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Form 6-K YAMANA GOLD INC. For: Jun 30

July 28, 2022 4:36 PM EDT

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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
 
FORM 6-K
 
REPORT OF FOREIGN PRIVATE ISSUER
PURSUANT TO RULE 13a-16 OR 15d-16
OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 
For the Month of July 2022

Commission File Number 001-31880

Yamana Gold Inc.
(Translation of registrant’s name into English)
 
Royal Bank Plaza, North Tower, 200 Bay Street, Suite 2200, Toronto, ON M5J 2J3
(Address of principal executive offices)

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant files or will file annual reports under cover of Form 20-F or Form 40-F:
Form 20-F o
Form 40-F ý
 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is submitting the Form 6-K in paper as permitted by Regulation S-T Rule 101(b)(1): o

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is submitting the Form 6-K in paper as permitted by Regulation S-T Rule 101(b)(7): o


INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE
 
The Registrant’s Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Operations and Financial Condition for the Three and Six Months Ended June 30, 2022, included as Exhibit 99.1 of this Form 6-K and the Condensed Consolidated Interim Financial Statements as at and for the Three and Six Months Ended June 30, 2022, included as Exhibit 99.2 of this Form 6-K (Commission File No. 001-31880), furnished to the Commission on July 28, 2022, are incorporated by reference into the Registration Statements on Form S-8 (Commission File No. 333-159047, File No. 333-148048 and File No. 333-145300), Form F-3D (Commission File No. 333-217016) and Form F-10 (Commission File No. 333-264471) of the Registrant, Yamana Gold Inc.









Signatures
 
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the Registrant has duly caused this report to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized.


YAMANA GOLD INC.
Date:July 28, 2022By:"Jason LeBlanc"
Jason LeBlanc
Senior Vice President, Finance
and Chief Financial Officer




EXHIBIT INDEX
 
Exhibits
NumberDescription of Exhibit
Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Operations and Financial Condition for the Three and Six Months Ended June 30, 2022
Condensed Consolidated Interim Financial Statements as at and for the Three and Six Months Ended June 30, 2022



EXHIBIT 99.1



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MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF
 OPERATIONS AND FINANCIAL CONDITION

 FOR THE THREE AND SIX MONTHS ENDED JUNE 30, 2022




CONTENTS
Page
1:
Highlights and Relevant Updates
2:
Core Business, Strategy and Outlook
3:
Review of Financial Results
4:
Operating Segments Performance
5:
Construction, Development and Other Initiatives
6:
Exploration
7:
Financial Condition and Liquidity
8:
Economic Trends, Business Risks and Uncertainties
9:
Contingencies
10:
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
11:
Non-GAAP Financial Performance Measures
12:
Disclosure Controls and Procedures





MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF OPERATIONS AND FINANCIAL CONDITION
 
This Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Operations and Financial Condition ("MD&A") should be read in conjunction with Yamana Gold Inc.'s (the "Company" or "Yamana") condensed consolidated interim financial statements for the three and six months ended June 30, 2022, and the most recently issued annual Consolidated Financial Statements for the year ended December 31, 2021 ("Consolidated Financial Statements"). All figures are in United States Dollars ("US Dollars") unless otherwise specified and are in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board (“IFRS”).

The Company has included certain non-GAAP financial performance measures, which the Company believes, that together with measures determined in accordance with IFRS, provide investors with an improved ability to evaluate the underlying performance of the Company. Non-GAAP financial performance measures do not have any standardized meaning prescribed under IFRS, and therefore they may not be comparable to similar non-GAAP financial performance measures employed by other companies. The data is intended to provide additional information and should not be considered in isolation or as a substitute for measures of performance prepared in accordance with IFRS. The non-GAAP financial performance measures included in this MD&A include:

Cash costs per gold equivalent ounce ("GEO") sold;
All-in sustaining costs ("AISC") per GEO sold;
Net free cash flow;
Free cash flow before dividends and debt repayment; and
Average realized price per ounce of gold/silver sold

Reconciliations and descriptions associated with the above non-GAAP financial performance measures can be found in Section 11: Non-GAAP Financial Performance Measures in this MD&A. In addition, each non-GAAP financial performance measure in this MD&A has been annotated with a reference to endnote (1).

Cautionary statements regarding forward-looking information and mineral reserves and mineral resources can be found in Section 12: Disclosure Controls and Procedures in this MD&A.

Endnotes can be found on the final page of this MD&A.


1.     HIGHLIGHTS AND RELEVANT UPDATES

For the three months ended June 30, 2022 unless otherwise noted

Operational, Earnings and Cash Flow Highlights:

Gold production of 232,542 ounces exceeded plan and the prior year comparative quarter, following standout performances from Malartic with 87,186 ounces, Jacobina with 49,662 ounces, El Peñón with 46,627 ounces and Cerro Moro with 30,929 ounces.

Silver production of 2,356,853 ounces was in line with plan, following an exceptional performance from Cerro Moro. Quarterly silver production also well exceeded the prior year comparative quarter.

Strong GEO(2) production from Yamana mines(4) of 260,960 GEO(2) was in line with plan, despite the gold to silver ratio being near an all-time high and significantly above that anticipated in the plan and guidance. Quarterly GEO(2) production also exceeded the prior year comparative quarter production of 241,341 GEO(2), on the back of strong gold production. Cerro Moro in particular exceeded the prior year comparative quarter GEO production by 105%.

Year to date operating results comfortably position the Company to achieve both its annual production and cost guidance. The strong year to date gold equivalent production has exceeded budget despite the gold to silver ratio.

Quarterly total cost of sales, cash costs(1) and AISC(1) on a per GEO(2) basis of $1,168, $734, and $1,084 respectively, were in line with plan and substantially unchanged versus the prior year comparative quarter. Productivity gains along with stable and, in some cases, better than expected costs, offset inflationary impacts on certain consumables, notably diesel. By the end of the quarter, the cost of several commodity-based consumables appeared to have peaked with prices meaningfully below recent levels. Strong cash flows, free cash flows and increasing cash balances in the following quarters will support the modest planned increases to capital spending.

Cash flows from operating activities for the three months ended June 30, 2022 were $187.8 million an increase of 22.3% compared to $153.5 million in the prior year comparative quarter. Net free cash flow(1) for the three months ended June 30, 2022 was $136.6 million, an increase of 41.7% compared to $96.3 million in the prior year comparative quarter.
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As at June 30, 2022, the Company had cash and cash equivalents of $545.1 million, including $213.8 million available for utilization by the MARA Project. Further, the Company has available credit of $750.0 million from its undrawn revolving credit facility. Net free cash flow(1) is expected to steadily increase quarter-over-quarter, with the strongest free cash flow generation expected in the second half of the year, and, in particular, during the fourth quarter. The Company expects cash balances to increase steadily throughout the year with the strongest contribution in the latter half of the year, also aided by the fact that higher income tax installments have been paid, as customary, in the first half of the year.

Net earnings(3) for the three months ended June 30, 2022 were $72.1 million or $0.07 per share basic and diluted, compared to a net loss(3) of $43.9 million or $0.05 per share basic and diluted for the three months ended June 30, 2021. Adjusting items of $13.7 million(3), that management believes may not be reflective of current and ongoing operations, and which may be used to adjust or reconcile input models in consensus estimates, decreased net earnings(3) for the current period. For a complete list of adjustments attributable to Yamana Gold Inc. equity holders, refer to the Financial highlights section below.

Value Creation and Upside Optionality Underpinning Core Portfolio of Generational Assets

The Company’s exploration success and track record of mineral reserve replacement and mineral resource growth supports a clear pathway toward realizing significant and progressive production increases and increased cash flow generation. The board-approved program labeled the YAMANA 1.5 Plan supports the measured and prudent growth of approximately 50% to 1.5 million GEO(2) within the ten-year outlook horizon, with upside optionality from longer-term development projects which potentially extend the production platform beyond that timeframe and above that production level.

The YAMANA 1.5 Plan is underpinned by multiple low-risk, low-capital projects that have the ability to be mixed and matched, and adhere to the Company's balanced approach to capital allocation, which is expected to generate significant and growing cash balances during the guidance period, positioning projects to be funded from that free cash flow generation. The multiple projects further benefit from being largely brownfield in nature, allowing for added flexibility with regards to sequencing and timing of such projects in response to prevailing market conditions, enabling each component to provide incremental growth and free cash flow generation on the path to achieving the growth plan. Such flexibility allows the Company to re-arrange, adjust or defer the projects at its discretion while still having the confidence in achieving the overall plan.

The Company's near-term guided growth to 1.06 million GEO(2) is supported by the recently completed Phase 2 expansion at Jacobina and first production from the Odyssey Project in early 2023. Thereafter, to achieve the YAMANA 1.5 Plan, the Company's advanced, low-capital projects, which can be pursued and re-sequenced to add GEO(2) in a responsible and self-funded manner, include:
The construction of Wasamac, for which the recently completed strategic life-of-mine plan shows a faster production ramp-up to 200,000 ounces in 2027 and up to 250,000 ounces in 2028,
The Phase 3 Plant expansion at Jacobina with expected incremental production of 40,000 ounces of gold,
The Cerro Moro plant expansion with expected incremental production of 50,000 to 60,000 ounces of GEO(2) ,
The Minera Florida expansion with expected incremental production of 35,000 ounces of gold,
The Phase 4 Plant expansion at Jacobina with expected incremental production of 75,000 to 125,000 ounces of gold,
The Lavra Velha heap leach project with expected incremental production of 60,000 to 70,000 ounces of gold.

For further details on the above projects, please refer the Strategic Developments, Construction Developments and Advanced Stage Projects section below, Section 5: Construction, Development and Other Initiatives and Section 6: Exploration.

The Odyssey Project at Canadian Malartic represents one important step towards realizing the YAMANA 1.5 Plan as it will establish a large sustainable gold production platform of 500,000 - 600,000 ounces (100% basis) with a strategic mine life into the 2040's. As of December 31, 2021, the Odyssey mineral resource holds 2.35 million ounces of gold in 25.2 million tonnes at a grade of 2.9 grams per tonne of indicated mineral resources and 13.15 million ounces of gold in 173.7 million tonnes at a grade of 2.4 grams per tonne of inferred mineral resources of which 7.3 million ounces, approximately 47% of the total mineral resource, is included in the technical study mine plan.

The construction decision made by the Canadian Malartic Partnership ("the Partnership") in the first quarter of 2021, prior to the declaration of mineral reserves, was made on the basis of 0.8 million ounces of Indicated Mineral Resources (100% basis), 13.5 million ounces of Inferred Mineral Resources (100% basis), an aggressive infill program to convert a significant component of inferred mineral resources to indicated mineral resources that will provide the basis for updated technical studies in 2023 which will allow the definition of mineral reserves for the Odyssey underground project over the next few years and starting at the end of 2022, and the very strong continuity and homogeneous nature of the East Gouldie deposit with favourable geometry
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and good rock quality similar to the open pit operation. Further, the proposed operations at the Odyssey Project were based on the results of an internal technical study conducted by the Partnership. The study presented a brownfields project with the utilization of the existing processing plant and infrastructure, as well as a clear path towards receiving a Certificate of Authorization for the underground project. Based on these strong attributes of the project, the Partnership determined that there was an opportunity to create significant value and extend the mine life of the asset making the decision to advance the project starting the underground development including the construction of the shaft, with limited to no risk in making such decision.

The size and continuity of the East Gouldie mineralized zone is highlighted by the rapid resource growth. The new zone was discovered in the fourth quarter of 2018 and the decision to start the shaft development was made in the first quarter of 2021. By the end of 2021 that decision was validated by further infill drilling, when 1.5 million ounces (11.9 million tonnes grading 3.88 g/t gold) had been converted to indicated mineral resources and an additional 1.2 million ounces (10.7 million tonnes at 3.4 g/t gold) had been added to new inferred mineral resources, largely within the 2020 East Gouldie resource envelope. The predictive exploration model consistently shows mineralization where the model expects it, and the Company has tested the reliability of that predictability. Infill drilling in 2022 continues to confirm the remarkable continuity of grade and width in the East Gouldie mineralized zone, and continues to improve the ore body, with indicated resource drilling meeting or exceeding the grade and width of the reported inferred resource. Twelve surface diamond drill rigs are active on East Gouldie, as well as four underground drill rigs on Odyssey South.

Drilling results are already in hand to support the conversion of a significant portion of inferred mineral resources declared in 2021 to indicated mineral resources by the end of 2022. These new indicated resources will, as aforementioned, provide the basis for updated technical studies in 2023 that will allow the definition of mineral reserves for the Odyssey underground project over the next few years, starting at the end of 2022.

Initial expansionary capital spend through to the end of 2022 is expected at less than $150 million (50% basis), with over half of that spend supporting ramp access and development of the Odyssey ore body. As underground development has now entered areas with established ore, once the plant feed commences in the first quarter of 2023, immediate return on capital spend is achieved and, as previously disclosed and discussed below, gold ounces produced will subsidize the further and more significant initial expansionary capital spend.

The initial expansionary capital of $1.14 billion (100% basis) through 2028 does not include any offsetting gross margin from this pre-commercial production due to amendments to the relevant accounting standard*, which represents a practical consequence of IFRS application, however cash outlays are expected to be partially offset by 932,000 ounces (100% basis) of production during the construction period. Assuming a gold price of $1,550 per ounce, more than half of this initial expansionary capital spend would be effectively offset and subsidized from such gross margin, such that the remaining net initial expansionary capital requirements from 2022 to 2028 is approximately $170 million on a 50% basis. For further details on the Odyssey project, please refer to the Strategic Developments, Construction Developments and Advanced Stage Projects section below, and Section 5: Construction, Development and Other Initiatives.

Canadian Malartic also benefits from strategic optionality and production level upside from future available mill capacity as mining transitions underground. While the Odyssey mine is expected to initially process up to 20,000 tonnes per day, ore will be processed through a plant with a current design capacity of up to 61,000 tonnes per day. The Company believes that continuing exploration efforts at East Gouldie, Titan, East Amphi, Camflo and Rand represent exceptional geological upside and offer strategic optionality and production level upside.

*The amendment to IAS 16: Property, Plant and Equipment: Proceeds before Intended Use, effective from 2022, prohibits entities from deducting amounts received from selling items produced from the cost of property, plant and equipment while the Company is preparing the asset for its intended use, and instead the margin generated from such pre-commercial activities will be included in the Statement of Operations

Further supporting the YAMANA 1.5 Plan is the district potential at Jacobina. The track record of growth in mineral reserves and mineral resources at Jacobina underpins its significant prospectivity and geological upside, which supports the planned low risk, brownfield phased expansion strategy that is expected to materially increase production and cash flows, generating strong returns on investment.

Gold mineral reserves have grown by 55% or more than 1 million ounces net of depletion over the past four years to 2.94 million ounces contained in 42 million tonnes at a grade of 2.18 grams per tonne as of December 31, 2021. Mineral resources have increased by 69% over the same period. With the Phase 2 expansion throughput objective achieved, Jacobina's sustainable production platform is now approximately 230,000 ounces per year, more than triple the 75,000 ounces produced in 2014 when the company launched a major initiative to unlock the asset's full potential. With throughput now established at 8,500 tpd and the focus now on the Phase 3 expansion to 10,000 tpd through continued incremental debottlenecking, Jacobina is well positioned to increase production to approximately 270,000 ounces per year by 2025 with modest capital and
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to maintain that production profile for the foreseeable future. A Phase 4 expansion, of up to 15,000 tpd, which is part of the Company's strategic life of mine planning would increase production to in excess of 350,000 ounces per year. For further details on the Jacobina phased plant expansion, please refer the Strategic Developments, Construction Developments and Advanced Stage Projects section below and Section 5: Construction, Development and Other Initiatives.

Jacobina's recent success in growing both mineral reserves and mineral resources supports a strategic mine life of at least 20 years at these higher production rates at some of the lowest underground operating costs in the Americas. Further, the mine currently has a pipeline of resources and exploration targets that the Company believes will further extend the mine life as it continues to systematically explore the large land package in the Jacobina district, which covers approximately 150 kilometres of exploration potential.

El Peñón, which achieved a fourth consecutive year of adding mineral reserves in excess of depletion with mineral reserves growing 23% to 1.3 million GEO(2) over that period, represents another source of value creation for the Company as it continues to extend the mine life at a production rate of 220,000 to 230,000 GEO(2) per year. Daily throughput is now approximately 3,300 tpd versus the currently available plant capacity of up to 4,200 tpd, representing an opportunity to increase production as the operation endeavours to build its mineral inventory in wake of consistent exploration results.

Positive initial drill results have been received from the early stage, developing South Deeps target located under cover and to the south of the El Peñón deposit. The Company believes these results have opened up a significant new near-mine area for exploration with the potential for adding primary and secondary veins which could ultimately result in the Company leveraging the higher processing capacity of the plant.

Yamana continues to balance cash flow generation and exploration expenditures to maximize the value of its asset portfolio, and is confident the low-capex nature of its growth plans, largely centered on mine life extensions that are near the existing infrastructure, will demonstrate a focus on measured, responsible growth and the sustainability of cash flows.

Further growth beyond this level, for a production platform of 2.75 million to 3.1 million GEO(2) would come from the MARA and Suyai projects, and opportunities currently within the generative exploration portfolio such as Jacobina Norte, Las Fechas, Falcon, and Borborema, among others; these opportunities provide additional upside potential to the ten-year outlook. The MARA Project is one of the largest copper-gold projects in the world, of which Yamana owns 56.25%, and which has an average annual production of 556 million pounds of copper equivalent (100% basis) during its first ten years. In addition, the Suyai Project is a large gold project in Chubut Province, Argentina, that is projected to reach production of up to 250,000 ounces annually in its first eight years. Further, Jacobina Norte is a highly-prospective property that lies contiguous to and north of the Company’s prolific Jacobina mine, with preliminary results showing excellent potential for the discovery of standalone Jacobina-type mineralization and the addition of a new mine along the greenstone basin.

Strategic Developments, Construction Developments and Advanced Stage Projects:

Board Approved Bulk Sample Program and Life of Mine ("LOM") Upside at Wasamac, Quebec

During 2021, the Company made a positive development decision on its wholly owned Wasamac project in the Abitibi-Témiscamingue region of Quebec, Canada. Wasamac, a top-tier gold project in a region where Yamana has deep operational and technical expertise and experience, solidifies the Company’s long-term growth profile with Yamana’s average annual gold production in Quebec, including production from Wasamac and the Odyssey underground at Canadian Malartic, having the potential to increase to approximately 500,000 ounces by 2028, and continue at this level through 2041.

Yamana expects to receive all permits and certificates of authorization required for project construction by the third quarter of 2024. Construction time to processing plant commissioning is estimated at two and a half years, with the underground crusher and conveyor system scheduled for commissioning six months later and first gold production scheduled for 2026. Initial capital cost is expected to be relatively modest for an underground operation with an initial capacity of 7,000 tpd, at approximately $416 million.

During the second quarter, the Company continued to advance preparations for its board-approved bulk sample program. The initiative would allow construction to commence on the ramp, enabling earlier access to the deposit to increase the level of confidence in metallurgical and geotechnical variables and optimize the processing flow sheet and mining sequence. Construction of surface facilities to support the ramp development activity and associated environmental requirements would also be advanced.

Exploration activities progressed as planned during the second quarter, with a focus on infill drilling on the Wasamac resource. Work on the Francoeur property during the quarter included ongoing modelling and
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compilation of drilling and other historic data, and field work including mapping, surface sampling, and target definition in preparation for exploration drilling. For additional information on the planned Wasamac exploration initiatives, please refer to Section 6: Exploration.

During the second quarter, the Company completed an update of the Wasamac strategic LOM plan, building on the 2021 feasibility study and incorporating the results of several value-adding studies that were advanced throughout the first half of 2022. The strategic plan demonstrates an improved gold production profile compared to the feasibility study, while continuing to establish Wasamac as a modern, low-cost, responsible underground mine. Extension of the processing plant site through land acquisition and additional geotechnical drilling have allowed optimization of the underground mine design and processing plant layout. The revised layout avoids environmentally sensitive areas, improves the plant configuration, and provides additional space for ore stockpiling, while continuing to minimize impacts to the surrounding property holders. Using the revised mine designs, the mining sequence has been optimized to increase feed grades in the first two years, resulting in a faster production ramp-up to 200,000 ounces in 2027 and up to 250,000 ounces in 2028.

Canadian Malartic Underground Construction

The Company and its partner made a positive construction decision for the Odyssey project at Canadian Malartic in 2021. A National Instrument ("NI") 43-101 technical report completed in March 2021 included a full summary of the Odyssey underground project and demonstrated robust economics, a significant increase in mineral resources, first production from the Odyssey South deposit expected in 2023, and a mine life extension to at least 2039. As Canadian Malartic transitions from open pit to underground mining, underground production will offset a significant portion of the corresponding decline in open pit production. On a 100% basis, production from open pit mining from 2021 through 2028 is expected to be approximately 3.9 million ounces; the Odyssey underground mine plan supports annual gold production of 500,000 to 600,000 ounces when fully ramped up on a 100% basis. Furthermore, the Odyssey underground mine plan currently only includes about half of the project’s 2.4 million ounces of Indicated Mineral Resources and 13.2 million ounces of Inferred Mineral Resources (on a 100% basis). Further upside from grade improvements and underground mine life extensions are expected to be realized through infill drilling to improve geological confidence, exploration drilling to extend known deposits and make new discoveries and engineering efforts, especially close to historical underground excavations and at depth at East Malartic.

