Notwithstanding anything in Section 5(b)(iii) to the contrary, in the event that the number of directors constituting the Board of Directors is increased and there is no public announcement of either (i) the appointment of a director to such vacancy or (ii) if no appointment was made, of such vacancy, made by the corporation at least 10 days before the last day a stockholder may deliver a notice of nomination in accordance with Section 5(b)(iii), a stockholder’s notice required by this Section 5 and which complies with the requirements in Section 5(b)(i), other than the timing requirements in Section 5(b)(iii), shall also be considered timely, but only with respect to nominees for any new positions in the Board of Directors created by such increase, if it shall be received by the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the corporation not later than the close of business on the 10th day following the day on which such public announcement is first made by the corporation.
 
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(e) To be eligible to be a nominee for election or re-election as a director of the corporation pursuant to a nomination under clause (C) of Section 5(a), such nominee or a person on his or her behalf must deliver (in accordance with the time periods prescribed for delivery of notice under Section 5(b)(iii) or Section 5(d), as applicable) to the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the corporation a written questionnaire with respect to the background and qualification of such nominee and the background of any other person or entity on whose behalf the nomination is being made (which questionnaire shall be provided by the Secretary upon written request) and a written representation and agreement (in the form provided by the Secretary upon written request) that such person (A) is not and will not become a party to (i) any agreement, arrangement or understanding with, and has not given any commitment or assurance to, any person or entity as to how such person, if elected as a director of the corporation, will act or vote on any issue or question (a “Voting Commitment”) that has not been disclosed to the corporation in the questionnaire or (ii) any Voting Commitment that could limit or interfere with such person’s ability to comply, if elected as a director of the corporation, with such person’s fiduciary duties under applicable law; (B) is not and will not become a party to any agreement, arrangement or understanding with any person or entity other than the corporation with respect to any direct or indirect compensation, reimbursement or indemnification in connection with service or action as a director of the corporation that has not been disclosed therein; and (C) in such person’s individual capacity and on behalf of any person or entity on whose behalf the nomination is being made, would be in compliance, if elected as a director of the corporation, and will comply with, all applicable publicly disclosed corporate governance, code of conduct, conflict of interest, confidentiality and stock ownership and trading policies and guidelines of the corporation.
 
(f) A person shall not be eligible for election or re-election as a director unless the person is nominated either in accordance with Section 6 or clause (A), (B) or (C) of Section 5(a). Except as otherwise required by law, the chairman of the meeting shall have the power and duty to determine whether a nomination or any business proposed to be brought before the meeting was made, or proposed, as the case may be, in accordance with the procedures set forth in these Bylaws and, if any proposed nomination or business is not in compliance with these Bylaws, to declare that such defective proposal or nomination shall not be presented for stockholder action at the meeting and shall be disregarded. Notwithstanding anything in these Bylaws to the contrary, unless otherwise required by law, if a stockholder intending to make a nomination at a meeting pursuant to Section 6 or Section 5(b)(i) or to propose business at a meeting pursuant to Section 5(b)(ii) does not provide the information in the stockholder’s notice required under Section 6, Section 5(b)(i) or 5(b)(ii), as applicable, within the applicable time periods specified in Section 6 or this Section 5 (including any update and supplement required under Section 5(c)), or the stockholder (or a qualified representative of the stockholder) does not appear at the meeting to make such nomination or to propose such business, or the Proponents shall not have acted in accordance with the representations required under Section 6 or Section 5(b)(iv)(E), such nomination or proposal shall not be presented for stockholder action at the meeting and shall be disregarded, as determined by the chairman of the meeting as described above, notwithstanding that proxies in respect of such nominations or such business may have been solicited or received.

(g) In order to include information with respect to a stockholder proposal in the proxy statement and form of proxy for a stockholders’ meeting, a stockholder must also comply with all applicable requirements of the 1934 Act and the rules and regulations thereunder. Nothing in these Bylaws shall be deemed to affect any rights of stockholders to request inclusion of proposals in the corporation’s proxy statement pursuant to Rule 14a-8 under the 1934 Act; provided, however, that any references in these Bylaws to the 1934 Act or the rules and regulations thereunder are not intended to and shall not limit the requirements applicable to proposals and/or nominations to be considered pursuant to Section 5(a) clause (C).
 
 For purposes of Sections 5, 6 and 7,
 
(y) “public announcement” shall mean disclosure in a press release reported by the Dow Jones News Service, Associated Press, Business Wire or comparable national news service or in a document publicly filed by the corporation with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) pursuant to Section 13, 14 or 15(d) of the 1934 Act; and
 
(z) “affiliates” and “associates” shall have the meanings set forth in Rule 405 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.

    SECTION 6. Proxy Access for Director Nominations.

(a) Inclusion of Nominees in Proxy Statement. Subject to the provisions of this Section 6, if expressly requested in the relevant Nomination Notice (as defined below), the corporation shall include in its proxy statement for any annual meeting of the stockholders:

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(i) the names of any person or persons nominated for election (each, a “Nominee”), which shall also be included on the corporation’s form of proxy and ballot, by any Eligible Holder (as defined below) or group of up to 20 Eligible Holders that has (individually and collectively, in the case of a group) satisfied, as determined by the Board of Directors, all applicable conditions and complied with all applicable procedures set forth in this Section 6 (such Eligible Holder or group of Eligible Holders being a “Nominating Stockholder”);

(ii) disclosure about each Nominee and the Nominating Stockholder required under the rules of the SEC or other applicable law to be included in the proxy statement;

(iii) any statement included by the Nominating Stockholder in the Nomination Notice for inclusion in the corporation’s proxy statement in support of each Nominee’s election to the Board of Directors (subject, without limitation, to Section 6(e)(ii)), if such statement does not exceed 500 words and fully complies with Section 14 of the 1934 Act and the rules and regulations thereunder, including Rule 14a-9 (the “Supporting Statement”); and

(iv) any other information that the corporation or the Board of Directors determines, in their discretion, to include in the proxy statement relating to the nomination of the Nominee, including, without limitation, any statement in opposition to the nomination and any of the information provided pursuant to this Section 6 and any solicitation materials or related information with respect to a Nominee.

For purposes of this Section 6, any determination to be made by the Board of Directors may be made by the Board of Directors, a committee of the Board of Directors or any officer of the corporation designated by the Board of Directors or a committee of the Board of Directors, and any such determination shall be final and binding on the corporation, any Eligible Holder, any Nominating Stockholder, any Nominee and any other person so long as made in good faith (without any further requirements). The chairman of any annual meeting of the stockholders, in addition to making any other determinations that may be appropriate to the conduct of the meeting, shall have the power and duty to determine whether a Nominee has been nominated in accordance with the requirements of this Section 6 and, if not so nominated, shall direct and declare at the meeting that such Nominee shall not be considered.

(b) Maximum Number of Nominees.

(i) The Company shall not be required to include in the proxy statement for an annual meeting of the stockholders more Nominees than that number of directors constituting the greater of (i) two or (ii) 20% of the total number of directors of the corporation on the last day on which a Nomination Notice may be submitted pursuant to this Section 6 (rounded down to the nearest whole number) (the “Maximum Number”). The Maximum Number for a particular annual meeting shall be reduced by: (1) Nominees that the Board of Directors itself decides to nominate for election at such annual meeting; (2) Nominees who cease to satisfy, or Nominees of Nominating Stockholders that cease to satisfy, the eligibility requirements in this Section 6, as determined by the Board of Directors; (3) Nominees whose nomination is withdrawn by the Nominating Stockholder or who became unwilling to serve on the Board of Directors; and (4) the number of incumbent directors who had been Nominees with respect to any of the preceding two annual meetings of stockholders and whose reelection at the upcoming annual meeting is being recommended by the Board of Directors. In the event that one or more vacancies for any reason occurs on the Board of Directors after the deadline for submitting a Nomination Notice as set forth in Section 6(d) below but before the date of the annual meeting, and the Board of Directors resolves to reduce the size of the board in connection therewith, the Maximum Number shall be calculated based on the number of directors in office as so reduced.

(ii) If the number of Nominees pursuant to this Section 6 for any annual meeting of the stockholders exceeds the Maximum Number then, promptly upon notice from the corporation, each Nominating Stockholder will select one Nominee for inclusion in the proxy statement until the Maximum Number is reached, going in order of the amount (largest to smallest) of the ownership position as disclosed in each Nominating Stockholder’s Nomination Notice, with the process repeated if the Maximum Number is not reached after each Nominating Stockholder has selected one Nominee. If, after the deadline for submitting a Nomination Notice as set forth in Section 6(d), a Nominating Stockholder or a Nominee ceases to satisfy the eligibility requirements in this Section 6, as determined by the Board of Directors, a Nominating Stockholder withdraws its nomination or a Nominee becomes unwilling to serve on the Board of Directors, whether before or after the mailing or other distribution of the corporation’s proxy statement, then the nomination shall be disregarded, and the corporation: (1) shall not be required to include in its proxy statement or on any ballot or form of proxy the disregarded Nominee or any successor or replacement nominee proposed by the Nominating Stockholder or by any other Nominating Stockholder and (2) may otherwise communicate to its stockholders, including without limitation by amending or supplementing its proxy statement or ballot or form of proxy, that a Nominee will not be included as a nominee in the proxy statement or on any ballot or form of proxy and will not be voted on at the annual meeting.

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(c) Eligibility of Nominating Stockholder.

(i) An “Eligible Holder” is a person who has either (1) been a record holder of the shares of common stock used to satisfy the eligibility requirements in this Section 6(c) continuously for the 3-year period specified in Section 6(c)(ii) below or (2) provides to the Secretary of the corporation, within the time period referred to in Section 6(d), evidence of continuous ownership of such shares for such 3-year period from one or more securities intermediaries in a form that the Board of Directors determines would be deemed acceptable for purposes of a stockholder proposal under Rule 14a-8(b)(2) under the 1934 Act (or any successor rule).