Following significant advancement of the project in 2021, the Odyssey team is focusing on two key milestones:
Initiation of shaft sinking by the fourth quarter of 2022
First gold production from Odyssey South in the first quarter of 2023

The project continues to be on budget, and on schedule. Key highlights include:
The concrete pour to construct the 93-metre-tall headframe was completed on schedule in the fourth quarter of 2021, in preparation for shaft sinking slated to begin in the fourth quarter of 2022. Structural steel installation inside the headframe is ongoing and progressed during the second quarter. The production shaft will be 6.5 metres in diameter and 1,800 metres deep, with the first of two loading stations at 1,135 metres below surface. Construction of the temporary hoist building and waste silo is on schedule.
The first underground ore from Odyssey South is on track to be processed through the existing Canadian Malartic plant in early 2023. Underground development continues to progress with the opening of additional headings.
Ventilation is now provided directly through a fresh air raise to surface and two bays in the maintenance garage are now available. The garage is fully functional and occupied by the maintenance team.
As an employer of choice in the Abitibi, the Odyssey project continues to successfully build a highly skilled team and development rates are planned to continue increasing throughout the year.
Priority continues to be placed on the main ramp and also the level 16 exploration drift for infill drilling of the Odyssey South and Internal zones.
Concrete, structural steel and architecture has been completed for both the compressor building and the fire water pumping station. These are expected to be operational in the third quarter
The fuel distribution station foundation began in May, with piping installation ongoing and a start-up planned for September.
The construction of the paste fill plant and 120 KV power distribution line is on schedule to support the Odyssey South stoping sequence.
In early July, the Company received notice that the Decree amendment was approved, a significant milestone in the permitting process, and all required permits to commence production from Odyssey South are expected by the end of 2022.

With a significant production platform, material cash flow generation and a prominent position within Quebec’s Abitibi District, Canadian Malartic will remain one of the Company’s cornerstone assets and one of the more
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prolific and generational mines in the world, particularly as the Odyssey mine is developed and comes into production. The Company is taking a disciplined approach to the development of Odyssey with a conservative outlook for initial throughput and production. While the Odyssey mine is expected to initially process 20,000 tonnes per day and produce 500,000 to 600,000 ounces per year, based on the current mine plan, the Company recognizes that there is a large inventory of ounces that is not currently in the mine plan. Odyssey ores will be processed through a plant with an original design capacity of over 55,000 tonnes per day, processing closer to 60,000 tonnes per day, which far exceeds the initial expected throughput of Odyssey. The plant was designed for the larger open pit operations that will end later this decade, and while the Company will scale the plant to the level required for the underground operation, that plant capacity will always be there. The Company’s approach at its other mines has been to conduct extensive exploration which provides flexibility to maximize and increase throughput, and a similar approach will be taken with Odyssey, where delineation of extensions of underground mineralized zones and new zones of mineralization is already occurring. The extension of East Gouldie and discovery of Titan are examples of these underground exploration successes and opportunities. The Company’s efforts at East Amphi, Rand and Camflo also provide potential to add tonnage and production. The Camflo property, which was added to the Partnership in 2021, covers the past producing Camflo mine which had historical production of approximately 1.6 million ounces of gold. An initial evaluation of the Camflo property has identified porphyry and diorite hosted gold mineralization that could potentially be mined via an open pit. Additional studies are underway to initiate an aggressive exploration program in 2023. The Company firmly believes that in its 10-year outlook period, these efforts will lead to more mining areas that will allow the Company to take advantage of available plant capacity, resulting in ore processing that will exceed 20,000 tonnes per day, and sustainable production will then significantly exceed the initial production plan of 500,000 to 600,000 ounces per year.

Jacobina Expansion Strategy

The Company’s expansion strategy at Jacobina is well advanced and the Company anticipates that the low-cost operation will have a mine life that exceeds several decades, taking reserves and high conviction mineral resources into consideration. Production is expected to materially increase with phased expansions providing a pathway to sustainable production of 350,000 ounces per annum. This will increase the already excellent cash flow generation of the mine and deliver meaningful value. With well-below average costs at Jacobina, cash flows exceed those from mines that produce significantly more ounces. The mine currently has a reserve life of over 15 years plus a pipeline of resources and exploration targets that we believe will further extend mine life. Work performed since 2019 has allowed for the systematic exploration of the Company's large land package in the Jacobina district, which covers 155 kilometres of exploration potential, allowing for the definition of a fourteen-kilometre long belt of gold-bearing conglomerate located north of the mine complex and also extending the known mineralized reefs south of João Belo in a continuous area extending 2,200 metres. Further areas have been identified during reconnaissance exploration programs. Work will continue to define mineralized reefs exposed on surface and follow up with drill testing targeting both extensions of the mine complex and new standalone mine targets. Consequently, the Company sees significant opportunities to grow its regional presence and continue to build the world-class Jacobina Complex.

The Phase 2 expansion at Jacobina continued to successfully ramp-up during the quarter, with the mine achieving a sustained throughput rate of over 8,400 tpd in June. Yamana expects the throughput objective of 8,500 tpd to be achieved in July, establishing Jacobina’s sustainable production profile at 230,000 ounces of gold per year.

As the Phase 2 expansion was advancing ahead of schedule, the Company has begun pursuing the Phase 3 expansion to 10,000 tpd through continued incremental debottlenecking. With the permit to 10,000 tpd already in hand, Phase 3 is expected to increase gold production to approximately 270,000 ounces per year by 2025 with a modest capital expenditure of $20 million to $30 million.

The Phase 4 expansion, of up to 15,000 tpd, would increase gold production in excess of 350,000 ounces per year. To achieve the target throughput rates, a third grinding line would be added as well as an expansion of the leaching and CIP circuits. As the third ball mill was originally planned as part of the Phase 2 Feasibility Study, engineering for Phase 4 is well advanced. A comprehensive plan, aligning the processing plant, underground mine, and tailings management strategy, while managing capital expenditures and cash flow, is underway.

The Company is further evaluating the strategic options and direction related to Jacobina and the significant exploration that is available along the greenstone belt which hosts the mine. Jacobina is being envisioned as a complex of multiple mines, and more emphasis is being placed on regional and generative exploration.

Cerro Moro Scalable Plant and Heap Leaching Upside Opportunities

The objective at Cerro Moro is to create a sustainable ten-years of production of at least 160,000 GEO(2) per year, and up to 200,000 GEO(2) per year. Upside from a plant expansion or heap leach opportunities would be
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beyond the current ten-year outlook that assumes Cerro Moro as a 150,000 to 165,000 GEO(2) per year operation, which is expected to be sustainable from mineral reserves mine life, ongoing exploration successes and mineral reserve replacement.

During the second quarter, Yamana advanced the plant expansion, envisaged as a low-risk, phased expansion for Cerro Moro with quick payback from the initial phase used to fund subsequent phases. The Company is considering using fine screens instead of cyclones for classification to improve the efficiency of the existing ball mill which, combined with a slightly coarser grind size, is expected to increase throughput to at least 1,500 tpd, a 40% to 50% increase in capacity, without impacting gold and silver recoveries. The incremental capacity could be used for processing of lower grade mineralization, which is expected to increase annual gold and silver production, and in turn reduce fixed unit costs at the mine, as those costs would be distributed over additional ounces. Preliminary analysis based on current operating data indicates that the existing crushing and flotation circuits are adequate for the higher throughput rate and reconfiguration of the leaching circuit could achieve the target throughput without requiring additional leach tanks. Upgrades to the concentrate thickener, clarifying filters, flocculant make-up system, and pumping would likely be required. The capital cost of this initial phase is estimated at a modest $15 million to $20 million. Many of the upgrades in phase 1 expansion would be sufficient for a second expansion phase to increase plant throughput to approximately 2,200 tpd, double the existing capacity, further increasing production and reducing operating unit costs. Capital estimates for the Phase 2 expansion are also $15 million to $20 million, for a total capital investment over the two expansion phases estimated at $30 million to $40 million. The Company is currently evaluating two options for phase 2 expansion, the addition of a high pressure grinding rolls ("HPGR") unit before the existing ball mill or the addition of a regrind unit. An expansion of the flotation circuit would also be required.

In parallel, a technical study on the potential heap leach project was conducted, and while the results obtained in the second quarter of 2022 were positive, the Company has elected to prioritize the plant expansion project, as it provides a more immediate high return growth prospect, similar to the phased expansion successfully deployed at Jacobina.

If the Company were to develop both the plant expansion and heap leach projects, which represent significant upside opportunities, along with conversion of the exploration targets to mineral resources, Cerro Moro could produce at least 200,000 GEO(2) per year.

MARA Project Advances

The MARA Project represents a significant strategic value opportunity and a solid development and growth project. The Company intends to pursue all available avenues to continue to advance and unlock its value through its controlling interest while also considering strategic alternatives that could unlock significant value along the way. The MARA Joint Venture is held by the Company (56.25%), Glencore International AG (25%) and Newmont Corporation (18.75%). The pending feasibility study, which is being overseen by the Technical Committee comprised of members of the three Companies, will provide updated mineral reserves, production and project capital cost estimates. The engineering effort for the feasibility study is expected to be substantially completed by the end of 2022 and the finalized report in the first half of 2023; however, a considerable amount of information in the pre-feasibility study is already at feasibility study level as a result of the integration. MARA is conducting field campaigns to complement the Environmental and Social Impact Assessment ("ESIA") baseline data. Preliminary results and advancement of the project are being shared with the Intergovernmental Commission of Catamarca, prior to filing the full ESIA. The Company plans to complete the ESIA definition for MARA by the end of 2022.

Work during the second quarter of 2022 focused on continuing the progress made during 2021: advancing the feasibility study engineering, mine design and planning, metallurgical test-work and geotechnical drilling campaigns, other fieldwork at site, baseline social and environmental studies, as well as permitting and working with local stakeholders. The work continues, with the drilling campaign and other fieldwork now covering the Agua Rica mine infrastructure and is expected to be completed by the end of fourth quarter of 2022.

MARA is the combined project comprised of the Agua Rica site, Alumbrera site as well as the Alumbrera plant and ancillary buildings and facilities, and will rely on processing ore from the Agua Rica mine at the Alumbrera plant. The project design minimizes the environmental footprint of the project incorporating the input of local stakeholders. MARA will be a multi-decade, low cost copper-gold operation with annual production of 556 million pounds of copper equivalent during the first ten years of production, and life-of-mine annual production of 469 million pounds of copper equivalent on a 100% basis. MARA will be among the top 25 copper producers in the world when in production, and is one of the lowest capital intensity copper projects globally.

For full details on the aforementioned updates, please refer to Section 5: Construction, Development and Other Initiatives.


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OPERATING

Strong second quarter GEO(2) production of 260,960 ounces was in line with plan and exceeded prior year second quarter production of 241,341 GEO. Standout GEO production performances were delivered by Canadian Malartic, Jacobina, and Cerro Moro. Second quarter total cost of sales, cash costs(1), and AISC(1) on a per GEO(2) basis were $1,168, $734, and $1,084 respectively. Productivity gains along with stable and, in some cases, better than expected costs, offset inflationary impacts on certain consumables, notably diesel. By the end of the quarter, the cost of several commodity-based consumables appeared to have peaked with prices meaningfully below recent levels. Strong cash flows, free cash flows and increasing cash balances in the following quarters will support the modest planned increases to capital spending.

GEO is calculated as the sum of gold ounces and the gold equivalent of silver ounces using a ratio of 82.93 for the three months ended June 30, 2022, and 68.01 for the three months ended June 30, 2021. GEO calculations are based on an average market gold to silver price ratio for the relevant period.

GEO(2) production of 499,577 ounces during the six months ended June 30, 2022 was in line with plan and greatly exceeded prior year comparative production of 473,329 ounces. Year to date operating results comfortably position the Company to achieve both its annual production and cost guidance. The strong year to date gold equivalent production has exceeded budget despite the gold to silver ratio being near an all-time high and significantly above the Company’s budget assumption for that ratio. For the six months ended June 30, 2022, total cost of sales, cash costs(1), and AISC(1) on a per GEO(2) basis were $1,189, $734, and $1,084 respectively.

GEO is calculated as the sum of gold ounces and the gold equivalent of silver ounces using a ratio of 80.63 for the six months ended June 30, 2022, and 68.48 for the six months ended June 30, 2021. GEO calculations are based on an average market gold to silver price ratio for the relevant period.


For the three months ended June 30,For the six months ended June 30,
2022 2021 2022 2021 
GEO(2)
  
Production
260,960241,341499,577473,329
Sales
259,989241,481497,599476,215
Per GEO sold data
Total cost of sales(6)
$1,168$1,222$1,189$1,192
Cash costs(1)
$734$720$734$709
AISC(1)
$1,084$1,081$1,084$1,064
Gold  
Production (ounces)
232,542 217,402443,075 418,518 
Sales (ounces)
232,418 216,039439,746 419,579 
Revenue per ounce$1,869 $1,817 $1,873 $1,805 
Average realized price per ounce(1)
$1,869 $1,817 $1,873 $1,805 
Average market price per ounce*
$1,872 $1,816 $1,873 $1,807 
Silver   
Production (ounces)
2,356,853 1,628,078 4,555,522 3,753,325 
Sales (ounces)**
2,296,791 1,731,620 4,663,342 3,861,806 
Revenue per ounce$22.25 $25.96 $22.23 $26.43 
Average realized price per ounce(1)
$22.25 $26.05 $22.98 $25.84 
Average market price per ounce*
$22.64 $26.69 $23.29 $26.49 
*    Source of information: Bloomberg.
**    Included in three and six months ended June 30, 2022 silver sales ounces were 300,000 and 678,088 ounces, respectively, delivered under the silver streaming arrangement (2021: 300,000 and 635,699 ounces).


HEALTH, SAFETY, AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

Yamana’s health, safety and sustainable development ("HSSD") approach is guided by the Company's corporate-level standards and programs; these are integrated into all operations, development projects, and exploration activities. Yamana recognizes the importance of striving to meet and exceed its HSSD responsibilities and objectives, and the role these efforts have in delivering on the overall objective of creating value for all stakeholders. Our most important considerations and priorities are safeguarding worker health and safety, protecting the environment and building privilege to operate with host communities, along with the
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Company's response to the global COVID-19 pandemic. The Company's responses to COVID-19 have demonstrated its commitment to environmental, social and governance ("ESG") excellence in action and resilience.

High vaccination rates amongst the Company’s employees and contractors at all locations continue to protect people, host communities and our business. In the second quarter of 2022, COVID-19 caseloads in host countries began to decline significantly, consistent with trends observed globally, and host governments began to eliminate most pandemic-related restrictions. The Company began removing physical distancing and masking requirements while actively monitoring Omicron-related caseloads and healthcare system capacity.

The Company continues to have low numbers of worker COVID-19 cases at sites. When cases are detected, infected persons are isolated in alignment with government mandates with no operational impact. The number of active cases at the end of the second quarter 2022 was low and vaccination rates are high. The Company continues to manage its business in a way that respects, and is mindful of, the impact that COVID-19 has had and could have on host communities.

Yamana published its 16th annual Sustainability Report on the Company’s website at www.yamana.com on June 15, 2022. The report highlights the key aspects of the Company’s 2021 sustainability performance, including:

The adoption of a Responsibility Policy and eight Statements of Commitment describing the Company’s statements of principle and intent, covering all functional aspects of Health, Safety and Sustainable Development;
The commitment to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 46% by 2030, from a 2019 baseline, consistent with a 1.5°C science-based target, aligned with the Paris Agreement, and coupled with clear and achievable plans to meet this target;
The commitment to local employment and procurement with the Company maintaining over 99% national employment and sustaining a high in-country procurement level, at 93%, spending over $544 million;
The achievement of zero discharges of process water and the seventh consecutive year without any material spills across operations; and
The establishment of an Independent Tailings Review Board (ITRB) to further enhance the Company’s governance and assurance processes to align with evolving international best practice, as represented by the Mining Association of Canada (MAC) Tailings Guide and the Global Industry Standard on Tailings Management (GISTM).

This is the fourth year the Company has reported under the Global Reporting Initiative’s (GRI) Standards and the GRI G4 Mining and Metal Sector Disclosures, as well as the first year reporting under the Sustainability Accounting Standards Board (SASB) Framework.

The Company continued the implementation of its Climate Action Strategy during the quarter, including advancing analysis of converting approximately 50% of Cerro Moro's electricity requirements from diesel to wind power to meet the greenhouse gas emission reductions required between now and 2030 to achieve the Company's 1.5ºC science-based target, reduce operating costs, expand mineral reserves and mine life. Work also continued to progress on other climate action objectives, including advancing the evaluation of other operational projects to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and estimation of our Scope 3 emissions.

Other recent highlights relating to HSSD are as follows:

The Company's Total Recordable Injury Rate ("TRIR") for the first six months of 2022 was 0.81*. We have modified our TRIR reporting to align with our financial reporting standards which include our wholly-owned operations, exploration projects, development projects (Wasamac and MARA), proportional consolidation of Canadian Malartic (50%), and closed projects. For comparison, the corresponding full-year 2021 result was 1.11*.
As of July 5, 2022 more than 98%** of the Company's employees and contractors at its wholly-owned operations and exploration projects have received at least one dose of a COVID-19 vaccine and more than 96%** have received two doses and more than 84%** have received a third dose booster shot. Approximately 32%** of workers have received a fourth dose booster shot.
Yamana was named as one of Canada’s Best 50 Corporate Citizens by Corporate Knights Magazine for the second consecutive year, based on the assessment of a range of ESG criteria. The Company’s ranking improved one position to 30th overall and the Company remained the top-ranked mining company on the list. The Company is proud of this exceptional recognition, achieved by the dedication and hard work of all employees and business partners.
On July 26, 2022, the Company's ESG rating, as determined by MSCI, has been upgraded to "A", further demonstrating the Company's deep commitment to ESG excellence.

*    Calculated on a 200,000 exposure-hour basis including employees and contractors.
**    Vaccination rates are exclusive of Canadian Malartic, in which we hold a 50% interest. Vaccination rates at Canadian Malartic are in line with the high Abitibi-Témiscamingue regional rates.

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FINANCIAL

Net earnings(3) for the three months ended June 30, 2022 were $72.1 million or $0.07 per share basic and diluted, compared to a net loss(3) of $43.9 million or $(0.05) per share basic and diluted for the three months ended June 30, 2021. Net earnings(3) for the three months ended June 30, 2022 were negatively impacted by $13.7 million of items that management believes may not be reflective of current and ongoing operations attributable to Yamana Gold Inc. equity holders and which may be used to adjust or reconcile input models in consensus estimates.

Net earnings(3) for the six months ended June 30, 2022 were $129.8 million or $0.14 per share basic and diluted, compared to net earnings(3) of $10.8 million or $0.01 per share basic and diluted for the six months ended June 30, 2021. Net earnings(3) for the six months ended June 30, 2022 were negatively impacted by $39.5 million of items that management believes may not be reflective of current and ongoing operations attributable to Yamana Gold Inc. equity holders and which may be used to adjust or reconcile input models in consensus estimates.


For the three months ended June 30,For the six months ended June 30,
(In millions of US Dollars; except per share amounts)2022 2021 2022 2021 
Non-cash net foreign exchange (gains) losses(3)
$(12.0)$11.4 $9.9 $18.0 
Share-based payments/mark-to-market of deferred share units3.4 1.2 10.8 (2.0)
Mark-to-market losses (gains) on derivative contracts, investments and other assets and liabilities0.4 (0.3)0.4 (0.8)
Gain on discontinuation of the equity method of accounting (9.2) (10.2)
Temporary suspension costs(6)
 — 5.7 — 
Standby and other incremental COVID-19 costs(6)
1.8 12.7 6.5 20.9 
Variable consideration adjustment - stream revenue and accretion — 3.8 (1.5)
Other provisions, write-downs and adjustments*(3)
5.8 5.3 8.8 6.0 
Non-cash tax on unrealized foreign exchange (gains) losses16.8 (13.4)(2.4)(6.9)
Income tax effect of adjustments(3)
(1.2)(1.5)(4.9)(1.5)
One-time tax adjustments(3)
(1.3)110.7 0.9 109.2 
Total adjustments - increase to net earnings(3)
$13.7 $116.9 $39.5 $131.2 
Total adjustments - increase to net earnings(3) per share
$0.01 $0.12 $0.04 $0.14 
*    This balance includes, among other things, revisions in estimates and write-downs & provisions, or reversals of provisions, for items such as tax credits and legal contingencies.


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Summary of Financial Results
For the three months ended June 30,For the six months ended June 30,
(In millions of US Dollars; unless otherwise noted)
2022 2021 2022 2021 
Revenue
$485.6 $437.4 $927.5 $859.5 
Cost of sales excluding DDA(6)
(192.7)(186.5)(371.9)(358.6)
Gross margin excluding DDA(6)
$292.9 $250.9 $555.6 $500.9 
Depletion, depreciation and amortization ("DDA")
(110.8)(108.6)(219.6)(209.1)
Temporary suspension costs(6)
 — (5.7)— 
Mine operating earnings
$182.1 $142.3 $330.3 $291.8 
General and administrative
(23.4)(17.0)(46.5)(35.3)
Exploration and evaluation
(11.5)(7.8)(16.6)(13.9)
Share of earnings of associates
 —  0.9 
Other operating expenses, net
(16.6)(2.3)(32.4)(14.7)
Operating earnings
$130.6 $115.2 $234.8 $228.8 
Finance costs
(15.6)(21.2)(31.4)(42.7)
Other income (costs), net
20.9 (6.7)7.4 (7.5)
Earnings before taxes
$135.9 $87.3 $210.8 $178.5 
Income tax expense, net
(66.5)(181.4)(86.3)(220.4)
Net earnings (loss)$69.4 $(94.1)$124.5 $(41.8)
Attributable to:
Yamana Gold Inc. equity holders$72.1 $(43.9)$129.8 $10.8 
Non-controlling Interests$(2.7)$(50.2)$(5.3)$(52.6)
Per share data (Yamana Gold Inc. equity holders)
Net earnings (loss)(3) per share - basic and diluted
$0.07 $(0.05)$0.14 $0.01 
Dividends declared per share
$0.0300 $0.0263 $0.0300 $0.0525 
Dividends paid per share
$0.0300 $0.0263 $0.0300 $0.0525 
Weighted average number of common shares outstanding (thousands)
Basic
961,060 965,595 960,520 963,843 
Diluted
962,403 965,595 961,725 964,935 
Cash flows
Cash flows from operating activities
$187.8 $153.5 $339.3 $313.6 
Cash flows from operating activities before net change in working capital
$195.9 $167.8 $393.0 $351.1 
Cash flows used in investing activities
$(116.9)$(81.1)$(237.6)$(185.1)
Cash flows used in financing activities
$(40.4)$(48.8)$(79.7)$(77.7)
Net free cash flow(1)
$136.6 $96.3 $248.6 $219.7 
Free cash flow before dividends and debt repayments(1)
$53.0 $51.3 $87.9 $127.2 

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Capital Expenditures
For the three months ended June 30,2022 2021 2022 2021 2022 2021 2022 2021 
(In millions of US Dollars)
Sustaining
Expansionary
Exploration
Total
Canadian Malartic
$12.3 $20.8 $30.8 $8.4 $5.1 $4.3 $48.2 $33.5 
Jacobina
4.7 3.3 8.9 5.4 3.1 2.1 $16.7 $10.8 
Cerro Moro
11.1 8.4  0.3 1.6 1.8 $12.7 $10.5 
El Peñón
9.4 9.1 1.6 1.7 3.7 4.8 $14.7 $15.6 
Minera Florida
4.4 4.2 5.2 7.0 1.5 1.0 $11.1 $12.2 
MARA — 10.2 4.6  — $10.2 $4.6 
Wasamac 0.2 3.0 1.4 3.2 1.0 $6.2 $2.6 
Other
0.2 0.1 0.9 1.3 1.0 2.3 $2.1 $3.7 
Total$42.1 $46.1 $60.6 $30.1 $19.2 $17.3 $121.9 $93.5 


For the six months ended June 30,2022 2021 2022 2021 2022 2021 2022 2021 
(In millions of US Dollars)SustainingExpansionaryExplorationTotal
Canadian Malartic
$21.5 $40.3 $53.0 $13.7 $9.0 $7.4 $83.5 $61.4 
Jacobina
9.2 6.0 13.8 9.6 5.6 3.4 $28.6 $19.0 
Cerro Moro
20.0 15.2  0.3 3.1 3.6 $23.1 $19.1 
El Peñón
19.6 18.2 2.4 4.2 6.3 8.6 $28.3 $31.0 
Minera Florida
7.4 8.1 8.6 12.0 3.1 2.1 $19.1 $22.2 
MARA — 17.4 8.9  — $17.4 $8.9 
Wasamac 0.2 6.3 1.8 6.3 1.0 $12.6 $3.0 
Other
0.5 0.2 1.3 1.5 1.7 7.1 $3.5 $8.8 
Total$78.2 $88.2 $102.8 $52.0 $35.1 $33.2 $216.1 $173.4 


2.    CORE BUSINESS, STRATEGY AND OUTLOOK

Yamana Gold Inc. (“Yamana” or the “Company”) is a Canadian-based precious metals producer with significant gold and silver production, development stage properties, exploration properties, and land positions throughout the Americas' mining friendly jurisdictions, including Canada, Brazil, Chile and Argentina. The Company is primarily focused on gold, but has exposure to green metals from silver and copper exposure. Yamana plans to continue to build on this base through expansion and optimization initiatives at existing operating mines, development of new mines, the advancement of its exploration properties and, at times, by targeting other consolidation opportunities with a primary focus in the Americas.

Yamana has a strong 10-year base case outlook with a sustainable production platform of at least 1 million GEO(2) per year through 2030, building to a core production platform of 1.25 million GEO(2) by 2029. The Company’s exploration success and track record of mineral reserve replacement and mineral resource growth, along with low-risk projects at existing operations that can be implemented quickly and with modest incremental capital, provide a pathway for production growth to 1.5 million GEO(2) within the ten-year outlook horizon and to meaningfully extend the production platform beyond that timeframe. Further growth beyond this level from the MARA and Suyai projects, in addition to the opportunities currently within the generative exploration portfolio provide additional upside potential to the ten-year outlook. Please refer to the 10-Year Production Outlook discussion in this section of the MD&A.

The Company is listed on the Toronto Stock Exchange (trading symbol "YRI"), the New York Stock Exchange (trading symbol "AUY"), and the London Stock Exchange (trading symbol "AUY").

The Company’s principal mining properties comprise the Jacobina mine in Brazil, the Canadian Malartic mine (50% interest) in Canada, the El Peñón and Minera Florida mines in Chile and the Cerro Moro mine in Argentina. On January 21, 2021 the Company completed the acquisition of the Wasamac property, a high-quality project with a significant mineral reserve and mineral resource base and excellent potential for further expansion, adding to Yamana’s pipeline of organic opportunities, significantly enhancing the Company’s future growth prospects for which a positive development decision has been made during the year. The Company is focused on the regional approach being taken in the Abitibi-Témiscamingue region of Quebec, Canada, and the similar approach taken in Jacobina, Brazil, to reach a strategic goal of a production platform in the regions of 500,000 and 400,000 ounces, respectively. Additionally, following the finalization of the integration agreement in the fourth quarter of 2020, the Company also owns a 56.25% interest in the MARA Project, a large-scale copper, gold, silver and molybdenum project located in the province of Catamarca, Argentina. For full details on the Wasamac property acquisition and the MARA Project integration agreement, please refer to Section 5: Construction, Development and Other Initiatives.

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Yamana's vision is to create sustainable value for its stakeholders by growing net asset value (“NAV”) per share to generate long-term shareholder value. With a portfolio of large, long-life, high quality assets that provide economies of scale, coupled with low AISC and underpinned by a strong balance sheet, Yamana has optimized its portfolio of assets and is reinvesting in a strong pipeline of organic opportunities to drive increasing margins and returns on investment. Yamana is committed to being a responsible steward of the environment and building collaborative partnerships with communities, governments and all other stakeholders for mutual success. Yamana believes its strong balance sheet provides it with flexibility and the ability to manage the risk of gold and commodity price volatility.

Beginning in 2020, Yamana commenced a strategic process under the direction of its Board to evaluate its portfolio of assets and assess different alternatives to increase the Company’s value. This process comprised the advancement of organic projects and asset optimizations in combination with acquisitions, mergers, and other external opportunities. Since then, the Company has advanced its organic growth strategy as previously disclosed, and has reviewed a series of external opportunities including inbound and outbound interest for different transactions with the aim to realize further shareholder value and market relevance. A detailed description of this process will be included in the Management Information Circular expected to be filed during the third quarter, related to the Gold Fields combination, described below.

Business Combination with Gold Fields

On May 31, 2022, Gold Fields and Yamana announced that they had entered into a definitive arrangement agreement (the “Arrangement Agreement”), under which Gold Fields will acquire all of the outstanding common shares of Yamana (“Yamana Shares”) pursuant to a plan of arrangement under the Canada Business Corporations Act (the “Transaction”).

Under the terms of the Transaction, among other things, all of the outstanding Yamana Shares will be exchanged at a ratio of 0.6 of an ordinary share in Gold Fields (each whole share, a “Gold Fields Share”) or 0.6 of a Gold Fields American depositary share (each whole American depositary share, a “Gold Fields ADS”) for each Yamana Share.

The Transaction implies a valuation for Yamana of US$6.7 billion and represents a premium of 33.8% to the 10-day Volume-Weighted Average Price (“VWAP”) of Yamana’s Shares of US$ 5.201 on Friday, May 27, 2022, being the last trading day on the NYSE prior to the date of the announcement, based on the 10-day VWAP of Gold Fields ADSs of US$ 11.592. Upon closing of the Transaction, it is anticipated that Gold Fields Shareholders and Yamana Shareholders will own approximately 61% and 39% of the combined company, respectively.

For further information please refer to the May 31, 2022 press release “Gold Fields to acquire Yamana Gold - a combination for long-term value creation focused on quality growth, financial discipline and shareholder returns" and the full text of the Arrangement Agreement, both available under Yamana’s profile on SEDAR at www.sedar.com. Further details will be provided upon the filing of the Management Information Circular related to Yamana’s proposed shareholder meeting to seek approval for the Transaction, which is expected to be filed during the third quarter, with the Transaction expected to close in the fourth quarter.

Yamana's Primary Objectives

Over the years, the Company has grown and generated value through strategic acquisitions and portfolio optimizations, and by pursuing organic growth to increase cash flows and unlock value at existing mines and development assets. Looking ahead, the Company’s primary objectives include the following:

Continued focus and commitment regarding the Company’s high quality operational excellence program, advancing near-term and ongoing optimizations related to production, operating costs, and key performance objectives in health, safety, and sustainable development, generally ESG. Underpinning this performance is our "One Team, One Goal: Zero" vision, which reflects the Company's commitment to zero harm to employees, the environment and host communities near its operations.

Increasing mine life at the Company’s existing operating mines through exploration targeted on the most prospective properties. The Company does not rely exclusively on proven and probable mineral reserves at any point to determine mine life as that would undervalue and misrepresent the potential of its operations. Similarly, the Company does not rely solely on a reserve life index to the exclusion of other measures to determine mine life, as the Company believes there are other considerations that determine mine life; where possible, the Company endeavours to increase mineral reserves early in the mine life, although the Company recognizes that often it is more cost effective and technically efficient to progressively extend mine life as, and when, mine development is advancing. This is particularly true for underground mines and prospects. The Company believes that to rely exclusively at any given point on proven and probable mineral reserves does not give sufficient allowance for discovery of new mineral resources, history of conversion of mineral resources to mineral reserves and exploration potential. For El Peñón and Minera Florida, the Company gives considerable allowance for mine life that is well in excess of mineral reserves, given the aforementioned
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factors of new discovery of mineral resources, historical conversion of mineral resources to mineral reserves and significant exploration potential.

Maximizing the overall value of the Company as an enterprise, cash flows and free cash flows, and cash returns on invested capital, first on producing and then non-producing assets. Within the producing portfolio, attention is focused on per share measures related to the growth and quality of mineral reserves and mineral resources for mine life extensions and scope for throughput increases, metal grade and recovery improvements, and cost reductions that are expected to improve margins and cash flows.

For strategic assets in the portfolio, the focus is to assess the best path to create value for shareholders, including advancing development projects through exploration, technical/financial reviews, studies and optimizations, permitting and community engagement, and/or considering strategic alternatives to realize returns from these strategic assets. This may include developing the assets through a joint venture or other strategic arrangements, or through monetization.

The Company employs a balanced approach to capital allocation, which is expected to generate significant and growing cash balances during the guidance period. The cash balances are expected to be more than sufficient to finance and support the Company's planned growth campaign, while maintaining financial strength, and strengthening and increasing returns of capital to shareholders through dividends and share buybacks. To achieve this, the Company employs a disciplined capital spend framework during the guidance period with a target of $150 per GEO(2) of sustaining capital and net expansionary capital to not exceed $175.0 million per year on average. Please refer to the full discussion of the Capital Allocation Approach in this section of the MD&A.

Capital Allocation Strategy

The Company employs a balanced approach to capital allocation including:

Strengthening the Company's Financial Position, Improving Financial Resilience and Increasing Financial Flexibility:
Focus on maintenance of financial strength, alongside significant and growing cash balances, with cash of $545.1 million as of June 30, 2022 (including $213.8 million related to the MARA project)
Goal for growth in cash balances of $50.0 million to $100.0 million per year during the guidance period, to support the plan to grow the Company’s production profile to 1.5 million GEO(2) as part of its 10-Year Outlook.

Disciplined Sustaining and Expansionary Capital Spend
The Company will target $150 per GEO(2) in sustaining capital over the guidance period, to maintain productive capacity at the Company's mines and ensure mining flexibility, while maintaining safe and reliable operations.
Net expansionary capital is not to exceed $175.0 million per year on average during the guidance period of 2022 to 2024, considering modest cost of studies and permitting for the YAMANA 1.5 Plan. Expansionary capital subsequent to the guidance period to achieve the YAMANA 1.5 Plan is expected to be between $250.0 million to $300.0 million. Cash flows from a larger production platform from 6% growth during the guidance period, plus the addition ounces of gold from projects that would come into production, will be available to fund the incremental capital needed for the YAMANA 1.5 Plan.
The Company's capital allocation strategy adheres to responsible and disciplined growth that prioritizes free cash flow generation alongside its growth plans.

Strengthening Return of Capital to Shareholders through Dividends and Share Buybacks
The Company anticipates maintaining a baseline dividend of $0.12 per share, a level which represents a cumulative increase of 500% in dividends since the second quarter of 2019, and will continue to target a sustainable and growing dividend that tracks production and free cash flow growth profiles, while being sustainable through the gold price cycle.
Following the Company's initial capital spending and development phase from 2003 to 2006, the Company has consistently paid dividends since 2007, and dividends have aggregated to over $1 billion paid over 14 years.
During 2021, the Company announced a normal-course issuer bid (“NCIB”) to purchase up to 48,321,676 common shares of the Company, representing up to 5% of the Company’s then current issued and outstanding common shares, in open-market transactions through the facilities of the Toronto Stock Exchange, the New York Stock Exchange and alternative Canadian trading systems. Since the commencement of the NCIB, the Company has repurchased, and subsequently cancelled, a total of 6,672,628 common shares for approximately C$35.6 million.
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Investment and Exploration Strategy

A further primary objective of the Company, although one with an intermediate to longer-term time horizon, has been the advancement of its generative exploration program, a key component of Yamana’s overall organic growth strategy, designed to advance the Company’s most prospective properties and lay the foundation for the next generation of Yamana mines. The Company has an extensive exploration portfolio with well-defined exploration prospects and organic growth opportunities in all jurisdictions, with more advanced opportunities in Canada, Brazil and Argentina. The objective of the generative exploration program is to advance at least one project to achieve mineral reserve and mineral resource inventories of at least 1.5 million GEO(2) which the Company considers large enough to support a mine plan with annual gold production of approximately 150,000 ounces for at least eight years.

The Company is continually exploring options for funding such projects that do not draw on free cash flows. Funding strategies include, but are not limited to, proceeds from the monetization of non-cash producing assets or non-core assets that do not meet the Company's precious metal and scale requirements and, where applicable, flow-through funding arrangements. Funds are allocated to develop promising internal opportunities for organic growth through exploration and provide long-term growth.

To assess these opportunities, the Company relies on an experienced local exploration team that operates in its established jurisdictions and other favourable districts in North and South America.

As previously disclosed, greater efforts are being placed on Jacobina and Lavra Velha, which represent the best opportunities for advancement of the goals of the generative exploration program. Every project in the generative exploration program has had some drilling, with some projects more advanced than others and as an example, Lavra Velha in Brazil. There are a number of significant drill targets on the 68,500-hectare property, and Lavra Velha represents one of the most immediate, shorter-term opportunities to achieve the Company’s stated exploration goals given the mineral resource to date and drilling following the initial mineral resource estimate. Further, Lavra Velha is well-placed to meet the Company’s long-term objectives, as it is a shallow, flat-dipping orebody, making it ideal for open pit mining with a low strip ratio, and oxide mineralization, with potential to be processed as a heap leach operation. Therefore, the project has potential as a low capital cost, low operating cost operation. Additionally, the property hosts higher-grade gold and copper potential, as recently demonstrated by positive drilling results at Lavra Velha SW target, and the Company is exploring for Iron Oxide Copper Gold ("IOCG") mineralization. For more details, please refer to Section 6: Exploration.

The Company will also, from time to time, make investments to advance prospective exploration projects and more mature projects where it can provide value-added guidance either from the Company's exploration or technical services groups.

As a complement to the advancement of the internal exploration opportunities, the Company will consider the acquisition of earlier-stage development assets or companies that align with Yamana's objectives for capital allocation and financial results, jurisdiction, geology and operational expertise. Such opportunities will typically be funded through internal resources, meet minimum return levels that far exceed the cost of capital and would meet the Company's minimum requirements to achieve mineral reserve and mineral resource inventories, mine life and per year production rate. Furthermore, preference would be given to geological and operational characteristics where the Company has an identified expertise and excellent opportunities for value enhancement, and where the Company can deploy its corporate knowledge to provide value-added support. As part of its corporate approach, the Company shares information and best practices among its operations. Such opportunities would also extend an existing regional presence or lead to that longer-term objective. Although the Company has an established portfolio of early-to-later-stage organic growth projects, the Company also considers it prudent to consider opportunities to extend regional presences in quality jurisdictions that offer geological and operational synergies and similarities to its current portfolio of assets.

From time to time, the Company’s strategy includes holding investments in prospective companies. This may be for several reasons such as the disposition of certain assets for shares or in other cases, resulting from an investment for portfolio purposes. The ownership of shares in the Nomad Royalty Company is an example of the former. An investment may also give the Company an opportunity to further evaluate related opportunities. Normally, these investments are held through a cycle; otherwise, they are treated as any other portfolio investments. The acquisition by the Company of shares of Ascot Resources Ltd. ("Ascot") during 2021 is an example of the latter. In line with its investment strategy, the Company also holds interests in other exploration-stage companies in Canada including Quebec and British Columbia, amongst other prominent areas.

The Abitibi-Témiscamingue region and the province of Quebec, where the Wasamac project is located, represent high-quality regions and jurisdictions for mining which have a long mining pedigree, impressive mining workforces and skilled human capital, and support responsible mining. Furthermore, excellent infrastructure and local and provincial support of mining allows the Company to contain costs, find optimization opportunities, and manage its operations confidently and with an eye on health, safety, environment and community engagement. The focus of the Company in this geographical area is another step in its Canadian and regional strategy, and focus on this region in particular. The geologic nature of Abitibi-Témiscamingue is prolific, with an impressive mineral endowment, where new interpretations of geology and mining skills continue to lead to new, large discoveries.

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With Wasamac, Canadian Malartic and Odyssey, the Company will become one of the larger regional and national mining companies in Canada, with a threshold production of approximately 500,000 ounces of gold per year, at costs well below the Company’s and industry average. With the Company’s emphasis on free cash flow(1) generation, and focus on returns, Wasamac fits well into the Company’s corporate portfolio. Wasamac creates an optimized, more established and prolific Canadian company with impressive cash flow present and future and a dominant regional presence in one of the best jurisdictions for mining in the world, which management believes supports a premium valuation for the Company.


3.    REVIEW OF FINANCIAL RESULTS

FOR THE THREE MONTHS ENDED JUNE 30, 2022

Revenue

In the three months ended June 30, 2022, revenue was $485.6 million compared to $437.4 million in the same period in 2021. The 11% increase was primarily driven by higher gold and silver sales volumes in the current quarter, as well as higher average realized gold prices(1) compared to the second quarter of 2021. The average realized gold price(1) for the quarter ended June 30, 2022 was $1,869 per ounce versus $1,817 per ounce in the comparative quarter. Higher sales volumes were most notable at Cerro Moro, which, in the comparative quarter, was impacted by COVID-19 related travel restrictions that impacted worker availability; Jacobina, which achieved record quarterly gold production in the second quarter of 2022; and El Peñón.

For a cautionary note on non-GAAP financial performance measures and a reconciliation to average realized prices, refer to Section 11: Non-GAAP Financial Performance Measures.

Cost of Sales Excluding DDA

Cost of sales excluding DDA increased $6.2 million or 3%, compared with the same quarter in prior year, as result of higher GEO(2) production and sales levels, as discussed above, and in line with plan.

Standby and other incremental COVID-19 costs are disclosed as part of cost of sales excluding DDA. The Company anticipates that such costs will continue to be minimized prospectively. With an increasing percentage of the population having been fully vaccinated against COVID-19 or having recovered from COVID-19, the Company expects to see increasing immunity and corresponding decreasing caseloads.

Depletion, Depreciation and Amortization ("DDA")

DDA expense increased $2.2 million or 2%, compared with the same quarter in the prior year. The increase in DDA expense was primarily attributable to the overall higher sales volumes in the current period, in particular, at Jacobina and Cerro Moro, given the notable increase in sales volumes from the comparative period at those mines.

General and Administrative

General and administrative ("G&A") expenses include expenses related to management of the business that are not part of direct mine operating costs. In the three months ended June 30, 2022, G&A expenses were $6.4 million higher than in the same period in 2021, primarily due to higher stock-based compensation expense in the current quarter relative to the comparative period, related to performance share units and Yamana share over-performance in relation to the broader gold index, while other variances were not individually significant.

Exploration and Evaluation

Exploration and evaluation expenses of $11.5 million for the three months ended June 30, 2022 were higher than in the same period in 2021 due to increased expenditures resulting from the generative exploration program. The program is focused on advancing projects in Yamana’s portfolio, while continuing drilling activity at a number of the Company’s highly prospective earlier stage projects. For more information refer to Section 6: Exploration.

Other Operating Expenses

In the three months ended June 30, 2022, the Company recorded net other operating expenses of $16.6 million compared to net other operating expenses of $2.3 million for the same period in 2021. Operating expenses are comprised primarily of contributions to social and infrastructure development priorities in jurisdictions where the Company is active, business development related costs, care and maintenance expenses, changes in provisions, and mark-to-market adjustments on financial assets and liabilities. The largest expense component in both the current and comparative periods is related to care and maintenance expenditures at the MARA project in relation to the Alumbrera facilities of $6.4 million (2021: $5.6 million), of which, only 56.25% is attributable to Yamana shareholders. Yamana has consolidated Alumbrera since the completion of the Agua Rica Alumbrera Integration Transaction on December 17, 2020. Also included in the current quarter are transaction costs incurred in
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relation to the proposed Gold Fields transaction. Other operating expenses incurred in the comparative quarter were largely offset by a $9.2 million gain on discontinuation of the equity method of accounting, associated with the change in the status of the Company's investment in Nomad Royalty Company ("Nomad") during the quarter.