(ii) An Eligible Holder or group of up to 20 Eligible Holders may submit a nomination in accordance with this Section 6 only if the person or group (in the aggregate) has continuously owned at least the Minimum Number (as defined below) of shares of the corporation’s common stock throughout the 3-year period preceding and including the date of submission of the Nomination Notice, and continues to own at least the Minimum Number through the date of the annual meeting. Two or more funds that are (x) under common management and investment control, (y) under common management and funded primarily by a single employer or (z) a “group of investment companies,” as such term is defined in Section 12(d)(1)(G)(ii) of the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended, shall be treated as one Eligible Holder if such Eligible Holder shall provide together with the Nomination Notice documentation reasonably satisfactory to the corporation that demonstrates that the funds meet the criteria set forth in (x), (y) or (z) hereof. For the avoidance of doubt, in the event of a nomination by a group of Eligible Holders, any and all requirements and obligations for an individual Eligible Holder that are set forth in this Section 6, including the minimum holding period, shall apply to each member of such group; provided, however, that the Minimum Number shall apply to the ownership of the group in the aggregate. Should any stockholder cease to satisfy the eligibility requirements in this Section 6, as determined by the Board of Directors, or withdraw from a group of Eligible Holders at any time prior to the annual meeting of the stockholders, the group of Eligible Stockholders shall only be deemed to own the shares held by the remaining members of the group.

(iii) The “Minimum Number” of shares of the corporation’s common stock means 3% of the number of outstanding shares of common stock as of the most recent date for which such amount is given in any filing by the corporation with the SEC prior to the submission of the Nomination Notice.

For purposes of this Section 6, an Eligible Holder “owns” only those outstanding shares of the corporation as to which the Eligible Holder possesses both:

(y) the full voting and investment rights pertaining to the shares; and

(z) the full economic interest in (including the opportunity for profit and risk of loss on) such shares;

provided that the number of shares calculated in accordance with clauses (A) and (B) shall not include any shares: (1) purchased or sold by such Eligible Holder or any of its affiliates in any transaction that has not been settled or closed, (2) sold short by such Eligible Holder, (3) borrowed by such Eligible Holder or any of its affiliates for any purpose or purchased by such Eligible Holder or any of its affiliates pursuant to an agreement to resell or subject to any other obligation to resell to another person, or (4) subject to any option, warrant, forward contract, swap, contract of sale, other derivative or similar agreement entered into by such Eligible Holder or any of its affiliates, whether any such instrument or agreement is to be settled with shares or with cash based on the notional amount or value of outstanding shares of the corporation, in any such case which instrument or agreement has, or is intended to have, the purpose or effect of: (x) reducing in any manner, to any extent or at any time in the future, such Eligible Holder’s or any of its affiliates’ full right to vote or direct the voting of any such shares, and/or (y) hedging, offsetting, or altering to any degree, gain or loss arising from the full economic ownership of such shares by such Eligible Holder or any of its affiliates.

An Eligible Holder “owns” shares held in the name of a nominee or other intermediary so long as the Eligible Holder retains the right to instruct how the shares are voted with respect to the election of directors and possesses the full economic interest in the shares. An Eligible Holder’s ownership of shares shall be deemed to continue during any period in which the Eligible Holder has delegated any voting power by means of a proxy, power of attorney, or other similar instrument or arrangement that is revocable at any time by the Eligible Holder. An Eligible Holder’s ownership of shares shall be deemed to continue during any period in which the Eligible Holder has loaned such shares provided that the Eligible Holder has the power to recall such loaned shares on 5 business days’ notice, has recalled such loaned shares as of the date of the Nomination Notice, continues to hold such shares through the date of the annual meeting and will vote such shares at the annual meeting. Whether outstanding shares of the corporation are “owned” for these purposes shall be determined by the Board.

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(iv) No Eligible Holder shall be permitted to be in more than one group constituting a Nominating Stockholder, and if any Eligible Holder appears as a member of more than one group, such person shall be deemed to be a member of the group that has the largest ownership position as reflected in the Nomination Notice.

(d) Nomination Notice. To nominate a Nominee, the Nominating Stockholder must, no earlier than 150 calendar days and no later than 120 calendar days before the anniversary of the date that the corporation mailed its proxy statement for the prior year’s annual meeting of the stockholders, submit to the Secretary of the corporation at the principal executive office of the corporation all of the following information and documents (collectively, the “Nomination Notice”); provided, however, that if (and only if) the annual meeting is not scheduled to be held within a period that commences 30 days before such anniversary date and ends 30 days after such anniversary date (an annual meeting date outside such period being referred to herein as an “Other Meeting Date”), the Nomination Notice shall be given in the manner provided herein by the later of the close of business on the date that is 90 days prior to such Other Meeting Date or the 10th day following the date such Other Meeting Date is first publicly announced or disclosed:

(i) A Schedule 14N (or any successor form) relating to each Nominee, completed and filed with the SEC by the Nominating Stockholder as applicable, in accordance with SEC rules;

(ii) A written notice, in a form deemed satisfactory by the Board of Directors, of the nomination of each Nominee that includes the following additional information, agreements, representations and warranties by the Nominating Stockholder (including each group member):

(A) the information required with respect to the nomination of directors pursuant to Section 5(b)(i);

(B) the details of any relationship that existed within the past 3 years and that would have been described pursuant to Item 6(e) of Schedule 14N (or any successor item) if it existed on the date of submission of the Schedule 14N;

(C) a representation and warranty that the Nominating Stockholder acquired the securities of the corporation in the ordinary course of business and did not acquire, and is not holding, securities of the corporation for the purpose or with the effect of influencing or changing control of the corporation;

(D) a representation and warranty that each Nominee’s candidacy or, if elected, Board membership would not violate applicable state or federal law or the rules of any stock exchange on which the corporation’s securities are traded;

(E) a representation and warranty that each Nominee:

(1) does not have any direct or indirect relationship with the corporation that would cause the Nominee to be considered not independent pursuant to the corporation’s Corporate Governance Guidelines as most recently published on its website and otherwise qualifies as independent under the rules of the primary stock exchange on which the corporation’s shares of common stock are traded;

(2) meets the audit committee and compensation committee independence requirements under the rules of the primary stock exchange on which the corporation’s shares of common stock are traded;

(3) is a “non-employee director” for the purposes of Rule 16b-3 under the Exchange Act (or any successor rule);

(4) is an “outside director” for the purposes of Section 162(m) of the Internal Revenue Code (or any successor provision); and

(5) is not and has not been subject to any event specified in Rule 506(d)(1) of Regulation D (or any successor rule) under the Securities Act of 1933 or Item 401(f) of Regulation S-K (or any successor rule) under the 1934 Act, without reference to whether the event is material to an evaluation of the ability or integrity of such Nominee;
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(F) a representation and warranty that the Nominating Stockholder satisfies the eligibility requirements set forth in Section 6(c) and has provided evidence of ownership to the extent required by Section 6(c)(i);

(G) a representation and warranty that the Nominating Stockholder intends to continue to satisfy the eligibility requirements described in Section 6(c) through the date of the annual meeting of the stockholders;

(H) details of any position of a Nominee as an officer or director of any competitor (that is, any entity that produces products or provides services that compete with or are alternatives to the principal products produced or services provided by the corporation or its affiliates) of the corporation, within the 3 years preceding the submission of the Nomination Notice;

(I) a representation and warranty that the Nominating Stockholder will not engage in a “solicitation” within the meaning of Rule 14a-1(l) (without reference to the exception in Section 14a-1(l)(2)(iv)) (or any successor rules) with respect to the annual meeting of the stockholders, other than with respect to a Nominee or any nominee of the Board;

(J) a representation and warranty that the Nominating Stockholder will not use any proxy card or ballot other than the corporation’s proxy card or ballot in soliciting stockholders in connection with the election of a Nominee at the annual meeting of the stockholders;

(K) if desired, a Supporting Statement; and

(L) in the case of a nomination by a group, the designation by all group members of one group member that is authorized to act on behalf of all group members with respect to matters relating to the nomination, including withdrawal of the nomination;

(iii) An executed agreement, in a form deemed satisfactory by the Board of Directors, pursuant to which the Nominating Stockholder (including each group member) agrees:

(A) to comply with all applicable laws, rules and regulations in connection with the nomination, solicitation and election;

(B) to file any written solicitation or other communication with the corporation’s stockholders relating to one or more of the corporation’s directors or director nominees or any Nominee with the SEC, regardless of whether any such filing is required under rule or regulation or whether any exemption from filing is available for such materials under any rule or regulation;

(C) to assume all liability stemming from an action, suit or proceeding concerning any actual or alleged legal or regulatory violation arising out of any communication by the Nominating Stockholder or any of its Nominees with the corporation, its stockholders or any other person in connection with the nomination or election of directors, including, without limitation, the Nomination Notice;

(D) to indemnify and hold harmless (jointly with all other group members, in the case of a group member) the corporation and each of its directors, officers and employees individually against any liability, loss, damages, expenses or other costs (including attorneys’ fees) incurred in connection with any threatened or pending action, suit or proceeding, whether legal, administrative or investigative, against the corporation or any of its directors, officers or employees arising out of or relating to a failure or alleged failure of the Nominating Stockholder or any of its Nominees to comply with, or any breach or alleged breach of, their obligations, agreements or representations under this Section 6;