Finance Costs

Finance costs decreased $5.6 million in the three months ended June 30, 2022 compared to the same period in 2021, primarily due to the decrease in the Company's interest expense, which decreased from the comparative period due to both lower outstanding gross debt, and more favourable interest rates following the senior notes transactions in the third quarter of 2021.

Other Income/Costs

Other income was $20.9 million in the three months ended June 30, 2022, compared to other costs of $6.7 million in the comparative period. Other income/costs is comprised primarily of realized and unrealized gains and losses on derivatives and foreign exchange and, given the nature of these items, is expected to fluctuate from period to period. The income position in the current period was primarily comprised of foreign exchange gains.

Income Tax Expense

The Company recorded an income tax expense of $66.5 million for the three months ended June 30, 2022 compared to an income tax expense of $181.4 million for the three months ended June 30, 2021. The income tax provision reflects a current income tax expense of $49.7 million and a deferred income tax expense of $16.8 million, compared to a current income tax expense of $36.1 million and a deferred income tax expense of $145.3 million for the three months ended June 30, 2021.

Included in the income tax expense for the three months ended June 30, 2022 are mining taxes of $13.9 million compared to $11.3 million for the three months ended June 30, 2021. A foreign exchange loss in the amount of $14.6 million was recorded predominantly on the weakening of the Brazilian Real and Argentine Peso against the US Dollar for the three months ended June 30, 2022 compared to a gain of $11.8 million for the three months ended June 30, 2021, on the revaluation of certain non-monetary assets.


FOR THE SIX MONTHS ENDED JUNE 30, 2022

Revenue

For the six months ended June 30, 2022, revenue was $927.5 million compared to $859.5 million for the same period in 2021. The 8% increase was primarily attributable to higher gold and silver sales volumes in the current period as well as higher average realized gold prices(1) compared to the same period in 2021. The average realized gold price(1) for the six months ended June 30, 2022 was $1,873 per ounce versus $1,805 per ounce in the comparative quarter. Higher sales volumes were most notable at Cerro Moro, which, in the comparative period, was impacted by COVID-19 related travel restrictions that impacted worker availability; Jacobina, which achieved record quarterly gold production in the second quarter of 2022; and El Peñón.

For a cautionary note on non-GAAP financial performance measures and a reconciliation to average realized prices, refer to Section 11: Non-GAAP Financial Performance Measures.

Cost of Sales Excluding DDA(6)

Cost of sales excluding DDA increased $13.3 million or 4% for the six months ended June 30, 2022 compared to 2021, primarily due to the increase in sales volumes as discussed above, and in line with plan.

Standby and other incremental COVID-19 costs are disclosed as part of cost of sales excluding DDA. The Company anticipates that costs will continue to be minimized prospectively. With increasing numbers of the population receiving the vaccine, the Company expects to see increasing immunity and corresponding decreasing caseloads.

Depletion, Depreciation and Amortization ("DDA")

Total DDA expense increased $10.5 million or 5% for the six months ended June 30, 2022 compared to 2021, primarily due to the overall higher sales volumes in the current period, as discussed above.

Temporary Suspension Costs

Temporary suspension costs of $5.7 million incurred in the six month period to June 30, 2022 relate to a labour action at the Minera Florida mine that carried into January 2022, which was resolved in the first quarter of 2022, and resulted in a new long-term collective bargaining agreement.

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General and Administrative

G&A expenses include costs related to the overall management of the business that are not part of direct mine operating costs. In the six months ended June 30, 2022, G&A expenses increased $11.1 million or 32% compared to 2021, primarily due to higher stock-based compensation expense particularly in the first quarter related to the substantial increase in the Company's share price during the first half of 2022 and Yamana share over-performance in relation to the broader gold index, which resulted in the Company recording a higher expense as the value of the stock-based compensation granted in previous years increased, while other variances were not individually significant.

Exploration and Evaluation

Exploration and evaluation expenses of $16.6 million for the six months ended June 30, 2022 were higher than the $13.9 million of expenses in 2021 due to increased expenditures resulting from the generative exploration program. The program is focused on advancing projects in Yamana’s portfolio, while continuing drilling activity at a number of the Company’s highly prospective earlier stage projects. For more information please refer to Section 6: Exploration.

Other Operating Expenses

In the six months ended June 30, 2022, the Company recorded other operating expenses of $32.4 million (2021: $14.7 million). Operating expenses are comprised primarily of contributions to social and infrastructure development priorities in jurisdictions where the Company is active, business development related costs, care and maintenance expenses, changes in provisions, and mark-to-market adjustments on financial assets and liabilities. The largest expense component in the current period is related to care and maintenance expenditures at the MARA project in relation to the Alumbrera facilities of $14.1 million (2021: $12.5 million), of which, only 56.25% is attributable to Yamana shareholders. Yamana has consolidated Alumbrera since the completion of the Agua Rica Alumbrera Integration Transaction on December 17, 2020. Also included in the current period are transaction costs incurred in relation to the proposed Gold Fields transaction. Other operating expenses incurred in the comparative period were largely offset by a $9.2 million gain on discontinuation of the equity method of accounting, associated with the change in the status of the Company's investment in Nomad Royalty Company ("Nomad") during the period.

Finance Costs

Finance costs decreased $11.3 million in the six months ended June 30, 2022 compared to the same period in 2021, primarily due to the decrease in the Company's interest expense, which decreased from the comparative period due to both lower outstanding gross debt, and more favourable interest rates following the senior notes transactions in the third quarter of 2021.

Other Income/Costs, Net

Other income was $7.4 million in the six months ended June 30, 2022, compared to other costs of $7.5 million in the comparative period. Other income/costs is comprised primarily of realized and unrealized gains and losses on derivatives and foreign exchange and, given the nature of these items, is expected to fluctuate from period to period. The income position in the current period was primarily comprised of foreign exchange gains.

Income Tax Expense

The income tax provision for the six months ended June 30, 2022 reflects a current income tax expense of $88.0 million and a deferred income tax recovery of $1.7 million. This compares to a current income tax expense of $62.2 million and a deferred income tax expense of $158.2 million for the six months ended June 30, 2021.

QUARTERLY FINANCIAL SUMMARY
For the three months endedJun. 30,Mar. 31,Dec. 31,Sep. 30,Jun. 30,Mar. 31,Dec. 31,Sep. 30,
(In millions of US Dollars, except per share amounts)20222022202120212021202120202020
Financial results
Revenue
$485.6 $441.9 $503.8 $452.2 $437.4 $422.0 $461.8 $439.4 
Net earnings (loss)(3)
$72.1 $57.8 $109.7 $27.0 $(43.9)$54.7 $103.0 $55.6 
Net earnings (loss)(3) per share - basic and diluted
$0.07 $0.06 $0.11 $0.03 $(0.05)$0.06 $0.11 $0.06 


4.    OPERATING SEGMENTS PERFORMANCE

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CANADIAN MALARTIC (50% interest), CANADA

Canadian Malartic is an open pit gold mine, located in the Abitibi-Témiscamingue region of Quebec, Canada. The Company and its partner, Agnico Eagle Mines Limited ("Agnico"), each own 50% of Canadian Malartic General Partnership (the "Partnership").

For the three months ended June 30,For the six months ended June 30,
Key Performance Information (50% basis)2022 2021 2022 2021 
Operating
Ore mined (tonnes)
2,447,594 2,307,090 4,817,429 4,900,584 
Waste mined (tonnes)
5,480,441 1,474,788 10,832,429 2,840,419 
Ore processed (tonnes)
2,399,154 2,819,347 4,811,005 5,450,675 
GEO(2) (Gold)
Production (ounces)
87,186 92,106 167,695 181,656 
Sales (ounces)
88,600 94,335 166,914 182,528 
Feed grade (g/t)
1.23 1.13 1.19 1.16 
Recovery rate (%)
91.7 89.7 91.3 89.6 
Total cost of sales per GEO sold(6)
$1,205 $1,147 $1,260 $1,113 
Cash costs per GEO sold(1)
$724 $632 $751 $614 
AISC per GEO sold(1)
$915 $911 $939 $892 
DDA per GEO sold$473 $507 $502 $491 
Financial (millions of US Dollars)
Revenue$165.7 $170.3 $312.3 $329.0 
Cost of sales excluding DDA(6)
(64.9)(60.5)(126.6)(113.5)
Gross margin excluding DDA(6)
$100.8 $109.8 $185.7 $215.5 
DDA(41.9)(47.8)(83.8)(89.6)
Mine operating earnings$58.9 $62.0 $101.9 $125.9 
Capital expenditures (millions of US Dollars)
Sustaining and other$12.3 $20.8 $21.5 $40.3 
Expansionary$30.8 $8.4 $53.0 $13.7 
Exploration$5.1 $4.3 $9.0 $7.4 

Canadian Malartic had a strong second quarter, producing 87,186 ounces, exceeding plan. Canadian Malartic recovery rates have trended higher than comparative periods, as anticipated from the processing of softer Barnat ore. As previously guided, the mine is expected to have lower production and throughput in 2022, relative to 2021, optimizing cash flows.

Total cost of sales, cash costs(1) and AISC(1) on a per GEO(2) basis for the quarter were $1,205, $724, and $915 respectively, with AISC(1) largely flat versus the prior year comparative quarter and better than plan .

For further information on the planned Odyssey project and other Malartic initiatives, please refer to Section 5: Construction, Development and Other Initiatives.

Canadian Malartic Exploration

Exploration during the second quarter was to provide support for an aggressive conversion infill drill program at East Gouldie, a new zone discovered in late 2018 at depth approximately 1.5 kilometres east of the Canadian Malartic and Barnat open pits, and south of the underground East Malartic and Odyssey zones. The infill program continues to generate excellent results demonstrating consistent grades and widths throughout the mineralized zone, further demonstrating the high quality nature of the reported inferred resource. This drilling is expected to continue to convert a significant portion of the 2021 year end inferred resource to indicated resources. East Gouldie currently has a strike length of approximately 1,400 metres in an east-west direction and dips 60 degrees to the north, extending from 700 metres to 1,900 metres depth below surface. Mineralization remains open to depth and to the east. The zone dips toward the East Malartic zone, and may converge with East Malartic at depth. As of January 21st, 2022 East Gouldie was estimated to contain inferred mineral resources of 6.01 million ounces of gold, in 61.65 million tonnes at a grade of 3.1 grams per tonne gold and Measured and Indicated resources of 1.50 million ounces of gold, in 11.95 million tonnes at a grade of 3.9 grams per tonne gold. These numbers are reported on a 100% basis, making Yamana’s 50% share of the total resources 3.79 million ounces of gold.

The main objectives of the 2022 drilling program are to convert the inferred mineral resource to an indicated mineral resource, complete additional infill and delineation drilling on the Odyssey zones, as well as to carry out further exploration drilling to
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expand the current mineralized envelope. To that end, twelve surface drills and four underground drills are active at quarter end and by the end of the second quarter of 2022, completed drilling included 42,018 metres of infill on East Gouldie, 10,450 metres of exploration drilling on East Gouldie expansion, outside the resource envelope, and 31,700 metres of conversion drilling on Odyssey South. Infill drilling in 2022 continues to demonstrate remarkable grade and width continuity in the East Gouldie mineralized zone, with indicated resource drilling meeting or exceeding the grade and width of the reported inferred resource, validating the inferred resource estimate. Additionally, up to four drill rigs worked during the second quarter on exploration of the eastern extension of the East Gouldie structure from the Rand property, completing 14,600 metres on East Gouldie Extension, 4,600 metres of exploration at East Amphi and 690 metres on the Midway project. During the third quarter, exploration will continue with one drill rig working on exploration testing further targets on the consolidated property. The eastern extension of East Gouldie now has fifteen pierce points from both 2021 and 2022 drill programs providing 300-500 metre drill centres, testing a panel beyond the East Gouldie resource measuring approximately 1,500 metres along strike and 900 metres down dip. To date in 2022, 14,600 metres were completed on East Gouldie extension, generating eight new pierce points in the eastern extension of the East Gouldie plane. Highlights, as reported in the July 27, 2022 press release 'Yamana Gold Announces Positive Exploration Results Underpinning Strategic Upside At Odyssey And Wasamac; East Gouldie Exploration Drilling Continues to Highlight Significant Expansion Potential; Infill Drilling Results at Wasamac Support an Expanded Production Scenario', include the following estimated true widths intercepts:

East Gouldie Infill: MEX21-230WB, 6.45 g/t of gold over 22.53 metres; MEX22-233, 5.03 g/t of gold over 33.24 metres; MEX21-225WBZ, 2.23 g/t of gold over 60.26 metres; and MEX21-228W, 6.93 g/t of gold over 27.50 metres.

East Gouldie Extension Exploration: MEX22-232, 3.85 g/t of gold over 5.98 metres; RD21-4689AA, 4.11 g/t of gold over 2.96 metres; and MEX22-231, 1.84 g/t of gold over 62.92 metres.

Odyssey South Conversion: UGOD-021-007, 19.11 g/t of gold over 7.40 metres; UGOD-021-002, 5.24 g/t of gold over 17.04 metres; UGOD-026-010, 17.57 g/t of gold over 8.64 metres; and UGOD-016-051, 28.66 g/t of gold over 6.62 metres.

During the first quarter, the Partnership entered into a royalty repurchase agreement to exercise its buy-out option to repurchase the 2% net smelter return royalty on its 262-hectare Rand property. The Partnership originally acquired the Rand property in 2019 and in connection with the transaction, granted a net smelter royalty equal to 2% of the net smelter returns from precious metals produced from the property, with an accompanying repurchase right, which has now been exercised. As noted, Rand allows for the exploration of the eastern extension of the East Gouldie structure and with the completion of this transaction, there are now no further royalties that remain on the Rand property.

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JACOBINA, BRAZIL

Jacobina is a complex of underground gold mines located in Bahia state, Brazil.
For the three months ended June 30,For the six months ended June 30,
Key Performance Information2022 2021 2022 2021 
Operating
Ore mined (tonnes)
756,136 606,260 1,484,982 1,206,533 
Ore processed (tonnes)
748,657 654,998 1,455,194 1,269,316 
GEO(2) (Gold)
Production49,662 47,503 96,786 90,605 
Sales49,238 47,696 95,928 90,655 
Feed grade (g/t)
2.17 2.34 2.17 2.30 
Recovery rate (%)
95.2 96.3 95.4 96.6 
Total cost of sales per GEO sold(6)
$856 $941 $858 $930 
Cash costs per GEO sold(1)
$559 $660 $545 $652 
AISC per GEO sold(1)
$775 $824 $761 $798 
DDA per GEO sold$297 $271 $299 $270 
Financial (millions of US Dollars)
Revenue$92.7 $87.0 $180.4 $163.8 
Cost of sales excluding DDA(6)
(27.5)(32.0)(53.5)(59.9)
Gross margin excluding DDA(6)
$65.2 $55.0 $126.9 $103.9 
DDA(14.6)(12.9)(28.7)(24.5)
Mine operating earnings$50.6 $42.1 $98.2 $79.4 
Capital expenditures (millions of US Dollars)
Sustaining and other$4.7 $3.3 $9.2 $6.0 
Expansionary$8.9 $5.4 $13.8 $9.6 
Exploration$3.1 $2.1 $5.6 $3.4 

Jacobina had an exceptional second quarter and delivered record quarterly gold production of 49,662 ounces. The production results exceeded plan and the comparative quarter, driven by higher ore tonnes mined. Underground mine development work is in line with the mine plan at 1,500 metres per month to gain access to new mining panels, and together with the higher ore tonnes mined, provides additional flexibility through the development of stockpiles supporting the higher throughput expected from the ongoing phased expansion. As previously guided, production for 2022 is expected to increase for the ninth consecutive year, a trend that is expected to continue in the coming years, as a result of the phased expansion strategy and the exploration programs aimed at generating significant value from the remarkable geological upside of the property.

The Phase 2 expansion at Jacobina continued to successfully ramp-up during the quarter, with the mine achieving a sustained throughput rate of over 8,400 tpd in June. Yamana expects the throughput objective of 8,500 tpd to be achieved in July, establishing Jacobina’s sustainable production profile at 230,000 ounces of gold per year.

For further information on the planned Jacobina processing plant capacity optimization and expansion initiatives, including the Phase 4 expansion of up to 15,000 which would increase gold production to 350,000 ounces per year, as well a comprehensive tailings management strategy for long-term sustainability, please refer to Section 5: Construction, Development and Other Initiatives.

Total cost of sales, cash costs(1) and AISC(1) on a per GEO(2) basis for the second quarter of $856, $559, and $775, respectively, were significantly lower than the comparative prior year quarter. Costs benefited from higher production as a result of the aforementioned increased mill throughput, and fixed production costs being distributed over less ounces in the prior year.

Jacobina Exploration

Exploration activities during the second quarter continued as planned with eleven drills active and four additional rigs planned to be added in the third quarter. Drilling activity during the quarter was split approximately evenly between infill and exploration drilling in support of the phased expansion plan with 40,000 metres of drilling planned to convert Indicated and Inferred resources at Morro do Vento, João Belo, João Belo Sul and Morro do Vento Norte (Main Reef) and to add new inferred resources for future years. This drilling is expected to replace mineral reserves and resources beyond depletion, notwithstanding increasing production, underscoring Jacobina’s exceptional long-term growth potential and remarkable geological upside, and ability to further extend strategic mine life.

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During the second quarter, approximately 14,813 metres of drilling were completed at Jacobina, including 20 drill holes totaling 6,791 metres of infill drilling to convert inferred mineral resources to indicated mineral resources, 16 drill holes totaling 6,324 metres of exploration drilling dedicated to defining new inferred mineral resources, and 5 drill holes totaling 1,698 metres of exploratory drilling, testing and defining new potential resources in the near mine setting.

The infill program focused on delineation of new indicated resources, targeting inferred resource areas, located around the current development infrastructure. Infill drilling during the second quarter was executed at the Main Reef at Morro do Vento, at João Belo Sul (LMPC Reef), Morro do Cuscuz and Canavieiras Sul. Results obtained at Morro do Vento continue to confirm grades and geometry at Morro do Vento Sul and Morro do Vento Norte. Initial drilling in the Morro do Vento Central region indicates good potential in this open region, where drilling is ongoing. Ongoing infill drilling at João Belo Sul is continuing to confirm the grades and geometry, where mineralization remains open for expansion to the south along a 1,200 metre corridor.

Exploration drilling activity at Jacobina ramped up in the second quarter, included 6,324 metres in 16 drill holes dedicated to delineation of new inferred resources at Morro do Vento Main Reef down-dip and at the south extension, at João Belo Sul South Extension, Morro do Vento Leste and Morro do Cuscuz. Drilling continues to confirm the continuity of the Main reef down dip and to the south of Morro do Vento (South Extension). At João Belo Sul South Extension, ongoing drilling indicates potential remains open to the south.

Exploratory drilling dedicated to defining new potential resources in the near mine setting continued in the second quarter at Morro da Maricota (targeting down plunge), Morro do Vento down-dip and Morro da Viuva. Positive results returned from the initial test of Morro do Vento Main Reef down-dip in 2021, continue to be followed up and testing a potential strike length of approximately 3,000 metres and approximate 700 metre down-dip potential. Initial drill results during the first quarter are confirming the continuation at depth of the main reef. Results from the second quarter are pending. Ongoing drilling at Morro da Maricota sector is targeting the up-plunge potential of mineralization, representing an approximate 1,900 metre extent, extending to depth from positive rock samples and artisanal mines at surface. Exploratory drilling will be advanced during the third quarter with additional drill rigs.

Overall, exploration continues to demonstrate success in identifying and defining new extensions of current producing sectors of the Jacobina mine, with exceptional results replacing depletion with high-quality mineral reserves and mineral resources close to current mine infrastructure. Aggressive step out exploration drilling continues to open up new, extensive frontier areas available for mineral resource growth in new sectors of the property, as exemplified by recent successes at João Belo Sul and Morro do Vento Main Reef down-dip and Serra do Corrego. These discoveries support a strategic mine life of several decades at a production level well above the planned Phase 2 expansion annual production level of 230,000 ounces, ahead of schedule and now expected to be achieved in July, and likely 270,000 ounces, which is the planned annual production level for the Phase 3 expansion by 2025 as described above. Please refer to the press release issued on July 7, 2022 by the Company, entitled "Yamana Gold Announces Strong Preliminary Second Quarter Operating Results With Exceptional Performance Across Its Core Asset Portfolio Delivering Production Ahead of Plan; Strategic Initiatives At Jacobina and Wasamac Continue To Advance" for further details.

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CERRO MORO, ARGENTINA

Cerro Moro is an underground and open pit gold-silver mining operation, located in the province of Santa Cruz, Argentina.
For the three months ended June 30,For the six months ended June 30,
Key Performance Information
2022 2021 2022 2021 
Operating
Ore mined (tonnes)
103,615 77,331 184,054 153,974 
Waste mined (tonnes)
874,925 816,095 1,730,437 1,769,262 
Ore processed (tonnes)
100,719 84,464 196,898 176,760 
GEO(2)
Production51,906 25,313 96,707 60,553 
Sales49,285 27,443 96,653 62,319 
   Total cost of sales per GEO sold(6)
$1,250 $1,802 $1,272 $1,523 
Cash costs per GEO sold(1)
$842 $1,025 $840 $890 
AISC per GEO sold(1)
$1,181 $1,499 $1,152 $1,283 
DDA per GEO sold$401 $467 $417 $419 
Gold
Production (ounces)30,929 14,488 56,183 30,698 
Sales (ounces)29,223 14,344 55,506 30,457 
   Feed grade (g/t)
10.09 5.69 9.43 5.74 
   Recovery rate (%)
94.6 93.8 94.1 94.0 
Silver
Production (ounces)1,736,872 736,823 3,267,558 2,045,926 
Sales (ounces)1,670,840 893,171 3,319,384 2,179,205 
   Feed grade (g/t)
566.73 291.07 543.65 392.03 
   Recovery rate (%)
94.6 93.2 94.9 91.8 
Financial (millions of US Dollars)
Revenue$91.0 $48.8 $175.8 $112.8 
Cost of sales excluding DDA(6)
(41.8)(36.6)(82.6)(68.8)
Gross margin excluding DDA(6)
$49.2 $12.2 $93.2 $44.0 
DDA(19.8)(12.8)(40.4)(26.1)
Mine operating earnings$29.4 $(0.6)$52.8 $17.9 
Capital expenditures (millions of US Dollars)
Sustaining and other$11.1 $8.4 $20.0 $15.2 
Expansionary$ $0.3 $ $0.3 
Exploration$1.6 $1.8 $3.1 $3.6 

Cerro Moro had an exceptional quarter, producing 51,906 GEO(2) comprising 30,929 ounces of gold and 1,736,872 ounces of silver, significantly exceeding plan and production from the comparative period. Production continued to benefit from access to additional mining faces, which supported the increase in mill feed coming from higher-grade underground ore, which accounts for nearly 80% of the now stabilized throughput.

The opening of more mining faces and resultant increase in mill feed coming from higher-grade underground ore continued in the second quarter with Zoe contributions becoming more prevalent. During the second quarter, most of the ore delivered to the plant came from Escondida Far West, Zoe, Escondida Central and Escondida West. Over the past year, Cerro Moro has optimized the operation of the processing plant to increase daily throughput to approximately 1,100 tpd. With improvements to mine development and flexibility, and modifications to the mining sequence for the year, the Company anticipates more balanced quarterly production profile over the second half of year, with production reflecting reserve grades. This positions Cerro Moro well to meet guidance for the year.

Total cost of sales, cash costs(1) and AISC(1) on a per GEO(2) basis during the second quarter were $1,250, $842, and $1,181, respectively, better than plan and all well below the comparative quarter, as a result of the exceptional production in the quarter.

The mine has a significant inventory of veins that are comparatively lower-grade in relation to the very high Cerro Moro mineral reserve and mineral resource grade, that are not fully reflected in the current mineral reserve and mineral resource statements. These veins could potentially support new mineral resources for the plant expansion scenario with lower cut-off grades than the high grades currently being mined. Drilling of these lower grade veins was not typically followed up with infill drilling in the past as the mineralization is below the current cut-off grade. Cerro Moro was developed as a high grade, low tonnage operation but, from
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the beginning, the Company has considered alternative processing options to allow for economic extraction of lower grade mineralization, including:

a.a scalable plant, where the front-end of the plant anticipates higher 2,000 tpd tonnage, with the expectation of modest capital requirement to achieve this objective,
b.heap leaching near surface, lower-grade material, to supplement other production.

The objective at Cerro Moro is to create a sustainable ten-years of production of at least 160,000 GEO(2) per year, and up to 200,000 GEO(2) per year. Upside from the aforementioned processing options would be beyond the current ten-year outlook that assumes Cerro Moro as a 150,000 to 165,000 GEO(2) per year operation, which is expected to be sustainable from mineral reserves mine life, ongoing exploration successes and mineral reserve replacement. During the second quarter, Yamana advanced the plant expansion, envisaged as a low-risk, phased expansion for Cerro Moro with quick payback from the initial phase used to fund subsequent phases. In parallel, a technical study on the potential heap leach project was conducted, and while the results obtained in the second quarter of 2022 were positive, the Company has elected to prioritize the plant expansion project, as it provides a more immediate high return growth prospect, similar to the phased expansion successfully deployed at Jacobina. For further information on the Cerro Moro scalable plant and heap leach project and other initiatives please refer to Section 5: Construction, Development and Other Initiatives.

As Cerro Moro’s mineral inventory increases, the Company will evaluate its options for alternative sources of power, which include a connection to the grid and wind power. Both options are expected to improve costs and further reduce greenhouse gas emissions, thereby accelerating the achievement of the Company’s 1.5ºC science-based carbon emissions reduction target.

The transition of Cerro Moro from high-cost diesel-generated electricity to wind power is the most attractive and compelling of several viable greenhouse gas reduction options. The conversion of approximately 50% of Cerro Moro's electricity requirements from diesel to wind power would meet the greenhouse gas emission reductions required between now and 2030 to achieve the Company's 1.5ºC science-based target. Further, it is expected that the transition to wind power would reduce operating costs, expand mineral reserves and mine life. A detailed evaluation, including a third-party feasibility study of this opportunity is underway. The third-party study to finalize the Company's evaluation of wind power indicates there should be a sufficient and sustainable supply of power as the Cerro Moro area of southern Argentina is considered one of the best on-shore locations in the world for wind energy. The results of the alternative power analysis will be considered in the plant expansion pre-feasibility and heap leach studies to explore synergies between the projects.

Cerro Moro Exploration

Exploration during the second quarter included completion of approximately 5,434 metres of infill drilling in 36 drill holes, to convert inferred mineral resources to indicated mineral resources, 7,648 metres of exploration drilling in 43 drill holes, dedicated to defining new inferred mineral resources, and 4,768 metres of scout drilling in 14 drill holes, testing and defining new potential resources in the near mine setting. An additional 3,721 metres of RC drilling was completed, targeting areas of potential open pit heap leachable resources. Delineation drilling completed at Escondida West, Escondida Central, Veronica and Zoe targets was carried out during the quarter, accounting for 4,325 metres of drilling, returning positive results in all areas. Infill drilling was initiated in the second quarter at Escondida West, Zoe NW and Veronica utilizing two diamond drill rigs, with positive results from Escondida West and Zoe. A third drill rig will be added to the infill program in the third quarter.

Exploration drilling ramped up in the second quarter continuing to focus on the core mine Escondida-Zoe structural corridor, targeting extensions of known ore shoots to depth and laterally and to test new sectors. Drilling in the quarter utilizing three drill rigs was completed at Veronica, Zoe NW, Gabriela and Deborah, targeting areas with potential to generate new underground resources. Results received during the quarter include positive intercepts from Escondida West, Loma Escondida (Central Zone), Zoe NW and Veronica (positive visual results, assays pending).

Additional work completed during the quarter included initial exploratory drilling at Mosquito, Cassius and Deborah, with most results pending, RC drilling of potential open pit targets (Agostina, Carlita, Deborah, Esperanza, Michelle, Tres Lomas), collection of 968 soil and 274 rock samples and geological mapping and prospecting to advance regional targets (Nevado, Corina, Hahia Laura NE, La Juanita, Mosquito, Naty-Condor, Naty Central), completion of 729 line-kilometres of in-house ground magnetics at Mosquito, Natty NE and Zoe East sectors, and completion of a planned CSAMT survey.
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EL PEÑÓN, CHILE

El Peñón is a gold-silver mine located approximately 160 kilometres southeast of Antofagasta in northern Chile.
For the three months ended June 30,For the six months ended June 30,
Key Performance Information2022 2021 2022 2021 
Operating
Ore mined (tonnes)
254,481 279,531 499,188 530,501 
Ore processed (tonnes)
334,093 341,507 663,553 676,847 
GEO(2)
Production54,068 52,607 103,934 95,884 
Sales55,193 50,136 105,852 96,144 
Total cost of sales per GEO sold(6)
$1,091 $1,183 $1,099 $1,215 
Cash costs per GEO sold(1)
$712 $740 $709 $762 
AISC per GEO sold(1)
$988 $1,053 $992 $1,077 
DDA per GEO sold$365 $417 $368 $426 
Gold
   Production (ounces)
46,627 39,492 87,957 70,929 
   Sales (ounces)
47,685 37,794 89,146 71,370 
   Feed grade (g/t)
4.49 3.88 4.29 3.48 
   Recovery rate (%)
95.8 93.4 95.4 93.5 
Silver
   Production (ounces)
619,981 891,255 1,287,964 1,707,399 
   Sales (ounces)
625,951 838,449 1,343,958 1,682,601 
   Feed grade (g/t)
65.96 96.21 69.25 91.26 
   Recovery rate (%)
86.8 85.2 86.2 86.3 
Financial (millions of US Dollars)
Revenue$103.2 $91.4 $198.1 $173.2 
Cost of sales excluding DDA(6)
(40.1)(38.4)(77.5)(75.9)
Gross margin excluding DDA(6)
$63.1 $53.0 $120.6 $97.3 
DDA(20.1)(20.9)(38.9)(40.9)
Mine operating earnings
$43.0 $32.1 $81.7 $56.4 
Capital expenditures (millions of US Dollars)
Sustaining and other$9.4 $9.1 $19.6 $18.2 
Expansionary$1.6 $1.7 $2.4 $4.2 
Exploration$3.7 $4.8 $6.3 $8.6 

El Peñón had a strong quarter, with GEO(2) production of 54,068, comprising gold production of 46,627 ounces, and 619,981 ounces of silver. June production of 19,077 GEO(2) benefited from access to the Chiquilla Chica zone which entered into production at the beginning of the month. Optimized mining sequencing, bringing forward zones with a higher gold to silver ratio in the first half of the year, has put El Peñón in an excellent position to achieve full year GEO(2) production guidance. The Company expects higher silver production in the second half of 2022, due to mining sequence and the mining of the Providencia Sur, Dorada SW and Flat zones, where an increase in higher silver grade is anticipated. The first step to unlock the opportunity to leverage the currently existing processing capacity at the mine and increase production was to establish additional mining sectors. The development of La Paloma, Quebrada Colorada Sur and Pampa Campamento Deep was an important component of that strategy; accessing these new areas has now provided increased mining flexibility. With improved access now in place, and development rates able to support throughput, the Company expects higher production to come in the following quarters predominantly driven by higher grades.

Quarterly total cost of sales, cash costs(1) and AISC(1) on a per GEO(2) basis of $1,091, $712, and $988, respectively, were all well below the comparative period, as a result of the previously disclosed higher development rates, that facilitated access to additional mining areas during the quarter. Mine development is currently occurring at a rate that exceeds 3,000 metres per month.

El Peñón Exploration

During the second quarter drilling completed at El Peñón included 20 infill drill holes totaling 5,535 metres to convert inferred mineral resources to indicated mineral resources, 51 exploration drill holes totaling 20,869 metres dedicated to defining new inferred mineral resources, and 7,978 metres in 15 reverse-circulation and diamond drill holes testing regional targets.
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Infill drilling initiated during the second quarter utilizing two underground rigs was completed in five sectors of the core mine, including Pampa Campamento, Ventura, Dorada FW, Dorada FW W, and Martillo Flat. The infill program will ramp up in the third and fourth quarters.

Exploration drilling during the second quarter utilizing three underground and one surface diamond drill rigs and one surface reverse circulation rig, was completed in 17 sectors, including Esperanza, Pampa Campamento, Sorpresa, Ventura, La Paloma, El Valle Oeste, Cerro Martillo, Conexión Paloma-Borde Oeste, Colorada Sur, Lazo Carmín, Dorada SW, Martillo Flat, Providencia, Dorada FW W, and Fortuna. Targeting focused on sectors that were most productive in generating new resources during 2021, on ore shoot trends, and higher grade sectors, as ore zones are extended to depth toward the lower dacitic unit across shallowly dipping faults. Positive results have been returned from Pampa Campamento, Ventura, Providencia and Lazo Carmin.

District exploration work during the second quarter continued to focus on the Peñón Sur (South Deeps) target area south of the core mine development, continuing to produce encouraging results south of the highly productive El Peñón vein system of the existing mine. Such expansion of the vein system could in turn meet the objective of increasing production at a site that has significant excess plant capacity. Second quarter work included 7,978 metres of reverse-circulation and diamond drilling in 15 drill holes in the South Deeps area, targeting the favorable rhyolite stratigraphy at depth of 300 to 900 metres below surface. All targets drilled intercepted the rhyolite unit with most holes intercepting sections of epithermal vein and breccia style mineralization with intervals of anomalous gold and silver geochemistry.

The positive exploration results received in 2021 and to date in 2022 at the South Deeps target are encouraging and provide the opportunity to add potential ounces in an easily accessible near mine setting.

MINERA FLORIDA, CHILE

Minera Florida is an underground gold mine located south of Santiago in central Chile.
For the three months ended June 30,For the six months ended June 30,
Key Performance Information2022 2021 2022 2021 
Operating
Ore mined (tonnes)
211,058 228,294 385,769 432,952 
Ore processed (tonnes)
239,919 260,423 433,345 500,445 
GEO(2) (Gold)
Production18,138 23,813 34,454 44,631 
Sales17,672 21,871 32,252 44,569 
   Feed grade (g/t)
2.56 3.07 2.68 2.99 
Recovery rate (%)91.9 92.6 92.1 92.7 
Total cost of sales per GEO sold(6)
$1,718 $1,409 $1,693 $1,429 
Cash costs per GEO sold(1)
$1,041 $798 $974 $849 
AISC per GEO sold(1)
$1,503 $1,147 $1,430 $1,175 
DDA per GEO sold$675 $540 $711 $520 
Financial (millions of US Dollars)
Revenue$33.0 $40.0 $60.9 $80.7 
Cost of sales excluding DDA(6)
(18.4)(19.0)(31.7)(40.5)
Gross margin excluding DDA(6)
$14.6 $21.0 $29.2 $40.2 
DDA(11.9)(11.8)(22.9)(23.2)
Temporary suspension costs(6)
 — (5.7)— 
Mine operating earnings$2.7 $9.2 $0.6 $17.0 
Capital expenditures (millions of US Dollars)
Sustaining and other$4.4 $4.2 $7.4 $8.1 
Expansionary$5.2 $7.0 $8.6 $12.0 
Exploration$1.5 $1.0 $3.1 $2.1 

Minera Florida reported gold production of 18,138 ounces during the quarter, and remains on target for its annual production guidance range. During the past year, Minera Florida has seen improved operational efficiency and reduced haulage distances as a result of re-establishing ore passes. Internalization of mining activities, ongoing optimization of the haulage infrastructure, and increasing disposal storage of development waste into underground voids will further improve mine productivity going forward. A review of the processing plant in the first quarter identified several opportunities to increase recovery. Management is prioritizing these opportunities, focusing on the initiatives that can be implemented quickly with minimal investment.
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Consistent with the 10-year outlook, the plant de-bottlenecking study is advancing on schedule, with the objective to increase throughput from 74,500 to 100,000 tonnes per month, thereby increasing annual gold production to approximately 120,000 ounces. The Company submitted the ESIA for the expansion during the fourth quarter of 2021, with the timeline expected to be approximately 18 months for approval, with another 12 months to receive sectoral permits. With the expected permitting timelines, the mine could begin operating at a planned 100,000 tonnes per month level in 2025. Preliminary studies indicate that the capacity of the processing plant can be increased to approximately 90,000 tonnes per month with incremental adjustments. An upgrade of the crushing circuit would be required to achieve 100,000 tonnes per month.

Total cost of sales, cash costs(1) and AISC(1) on a per GEO(2) basis during the quarter were $1,718, $1,041, and $1,503 respectively. AISC(1) was impacted by several factors during the quarter, including mining sequence which saw extraction from a higher number of mining zones in preparation for the second half of the year, with both linear development and exploration expenses being in line with plan, despite the lower production profile. Costs per GEO(2) are expected to improve throughout the year due to higher grades, and higher silver and zinc by-product credits. Total cost of sales and DDA on a per GEO(2) basis are higher than the comparative quarter due to the aforementioned lower ounces being divided over similar absolute values.

Minera Florida Exploration

Exploration results continued to identify extensions of known mineralized zones and generate new discoveries. Exploration activities at Minera Florida during the second quarter included completion of approximately 12,580 metres of drilling in 71 diamond drill holes, including 38 drill holes totaling 5,679 metres of infill drilling to convert inferred mineral resources to indicated mineral resources, 33 drill holes totaling 6,901 metres of exploration drilling dedicated to defining new inferred mineral resources.
Infill drilling in the quarter utilizing two underground drills, was completed in seven areas, including Polvorín, Circular, Lisette, Cucaracha, Don Leopoldo, Rubí and Patagua W. Positive results were received from Patagua W, where mineralization remains open for expansion to the southeast.

Exploration drilling in the second quarter utilizing two underground drill rigs tested seven target areas, including Satelite Manda, Lisette Sur, Cucaracha, Diablita, Las Lauras, Maqui, and Don Leopoldo. Positive results were returned from several sectors, including high-grade intercepts over good widths from Satelite Manda and Lisette Sur, and Polvorin Oeste, where high grade intercepts west of La Flor fault indicate that mineralization remains open for further expansion to the west and down dip.

District-scale exploration activity, focused on the discovery of new potential resources in the near mine setting, included completion of exploratory drilling totaling 5,178 metres in 24 drill holes utilizing two dedicated surface and one underground diamond drill rigs, testing regional targets, including Patagua Oeste, Las Lauras and Polvorin, Positive results were returned at Las Lauras, defining new areas for further exploration. Additional generative work completed included collection of 916 surface rock samples, 50 soil and stream sediment samples and 80 days of geological mapping.

5.    CONSTRUCTION, DEVELOPMENT AND OTHER INITIATIVES

CONSTRUCTION, DEVELOPMENT AND ADVANCED STAGE PROJECTS

The Company has several construction, development and advanced stage projects underway. Notable progress relating to some of these key initiatives include, but are not limited to the following:

Wasamac Project, Canada

Project Summary

The wholly owned Wasamac underground gold project is located 15 kilometres west of Rouyn-Noranda in the Abitibi-Témiscamingue region of Quebec adjacent to the Trans-Canada highway and Ontario Northland rail line, and just 100 kilometres west of Yamana’s 50%-owned Canadian Malartic mine. Yamana acquired the project in January 2021, further expanding its footprint in Quebec and significantly enhancing the Company’s long-term growth prospects.

On July 19, 2021, the Company issued the press release "Yamana Gold Announces Positive Development Decision On Its Wholly owned Wasamac Project Based on Positive Results From Several Studies Showing Higher Average Daily Throughput, Increased Mineral Reserves, Increased Average Annual Production And Strong, Increased Cash Flows". In the press release, the Company announced the results of several studies on Wasamac, intended to corroborate diligence reviews conducted by the Company on its purchase of Wasamac in early 2021 and update a historical feasibility study. These studies updated the baseline technical and financial aspects of Wasamac that now underpin the decision to advance the project to production. The results from all studies were consistent with the Company’s conclusions in its diligence reviews relating to the purchase of Wasamac and, in some cases, are better than the conclusions from those reviews.

Wasamac is designed as a modern underground operation with a small footprint and almost all surface infrastructure located on the north of Route 117 highway, away from the neighbouring community. Use of an underground conveyor, electric mining equipment and high-efficiency ventilation fans to minimize energy use and carbon emissions, with further electrification planned
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as new technology becomes commercially available between now and project execution. Ore will be processed through a new processing plant at a planned initial average throughput of 7,000 tpd and tailings will be deposited underground as paste fill and in a filtered dry-stack tailings storage facility. Please refer to the Opportunities Providing Upside section below for a more complete list of updates surrounding the updated LOM plan, throughput, ramp-up and expected annual production.

Yamana expects to receive all permits and certificates of authorization required for project construction by the third quarter of 2024. Construction time to processing plant commissioning is estimated at two and a half years, with the underground crusher and conveyor system scheduled for commissioning six months later and first gold production scheduled for 2026.

Initial capital cost is expected to be relatively modest for an underground operation with an initial capacity of 7,000 tpd, at approximately $416 million. The Company undertook extensive due diligence relating to the acquisition of Wasamac and identified several opportunities for optimizations and improvements; the updated studies confirmed the opportunities. The Company plans to fully fund development with available cash and cash flows. The Company anticipates building significant cash balances over the upcoming years, which will be allocated to the project in time for its formal development, once the required permits are received.

Total LOM sustaining capital estimated at $318 million primarily for underground mine development and mobile equipment. LOM cash costs(1) and AISC(1) of $640 per ounce and $828 per ounce, respectively, remaining well below the Company average, reflecting the application of more conservative cost assumptions to de-risk the project and align with benchmark costs from Yamana’s other operations.

Robust project economics with an after-tax IRR of 16.1% at $1,550 per ounce of gold and an after-tax IRR of 24% at $1,850 per ounce of gold, based on mineral reserves and excluding future upside potential from encouraging exploration prospects. There is potential for a significant increase in NPV and after-tax IRR with an increase in mineral inventory and increase in mine life. An increase in mine from the presently contemplated 10 years to 15 years doubles the NPV of the project.

Yamana’s average annual gold production in Quebec, including production from Wasamac and the Odyssey underground at Canadian Malartic, has the potential to increase to approximately 500,000 ounces by 2028, and continue at this level through at least 2041.

Second Quarter Progress Update

During the second quarter, the Company continued to advance preparations for its board-approved bulk sample program. The initiative would allow construction to commence on the ramp, enabling earlier access to the deposit to increase the level of confidence in metallurgical and geotechnical variables and optimize the processing flow sheet and mining sequence. Construction of surface facilities to support the ramp development activity and associated environmental requirements would also be advanced.

With a high level of continuity and regular geometry, combined with a relatively simple structural setting and average mineralized widths of 13 metres, Wasamac is well positioned for high-production and low-cost underground mining methods given the project’s low level of geological risk and favourable geological environment. Infill drilling results since mid-2021 confirm or exceed expected grades and widths. Similarly, the metallurgical and geomechanical assumptions used in the feasibility study are based on rigorous lab testing from drill hole samples. Bulk sampling and industrial-scale tests will build on these results, enabling development of production-ready models for the grade, recovery, and geotechnical aspects of the project, to support the first three years of production.