(E) in the event that any information included in the Nomination Notice, or any other communication by the Nominating Stockholder (including with respect to any
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group member), with the corporation, its stockholders or any other person in connection with the nomination or election ceases to be true and accurate in all material respects (or omits a material fact necessary to make the statements made not misleading), or that the Nominating Stockholder (including any group member) has failed to continue to satisfy the eligibility requirements described in Section 6(c), to promptly (and in any event within 48 hours of discovering such misstatement, omission or failure) notify the corporation and any other recipient of such communication of (A) the misstatement or omission in such previously provided information and of the information that is required to correct the misstatement or omission or (B) such failure; and

(iv) An executed agreement, in a form deemed satisfactory by the Board of Directors, by each Nominee:

(A) to provide to the corporation such other information and certifications, including completion of the corporation’s director questionnaire, as it may reasonably request;

(B) at the reasonable request of the Nominating and Governance Committee, to meet with the Nominating and Governance Committee to discuss matters relating to the nomination of such Nominee to the Board of Directors, including the information provided by such Nominee to the corporation in connection with his or her nomination and such Nominee’s eligibility to serve as a member of the Board of Directors;

(C) that such Nominee has read and agrees, if elected, to serve as a member of the Board of Directors, to adhere to the corporation’s Corporate Governance Guidelines and Code of Business Conduct and any other Company policies and guidelines applicable to directors; and

(D) that such Nominee is not and will not become a party to (i) any compensatory, payment or other financial agreement, arrangement or understanding with any person or entity in connection with his or her nomination, service or action as a director of the corporation that has not been disclosed to the corporation, (ii) any agreement, arrangement or understanding with any person or entity as to how such Nominee would vote or act on any issue or question as a director (a “Voting Commitment”) that has not been disclosed to the corporation or (iii) any Voting Commitment that could limit or interfere with such Nominee’s ability to comply, if elected as a director of the corporation, with its fiduciary duties under applicable law.

The information and documents required by this Section 6(d) to be provided by the Nominating Stockholder shall be: (i) provided with respect to and executed by each group member, in the case of information applicable to group members; and (ii) provided with respect to the persons specified in Instruction 1 to Items 6(c) and (d) of Schedule 14N (or any successor item) in the case of a Nominating Stockholder or group member that is an entity. The Nomination Notice shall be deemed submitted on the date on which all the information and documents referred to in this Section 6(d) (other than such information and documents contemplated to be provided after the date the Nomination Notice is provided) have been delivered to or, if sent by mail, received by the Secretary of the corporation.

(e) Exceptions.

(i) Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in this Section 6, the corporation may omit from its proxy statement any Nominee and any information concerning such Nominee (including a Nominating Stockholder’s Supporting Statement) and no vote on such Nominee will occur (notwithstanding that proxies in respect of such vote may have been received by the corporation), and the Nominating Stockholder may not, after the last day on which a Nomination Notice would be timely, cure in any way any defect preventing the nomination of such Nominee, if:

(A) the corporation receives a notice pursuant to Section 5(b)(i) that a stockholder intends to nominate a candidate for director at the annual meeting of the stockholders, whether or not such notice is subsequently withdrawn or made the subject of a settlement with the corporation;

(B) the Nominating Stockholder or the designated lead group member, as applicable, or any qualified representative thereof, does not appear at the meeting of
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stockholders to present the nomination submitted pursuant to this Section 6 or the Nominating Stockholder withdraws its nomination or the chairman of the annual meeting declares that such nomination was not made in accordance with the procedures prescribed by this Section 6 and shall therefore be disregarded;

(C) the Board of Directors determines that such Nominee’s nomination or election to the Board of Directors would result in the corporation violating or failing to be in compliance with the corporation’s bylaws or certificate of incorporation or any applicable law, rule or regulation to which the corporation is subject, including any rules or regulations of the primary stock exchange on which the corporation’s common stock is traded;

(D) such Nominee has been, within the past 3 years, an officer or director of a competitor, as defined for purposes of Section 8 of the Clayton Antitrust Act of 1914, as amended;

(E) the corporation is notified, or the Board of Directors determines, that the Nominating Stockholder or the Nominee has failed to continue to satisfy the eligibility requirements described in Section 6(c), any of the representations and warranties made in the Nomination Notice ceases to be true and accurate in all material respects (or omits a material fact necessary to make the statements made not misleading), such Nominee becomes unwilling or unable to serve on the Board of Directors or any material violation or breach occurs of the obligations, agreements, representations or warranties of the Nominating Stockholder or such Nominee under this Section 6; or

(F) the Nominating Stockholder does not expressly elect, at the time of providing the notice required by Section 6(d), to have the Nominee included in the corporation’s proxy statement pursuant to this Section 6.

(ii) Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in this Section 6, the corporation may omit from its proxy statement, or may supplement or correct, any information, including all or any portion of the Supporting Statement or any other statement in support of a Nominee included in the Nomination Notice, if the Board of Directors determines that:

(A) such information is not true in all material respects or omits a material statement necessary to make the statements made not misleading;

(B) such information directly or indirectly impugns the character, integrity or personal reputation of, or directly or indirectly makes charges concerning improper, illegal or immoral conduct or associations, without factual foundation, with respect to, any person; or

(C) the inclusion of such information in the proxy statement would otherwise violate the SEC proxy rules or any other applicable law, rule or regulation.

The corporation may solicit against, and include in the proxy statement its own statement relating to, any Nominee.

SECTION 7. Special Meetings.

(a) Special meetings of the stockholders of the corporation may be called, for any purpose or purposes, by (i) the Chairman of the Board of Directors, (ii) the Chief Executive Officer, (iii) the Board of Directors pursuant to a resolution adopted by a majority of the total number of authorized directors (whether or not there exist any vacancies in previously authorized directorships at the time any such resolution is presented to the Board of Directors for adoption), or (iv) so long as required under the corporation’s Certificate of Incorporation, by the holders of shares entitled to cast not less than 10% of the votes at the meeting, provided that such written request is in compliance with the requirements of Section 7(b) (“Stockholder-Requested Meeting”). A request to call a special meeting pursuant to Section 7(a)(iv) shall not be valid unless made in accordance with the requirements and procedures set forth in this Section 7. Except as may otherwise be required by law, the Board of Directors shall determine, in its sole judgment, the validity of any request under Section 7(a)(iv), including whether such request was properly made in compliance with these Bylaws.
 
(b) For a special meeting called pursuant to Section 7(a), the Board of Directors shall determine the time and place of such special meeting, subject to the provisions below with respect to a Stockholder-Requested
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Meeting. Following determination of the time and place of the meeting, the Secretary shall cause a notice of meeting to be given to the stockholders entitled to vote, in accordance with the provisions of Section 8. For a Stockholder-Requested Meeting, the request shall (i) be in writing, signed and dated by the stockholders who have who delivered the written request for the special meeting, (ii) set forth the purpose of calling the special meeting and include the information required by the stockholder’s notice as set forth in Section 5(b)(i), including the questionnaire, representation and agreement required by Section 5(e) (for nominations for the election to the Board of Directors) and in Section 5(b)(ii) (for the proposal of business other than nominations), (iii) be delivered personally or sent by certified or registered mail, return receipt requested, to the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the corporation. The stockholder shall also update and supplement such information as required under Section 5(c). If the Board of Directors determines that a request pursuant to Section 7(a)(iv) is valid, the Board shall determine the time and place, if any, of a Stockholder-Requested Meeting, which time shall be not less than 90 nor more than 120 days after the receipt of such request, and shall set a record date for the determination of stockholders entitled to vote at such meeting in the manner set forth in Section 37. No business may be transacted at a special meeting, including a Stockholder-Requested Meeting, otherwise than as specified in the notice of meeting. Notwithstanding anything to the contrary herein, nominations made pursuant to Section 6 may not be made in connection with a special meeting of stockholders called pursuant to this Section 7.
 
(c) Nominations of persons for election to the Board of Directors may be made at a special meeting of stockholders at which directors are to be elected (i) by or at the direction of the Board of Directors or (ii) by any stockholder of the corporation who is a stockholder of record at the time of giving notice provided for in this paragraph, who shall be entitled to vote at the meeting and who delivers written notice to the Secretary of the corporation setting forth the information required by Section 5(b)(i); PROVIDED, that if such nominee is proposed on behalf of a beneficial owner it may only be properly brought before the meeting, if such beneficial owner was the beneficial owner of shares of the corporation at the time of giving notice provided for in this paragraph. In the event the corporation calls a special meeting of stockholders for the purpose of electing one or more directors to the Board of Directors, any such stockholder of record may nominate a person or persons (as the case may be), for election to such position(s) as specified in the corporation’s notice of meeting, if written notice setting forth the information required by Section 5(b)(i) shall be received by the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the corporation no later than the close of business on the later of the 90th day prior to such meeting or 10th day following the day on which public announcement is first made of the date of the special meeting and of the nominees proposed by the Board of Directors to be elected at such meeting. The stockholder shall also update and supplement such information as required under Section 5(c). In no event shall the public announcement of an adjournment or postponement of a special meeting commence a new time period for the giving of a stockholder’s notice as described above.
 
(d) Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this Section 7, a stockholder must also comply with all applicable requirements of the 1934 Act and the rules and regulations thereunder with respect to matters set forth in this Section 7. Nothing in these Bylaws shall be deemed to affect any rights of stockholders to request inclusion of proposals in the corporation’s proxy statement pursuant to Rule 14a-8 under the 1934 Act; provided, however, that any references in these Bylaws to the 1934 Act or the rules and regulations thereunder are not intended to and shall not limit the requirements applicable to nominations for the election to the Board of Directors and/or proposals of other business to be considered pursuant to Section 7(a)(iv) or Section 7(c).
 