Additionally, the bulk sample program will allow the Company to capture opportunities to optimize the processing performance by testing multiple flowsheet options and confirm stope stability parameters to optimize stope dimensions, backfilling strategy and mining sequence while contributing to ensuring a safe working environment. The accelerated development of the ramp will also establish drilling platforms to perform both delineation and exploration drilling at Wasamac main zones, Wildcat and potential new zones from underground.

Preparation of the documentation for the bulk sample permits is underway and scheduled for submission in the third quarter of 2022, with the approval process expected to take less than 6 months. Permit approvals are expected in early 2023 and ramp development could begin in spring 2023. While the permit application is in progress, select site works, including construction of an access road, a temporary 25 kV power line and temporary buildings are scheduled to commence in the second half of 2022.

The bulk sample will not require additional costs above what was included in the feasibility study, rather a fraction of the costs will be brought forward in time slightly. A modest capital expenditure of approximately $7 million is planned for the second half of 2022, in preparation for development to commence in the first half of 2023.

Substantial work is also underway to select the leading technologies available for the development and operation of Wasamac. The key objectives remain to increase worker safety, minimize impact on the environment and the community, and reduce consumption of non-renewable energy and greenhouse gases. Technologies under evaluation include electric production vehicles, autonomous vehicles, bio-lubricants and ventilation on demand.
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The Company relies on a collaborative approach to ensure the success of Wasamac. In this regard, our environmental assessment process is conducted in collaboration with our stakeholders, including neighbors, and First Nations. A community relations office has now been established to further facilitate ongoing engagement with local residents and accessibility to the Company's team, as well as providing up-to-date information on the project. Complementary campaigns of environmental baseline data collection are currently underway. Preparation of the Environmental Impact Assessment (“EIA”) is on track, with the filing expected by the end of 2022.

For additional information on the planned Wasamac exploration initiatives, please refer to Section 6: Exploration.

Opportunities Providing Upside

During the second quarter, the Company completed an update of the Wasamac strategic LOM plan, building on the 2021 feasibility study and incorporating the results of several value-adding studies that were advanced throughout the first half of 2022. The strategic plan demonstrates an improved gold production profile compared to the feasibility study, while continuing to establish Wasamac as a modern, low-cost, responsible underground mine.

Extension of the processing plant site through land acquisition and additional geotechnical drilling have allowed optimization of the underground mine design and processing plant layout. The revised layout avoids environmentally sensitive areas, improves the plant configuration, and provides additional space for ore stockpiling, while continuing to minimize impacts to the surrounding property holders. Using the revised mine designs, the mining sequence has been optimized to increase feed grades in the first two years, resulting in a faster production ramp-up to 200,000 ounces in 2027 and up to 250,000 ounces in 2028.

Furthermore, the ongoing mine design and sequence optimizations could position the Wasamac mine with the option for a future incremental expansion from 7,000 tpd to 9,000 tpd in year 3 of operations, to extend the gold production profile of 250,000 ounces per year until at least 2030. The results of a comminution trade-off study indicate that the higher throughput of 9,000 tpd could be achieved with limited additional mechanical equipment at modest capital expenditures and without increasing the area of the plant layout.

The strategy to start production at 7,000 tpd, with a later incremental expansion to 9,000 tpd, balances the mining equipment fleet and workforce requirements while minimizing any impact to the ongoing permitting process. As a result, the Company continues to expect to receive the required permits to commence project construction in mid-2024 and the initial capital cost estimate from the feasibility study of $416 million also remains unchanged.

Positive infill and exploration drilling results to date indicate the potential for a strategic mine life of 10 to 15 years at 200,000 to 250,000 ounces of gold per year, compared to the LOM average of 169,000 ounces in the feasibility study. The Wasamac deposit is not only open at depth and along strike but the underexplored secondary zones such as Wildcat are showing promising drilling results. Additional exploration targets on the property, including the adjacent Francoeur, Arntfield, and Lac Fortune properties, provide further upside.

As a result of the improved production profile in the updated strategic LOM plan, unit costs are expected to be lower than the feasibility study LOM average AISC(1) of $828 per ounce and, at the feasibility study gold price of US$1,550, the net present value would approximately double assuming the strategic mine life is extended through 2036 at 9,000 tpd.

Other opportunities that continue to be evaluated but are not yet included in the strategic plan include the processing flow sheet optimization to increase metallurgical recoveries by approximately 3% (for which metallurgical testing is ongoing), optimized configuration of the tailings filter plant and paste backfill plant, and increased levels of electrification, automation and renewable energy usage in the project.

Odyssey Project, Canadian Malartic, Canada (50% interest)

Project Summary

The underground Odyssey project is located east of the current Canadian Malartic open pit operation and is comprised of the East Gouldie, Odyssey South, Odyssey North and East Malartic mining zones with a combined mining rate of approximately 19,500 tonnes per day when operating at full capacity. Ore will be transported to surface using a combination of shaft hoisting, from the lower zones, and truck haulage, from the upper zones; all ore will be processed at the existing Canadian Malartic processing plant. Tailings will be deposited underground as paste fill and in the Canadian Malartic pit, once the pit is depleted.

A NI 43-101 technical report for Canadian Malartic was completed in March 2021, and includes a full summary of the Odyssey underground project. The project demonstrates robust economics, a significant increase in mineral resources, and a mine life extension to at least 2039. First production from the Odyssey South deposit is expected in 2023. As Canadian Malartic transitions from open pit to underground mining, underground production will offset a significant portion of the corresponding decline in open pit production. Whereas the Company had originally considered a production platform for the new underground
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mine conservatively in the range of 450,000 ounces per year, the mine plan now supports annual gold production of 500,000 to 600,000 ounces when fully ramped up on a 100% basis.

As of December 31, 2021, the Odyssey Project contains 2.35 million ounces of gold in Indicated Mineral Resources and 13.15 million ounces of gold in Inferred Mineral Resources of which 7.3 million ounces, or approximately 47%, is included in the technical study mine plan. The Odyssey project will utilize a transverse long hole stoping mining method with primary and secondary stopes and paste backfill to fill the voids, a proven mining method in the region. The mineralization geometry and very good rock quality are ideal for bulk mining. The East Gouldie zone in particular is at least one kilometre in height, one kilometre in strike length and typically 15 metres wide, with maximum widths of up to 80 metres. Infill drilling confirms excellent grade continuity throughout the deposit. As such, large stopes of 30 to 50 metres high by 20 metres wide are achievable.

On a 100% basis, average annual payable gold production is expected to be approximately 545,400 ounces from 2029 to 2039 with total cash costs(1) per ounce of approximately $630 per ounce. Sustaining capital from 2029 to 2039 is expected on a 50% (and 100%) basis to average approximately $27.9 million ($55.8 million) per year.

The Odyssey project has modest capital requirements in any given year which are manageable and fully funded using Canadian Malartic's cash on hand and free cash flow generation, with no external funding required. With work in 2022 and 2023 related to the shaft sinking and the focus on surface infrastructure as further described below, capital costs are highest in 2022, and as previously disclosed, begin to decline in 2023.

Second Quarter Progress Update

The Company and its partner made a positive construction decision of the Odyssey project following technical study results in February of 2021. Following significant advancement of the project in 2021, the Odyssey team is focusing on two key milestones:
I.Initiation of shaft sinking by the fourth quarter of 2022
II.First gold production from Odyssey South in the first quarter of 2023

The project continues to be on budget, and on schedule. Notable developments on progress as follows:

The concrete pour to construct the 93-metre-tall headframe was completed on schedule in the fourth quarter of 2021, in preparation for shaft sinking slated to begin in the fourth quarter of 2022. Structural steel installation inside the headframe is ongoing and progressed during the second quarter. The production shaft will be 6.5 metres in diameter and 1,800 metres deep, with the first of two loading stations at 1,135 metres below surface. Construction of the temporary hoist building and waste silo is on schedule.
The first underground ore from Odyssey South is on track to be processed through the existing Canadian Malartic plant in early 2023. Underground development continues to progress with the opening of additional headings.
Ventilation is now provided directly through a fresh air raise to surface and two bays in the maintenance garage are now available. The garage is fully functional and occupied by the maintenance team.
As an employer of choice in the Abitibi, the Odyssey project continues to successfully build a highly skilled team and development rates are planned to continue increasing throughout the year.
Priority continues to be placed on the main ramp and also the level 16 exploration drift for infill drilling of the Odyssey South and Internal zones.
Concrete, structural steel and architecture has been completed for both the compressor building and the fire water pumping station. These are expected to be operational in the third quarter.
The fuel distribution station foundation began in May, with piping installation ongoing and a start-up planned for September.
The construction of the paste fill plant and 120 KV power distribution line is on schedule to support the Odyssey South stoping sequence.
In early July, the Company received notice that the Decree amendment was approved, a significant milestone in the permitting process, and all required permits to commence production from Odyssey South are expected by the end of 2022.

Opportunities Providing Upside

The intention of the Partnership was always to build upon the base case scenario presented in the technical study by realizing value enhancement opportunities improving the production profile and extending mine life. Throughout 2021, these opportunities have increased in confidence and definition as a result of the ongoing exploration success and the rapid advancement of the project.

Extension of the mine life beyond 2039 provides additional upside, with several opportunities under evaluation. The upside from grade improvements and underground mine life extensions are expected to be realized through infill drilling to improve geological confidence, exploration drilling to extend known deposits and make new discoveries and engineering efforts, especially close to historical underground excavations and at depth at East Malartic. Drilling in 2021 added 1.1 million ounces of total gold mineral resources as a result expanding the resource envelope at East Gouldie and infill drilling of East Gouldie confirmed the deposit grades and widths and converted 1.5 million ounces to gold indicated resources on a 100% basis.
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In the near-term, Canadian Malartic has the opportunity to improve the gold production profile during the transition from open pit to underground mining, especially from 2026 to 2028. As a first step, the Barnat pit design was optimized, adding 290,000 ounces (100% basis) to year-end 2020 open pit mineral reserves. Processing of the marginal grade stockpile also remains an opportunity, especially if the gold price remains at current levels. Furthermore, infill drilling of the Odyssey Internal zones from the underground ramp in 2021 has defined potentially mineable zones that are currently not included in the technical study mine plan and could potentially be mined from the Odyssey South ramp within the next five years.

In the technical study, gold production during the 2021 to 2028 construction period is expected at 932,000 ounces (100% basis). The initial expansionary capital of $1.14 billion (100% basis) over this eight-year period does not include any offsetting gross margin from pre-commercial production due to amendments to the relevant accounting standard*, which represents a practical consequence of IFRS application. Assuming a gold price of $1,550 per ounce, more than half of this initial expansionary capital spend would be effectively offset and subsidized from such gross margin, such that the remaining net initial expansionary capital requirements from 2022 to 2028 is approximately $170 million on 50% basis. Proceeds from additional underground production, from Odyssey Internal zones or other, would further subsidize capital requirements.

With a significant production platform, material cash flow generation and a prominent position within Quebec’s Abitibi District, Canadian Malartic will remain one of the Company’s cornerstone assets and one of the more prolific and generational mines in the world, particularly as the Odyssey mine is developed and comes into production. The Company is taking a disciplined approach to the development of Odyssey with a conservative outlook for initial throughput and production. While the Odyssey mine is expected to initially process 20,000 tonnes per day and produce 500,000 to 600,000 ounces per year, based on the current mine plan, the Company recognizes that there is a large inventory of ounces that is not currently in the mine plan. Odyssey ores will be processed through a plant with an original design capacity of over 55,000 tonnes per day, processing closer to 60,000 tonnes per day, which far exceeds the initial expected throughput of Odyssey. The plant was designed for the larger open pit operations that will end later this decade, and while the Company will scale the plant to the level required for the underground operation, that plant capacity will always be there. The Company’s approach at its other mines has been to conduct extensive exploration which provides flexibility to maximize and increase throughput, and a similar approach will be taken with Odyssey, where delineation of extensions of underground mineralized zones and new zones of mineralization is already occurring. The extension of East Gouldie and discovery of Titan are examples of these underground exploration successes and opportunities. The Company’s efforts at East Amphi, Rand and Camflo also provide potential to add tonnage and production. The Camflo property, which was added to the Partnership in 2021, covers the past producing Camflo mine which had historical production of approximately 1.6 million ounces of gold. An initial evaluation of the Camflo property has identified porphyry and diorite hosted gold mineralization that could potentially be mined via an open pit. Additional studies are underway to initiate an aggressive exploration program in 2023. The Company firmly believes that in its 10-year outlook period, these efforts will lead to more mining areas that will allow the Company to take advantage of available plant capacity, resulting in ore processing that will exceed 20,000 tonnes per day, and sustainable production will then significantly exceed the initial production plan of 500,000 to 600,000 ounces per year.

Exploration drilling of the East Gouldie Extension and parallel structures, while widely spaced, indicate that a corridor of mineralization extends at least 1.3 kilometres to the east of East Gouldie. Although at the very early stages, these results suggest the potential for a second production shaft that could increase throughput over the longer term. Open pit and underground exploration targets within the Canadian Malartic land package present additional potential ore sources.

For further details on the Odyssey Project, please refer to Yamana's February 11, 2021 press release entitled 'Yamana Gold Reports Strong Fourth Quarter and Full Year 2020 Results; Impressive Technical Study Results Delivered for the Odyssey Underground Project at Canadian Malartic With Construction Decision Approved; Adopts Climate Change Strategy'.

*The amendment to IAS 16: Property, Plant and Equipment: Proceeds before Intended Use, effective from 2022, prohibits entities from deducting amounts received from selling items produced from the cost of property, plant and equipment while the Company is preparing the asset for its intended use, and instead the margin generated from such pre-commercial activities will be included in the Statement of Operations.

Jacobina, Brazil

Project Summary

Phased expansion of the Jacobina operation in Brazil is expected to establish a gold production platform of up to 350,000 ounces per year. Jacobina’s large inventory of mineral reserves and mineral resources continues to grow faster than mining depletion, providing the basis for a multi-decade strategic mine life at low costs and high cash flow.

In 2021, the Company initiated a simplified approach to the Phase 2 expansion to continue incremental debottlenecking and operational improvements, without requiring an expansion of the grinding circuit as originally contemplated. The simplified expansion approach is a continuation of the strategy that has been the basis for the quarter-over-quarter success of Jacobina over the past several years, and is expected to de-risk the project and require significantly lower capital than originally planned in the Phase 2 pre-feasibility study, an amount not expected to exceed $15 million to $20 million.

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As the Phase 2 expansion was advancing ahead of schedule, the Company has begun pursuing the Phase 3 expansion to 10,000 tpd through continued incremental debottlenecking. With the permit to 10,000 tpd already in hand, Phase 3 is expected to increase gold production to approximately 270,000 ounces per year by 2025 with a modest capital expenditure of $20 million to $30 million.

The Phase 4 expansion, of up to 15,000 tpd, would increase gold production in excess of 350,000 ounces per year. To achieve the target throughput rates, a third grinding line would be added as well as an expansion of the leaching and CIP circuits. As the third ball mill was originally planned as part of the Phase 2 Feasibility Study, engineering for Phase 4 is well advanced. A comprehensive plan, aligning the processing plant, underground mine, and tailings management strategy, while managing capital expenditures and cash flow, is underway.

Second Quarter Progress Update
The Phase 2 expansion at Jacobina continued to successfully ramp-up during the quarter, with the mine achieving a sustained throughput rate of over 8,400 tpd in June. Yamana expects the throughput objective of 8,500 tpd to be achieved in July, establishing Jacobina’s sustainable production profile at 230,000 ounces of gold per year.

To support the higher processing rates, Jacobina continues to increase underground mining capacity and has prepared an inventory of lower grade stopes and stockpiled ore on surface to provide supplementary mill feed during the ramp up phase. With the higher than planned processing rates that are now anticipated, the Company continues to draw from this supplementary ore in the first half of 2022. The accelerated mine plan shows mill feed grades increasing over the next two years.

The tailings storage strategy is aligned with the accelerated expansion timeline. Construction of the latest phase of the tailings storage facility was recently completed, providing tailings storage capacity at 8,500 tpd until the end of 2023. Further permitted phases of the tailings storage facility provide adequate storage capacity to support the life of mine plan. A comprehensive tailings storage strategy is well advanced to provide additional storage solutions including hydraulic backfill, paste fill, and a dry-stack tailings storage facility.

Opportunities Providing Upside

The Company is further evaluating the strategic options and direction related to Jacobina and the significant exploration that is available along the greenstone belt which hosts the mine. Jacobina is being envisioned as a complex of multiple mines, and more emphasis is being placed on regional and generative exploration.

The Jacobina mine is part of the Jacobina district, for which geological evidence and tectonic reconstruction suggest strong affinities with similar gold districts in West and South Africa, which host exceptionally large gold deposits, including those of the prolific Witwatersrand Basin and the Tarkwa mine. Gold mineralization at Jacobina is hosted by the Serra do Corrego Formation, preserved within the Jacobina belt, for a strike length of over ninety kilometres. The mine complex consists of six mining areas exploiting economic mineralization within a nine-kilometre long mineralized belt extending from João Belo in the south to Canavieiras Norte in the north. As at December 31, 2021, past gold production from the mine complex was well over two million ounces, with mineral reserves of 2.94 million ounces of gold and total mineral resources of approximately 5.7 million ounces of gold, indicating the world class size of the current known deposit. Since 2019, the Company has started systematic exploration of its 77,800 hectare land package that covers 155 kilometres of exploration potential along the north-south trending belt. This work has defined a fourteen-kilometre long belt of gold-bearing conglomerate located north of the mine complex and has also extended the known mineralized reefs south of João Belo in a continuous area extending 2,200 metres south of the limits of the João Belo mine. Further areas have been identified both to the north and further south during reconnaissance exploration programs. Work will continue to define mineralized reefs exposed on surface and follow up with widely spaced drill testing targeting both extensions of the mine complex and new standalone mine targets. Consequently, the Company sees significant opportunities to grow its regional presence and continue to build the world-class Jacobina Complex.

Cerro Moro, Argentina

Project Summary

The mine has a significant inventory of veins that are comparatively lower-grade in relation to the very high Cerro Moro mineral reserve and mineral resource grade, that are not fully reflected in the current mineral reserve and mineral resource statements. These veins could potentially support new mineral resources for the plant expansion scenario with lower cut-off grades than the high grades currently being mined. Drilling of these lower grade veins was not typically followed up with infill drilling in the past as the mineralization is below the current cut-off grade. Cerro Moro was developed as a high grade, low tonnage operation but, from the beginning, the Company has considered alternative processing options to allow for economic extraction of lower grade mineralization, including:

a.a scalable plant, where the front-end of the plant anticipates higher 2,000 tpd tonnage, with the expectation of modest capital requirement to achieve this objective,
b.heap leaching near surface, lower-grade material, to supplement other production.

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The objective at Cerro Moro is to create a sustainable ten-years of production of at least 160,000 GEO(2) per year, and up to 200,000 GEO(2) per year. Upside from the aforementioned processing options would be beyond the current ten-year outlook that assumes Cerro Moro as a 150,000 to 165,000 GEO(2) per year operation, which is expected to be sustainable from mineral reserves mine life, ongoing exploration successes and mineral reserve replacement.

Second Quarter Progress Update

Year to date, the Company has advanced the plant expansion study. Similar to the approach that has proven successful at Jacobina, the Company is considering a low-risk, phased expansion for Cerro Moro with quick payback from the initial phase used to fund subsequent phases. As such, the Company is considering using fine screens instead of cyclones for classification to improve the efficiency of the existing ball mill. Combined with a slightly coarser grind size, this initial phase is expected to increase throughput to at least 1,500 tpd, a 40% to 50% increase in capacity, without impacting gold and silver recoveries. The incremental capacity could be used for processing of lower grade mineralization, which is expected to increase annual gold and silver production, and in turn reduce fixed costs per unit at the mine, as those costs would be distributed over additional ounces. Preliminary analysis based on current operating data indicates that the existing crushing and flotation circuits are adequate for the higher throughput rate and reconfiguration of the leaching circuit could achieve the target throughput without requiring additional leach tanks. Upgrades to the concentrate thickener, clarifying filters, flocculant make-up system, and pumping would likely be required. The capital cost of this initial phase is estimated at a modest $15 million to $20 million. Many of the upgrades in phase 1 expansion would be sufficient for a second expansion phase to increase plant throughput to approximately 2,200 tpd, double the existing capacity, further increasing production and reducing operating unit costs. Capital estimates for the phase 2 expansion are also $15 million to $20 million, for a total capital investment over the two expansion phases estimated at $30 million to $40 million. The Company is currently evaluating two options for phase 2 expansion, the addition of a high pressure grinding rolls ("HPGR") unit before the existing ball mill or the addition of a regrind unit. An expansion of the flotation circuit would also be required. The Company is undertaking additional test work to confirm the optimal flow sheet option and will advance the selected phase 1 and phase 2 expansion options to a pre-feasibility study level, expected for completion in early 2023.

Positive exploration results achieved throughout 2021 successfully replaced depletion of mineral reserves for the first time, as reflected in increased mineral reserves and mineral resources at year-end, turning the corner for the operation. Significantly, the expansion of higher-grade veins, both within the core mine at Zoe and Martina, and outside the core mine at Naty, extends the Cerro Moro mine life at the current gold equivalent feed grade and existing throughput rate of approximately 1,100 tonnes per day. Additional high-grade targets identified in 2021 provide a pipeline of opportunities for continued mineral reserves replacement going forward which supports the plant expansion opportunity. Lastly, at a higher level of throughput, the Company may be able to create a greater inventory of mineral resources. Current exploration budgets are designed to allow for the replacement of not only mining depletion but the annual addition of inferred mineral resources for a constant pipeline of high quality mineral resources for an ongoing annual conversion to mineral reserves.