SECTION 8. Notice of Meetings. Except as otherwise provided by law or the Certificate of Incorporation, notice, given in writing or by electronic transmission, of each meeting of stockholders shall be given not less than 10 days nor more than 60 days before the date of the meeting to each stockholder entitled to vote at such meeting, such notice to specify the place, if any, date and hour and purpose or purposes of the meeting, and the means of remote communications, if any, by which stockholders and proxy holders may be deemed to be present in person and vote at any such meeting. If mailed, notice is given when deposited in the United States mail, postage prepaid, directed to the stockholder at such stockholder’s address as it appears on the records of the corporation. Notice of the time, place, if any, and purpose of any meeting of stockholders may be waived in writing, signed by the person entitled to notice thereof, or by electronic transmission by such person, either before or after such meeting, and will be waived by any stockholder by his attendance thereat in person, by remote communication, if applicable, or by proxy, except when the stockholder attends a meeting for the express purpose of objecting, at the beginning of the meeting, to the transaction of any business because the meeting is not lawfully called or convened. Any stockholder so waiving notice of such meeting shall be bound by the proceedings of any such meeting in all respects as if due notice thereof had been given.
 
SECTION 9. Quorum; Vote Required. At all meetings of stockholders, except where otherwise provided by statute or by the Certificate of Incorporation, or by these Bylaws, the presence, in person, by remote communication, if applicable, or by proxy duly authorized, of the holders of a majority of the outstanding shares of stock entitled to vote shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business. In the absence of a quorum, any meeting of stockholders may be adjourned, from time to time, either by the chairman of the meeting or by vote of the holders of a majority of the shares represented thereat, but no other business shall be transacted at such meeting. The
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stockholders present at a duly called or convened meeting, at which a quorum is present, may continue to transact business until adjournment, notwithstanding the withdrawal of enough stockholders to leave less than a quorum. Except as otherwise provided by law or by applicable stock exchange or Nasdaq rules, or by the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws, all action taken by the holders of a majority of the vote cast, excluding abstentions, at any meeting at which a quorum is present shall be valid and binding upon the corporation. PROVIDED, HOWEVER, that directors shall be elected in accordance with Section 16 by a vote of the shares present in person, by remote communication, if applicable, or represented by proxy at the meeting and entitled to vote on the election of directors. Where a separate vote by a class or classes or series is required, except where otherwise provided by the statute or by the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws, a majority of the outstanding shares of such class or classes or series, present in person, by remote communication, if applicable, or represented by proxy, shall constitute a quorum entitled to take action with respect to that vote on that matter and, except where otherwise provided by the statute or by the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws, the affirmative vote of the majority (and, in the case of the election of directors in accordance with Section 16) of the votes cast, including abstentions, by the holders of shares of such class or classes or series shall be the act of such class or classes or series.

SECTION 10. Adjournment and Notice of Adjourned Meetings. Any meeting of stockholders, whether annual or special, may be adjourned from time to time either by the chairman of the meeting or by the vote of a majority of the shares casting votes, excluding abstentions. When a meeting is adjourned to another time or place, if any, notice need not be given of the adjourned meeting if the time and place, if any, thereof are announced at the meeting at which the adjournment is taken. At the adjourned meeting, the corporation may transact any business, which might have been transacted at the original meeting. If the adjournment is for more than 30 days or if after the adjournment a new record date is fixed for the adjourned meeting, a notice of the adjourned meeting shall be given to each stockholder of record entitled to vote at the meeting.
 
SECTION 11. Voting Rights. For the purpose of determining those stockholders entitled to vote at any meeting of the stockholders, except as otherwise provided by law, only persons in whose names shares stand on the stock records of the corporation on the record date, as provided in Section 13, shall be entitled to vote at any meeting of stockholders. Every person entitled to vote shall have the right to do so either in person, by remote communication, if applicable, or by an agent or agents authorized by a proxy granted in accordance with Delaware Law. An agent so appointed need not be a stockholder. No proxy shall be voted after 3 years from its date of creation unless the proxy provides for a longer period.
 
SECTION 12. Joint Owners of Stock. If shares or other securities having voting power stand of record in the names of 2 or more persons, whether fiduciaries, members of a partnership, joint tenants, tenants in common, tenants by the entirety, or otherwise, or if 2 or more persons have the same fiduciary relationship respecting the same shares, unless the Secretary is given written notice to the contrary and is furnished with a copy of the instrument or order appointing them or creating the relationship wherein it is so provided, their acts with respect to voting shall have the following effect: (a) if only 1 votes, his or her act binds all; (b) if more than 1 votes, the act of the majority so voting binds all; (c) if more than 1 votes, but the vote is evenly split on any particular matter, each faction may vote the securities in question proportionally, or may apply to the Delaware Court of Chancery for relief as provided in DGCL Section 217(b). If the instrument filed with the Secretary shows that any such tenancy is held in unequal interests, a majority or even-split for the purpose of subsection (c) shall be a majority or even-split in interest.
 
SECTION 13. List of Stockholders. The Secretary shall prepare and make, at least 10 days before every meeting of stockholders, a complete list of the stockholders entitled to vote at said meeting, arranged in alphabetical order, showing the address of each stockholder and the number of shares registered in the name of each stockholder. Such list shall be open to the examination of any stockholder, for any purpose germane to the meeting, for a period of at least 10 days prior to the meeting (a) on a reasonably accessible electronic network, provided that the information required to gain access to such list is provided with the notice of the meeting, or (b) during ordinary business hours, at the principal place of business of the corporation. In the event that the corporation determines to make the list available on an electronic network, the corporation may take reasonable steps to ensure that such information is available only to stockholders of the corporation. The list shall be open to examination of any stockholder during the time of the meeting as provided by law.
 
SECTION 14. Action Without Meeting. No action shall be taken by the stockholders except at an annual or special meeting of stockholders called in accordance with these Bylaws, and no action shall be taken by the stockholders by written consent.
 
SECTION 15. Organization.

(a) At every meeting of stockholders, one of the directors designated as a Chairman of the Board of Directors, or if no directors have been so designated or such directors are absent, the Chief Executive Officer, or
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if the Chief Executive has not been appointed or is absent, the President designated by the Board of Directors to act as chairman, or, if such President is absent, a chairman of the meeting chosen by a majority in interest of the stockholders entitled to vote, present in person, by remote communication, if applicable, or by proxy, shall act as chairman. The Secretary, or, in his or her absence, an Assistant Secretary directed to do so by the Chief Executive Officer, shall act as secretary of the meeting.
 
(b) The Board of Directors of the corporation shall be entitled to make such rules or regulations for the conduct of meetings of stockholders as it shall deem necessary, appropriate or convenient. Subject to such rules and regulations of the Board of Directors, if any, the chairman of the meeting shall have the right and authority to prescribe such rules, regulations and procedures and to do all such acts as, in the judgment of such chairman, are necessary, appropriate or convenient for the proper conduct of the meeting, including, without limitation, establishing an agenda or order of business for the meeting, making a determination concerning whether business is properly brought before the meeting, rules and procedures for maintaining order at the meeting and the safety of those present, limitations on participation in such meeting to stockholders of record of the corporation and their duly authorized and constituted proxies and such other persons as the chairman shall permit, restrictions on entry to the meeting after the time fixed for the commencement thereof, limitations on the time allotted to questions or comments by participants and regulation of the opening and closing of the polls for balloting on matters which are to be voted on by ballot. Unless and to the extent determined by the Board of Directors or the chairman of the meeting, meetings of stockholders shall not be required to be held in accordance with rules of parliamentary procedure.
 
ARTICLE IV
 
DIRECTORS
 
SECTION 16. Number and Term of Office. The authorized number of directors of the corporation shall be fixed in accordance with the Certificate of Incorporation. Except as provided in Section 18 of this Article IV, a nominee for director shall be elected to the Board of Directors if the votes cast for such nominee’s election exceed the votes cast against such nominee’s election (excluding the effect of any abstentions with respect to that nominee’s election); provided, however, that directors shall be elected by a plurality of the votes cast at any meeting of stockholders for which (i) the Secretary of the corporation receives a notice that a stockholder or Eligible Stockholder, as applicable, has nominated a person for election to the Board of Directors in compliance with the advance notice requirements for stockholder nominees for director set forth in Article III, Section 5(b)(iii) or the proxy access requirements set forth in Article III, Section 6 and (ii) on or before the 10th day before the corporation first mails its notice of meeting for such meeting to the stockholders, such nomination has not been withdrawn by such stockholder or Eligible Stockholder or determined not to be valid and effective, with such determination to be made by the Board of Directors (or a designated committee thereof) or, if challenged in court, by final court order. Directors need not be stockholders unless so required by the Certificate of Incorporation. If for any cause, the directors shall not have been elected at an annual meeting, they may be elected as soon thereafter as convenient at a special meeting of the stockholders called for that purpose in the manner provided in these Bylaws. All directors shall be elected to hold office for a term expiring at the next annual meeting of stockholders.
 
SECTION 17. Powers.

(a) General. The powers of the corporation shall be exercised, its business conducted and its property controlled by the Board of Directors, except as may be otherwise provided by statute or by the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws.
 
(b) Chairman of the Board of Directors. The Board may designate one or more directors to serve as a Chairman of the Board of Directors. A director designated as a Chairman of the Board of Directors, when present, shall preside at all meetings of the stockholders and the Board of Directors. Each Chairman of the Board of Directors shall perform such other duties and have such other powers as the Board of Directors shall designate from time to time.
 
 
SECTION 18. Vacancies. Unless otherwise provided in the Certificate of Incorporation, any vacancies on the Board of Directors resulting from death, resignation, disqualification, removal or other causes and any newly created directorships resulting from any increase in the number of directors, shall, unless the Board of Directors determines by resolution that any such vacancies or newly created directorships shall be filled by stockholders, be filled only by the affirmative vote of a majority of the directors then in office, even though less than a quorum of the Board of Directors. Any director elected in accordance with the preceding sentence shall hold office for the remainder of the full term of the director for which the vacancy was created or occurred and until such director’s successor shall have been elected and qualified. A vacancy in the Board of Directors shall be deemed to exist under this Bylaw in the case of the death, removal or resignation of any director.
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SECTION 19. Resignation. Any director may resign at any time by delivering his resignation in writing or by electronic transmission to the Secretary, such resignation to specify whether it will be effective at a particular time, upon receipt by the Secretary or at the pleasure of the Board of Directors. If no such specification is made, it shall be deemed effective at the pleasure of the Board of Directors. When one or more directors shall resign from the Board of Directors, effective at a future date, a majority of the directors then in office, including those who have so resigned, shall have power to fill such vacancy or vacancies, the vote thereon to take effect when such resignation or resignations shall become effective, and each Director so chosen shall hold office for the unexpired portion of the term of the Director whose place shall be vacated and until his successor shall have been duly elected and qualified.
 
SECTION 20. Removal. Subject to the rights of the holders of any series of Preferred Stock, the Board of Directors or any individual director may be removed from office at any time with or without cause by the affirmative vote of the holders of a majority of the voting power of all the then-outstanding shares of voting stock of the corporation, entitled to vote at an election of directors (the “Voting Stock”).
 
SECTION 21. Meetings

(a) Regular Meetings. Except as hereinafter otherwise provided, regular meetings of the Board of Directors shall be held in the office of the corporation required to be maintained pursuant to Section 2. Unless otherwise restricted by the Certificate of Incorporation, regular meetings of the Board of Directors may also be held at any place within or without the State of Delaware, or solely by means of conference telephone or other communications equipment, as designated by resolution of the Board of Directors or by the consent of all directors given in writing or by electronic transmission.
 
(b) Special Meetings. Unless otherwise restricted by the Certificate of Incorporation, special meetings of the Board of Directors may be held at any time and place within or without the State of Delaware, or solely by means of conference telephone or other communications equipment, whenever called by any of the directors designated as a Chairman of the Board of Directors, the Chief Executive Officer or any two of the directors.
 
(c) Meetings by Conference Telephone or Other Communications Equipment. Members of the Board of Directors, or of any committee thereof, may participate in and hold meetings by means of conference telephone or other communications equipment by means of which all persons participating in the meeting can hear each other, and participation in a meeting by such means shall constitute presence in person at such meeting.
 
(d) Notice of Meetings. Notice of the time and place of all special meetings of the Board of Directors shall be given orally, in writing, by telephone, facsimile, telegraph, telex, electronic mail or any form of electronic transmission, during normal business hours, at least 24 hours before the date and time of the meeting, or sent in writing to each director by first class mail, charges prepaid, at least 3 days before the date of the meeting. Such notice shall state the time and place, if any, of the special meeting of the Board of Directors, and the means to attend to the meeting through conference telephone or other communications equipment, if any. Such notice shall state the time and place, if any, of the special meeting of the Board of Directors, and the means to attend to the meeting through conference telephone or other communication equipment, if any. Notice of any meeting may be waived in writing or by electronic transmission at any time before or after the meeting and will be waived by any director by attendance thereat, except when the director attends the meeting for the express purpose of objecting, at the beginning of the meeting, to the transaction of any business because the meeting is not lawfully called or convened.
 
(e) Waiver of Notice. The transaction of all business at any meeting of the Board of Directors, or any committee thereof, however called or noticed, or wherever held, shall be as valid as though had at a meeting duly held after regular call and notice, if a quorum be present and if, either before or after the meeting, each of the directors not present who did not receive notice shall sign a written waiver of notice or shall waive notice by electronic transmission. All such waivers shall be filed with the corporate records or made a part of the minutes of the meeting.
 
SECTION 22. Quorum and Voting.

(a) Unless the Certificate of Incorporation requires a greater number and except with respect to indemnification questions arising under Section 43, for which a quorum shall be one-third of the exact number of directors fixed from time to time in accordance with the Certificate of Incorporation, a quorum of the Board of Directors shall consist of a majority of the exact number of directors fixed from time to time by the Board of Directors in accordance with the Certificate of Incorporation; PROVIDED, HOWEVER, at any meeting whether a quorum be present or otherwise, a majority of the directors present may adjourn from time to time until the time
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fixed for the next regular meeting of the Board of Directors, without notice other than by announcement at the meeting.
 
(b) At each meeting of the Board of Directors at which a quorum is present, all questions and business shall be determined by the affirmative vote of a majority of the directors present, unless a different vote be required by law, the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws.
 
SECTION 23. Action Without Meeting. Unless otherwise restricted by the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws, any action required or permitted to be taken at any meeting of the Board of Directors or of any committee thereof may be taken without a meeting, if all members of the Board of Directors or committee, as the case may be, consent thereto in writing or by electronic transmission, and such writing or writings or electronic transmission or transmissions are filed with the minutes of proceedings of the Board of Directors or committee.
 
SECTION 24. Fees and Compensation. Directors shall be entitled to such compensation for their services as may be approved by the Board of Directors, including, if so approved, by resolution of the Board of Directors, a fixed sum and expenses of attendance, if any, for attendance at each regular or special meeting of the Board of Directors and at any meeting of a committee of the Board of Directors. Nothing herein contained shall be construed to preclude any director from serving the corporation in any other capacity as an officer, agent, employee, or otherwise and receiving compensation therefor.
 
SECTION 25. Committees.

(a) Executive Committee. The Board of Directors may, by resolution passed by a majority of the whole Board of Directors, appoint an Executive Committee to consist of 1 or more members of the Board of Directors. The Executive Committee, to the extent permitted by law and provided in the resolution of the Board of Directors shall have and may exercise all the powers and authority of the Board of Directors in the management of the business and affairs of the corporation, including without limitation the power or authority to declare a dividend, to authorize the issuance of stock and to adopt a certificate of ownership and merger, and may authorize the seal of the corporation to be affixed to all papers which may require it; but no such committee shall have the power or authority in reference to amending the Certificate of Incorporation (except that a committee may, to the extent authorized in the resolution or resolutions providing for the issuance of shares of stock adopted by the Board of Directors fix the designations and any of the preferences or rights of such shares relating to dividends, redemption, dissolution, any distribution of assets of the corporation or the conversion into, or the exchange of such shares for, shares of any other class or classes or any other series of the same or any other class or classes of stock of the corporation or fix the number of shares of any series of stock or authorize the increase or decrease of the shares of any series), adopting an agreement of merger or consolidation, recommending to the stockholders the sale, lease or exchange of all or substantially all of the corporation’s property and assets, recommending to the stockholders a dissolution of the corporation or a revocation of a dissolution, or amending the bylaws of the corporation.
 
(b) Other Committees. The Board of Directors may, by resolution passed by a majority of the whole Board of Directors, from time to time appoint such other committees as may be permitted by law. Such other committees appointed by the Board of Directors shall consist of 1 or more members of the Board of Directors and shall have such powers and perform such duties as may be prescribed by the resolution or resolutions creating such committees, but in no event shall such committee have the powers denied to the Executive Committee in these Bylaws.
 
(c) Term. Each member of a committee of the Board of Directors shall serve at the pleasure of the Board of Directors and until his or her successors shall have been duly elected, unless sooner removed. The Board of Directors, subject to the provisions of subsections (a) or (b) of this Bylaw may at any time increase or decrease the number of members of a committee or terminate the existence of a committee. The membership of a committee member shall terminate on the date of his death or voluntary resignation from the committee or from the Board of Directors. The Board of Directors may at any time for any reason remove any individual committee member and the Board of Directors may fill any committee vacancy created by death, resignation, removal or increase in the number of members of the committee. The Board of Directors may designate one or more directors as alternate members of any committee, who may replace any absent or disqualified member at any meeting of the committee, and, in addition, in the absence or disqualification of any member of a committee, the member or members thereof present at any meeting and not disqualified from voting, whether or not he or they constitute a quorum, may unanimously appoint another member of the Board of Directors to act at the meeting in the place of any such absent or disqualified member.
 
(d) Meetings. Unless the Board of Directors shall otherwise provide, regular meetings of the Executive Committee or any other committee appointed pursuant to this Section 25 shall be held at such times and places, if any, or solely by means of conference telephone or other communications equipment, as determined by the
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Board of Directors, or by any such committee, and when notice thereof has been given to each member of such committee, no further notice of such regular meetings need be given thereafter. Special meetings of any such committee may be held at any place, or solely by means of conference telephone or other communications equipment, as determined from time to time by such committee, and may be called by any director who is a member of such committee, upon written notice to the members of such committee of the time and place, if any, of such special meeting and the means to attend to the meeting through conference telephone or other communications equipment, if any, given in the manner provided for the giving of written notice to members of the Board of Directors of special meetings of the Board of Directors. Notice of any special meeting of any committee may be waived in writing or by electronic transmission at any time before or after the meeting and will be waived by any director by attendance thereat, except when the director attends such special meeting for the express purpose of objecting, at the beginning of the meeting, to the transaction of any business because the meeting is not lawfully called or convened. A majority of the authorized number of members of any such committee shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business, and the act of a majority of those present at any meeting at which a quorum is present shall be the act of such committee.
 
SECTION 26. Organization. At every meeting of the directors, one of the directors designated as a Chairman of the Board of Directors, or if no directors have been so designated or such directors are absent, the Chief Executive Officer, or if the Chief Executive Officer is absent, the President designated by the Board of Directors to act as chairman, or if such President is absent, the most senior President or Vice President, or, in the absence of any such officer, a chairman of the meeting chosen by a majority of the directors present, shall preside over the meeting. The Secretary, or in his or her absence, an Assistant Secretary directed to do so by the Chief Executive Officer, shall act as secretary of the meeting.
 