In parallel, a technical study on the potential heap leach project was conducted, and while the results obtained in the second quarter of 2022 were positive, the Company has elected to prioritize the plant expansion project, as it provides a more immediate high return growth prospect, similar to the phased expansion successfully deployed at Jacobina. As previously disclosed, a four-month cyanide column leach test program was conducted on eight samples with gold grades of 0.71 to 3.22 g/t. and at three different sizes of feed materials, -25 mm, -19 mm and -9.5 mm. The results indicated good potential for leaching of both oxidized near-surface vein material, zones with hypogene oxides (hematite) and some low sulphide gold-bearing veins, with extractions from column leaching varying from 32.5% to 96.9%, averaging 68.6%. Gold recoveries at the Domos La Union and Michelle zones were particularly impressive, averaging 85.6% from the four samples. Conceptual engineering was conducted for a 5,000 tpd heap leach operation and the configuration was envisaged with three stages of crushing to a crushed size P80 of 12.5 mm, followed by agglomeration and retreat conveyor stacking in a multiple lift, single use pad with a design capacity of approximately 14 million tonnes. The leach pad, solution storage ponds, and Merrill-Crowe plant would be conceptually planned to be located approximately 2 kilometres east of the current tailings storage facility. Average feed grade would be estimated at approximately 1.0 to 1.4 g/t of gold, adding 45,000 to 65,000 ounces of gold production per year in addition to gold and silver production from the existing processing plant.

If the Company were to develop both the plant expansion and heap leach projects, which represent significant upside opportunities, along with conversion of the exploration targets to mineral resources, Cerro Moro could produce at least 200,000 GEO(2) per year.

Opportunities Providing Upside

As Cerro Moro’s mineral inventory increases, the Company will evaluate its options for alternative sources of power, which include a connection to the grid and wind power. Both options are expected to improve costs and further reduce greenhouse gas emissions, thereby accelerating the achievement of the Company’s 1.5ºC science-based carbon emissions reduction target.

The transition of Cerro Moro from high-cost diesel-generated electricity to wind power is the most attractive and compelling of several viable greenhouse gas reduction options. The conversion of approximately 50% of Cerro Moro's electricity requirements from diesel to wind power would meet the greenhouse gas emission reductions required between now and 2030 to achieve the Company's 1.5ºC science-based target. Further, it is expected that the transition to wind power would reduce operating costs,
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expand mineral reserves and mine life. A detailed evaluation, including a third-party feasibility study of this opportunity is underway. The third-party study to finalize the Company's evaluation of wind power indicates there should be a sufficient and sustainable supply of power as the Cerro Moro area of southern Argentina is considered one of the best on-shore locations in the world for wind energy. The results of the alternative power analysis will be considered in the plant expansion pre-feasibility and heap leach studies to explore synergies between the projects.

MARA Project, Argentina (56.25% interest)

Project Summary

On December 17, 2020, the Company completed the integration with Glencore and Newmont and a new joint venture, the MARA Joint Venture, was formed to manage, develop and operate the project. MARA is the combined project comprised of the Agua Rica site, Alumbrera site as well as the Alumbrera plant and ancillary buildings and facilities. Under the integration, Yamana, the former 100% holder of Agua Rica and the former partners of Alumbrera have created the MARA Joint Venture pursuant to which Yamana holds a controlling ownership interest in the MARA Project at 56.25%. Glencore holds a 25.00% interest and Newmont holds an 18.75% interest in the MARA Project. Yamana has been appointed manager of the MARA Joint Venture and will continue to lead the engagement with local, provincial, and national stakeholders, and completion of the feasibility study and ESIA for the MARA Project. Among other governance committees, a MARA Joint Venture Technical Committee was formalized, comprised of representatives of the three shareholder companies, to provide oversight and guidance to the advancement of the feasibility study.

The integration creates significant synergies by combining existing substantive infrastructure which was formerly used to process ore from the Alumbrera mine during its mine life, including processing facilities, a fully permitted TSF, pipeline, logistical installations, ancillary buildings, and other infrastructure, with the future open pit Agua Rica mine. The result is a de-risked project with a smaller environmental footprint and improved efficiencies, creating one of the lowest capital intensity projects in the world as measured by pound of copper produced and in-situ copper mineral reserves, and creating significant benefits for the host communities, the province of Catamarca and Argentina.

The MARA Project has Mineral Reserves and Mineral Resources in the Agua Rica and the Alumbrera ore bodies. Agua Rica is a large-scale copper, gold, silver and molybdenum deposit and it has Proven and Probable Mineral Reserves of 11.8 billion pounds of copper and 7.4 million ounces of gold contained in 1.1 billion tonnes of ore. Mineral Resources include 259.9 million tonnes of Measured and Indicated Mineral Resources, containing more than 1.6 billion pounds of copper and 954,000 ounces of gold. Additionally, Inferred Mineral Resources of 742.9 million tonnes represent significant upside potential to further define an increase in Mineral Reserves and life of mine. The MARA Project also has Mineral Resources in the Alumbrera deposit which consist of 125.2 million tonnes of Measured and Indicated Mineral Resources containing more than 800 million pounds of copper and 1.2 million ounces of gold on a 100% basis.

On July 19, 2019, the Company announced the positive results of pre-feasibility study (A) ("PFS(A)"), underscoring that the MARA Project is a long life (with an initial life of 28 years) and low-cost asset with robust economics and opportunities to realize further value, including converting economic-grade Inferred Mineral Resources and expanding throughput scenarios aimed to increase metal production and returns, among other opportunities. The Joint Venture Technical Committee advanced optimization studies in late 2019 and early 2020, the results of which were compiled as pre-feasibility study (B) ("PFS(B)"), and is now advancing a full feasibility study on the MARA Project, with updated Mineral Reserve, production and project cost estimates. The engineering effort for the feasibility study is expected to be substantially completed by the end of 2022 and the finalized report in the first half of 2023.

The pre-feasibility study for the MARA Project considers the Agua Rica deposit will be mined using a conventional high tonnage truck and shovel open pit operation. Average life of mine material moved is expected to be approximately 108 million tonnes per year, with ore feed of 42 million tonnes per year and average life of mine strip ratio of 1.66.

Ore extracted from the Agua Rica mine will be transported from the open pit by truck to the primary crusher area and then transported via a conventional conveyor to the existing Alumbrera processing plant. To route the overland conveyor system, approximately 5.2 kilometres of tunnel development will be required over the total 35 kilometre conveyor right-of-ways to the Alumbrera processing plant, where it will feed the existing stacker conveyor via a new transfer station.

Relatively modest modifications to the circuit are needed to process the Agua Rica ore at the Alumbrera plant. The copper and by-products concentrates will be transported by the existing pipeline to Tucuman and then by railway to the port for commercialization. An in-situ blending strategy has been defined to manage the concentrate quality over certain years of the mine life, which will allow the project to achieve the desired targets. Further optimizations to this strategy are studied as part of current design phase.

These previously completed studies provide the framework for the preparation and submission of a new ESIA to the authorities of the Catamarca Province and for the continued engagement with local stakeholders and communities. The shareholders of the MARA Joint Venture began the ESIA process in 2019, given the significant level of environmental baseline data required for such studies.
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The 2020 PFS(B) highlights include:

Annual ore feed increased to 42 million tonnes per year.
Annual production for the first 10 full years increased to 556 million pounds of copper equivalent* production;
Cash costs(1) of $1.32 per pound and AISC(1) of $1.44 per pound for the first 10 years of production;
Initial capital of $2.78 billion. Initial capital reduced to $2.39 billion if first year of owner mine fleet purchases are reclassified as sustaining capital, as was assumed for PFS(A). Total LOM capital spending the same under both PFS(A) and PFS(B);
NPV of $1.906 billion and an increased IRR of 21.2%**; and
PFS(B) reflects the inclusion of a progressive Argentina export tax with a long-term assumption of 4.3%.

*    Copper equivalent metal includes copper with gold, molybdenum, and silver converted to copper-equivalent metal based on the following metal price assumptions: $6,614 per tonne of copper, $1,250 per ounce for gold, $24,250 per tonne for molybdenum, and $18.00 per ounce for silver.
**    Assuming metal prices of $3.00 per pound of copper, $1,300 per ounce of gold price, $18.00 per ounce of silver, $11.00 per pound of molybdenum and using an 8% discount rate.

After obtaining all the permits required for local authorities, work during 2021 focused on advancing the feasibility study engineering, mine design and planning, metallurgical and geotechnical drilling campaigns and other field work at site. MARA has also been advancing social and environmental baseline studies as well as permitting and engaging with local stakeholders to strengthen the project’s social license.

The MARA Project represents both a significant strategic value opportunity and a solid development and growth project, which the Company intends to continue to advance through the development and permitting processes via Yamana’s controlling interest, while considering strategic alternatives that could unlock significant value along the way. The project design minimizes the environmental footprint of the project, incorporating the input of local stakeholders. MARA is planned to be a multi-decade, low cost copper gold operation with annual production in the first ten years of 556 million pounds of copper equivalent and a life of mine annual production of 469 million pounds of copper equivalent on a 100% basis. MARA will be among the top 25 copper producers in the world when in production, and is one of the lowest capital intensity copper projects globally.

Second Quarter Progress Update

Work during the second quarter of 2022 focused on continuing the progress made during 2021: advancing the feasibility study engineering, mine design and planning, metallurgical test-work and geotechnical drilling campaigns, other fieldwork at site, baseline social and environmental studies, as well as permitting and working with local stakeholders. The work continues, with the drilling campaign and other fieldwork now covering the Agua Rica mine infrastructure and is expected to be completed by the end of fourth quarter of 2022.

The Company is also planning to perform deep drill holes in 2022 to check the extension of high-grade chalcopyrite mineralization that could potentially unlock a pit expansion of Agua Rica, as well as to test for deep extensions of mineralization in the hypogene area of the porphyry, given the deposit is open at depth and relatively unexplored beyond the supergene zone.

The metallurgical test program is now concluding and the results are well aligned with previous results and expectations, with indicative improvements to concentrate grades and mass pull. Pilot plant investigations have also been completed and have generated samples of final concentrate and process plant tailings for third party testing and equipment sizing by the various major equipment vendors.

Opportunities Providing Upside

The most recent technical studies indicate that the processing facility at Alumbrera is capable of processing up to 44.0 million tonnes per year, with minor additional capital expenditures, which represents a significant upside to the pre-feasibility study results. Further tests and studies are being advanced for the feasibility study stage to confirm and optimize these results. Mine engineering work completed to date includes mine design and mine sequencing optimizations, and an updated preliminary production plan at the higher throughput rate. Efforts for the remainder of 2022 will be focused on updates of the resource model with the new metallurgical testwork information and subsequent updates to the mine plan, as well as to continue advancing the engineering on the process definition, Alumbrera plant refurbishment, mine infrastructure, and all associated facilities.

Project engineering work has advanced on some fronts to a feasibility study-level of definition. These include the mining area interface, primary crushing and overland conveying system to the existing Alumbrera plant. Mechanical layouts in these areas have been completed and earthworks, foundation and structural steel designs are underway. Supplemental geotechnical drilling for the ore transportation tunnel access is complete and the detailed tunnel design will be advanced upon availability of updated lab testwork information. Drilling continues on waste rock, water management facilities and in the mine services area to provide inputs into the feasibility design.

Parallel to the exploration program, MARA is conducting field campaigns to complement the ESIA baseline data. Preliminary results and advancement of the project are being shared with the Intergovernmental Commission of Catamarca, prior to filing the
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full ESIA. The Company plans to substantially advance the ESIA definition for MARA by the end of 2022. The estimated remaining expenses for the Company to advance the project through the feasibility study and ESIA during 2022 and 2023 are approximately $13.0 million (Yamana's 56.25% interest), representing a manageable and modest investment in relation to the value creation of advancing the MARA Project to the next phases of development.


OTHER INITIATIVES - STRATEGIC, OPTIMIZATION AND MONETIZATION

A number of projects are underway with a goal of surfacing value from non-producing assets. Notable progress relating to some of these initiatives include, but are not limited to the following:

Suyai, Argentina

On April 28, 2020, the Company announced it entered into a definitive option agreement pursuant to which it granted CAM, a privately held portfolio management and capital markets company based in Argentina, owned by Messrs. Eduardo Elsztain and Saul Zang, the right to acquire up to a maximum 40% interest in a joint venture formed to hold the Suyai Project. CAM's portfolio includes the largest real estate company in the country, NASDAQ-listed international agricultural companies, along with banking and mining investments. CAM has successfully led the development of significant construction projects across the country.

An initial amount of $2.0 million was received by the Company to secure the option. CAM will assume responsibility for all ESG matters, including leading the permitting efforts aimed to advance the project through its different stages of development. As noted, CAM has the right to earn a maximum 40% interest in the resulting joint venture formed to hold the Suyai Project by fulfilling certain obligations and achieving certain milestones, mostly relating to ESG matters, and by paying $31.6 million in various installments in addition to the proportionate expenses, on or before December 31, 2024. The Company believes there is considerable value, far in excess of cash value, in fulfilling the obligations and achieving the milestones relating to ESG matters which would advance the Suyai project. Through certain of its holding companies, Yamana would hold the remaining 60% of the joint venture.

In the event the project receives approval to proceed, Yamana would oversee its development, applying best industry mining and HSSD/ESG practices and its experience in project development and operations in southern Argentina. Development of the project would occur under the oversight of a board of directors of the holding company that owns the project with CAM nominating two out of the five directors. Yamana would nominate the other directors. The joint venture would entitle each party to its proportion of gold production from the project.

The Company previously completed studies that in addition to redesigning Suyai as a small scale high-grade underground project, evaluated different options for ore processing, which provided favourable project economics.

The preferred option envisages the construction of a processing facility for on-site production of gold and silver contained in a high-grade flotation concentrate, which would be transported by land and by sea to one or more gold smelters world-wide. As only a flotation concentrate would be produced at Suyai, no cyanide or other deleterious chemicals would be used at site. Gold production is expected to reach up to 250,000 ounces annually for an initial eight years.

Agua de la Falda, Chile

The Company continues to pursue development and strategic initiatives for the 56.7% position held in the Agua de la Falda joint venture with Codelco, located near El Salvador in the Atacama region of northern Chile. While the historical Jeronimo Feasibility Study focused on maximizing gold production from the sulphide deposits, the Company completed the study of a low-capital starter-project based on the remaining oxide inventory in heap leach pads and open pits; the study demonstrated positive results and quick payback. The Company is also evaluating strategic alternatives for the asset, including the highly prospective claims surrounding the mine, where early-stage targets for both gold and copper mineralization have been identified. Re-logging of historical holes and exploratory drilling support the potential to extend the gold oxide mineralization, as well as the potential for copper/gold deposits within the joint venture claims and in the areas the Company owns 100%. Agua de la Falda has processing capacity and infrastructure already installed, and it is in the vicinity of the El Salvador Division of Codelco.


6.    EXPLORATION

Exploration on the most prospective properties is a key to unlocking and creating value for shareholders. The Company has built significant land positions including projects that are at different stages of advancement in prospective mineral districts in all countries where it has producing assets and can leverage its technical and operational expertise, and is continuing to advance this portfolio of exploration projects in these countries. This effort allows for the rapid advancement of the highest value projects, while at the same time moving the most promising early-stage properties up the exploration pipeline. Investing in and advancing in-house exploration opportunities is a cost-effective and prudent component of the Company's overall growth strategy.

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The generative exploration program is first focusing on the most advanced projects in Yamana’s portfolio while continuing drilling activity at a number of the Company’s highly prospective earlier stage projects with a shorter-term objective of at least one project achieving 1.5 million ounces of gold in the inferred mineral resource category as well as its longer-term objective of building at least one gold mineral resource that can support a mine with annual production of approximately 150,000 ounces per year for at least eight years.

As a complement to the advancement of the internal exploration opportunities, the Company will consider the acquisition of earlier-stage development assets or companies that align with Yamana's objectives for capital allocation and financial results, jurisdiction, geology and operational expertise. Such opportunities will typically be funded through internal resources, meet minimum return levels that far exceed the cost of capital and would meet the Company's minimum requirements to achieve mineral reserve and mineral resource inventories, mine life and per year production rate. Furthermore, preference would be given to geological and operational characteristics where the Company has an identified expertise and excellent opportunities for value enhancement, and where the Company can deploy its corporate knowledge to provide value-added support. As part of its corporate approach, the Company shares information and best practices among its operations. Such opportunities would also extend an existing regional presence or lead to that longer-term objective. Although the Company has an established portfolio of early-to-later-stage organic growth projects, the Company also considers it prudent to consider opportunities to extend regional presences in quality jurisdictions that offer geological and operational synergies and similarities to its current portfolio of assets.

Exploration Expenditures

For exploration updates relating to operating mines during the quarter, refer to Section 4: Operating Segments Performance. The following is a summary of the exploration and evaluation expenditures for the current and comparative periods:
For the three months ended June 30,For the six months ended June 30,
(In millions of US Dollars)2022 2021 2022 2021 
Exploration and evaluation capitalized*
$19.2 $17.3 $35.1 $33.2 
Exploration and evaluation expensed**
11.5 7.8 16.6 13.9 
Total exploration and evaluation expenditures$30.7 $25.1 $51.7 $47.1 
*    Capitalized exploration and evaluation costs are reflected in property, plant and equipment in the Consolidated Balance Sheets. Details by mine can be found in the Capital Expenditures table in Section 1: Highlights and Relevant Updates.
**    Expensed exploration and evaluation costs are reported in the Consolidated Statements of Operations for the respective period.

During the second quarter, exploration drilling and other field activities were carried out as planned, with only minor COVID-related impacts to activities, most notably analytical laboratory delays, which are expected to improve in the coming months as COVID-related backlogs are expected to subside.

The Company is continuing to advance its regional exploration projects, with particular focus being placed on Jacobina and Lavra Velha, which currently represent the best opportunities for advancement of the goals of the generative exploration program. Drilling activities continued in the second quarter in Brazil at Lavra Velha and Jacobina Norte, as well as at Ivolândia and Borborema. Field activities also advanced at the Company’s Colider and Arenopolis projects, with collection of soil and rock samples and geological mapping at several targets.

Exploration in Chile in the second quarter included surface evaluation and target development on several early-stage Yamana projects in several mineral belts, evaluation of select third party opportunities, and ongoing regional targeting efforts in a number of districts. Surface samples collected during the quarter across all projects in Chile totaled 744 rock and 130 soil samples. Ninety-six days of geological mapping and field activities related to property reviews were completed. Two new areas have been covered by exploration concessions based on the generative work.

In Argentina, field work in the second quarter continued at the Companies Las Flechas property, including collection of 426 soil and 39 rock samples, geological mapping and alteration studies of key areas associated with breccia-related high-sulphidation epithermal gold and porphyry copper-gold targets. Soil and rock anomalies have defined excellent targets in preparation for drilling planned for the first quarter 2023. Additional exploration work conducted in Argentina during the second quarter included surface evaluation and target development on several early-stage Yamana projects, regional targeting programs in select mineral belts and mining-friendly jurisdictions, and evaluation of third party properties.

At Monument Bay, Manitoba, results from the recently completed deep drilling program are being evaluated with planning for the next steps for the project ongoing. Exploration drilling continued at the recently acquired advanced Wasamac property, in the Abitibi-Témiscamingue region, Quebec, where ongoing infill drilling continues to improve confidence and demonstrate the wide, consistent nature of mineralization at the Wasa deposit, and ongoing exploration drilling continues to intercept important zones of mineralization outside of known resources. Drilling and other field activities on the Francoeur property are planned to begin in the third quarter. The 2022 planned field work program was initiated on the recently developed Orogen Royalties Inc. Nevada Alliance and Raven-Callaghan property option. Data compilation work was started on Yamana’s Quito property, Nevada.

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Monument Bay, Canada

The Monument Bay deposit is hosted in the Stull Lake Greenstone Belt, comprising three volcanic-sedimentary assemblages ranging in age from 2.85 to 2.71 billion years. Gold mineralization occurs along the steeply north-dipping, regional-scale Twin Lakes Shear Zone and the lesser-explored, adjacent AZ Shear Zone.

The focus of exploration has been the advancement of the Twin Lakes resource. Beyond the Twin Lakes target, the large Monument Bay land package is under-explored and hosts potential for additional discovery. A smaller but important component of recent exploration at Monument Bay has been the continued evaluation and advancement of secondary targets on the property.

Most recent exploration at Monument Bay has been to advance the evaluation and definition of high-grade ore shoots at depth at the Twin Lakes resource as part of assessing the project as an underground mine. Approaching the Twin Lakes target as a potential underground project is an economically attractive alternative to the open pit scenario with lower capital (due to the higher investment required to develop a large tonnage, low grade, open pit mine), reduced environmental footprint, and clear upside exploration potential. The recently completed winter 2021 drill program provided an initial test of the depth extent and potential of several well-defined high-grade steeply plunging mineralized shoots along a four kilometre strike length of the deposit. Shallow diamond drilling during the first half of 2020 confirmed the continuation and orientation of higher-grade mineralization and provided targets for follow up drilling at depth. Highlights from the winter 2021 program included the following core length intercepts: 6.52 g/t of gold over 2.14 metres (TL-21-732) and 4.20 g/t of gold over 6.28 metres, including 2.58 metres grading 7.48 g/t of gold (TL-21-727B) as previously reported in the September 13, 2021 press release 'Yamana Gold Reports Positive Initial Exploration Drill Results at Wasamac; Provides an Update on Its Generative Exploration Program'. These and other results are being evaluated as next steps are being determined.