ARTICLE V
 
OFFICERS
 
SECTION 27. Officers Designated. The officers of the corporation shall include, if and when designated by the Board of Directors, the Chief Executive Officer, one or more Presidents, one or more Vice Presidents, the Secretary and the Chief Financial Officer, all of whom shall be appointed at from time to time by the Board of Directors. The Board of Directors (or if so empowered in accordance with this Section 27) may also appoint other officers and agents with such powers and duties as it shall deem necessary. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the Board of Directors may empower the Chief Executive Officer of the corporation to appoint such officers, other than the Presidents, Secretary or Chief Financial Officer, as the business of the corporation may require. The Board of Directors may assign such additional titles to one or more of the officers as it shall deem appropriate. Any one person may hold any number of offices of the corporation at any one time unless specifically prohibited therefrom by law. The salaries and other compensation of the officers of the corporation shall be fixed by or in the manner designated by the Board of Directors or a designated committee of the Board of Directors.
 
SECTION 28. Tenure and Duties of Officers.

(a) General. All officers shall hold office at the pleasure of the Board of Directors and until their successors shall have been duly elected and qualified, unless sooner removed. Any officer elected or appointed by the Board of Directors may be removed at any time by the Board of Directors. If the office of any officer becomes vacant for any reason, the vacancy may be filled by the Board of Directors.
 
(b) Duties of Chief Executive Officer. The Chief Executive Officer shall be the general manager and chief executive officer of the corporation and shall, subject to the control of the Board of Directors, have general supervision, direction, and control of the business and officers of the corporation. He or she shall preside at all meetings of the stockholders if no director shall have been designated a Chairman of the Board of Directors or if such director is absent and shall have the general powers and duties of management usually vested in the office of chief executive officer of a corporation, and shall have other powers and duties as may be prescribed by the Board of Directors. In the absence or disability of the Chief Executive Officer, the Board of Directors may designate one or more of the Presidents, the Chief Financial Officer or any of the other officers to perform the duties of the Chief Executive Officer and, when so acting, shall have all the powers of, and be subject to all of the restrictions upon, the Chief Executive Officer.
 
(c) Duties of Presidents. The Presidents shall have such powers and perform such duties as from time to time may be prescribed for the Presidents by the Board of Directors or the Chief Executive Officer. In the absence or disability of a President, one or more officers designated by the Board of Directors shall perform the duties of such President, and when so acting shall have all the powers of, and be subject to all the restrictions upon, such President.
 
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(d) Duties of Vice Presidents. The Vice Presidents shall have such powers and perform such duties as from time to time may be prescribed for them respectively by the Board of Directors, the Chief Executive Officer or a President.
 
(e) Duties of Secretary. The Secretary shall keep, or cause to be kept, a book of minutes in written form of the proceedings of the Board of Directors, committees of the Board, and stockholders. Such minutes shall include all waivers of notice, consents to the holding of meetings, or approvals of the minutes of meetings executed pursuant to these Bylaws or the DGCL. The Secretary shall keep, or cause to be kept at the principal executive office or at the office of the corporation’s transfer agent or registrar, a record of its stockholders, giving the name and addresses of all stockholders and the number and class of shares held by each. The Secretary shall give or cause to be given, notice of all meetings of the stockholders and of the Board of Directors required by these Bylaws or by law to be given, and shall keep the seal of the corporation in safe custody, and shall have such other powers and perform such other duties as may be prescribed by the Board of Directors and the Chief Executive Officer.
 
(f) Duties of Chief Financial Officer. The Chief Financial Officer shall keep and maintain, or cause to be kept and maintained, adequate and correct books and records of account in written form or any other form capable of being converted into written form. The Chief Financial Officer shall deposit all monies and other valuables in the name and to the credit of the corporation with such depositories as may be designated by the Board of Directors. He or she shall disburse all funds of the corporation as may be ordered by the Board of Directors, shall render to the Presidents, Chief Executive Officer and Directors, whenever they request it, an account of all of his or her transactions as Chief Financial Officer and of the financial condition of the corporation, shall perform other duties commonly incident to his or her office and shall have such other powers and perform such other duties as may be prescribed by the Board of Directors, the Chief Executive Officer or a President. The Chief Executive Officer or Presidents may direct the Vice President Finance to assume and perform the duties of the Chief Financial Officer in the absence or disability of the Chief Financial Officer, and the Vice President Finance shall perform other duties commonly incident to his or her office and shall also perform such other duties and have such other powers as the Board of Directors, the Chief Executive Officer, a President or the Chief Financial Officer shall designate from time to time.
 
SECTION 29. Delegation of Authority. The Board of Directors may from time to time delegate the powers or duties of any officer to any other officer or agent, notwithstanding any provision hereof.
 
SECTION 30. Resignations. Any officer may resign at any time by giving notice in writing or by electronic transmission to the Board of Directors or to the Chief Executive Officer or to the Secretary. Any such resignation shall be effective when received by the person or persons to whom such notice is given, unless a later time is specified therein, in which event the resignation shall become effective at such later time. Unless otherwise specified in such notice, the acceptance of any such resignation shall not be necessary to make it effective. Any resignation shall be without prejudice to the rights, if any, of the corporation under any contract with the resigning officer.
 
SECTION 31. Removal. Any officer may be removed from office at any time, either with or without cause, by the affirmative vote of a majority of the directors in office at the time, or by the unanimous consent given in writing or by electronic transmission by the directors in office at the time, or by any committee or superior officers upon whom such power of removal may have been conferred by the Board of Directors.
 
ARTICLE VI
 
EXECUTION OF CORPORATE INSTRUMENTS AND VOTING OF
SECURITIES OWNED BY THE CORPORATION
 
SECTION 32. Execution of Corporate Instruments. The Board of Directors may, in its discretion, determine the method and designate the signatory officer or officers, or other person or persons, to execute on behalf of the corporation any corporate instrument or document, or to sign on behalf of the corporation the corporate name without limitation, or to enter into contracts on behalf of the corporation, except where otherwise provided by law or these Bylaws, and such execution or signature shall be binding upon the corporation. Unless otherwise specifically determined by the Board of Directors or otherwise required by law, promissory notes, deeds of trust, mortgages and other evidences of indebtedness of the corporation, and other corporate instruments or documents requiring the corporate seal, and certificates of shares of stock owned by the corporation, shall be executed, signed or endorsed by the Chief Executive Officer, or any President, Chief Financial Officer or any Vice President. All other instruments and documents requiring the corporate signature, but not requiring the corporate seal, may be executed as aforesaid or in such other manner as may be directed by the Board of Directors. All checks and drafts drawn on banks or other depositaries on funds to the credit of the corporation or in special accounts of the corporation shall be signed by such person or persons as the Board of Directors shall authorize so to do. Unless authorized or ratified by the Board of Directors or within the agency power of an officer, no officer, agent or employee shall have any power or authority
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to bind the corporation by any contract or engagement or to pledge its credit or to render it liable for any purpose or for any amount.
 
SECTION 33. Voting of Securities Owned by the Corporation. All stock and other securities of other corporations owned or held by the corporation for itself, or for other parties in any capacity, shall be voted, and all proxies with respect thereto shall be executed, by the person authorized so to do by resolution of the Board of Directors, or, in the absence of such authorization, by the Chief Executive Officer, any President, or any Vice President.
 
ARTICLE VII
 
SHARES OF STOCK
 
SECTION 34. Form and Execution of Certificates. Certificates for the shares of stock of the corporation shall be in such form as is consistent with the Certificate of Incorporation and applicable law. Every holder of stock in the corporation
shall be entitled to have a certificate signed by or in the name of the corporation by the Chief Executive Officer, or any President or any Vice President and by the or Assistant Treasurer or the Secretary or Assistant Secretary, certifying the number of shares owned by him in the corporation. Any or all of the signatures on the certificate may be facsimiles. In case any officer, transfer agent, or registrar who has signed or whose facsimile signature has been placed upon a certificate shall have ceased to be such officer, transfer agent, or registrar before such certificate is issued, it may be issued with the same effect as if he were such officer, transfer agent, or registrar at the date of issue. Each certificate shall state upon the face or back thereof, in full or in summary, all of the powers, designations, preferences, and rights, and the limitations or restrictions of the shares authorized to be issued or shall, except as otherwise required by law, set forth on the face or back a statement that the corporation will furnish without charge to each stockholder who so requests the powers, designations, preferences and relative, participating, optional, or other special rights of each class of stock or series thereof and the qualifications, limitations or restrictions of such preferences and/or rights. Within a reasonable time after the issuance or transfer of uncertificated stock, the corporation shall send to the registered owner thereof a written notice containing the information required to be set forth or stated on certificates pursuant to this section or otherwise required by law or with respect to this section a statement that the corporation will furnish without charge to each stockholder who so requests the powers, designations, preferences and relative participating, optional or other special rights of each class of stock or series thereof and the qualifications, limitations or restrictions of such preferences and/or rights. Except as otherwise expressly provided by law, the rights and obligations of the holders of certificates representing stock of the same class and series shall be identical.
 
SECTION 35. Lost Certificates. A new certificate or certificates shall be issued in place of any certificate or certificates theretofore issued by the corporation alleged to have been lost, stolen, or destroyed, upon the making of an affidavit of that fact by the person claiming the certificate of stock to be lost, stolen, or destroyed. The corporation may require, as a condition precedent to the issuance of a new certificate or certificates, the owner of such lost, stolen, or destroyed certificate or certificates, or his legal representative, to advertise the same in such manner as it shall require or to give the corporation a surety bond in such form and amount as it may direct as indemnity against any claim that may be made against the corporation with respect to the certificate alleged to have been lost, stolen, or destroyed.
 
SECTION 36. Transfers.

(a) Transfers of record of shares of stock of the corporation shall be made only upon its books by the holders thereof, in person or by attorney duly authorized, and upon the surrender of a properly endorsed certificate or certificates for a like number of shares.
 
(b) The corporation shall have power to enter into and perform any agreement with any number of stockholders of any one or more classes of stock of the corporation to restrict the transfer of shares of stock of the corporation of any one or more classes owned by such stockholders in any manner not prohibited by the DGCL
 
SECTION 37. Fixing Record Dates.

(a) In order that the corporation may determine the stockholders entitled to notice of or to vote at any meeting of stockholders or any adjournment thereof, the Board of Directors may fix, in advance, a record date, which record date shall not precede the date upon which the resolution fixing the record date is adopted by the Board of Directors, and which record date shall not be more than 60 nor less than 10 days before the date of such meeting. If no record date is fixed by the Board of Directors, the record date for determining stockholders entitled to notice of or to vote at a meeting of stockholders shall be at the close of business on the day next preceding the day on which
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notice is given, or if notice is waived, at the close of business on the day next preceding the day on which the meeting is held. A determination of stockholders of record entitled to notice of or to vote at a meeting of stockholders shall apply to any adjournment of the meeting; PROVIDED, HOWEVER, that the Board of Directors may fix a new record date for the adjourned meeting.
 
(b) In order that the corporation may determine the stockholders entitled to receive payment of any dividend or other distribution or allotment of any rights or the stockholders entitled to exercise any rights in respect of any change, conversion or exchange of stock, or for the purpose of any other lawful action, the Board of Directors may fix a record date, which record date shall not precede the date upon which the resolution fixing the record date is adopted, and which record date shall be not more than sixty 60 nor less than 10 days prior to such action. If no record date is fixed, the record date for determining stockholders for any such purpose shall be at the close of business on the day on which the Board of Directors adopts the resolution relating thereto. Notwithstanding the foregoing, if any stockholder of record seeks to have the stockholders authorize the calling of a special meeting, such stockholder shall, by written notice to the Secretary, request the Board of Directors to fix a record date for taking such action. The Board of Directors shall, within 10 days after the date on which such a request is received, adopt a resolution fixing such record date, which date shall not be more than 10 days after the date upon which the resolution fixing such record date is adopted by the Board of Directors.

 
SECTION 38. Registered Stockholders. The corporation shall be entitled to recognize the exclusive right of a person registered on its books as the owner of shares to receive dividends, and to vote as such owner, and shall not be bound to recognize any equitable or other claim to or interest in such share or shares on the part of any other person whether or not it shall have express or other notice thereof, except as otherwise provided by the laws of Delaware.
 
ARTICLE VIII
 
OTHER SECURITIES OF THE CORPORATION
 
SECTION 39. Execution of Other Securities. All bonds, debentures and other corporate securities of the corporation, other than stock certificates (covered in Section 34), may be signed by the Chief Executive Officer, any President or any Vice President, or such other person as may be authorized by the Board of Directors, and the corporate seal impressed thereon or a facsimile of such seal imprinted thereon and attested by the signature of the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary, or the Chief Financial Officer or Treasurer or an Assistant Treasurer; PROVIDED, HOWEVER, that where any such bond, debenture or other corporate security shall be authenticated by the manual signature, or where permissible facsimile signature, of a trustee under an indenture pursuant to which such bond, debenture or other corporate security shall be issued, the signatures of the persons signing and attesting the corporate seal on such bond, debenture or other corporate security may be the imprinted facsimile of the signatures of such persons. Interest coupons appertaining to any such bond, debenture or other corporate security, authenticated by a trustee as aforesaid, shall be signed by the Chief Financial Officer, Treasurer or an Assistant Treasurer of the corporation or such other person as may be authorized by the Board of Directors, or bear imprinted thereon the facsimile signature of such person. In case any officer who shall have signed or attested any bond, debenture or other corporate security, or whose facsimile signature shall appear thereon or on any such interest coupon, shall have ceased to be such officer before the bond, debenture or other corporate security so signed or attested shall have been delivered, such bond, debenture or other corporate security nevertheless may be adopted by the corporation and issued and delivered as though the person who signed the same or whose facsimile signature shall have been used thereon had not ceased to be such officer of the corporation.
 
ARTICLE IX
 
DIVIDENDS
 
SECTION 40. Declaration of Dividends. Dividends upon the capital stock of the corporation, subject to the provisions of the Certificate of Incorporation, if any, may be declared by the Board of Directors pursuant to law at any regular or special meeting. Dividends may be paid in cash, in property, or in shares of the capital stock, subject to the provisions of the Certificate of Incorporation.
 
SECTION 41. Dividend Reserve. Before payment of any dividend, there may be set aside out of any funds of the corporation available for dividends such sum or sums as the Board of Directors from time to time, in their absolute discretion, think proper as a reserve or reserves to meet contingencies, or for equalizing dividends, or for repairing or maintaining any property of the corporation, or for such other purpose as the Board of Directors shall think conducive to the interests of the corporation, and the Board of Directors may modify or abolish any such reserve in the manner in which it was created.
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ARTICLE X
 
FISCAL YEAR
 
SECTION 42. Fiscal Year. The fiscal year of the corporation shall be fixed by resolution of the Board of Directors.

 

ARTICLE XI
 
INDEMNIFICATION
 
SECTION 43. Indemnification of Directors, Executive Officers, Other Officers, Employees and Other Agents.

(a) Directors and Executive Officers. The corporation shall indemnify its directors and executive officers (for the purposes of this Article XI, “executive officers shall have the meaning defined in Rule 3b-7 promulgated under the 1934 Act) to the fullest extent not prohibited by the DGCL; PROVIDED, HOWEVER, that the corporation may modify the extent of such indemnification by individual contracts with its directors and executive officers; and, PROVIDED, FURTHER, that the corporation shall not be required to indemnify any director or executive officer in connection with any proceeding (or part thereof) initiated by such person unless (i) such indemnification is expressly required to be made by law, (ii) the proceeding was authorized by the Board of Directors of the corporation, (iii) such indemnification is provided by the corporation, in its sole discretion, pursuant to the powers vested in the corporation under the DGCL or (iv) such indemnification is required to be made under subsection (d).
 
(b) Other Officers, Employees and Other Agents. The corporation shall have power to indemnify its other officers, employees and other agents as set forth in the DGCL.
 
(c) Expenses. The corporation shall advance to any person who was or is a party or is threatened to be made a party to any threatened, pending or completed action, suit or proceeding, whether civil, criminal, administrative or investigative, by reason of the fact that he or she is or was a director or executive officer of the corporation, or is or was serving at the request of the corporation as a director or executive officer of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise, prior to the final disposition of the proceeding, promptly following request therefor, all expenses incurred by any director or executive officer in connection with such proceeding upon receipt of an undertaking by or on behalf of such person to repay said amounts if it should be determined ultimately that such person is not entitled to be indemnified under this Bylaw or otherwise. Notwithstanding the foregoing, unless otherwise determined pursuant to paragraph (e) of this Bylaw, no advance shall be made by the corporation to an executive officer of the corporation (except by reason of the fact that such executive officer is or was a director of the corporation in which event this paragraph shall not apply) in any action, suit or proceeding, whether civil, criminal, administrative or investigative, if a determination is reasonably and promptly made (i) by the Board of Directors by a majority vote of a quorum consisting of directors who were not parties to the proceeding, or (ii) if such quorum is not obtainable, or, even if obtainable, a quorum of disinterested directors so directs, by independent legal counsel in a written opinion, that the facts known to the decision-making party at the time such determination is made demonstrate clearly and convincingly that such person acted in bad faith or in a manner that such person did not believe to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the corporation.
 
(d) Enforcement. Without the necessity of entering into an express contract, all rights to indemnification and advances to directors and executive officers under this Bylaw shall be deemed to be contractual rights and be effective to the same extent and as if provided for in a contract between the corporation and the director or executive officer. Any right to indemnification or advances granted by this Bylaw to a director or executive officer shall be enforceable by or on behalf of the person holding such right in any court of competent jurisdiction if (i) the claim for indemnification or advances is denied, in whole or in part, or (ii) no disposition of such claim is made within 90 days of request therefor. The claimant in such enforcement action, if successful in whole or in part, shall be entitled to be paid also the expense of prosecuting his claim. In connection with any claim for indemnification, the corporation shall be entitled to raise as a defense to any such action that the claimant has not met the standards of conduct that make it permissible under the DGCL for the corporation to indemnify the claimant for the amount claimed. In connection with any claim by an executive officer of the corporation (except in any action, suit or proceeding, whether civil, criminal, administrative or investigative, by reason of the fact that such executive officer is or was a director of the corporation) for advances, the corporation shall be entitled to raise a defense as to any such action clear and convincing evidence that such person acted in bad faith or in a manner that
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such person did not believe to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the corporation, or with respect to any criminal action or proceeding that such person acted without reasonable cause to believe that his conduct was lawful. Neither the failure of the corporation (including its Board of Directors, independent legal counsel or its stockholders) to have made a determination prior to the commencement of such action that indemnification of the claimant is proper in the circumstances because he has met the applicable standard of conduct set forth in the DGCL, nor an actual determination by the corporation (including its Board of Directors, independent legal counsel or its stockholders) that the claimant has not met such applicable standard of conduct, shall be a defense to the action or create a presumption that claimant has not met the applicable standard of conduct. In any suit brought by a director or executive officer to enforce a right to indemnification or to an advancement of expenses hereunder, the burden of proving that the director or executive officer is not entitled to be indemnified, or to such advancement of expenses, under this Article XI or otherwise shall be on the corporation.
 
(e) Non-Exclusivity of Rights. The rights conferred on any person by this Bylaw shall not be exclusive of any other right which such person may have or hereafter acquire under any statute, provision of the Certificate of Incorporation, Bylaws, agreement, vote of stockholders or disinterested directors or otherwise, both as to action in his official capacity and as to action in another capacity while holding office. The corporation is specifically authorized to enter into individual contracts with any or all of its directors, officers, employees or agents respecting indemnification and advances, to the fullest extent not prohibited by the DGCL.
 
(f) Survival of Rights. The rights conferred on any person by this Bylaw shall continue as to a person who has ceased to be a director, officer, employee or other agent and shall inure to the benefit of the heirs, executors and administrators of such a person.
 
(g) Insurance. To the fullest extent permitted by the DGCL, the corporation, upon approval by the Board of Directors, may purchase insurance on behalf of any person required or permitted to be indemnified pursuant to this Bylaw.
 
(h) Amendments. Any repeal or modification of this Bylaw shall only be prospective and shall not affect the rights under this Bylaw in effect at the time of the alleged occurrence of any action or omission to act that is the cause of any proceeding against any agent of the corporation.
 
(i) Saving Clause. If this Bylaw or any portion hereof shall be invalidated on any ground by any court of competent jurisdiction, then the corporation shall nevertheless indemnify each director and executive officer to the full extent not prohibited by any applicable portion of this Bylaw that shall not have been invalidated, or by any other applicable law.
 
(j) Certain Definitions. For the purposes of this Bylaw, the following definitions shall apply:
 
(i) The term “proceeding” shall be broadly construed and shall include, without limitation, the investigation, preparation, prosecution, defense, settlement, arbitration and appeal of, and the giving of testimony in, any threatened, pending or completed action, suit or proceeding, whether civil, criminal, administrative or investigative.
 
(ii) The term “expenses” shall be broadly construed and shall include, without limitation, court costs, attorneys’ fees, witness fees, fines, amounts paid in settlement or judgment and any other costs and expenses of any nature or kind incurred in connection with any proceeding.
 
(iii) The term the “corporation” shall include, in addition to the resulting corporation, any constituent corporation (including any constituent of a constituent) absorbed in a consolidation or merger which, if its separate existence had continued, would have had power and authority to indemnify its directors, officers, and employees or agents, so that any person who is or was a director, officer, employee or agent of such constituent corporation, or is or was serving at the request of such constituent corporation as a director, officer, employee or agent of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise, shall stand in the same position under the provisions of this Bylaw with respect to the resulting or surviving corporation as he would have with respect to such constituent corporation if its separate existence had continued.
 
(iv) References to a “director,” “executive officer,” “officer,” “employee,” or “agent” of the corporation shall include, without limitation, situations where such person is serving at the request of the corporation as, respectively, a director, executive officer, officer, employee, trustee or agent of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise.

(v) Except where expressly stated otherwise herein, references to an “Article” or “Section” refer to an Article or Section of these Bylaws.
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(v) References to “other enterprises” shall include employee benefit plans; references to “fines” shall include any excise taxes assessed on a person with respect to an employee benefit plan; and references to “serving at the request of the corporation” shall include any service as a director, officer, employee or agent of the corporation which imposes duties on, or involves services by, such director, officer, employee, or agent with respect to an employee benefit plan, its participants, or beneficiaries; and a person who acted in good faith and in a manner he reasonably believed to be in the interest of the participants and beneficiaries of an employee benefit plan shall be deemed to have acted in a manner “not opposed to the best interests of the corporation” as referred to in this Bylaw.
 
ARTICLE XII
 
NOTICES
 
SECTION 44. Notices.

(a) Notice to Stockholders. Written notice to stockholders of stockholder meetings shall be given as provided in Section 8 herein. Without limiting the manner by which notice may otherwise be given effectively to stockholders under any agreement or contract with such stockholder, and except as otherwise required by law, written notice to stockholders for purposes other than stockholder meetings may be sent by U.S. mail or nationally recognized overnight courier, or by facsimile, telegraph or telex or by electronic mail or other electronic means.
 
(b) Notice to Directors. Any notice required to be given to any director may be given by the method stated in subsection (a), as otherwise stated in these Bylaws, or by facsimile, telex, telegram, electronic transmission or by overnight delivery service, except that such notice other than one which is delivered personally shall be sent to such address as such director shall have filed in writing with the Secretary, or, in the absence of such filing, to the last known post office address of such director.
 
(c) Affidavit of Mailing. An affidavit of mailing, executed by a duly authorized and competent employee of the corporation or its transfer agent appointed with respect to the class of stock affected, specifying the name and address or the names and addresses of the stockholder or stockholders, or director or directors, to whom any such notice or notices was or were given, and the time and method of giving the same, shall in the absence of fraud, be prima facie evidence of the facts therein contained.
 
(d) Time Notices Deemed Given. All notices given by mail, as above provided, shall be deemed to have been given as at the time of mailing, and all notices given by facsimile, telex, telegram or electronic transmission shall be deemed to have been given as of the sending time recorded at time of transmission.
 
(e) Methods of Notice. It shall not be necessary that the same method of giving notice be employed in respect of all recipients of notice, but one permissible method may be employed in respect of any one or more, and any other permissible method or methods may be employed in respect of any other or others.
 
(f) Failure to Receive Notice. The period or limitation of time within which any stockholder may exercise any option or right, or enjoy any privilege or benefit, or be required to act, or within which any director may exercise any power or right, or enjoy any privilege, pursuant to any notice sent him in the manner above provided, shall not be affected or extended in any manner by the failure of such stockholder or such director to receive such notice.
 
(g) Notice to Person with Whom Communication Is Unlawful. Whenever notice is required to be given, under any provision of law or of the Certificate of Incorporation or Bylaws of the corporation, to any person with whom communication is unlawful, the giving of such notice to such person shall not be required and there shall be no duty to apply to any governmental authority or agency for a license or permit to give such notice to such person. Any action or meeting which shall be taken or held without notice to any such person with whom communication is unlawful shall have the same force and effect as if such notice had been duly given. In the event that the action taken by the corporation is such as to require the filing of a certificate under any provision of the DGCL, the certificate shall state, if such is the fact and if notice is required, that notice was given to all persons entitled to receive notice except such persons with whom communication is unlawful.
  
(h) Notice to Person with Undeliverable Address. Whenever notice is required to be given, under any provision of law or the Certificate of Incorporation or Bylaws of the corporation, to any stockholder to whom (i) notice of two consecutive annual meetings, and all notices of meetings or of the taking of action by written consent without a meeting to such person during the period between such two consecutive annual meetings, or (ii) all, and at least two, payments (if sent by first class mail) of dividends or interest on securities during a twelve-month period, have been mailed addressed to such person at his address as shown on the records of the corporation and have been
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returned undeliverable, the giving of such notice to such person shall not be required. Any action or meeting which shall be taken or held without notice to such person shall have the same force and effect as if such notice had been duly given. If any such person shall deliver to the corporation a written notice setting forth his then current address, the requirement that notice be given to such person shall be reinstated. In the event that the action taken by the corporation is such as to require the filing of a certificate under any provision of the DGCL, the certificate need not state that notice was not given to persons to whom notice was not required to be given pursuant to this paragraph.
 
(i) Notice to Stockholders Sharing an Address. Except as otherwise prohibited under the DGCL, any notice given under the provisions of the DGCL, the Certificate of Incorporation or the Bylaws shall be effective if given by a single written notice to stockholders who share an address if consented to by the stockholders at that address to whom such notice is given. Such consent shall have been deemed to have been given if such stockholder fails to object in writing to the corporation within 60 days of having been given notice by the corporation of its intention to send the single notice. Any consent shall be revocable by the stockholder by written notice to the corporation.
 
ARTICLE XIII
 
AMENDMENTS
 
SECTION 45. Amendments. Subject to paragraph (h) of Section 43 of the Bylaws, the Bylaws may be altered or amended or new Bylaws adopted by the affirmative vote of a majority of the voting power of all of the then-outstanding shares of the Voting Stock. The Board of Directors shall also have the power to adopt, amend, or repeal the Bylaws.
 
ARTICLE XIV
 
LOANS TO DIRECTORS OR EXECUTIVE OFFICERS
 
SECTION 46. Loans to Directors or Executive Officers. The corporation may not, directly or indirectly, including through any subsidiary, extend or maintain credit, arrange for the extension of credit, or renew an extension of credit, in the form of a personal loan to or for any member of the Board of Directors or any executive officer (or equivalent thereof) of the corporation.
 
ARTICLE XV
 
MISCELLANEOUS
 
SECTION 47. Annual Report.

(a) Subject to the provisions of paragraph (b) of this Bylaw, the Board of Directors shall cause an annual report to be sent to each stockholder of the corporation not later than 120 days after the close of the corporation’s fiscal year. Such report shall include a balance sheet as of the end of such fiscal year and an income statement and statement of changes in financial position for such fiscal year, accompanied by any report thereon of independent accountants, or if there is no such report, the certificate of an authorized officer of the corporation that such statements were prepared without audit from the books and records of the corporation. When there are more than one 100 stockholders of record of the corporation’s shares, as determined by Section 605 of the California Corporations Code, additional information as required by Section 1501(b) of the California Corporations Code shall also be contained in such report, provided that if the corporation has a class of securities registered under Section 12 of the 1934 Act, that Act shall take precedence. Such report shall be sent to stockholders at least 15 days prior to the next annual meeting of stockholders after the end of the fiscal year to which it relates.
 
 
(b) If and so long as there are fewer than 100 holders of record of the corporation’s shares, the requirement of sending of an annual report to the stockholders of the corporation is hereby expressly waived.
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