Domain, Canada

The Domain project is located near Oxford Lake in northeast Manitoba, comprising a 20,000-hectare property that is 100%-controlled by the Company. Interpretation of regional airborne magnetics, together with results from government geological survey geochemical results collected from glacial till, support a highly prospective environment for folded iron formation hosted gold occurrences. The Company's property surrounds three claims totaling 576 hectares that are under a joint venture agreement with Capella Minerals Limited, which holds a 29.6% interest. The joint venture claims cover an area of historic drilling with significant gold intercepts hosted by iron formation that includes intervals reported by Rolling Rock Resources in 2008 and New Dimension Resources in 2017.

The Company recently signed an exploration agreement with the Bunibonibee Cree Nation (“BCN”) that provides a framework for a cooperative, mutually respectful agreement supporting the advancement of exploration within the Traditional Territory of the BCN while providing employment and business opportunities to the BCN. Yamana is in the planning stages of a work program for the property, and recently completed an archeology study. Pending conclusion of community consultation, and permitting, exploration work is anticipated to be completed in 2022 or 2023. Data compilation and drill target refinement have been completed.

Wasamac, Canada

The addition of the Wasamac project to Yamana’s portfolio further solidifies the Company’s long-term growth profile with a top-tier gold project in Quebec’s Abitibi-Témiscamingue region, a prolific mining district where Yamana has deep operational and technical expertise and experience. Please refer to Section 5: Construction, Development and Other Initiatives for details on the Wasamac (Monarch Gold) acquisition, which closed during the first quarter of 2021.

Exploration activities progressed as planned during the second quarter, with the focus continuing to be placed on infill drilling of the Wasamac mineral resource, increasing confidence in the current mineral resource model and converting inferred mineral resources to indicated mineral resources, as well as advancing geotechnical studies. Infill drilling completed during the quarter, utilizing three drill rigs, included 24 drill holes totaling 17,563 metres. To date in 2022, completed infill drilling consists of 29,753 metres in 47 drill holes. Results since mid-2021 continue to confirm or exceed expected grades and widths within the mineral resource area, suggesting good opportunities to increase mineral reserves within and adjacent the known mineralized envelope. Infill drilling highlights from the quarter, as reported in the July 27, 2022 press release 'Yamana Gold Announces Positive Exploration Results Underpinning Strategic Upside At Odyssey And Wasamac; East Gouldie Exploration Drilling Continues to Highlight Significant Expansion Potential; Infill Drilling Results at Wasamac Support an Expanded Production Scenario' include the following uncut, estimated true width intervals: WS-22-570, 5.70 g/t of gold over 9.74 metres, including 10.44 g/t of gold over 3.50 metres; WS-22-566, 5.88 g/t of gold over 11.05 metres, including 2.26 metres grading 19.55 g/t of gold; WS-22-568, 5.45 g/t of gold over 16.80 metres, including 14.90 g/t of gold over 3.23 metres and including 13.78 g/t of gold over 1.58 metres; and WS-22-589, 5.05 g/t of gold over 54.06 metres, including 7.09 metres grading 18.18 g/t of gold. Further, as previously reported in the April 4, 2022 press release 'Yamana Gold Announces Positive Exploration Results, Underpinning Strategic Upside At El Penon, Odyssey And Wasamac, Announces Completion of TCFD Climate Action Report Relating to Recently Announced Climate Action Strategy, And Notes Investor Day On April 5', drill hole highlights from infill drilling continue to demonstrate the wide and consistent nature of mineralization along the Wasa shear zone, including estimated true width intercepts: WS-21-556
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with 3.17 g/t of gold over 14.78 metres; WS-21- 539 with 3.41 g/t of gold over 5.02 metres; and WS-21-532 with 2.30 g/t of gold over 16.71 metres. Infill drilling results since mid-2021 continue to confirm or exceed expected grades and widths. Drilling completed in the second quarter also included 649.5 metres of condemnation drilling.

Exploration drilling completed in the second quarter included one drill hole totaling 861 metres testing the down dip potential below the Wasamac resource, where mineralization remains open to depth. Further tests of the down-dip potential at Wasamac will be completed going forward as results are received. Exploration drilling completed in the second quarter also included two step out drill holes totaling 1,020 metres in the Wildcat South target, testing the western extension from discovery drill hole WS-21-524, reported in the December 1, 2021 press release 'Yamana Gold Announces The Discovery Of New Mineralized Zones At Wasamac And Provides An Update On Its Growth Projects'. Drill hole WS-21-524 intercepted two new mineralized zones, referred to as Wildcat South #1 and #2 zones, including an upper interval that returned 7.31 g/t of gold over an estimated true width of 3.37 metres, at a downhole depth of 402.93 metres. The new exploration holes cut both the Wildcat South #1 and #2 zones at 120 metres along strike to the west of the previously reported interval, returning estimated true width intervals of 1.46 g/t of gold over 12.30 metres, including 1.23 metres grading 4.97 g/t of gold and 2.81 metres grading 2.01 g/t of gold, in drill hole WS-22-580, and 24.50 g/t of gold over 0.67 metres in drill hole WS-21-578. These drill holes provide confirmation of the new mineralized plane, which remains open along strike and to depth. Further exploration drilling will assess and expand on this discovery.

Additional exploration work completed during the second quarter included the re-logging and partial sampling of 97 historic drill holes as part of ongoing campaign of sampling of select, previously unassayed, historic drill hole intervals hosting stockwork style mineralization in the Hanging Wall zone of the Wasa shear, to assess for their potential to contribute to the mineral resource base. Work on the Francoeur property during the quarter included completion of modelling and compilation of drilling and other historic data, which is currently being integrated with the Wasamac database. Field work at Francoeur was initiated during the second quarter, including geological mapping, surface sampling and target definition in preparation for exploration drilling, planned to begin during the third quarter of 2022.

Francoeur, Canada

The Wasamac property was expanded during the second quarter of 2021 with the acquisition of the adjoining Francoeur, Arntfield and Lac Fortune properties (the “Francoeur” property), located to the west and along strike of the Wasamac property, as well as additional claims in the Beauchastel township to the east of Wasamac, from Globex Mining Enterprises Inc. Project consolidation and integration of exploration data from Wasamac and the acquired properties continued during the second quarter in preparation for planned exploration drilling of high priority targets. The acquisition of the Globex claims will significantly add to the exploration upside of the Wasamac project, and it is consistent with Yamana’s strategy to expand its presence in the Abitibi-Témiscamingue region of Quebec. Historical drilling, previous production from Francoeur and Arntfield, both former operating mines, and recent trenching and exploration work by Globex has defined a six-kilometre long western continuation of the Wasa shear - located immediately north of the prolific Cadillac Break - with mineralization similar to that at Wasamac. Exploration drilling is expected to begin during the third quarter of 2022, following completion of data compilation and integration and target definition, with objectives of adding mineral resources that could extend mine life or enhance production scenarios at the proposed Wasamac mine.

Lavra Velha, Brazil

Lavra Velha is a near surface advanced Tier 1 exploration project located in the Lavra Velha district in Brazil’s Bahia state. Surface work and drilling has defined significant gold mineralization, building on the 2013 inferred mineral resource of 3.93 million tonnes at 4.29 g/t for 543,000 ounces of gold. The defined Lavra Velha deposit consists of shallowly dipping, stacked near surface mineralization that may be amenable to low capital intensity open pit mining and heap leaching. A new resource calculation is underway and expected before year end 2022. This will lead to further studies to define the economic potential of the project as a possible heap leach operation. Exploration has defined numerous additional gold-(copper) anomalies in soil and rock which are being advanced and drill tested as part of the ongoing exploration program. In addition an IP survey, consisting of approximately 22.5 line-kilometres of ground IP survey is underway and preliminary results have generated short term drill targets. There are a number of significant drill targets on the 68,500-hectare property, and Lavra Velha represents one of the most immediate, shorter-term opportunities to achieve the Company’s stated exploration goals given the mineral resource to date and drilling following the initial mineral resource estimate. Further, Lavra Velha is well-placed to meet the Company’s long-term objectives, as it is a shallow, flat-dipping orebody, making it ideal for open pit mining with a low strip ratio, and oxide mineralization, with potential to be processed as a heap leach operation. Therefore, the project has potential as a low capital cost, low operating cost operation. Additionally, the property hosts higher-grade gold and copper potential, as recently demonstrated by positive drilling results at Lavra Velha SW target, and the Company is exploring for Iron Oxide Copper Gold ("IOCG") mineralization.

Exploration activity at Lavra Velha during the second quarter included the completion of 1,524 metres of exploration drilling in nine drill holes, including five drill hole completed at Lavra Velha (Lavra Velha Leste, Flanco Leste, Lavra Velha Sul and Lavra Velha SW extension), and four drill holes completed at the Matinos District (Alvinópolis Sul and Salinos targets). Drilling at Lavra Velha tested for extensions of shallow gold bearing structures and targeted chargeability and resistivity anomalies from recently completed ground IP geophysical surveys across the Lavra Velha area. Results from drilling completed in the first quarter extend
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gold-copper mineralization west of the Lavra Velha deposit and indicate that mineralization remains open for further testing in this area, where interesting IP responses occur. These results are considered encouraging and may be followed up with additional drilling in the second quarter. Additional generative work completed during the second quarter included collection of 615 surface rock, soil and stream sediment samples and geological mapping at the Paciencia, Deserto and Mangabeira regional targets. The ongoing geophysical work is expected to generate additional potential drill targets and to aid in advancing the overall understanding of geological controls on gold mineralization in the survey area. Drilling at Matinos targeted the depth potential of mineralized quartz-Fe-oxide-Cu-Au breccias and quartz vein related gold mineralization that crop out intermittently in these areas.

Jacobina Norte, Brazil

The Jacobina Norte project, located in Brazil’s Bahia state just nine kilometres north of the Jacobina mine, is one of Yamana’s most promising, wholly owned advanced exploration projects. The Company controls 78,000 hectares that cover over 150 kilometres of strike extent of the Serra do Corrego Formation, which hosts paleoplacer gold mineralization at the Jacobina mine. Surface exploration along strike has defined mineralization at Jacobina Norte where surface sampling and historic shallow drilling of mineralized reefs along a 15-kilometre trend have defined significant gold grades.

Historic drill results in a restricted part of the Jacobina Norte area reported four intercepts with grades and widths that indicate a strong exploration target. Once a mineral resource is identified for Jacobina Norte, the Company will evaluate if the area is best developed as a standalone mine or as a source of additional mine feed to the existing Jacobina plant. The southernmost section of Jacobina Norte (the Serra Branca target) is located just nine kilometres north of Canavieiras Norte within the existing Jacobina mine infrastructure.

The experience at the Jacobina mine leads the Company to conclude that there is a strong possibility of developing a second Jacobina-type mine along the concession owned by Yamana near the current Jacobina mine over the next decade. Further, the concessions extend well beyond the Jacobina mine and Jacobina Norte, which creates excellent opportunities for further discoveries.

Exploratory drilling completed during the second quarter at Jacobina Norte totaled 2,222 metres in ten drill holes, targeting the Arapongas, Barrocão Velho and Santa Cruz sectors. Drilling completed including four drill holes each at Arapongas and Barrocão Velho and two drill holes completed at Santa Cruz target, following up positive intercepts down dip and along strike in these sectors. Most drill holes have returned anomalous gold values, with the latest results highlighting the Rubio reef in the Barrocão Velho sector and Maroto reef at Arapongas. Arapongas represents an approximate 750 metre strike length hosting anomalous surface sample and drilling results associated with conglomerate horizons. Arapongas contains individual conglomerate lenses reaching up to 20 metres in width and has returned gold values in surface rock samples ranging up to 11.0 g/t of gold. Drilling to date has returned multiple zones of gold mineralization in the Cafeeiro, Rubio, Torrinha and Maroto reefs, displaying strong oxidation including hematite, fuchsite alteration and pyrite mineralization similar in appearance to the Main Reef at Morro do Vento. At Barrocão Velho, initial drill holes have returned anomalous gold values in most holes, including the following core length intercept: 0.32 metres at 6.91 g/t of gold (BRC-005 hole, starting at 188.78 metres down hole, previously reported in the September 13, 2021 press release 'Yamana Gold Reports Positive Initial Exploration Drill Results at Wasamac; Provides an Update on Its Generative Exploration Program, Which Continues to Show Significant Progress of Both Advanced and Early Stage Exploration Projects’. Drilling is ongoing at the Arapongas and Barrocão Velho targets.

Exploration activity completed in the second quarter also included collection of 1,669 surface soil and rock samples and 47 days of geological mapping, advancing regional targets, including Mutamba and Sambaiba targets. At Mutamba, preliminary soil sample results range up to 1.68 g/t of gold and rock samples have returned up to 5.6 g/t of gold, where two thick packages of conglomerates very similar of Main Reef Zone of Jacobina mine (Footwall and Hangingwall reefs) were identified during geological mapping.

Borborema, Brazil

The Borborema project is a 25,000-hectare land package in the Borborema district in Brazil’s Pernambuco state. The project is located in a Proterozoic magmatic arc environment that is similar to the belt hosting the Chapada mine, a large copper-gold mine developed by Yamana, put into production in 2007 and disposed of in 2019.

Originally explored for narrow high-grade gold veins, exploration at Borborema also identified strong copper–gold anomalies in both rocks and soils. Initial drill testing of the São Francisco anomaly in 2019 led to the discovery of very high grade near surface copper (gold) intercepts from massive sulphide mineralization. Notable drill intercepts, previously reported in the February 20, 2020 press release 'Yamana Gold Provides Update on Its Generative Exploration Program', with greater than 5% copper include: 3.66 metres at 0.58 g/t of gold and 7.14% copper (12.33 g/t gold equivalent) (starting at 90 metres down hole, SF-08); 2.97 metres at 0.40 g/t of gold and 7.20% copper (12.25 g/t gold equivalent) (starting at 44.18 metres down hole, SF-05); and 7.50 metres at 0.35 g/t of gold and 6.41% copper (10.90 g/t gold equivalent) (starting at 70.37 metres down hole, SF-06).

Subsequent drilling results were reported in the December 03, 2020 press release ‘Yamana Gold Advances Projects in Its Generative Exploration Program’, including several intercepts demonstrating grades greater than 5% copper, include the
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following core length intercepts (estimated to approximately equal true widths): 7.53 metres at 3.80% of copper, 0.36 g/t of gold, and 0.26% of zinc, including 3.42 metres at 7.40% of copper, 0.75 g/t of gold, and 0.50% of zinc (starting at 76.80 metres downhole, SF-12); 4.37 metres at 2.15% of copper, 0.13 g/t of gold, and 0.34% of zinc, including 1.30 metres at 5.54% of copper, 0.29 g/t of gold, and 0.70% of zinc (starting at 45.26 metres downhole, SF-09); and 5.65 metres at 1.83% of copper, 0.18 g/t of gold, and 0.17% of zinc, including 1.65 metres at 5.50% of copper, 0.50 g/t of gold, and 0.53% of zinc (starting at 116.35 metres downhole, SF-16). The latest round of drilling results, reported in the September 13, 2021 press release 'Yamana Gold Reports Positive Initial Exploration Drill Results at Wasamac; Provides an Update on Its Generative Exploration Program, Which Continues to Show Significant Progress of Both Advanced and Early Stage Exploration Projects’, included the following core length intercepts: 0.26% of copper over 40.15 metres, including 1.02% of copper over 5.16 metres (SF-026); and 0.20 g/t of gold, 1.81% of copper and 0.19% of zinc over 5.00 metres (SF-020). Disseminated and massive sulfide mineralization at the São Francisco target is now defined semi-continuously along a 2.3-kilometre east-west corridor, which remains open for expansion along strike and down dip. Since completion of the initial exploration drilling campaigns, a high-resolution airborne magnetics and radiometric geophysical survey was completed in late 2021 over a 200-square kilometre area at Borborema, and has since been integrated into the property database, generating several new potential areas of interest and identifying key structural and stratigraphic features, which are expected to aid in drill targeting and prioritization of drilling and other activities.

Exploration activities completed at Borborema during the second quarter included initial exploratory drilling totaling 120 metres in one hole at the Atoleiro target, located 20 kilometres northeast of São Francisco, targeting anomalous gold in soils and rocks related to out copping quartz vein and banded iron formation related gold mineralization, where rock chip sample assays range up to 38 g/t of gold. Drilling is ongoing at the Tabira target, located approximately 15 kilometres southwest and along trend of Atoleiro. Additional generative work completed during the second quarter included continued development of regional targets including the collection of 666 soil and two rock samples and ten days of geological mapping at the Atoleiro Leste and Tabira Extension targets, located northeast of São Francisco, where historic surface rock samples range up to greater than 30 g/t of gold, 1,000 ppm of zinc and 250 ppm of copper within a geological setting similar to that defined at São Francisco, and where anomalous gold in soils and historic drilling define a 30 kilometre long northeast trend.

While the Company will continue to advance Borborema, the project as currently understood is primarily a high-grade copper deposit with some gold and zinc. As such, Borborema represents an excellent opportunity for a joint venture pursuant to which Yamana would continue to benefit and create value while it maintains its focus on its precious metals opportunities. Several other well-defined copper gold soil and rock anomalies and significant areas of alteration associated with anomalous gold and copper values occur on the property.

Colíder, Brazil

Colíder is an early stage project located in Mato Grosso state in the newly developing Alta Floresta district, which is being explored for porphyry copper and porphyry gold deposits by Anglo American and Aura Minerals. Yamana has completed soil and rock geochemistry surveys, geological mapping and an initial round of exploratory drilling in 2021 on parts of its 19,700-hectare property, with several drill-ready gold and polymetallic targets defined. While initial drilling has returned low-grade gold and base-metal (copper, lead and zinc) intercepts, much of the property remains untested. Exploration work completed at Colíder in the fourth quarter, 2021 at the central Bororo target, defined a 1.4 kilometre long silver and gold anomaly in soils, where historical surface rock chip sample results range up to 3.97 g/t of gold, warranting follow-up evaluation. Exploration work completed at Colider during the second quarter included the collection of 338 surface rock and 86 soil samples and geological mapping at the Wilson and Bororo targets on the recently acquired Peixotinho property, located 10 kilometres south of main Colíder claim block.

Ivolândia, Brazil

Exploration activities completed at Ivolândia during the second quarter included completion of 1,161 metres of drilling in six drill holes targeting the southern extension along the N160°/~-10° interpreted plunge direction of shallow high-grade quartz veins and veinlet related sulphide mineralization intersected in historic Yamana drilling at the Ivolandia target. Drilling continues to intersecting and expand zones of sheared, altered metavolcanics hosting both quartz veinlet- and vein-related pyrite-arsenopyrite mineralization and disseminated mineralization, generating both wider zones of low-grade gold mineralization and higher-grade intercepts. Recent drilling confirms the low angle plunge associated with mineralization and has defined a second parallel zone, both remaining open down plunge. Currently, mineralization has been encountered in drilling along an approximate 1,000 metre strike length and at depths of up to 200 metres below surface.

Additional work completed during the second quarter included the collection of 1,178 surface soil and rock samples and 25 days of geological mapping at regional targets Arenopolis, Boa Vista, Partida-Brumado and Esmeril. Results for an airborne magnetic and radiometric survey encompassing a 210 square kilometre area at Ivolândia covering the main NW – SE trend from Boa Vista - Ivolândia to Esmeril - Matrinxão corridor, have been evaluated and integrated with project database, highlighting several geological and structural features of interest which will continue to be followed up in the coming months.


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7.    FINANCIAL CONDITION AND LIQUIDITY

BALANCE SHEET REVIEW
As at, (In millions of US Dollars)June 30, 2022December 31, 2021
Cash and cash equivalents
$545.1 $525.0 
Current assets (including cash and cash equivalents)883.2 835.5 
Non-current assets7,519.5 7,547.2 
Total assets$8,402.7 $8,382.7 
Current liabilities442.8 445.8 
Non-current liabilities (excluding long-term debt)1,956.1 1,960.9 
Long-term debt
773.5 772.8 
Total liabilities$3,172.3 $3,179.5 
Equity attributable to Yamana Gold Inc. equity holders4,419.7 4,395.9 
Non-controlling interests810.7 807.3 
Total equity$5,230.4 $5,203.2 
Working capital(5)
$440.5 $389.7 

Total assets were $8.4 billion as at June 30, 2022, compared to total assets of $8.4 billion as at December 31, 2021. The Company’s asset base is primarily comprised of non-current assets such as property, plant and equipment and goodwill, reflecting the capital-intensive nature of the mining business and previous growth through acquisitions. Other significant assets include: inventories, indirect taxes recoverable (consisting of value-added taxes in the jurisdictions in which the Company operates), advances and deposits, and cash and cash equivalents.

Total liabilities as at June 30, 2022, were $3.2 billion compared to $3.2 billion as at December 31, 2021. The Company's liability base is primarily comprised of long-term debt and other non-current liabilities such deferred tax liabilities, and environmental rehabilitation provisions. Other significant liabilities include: trade payables, current income taxes payable and provisions.

Cash and Working Capital

Cash and cash equivalents were $545.1 million as at June 30, 2022, compared to $525.0 million as at December 31, 2021. The Company has sufficient cash on hand, available credit and liquidity to fully manage its business. Cash balances include cash held by the MARA subsidiary, with a June 30, 2022 balance of $213.8 million, and a December 31, 2021 balance of $217.3 million. The Company had working capital of $440.5 million as at June 30, 2022, compared to working capital of $389.7 million as at December 31, 2021.

Net change in working capital movement was a cash outflow of $8.1 million for the three months ended June 30, 2022. Working capital for the quarter was impacted by several items including:
Increases in material and supply inventory levels at certain sites to mitigate current geopolitical conflict risks,
The timing of collection of indirect tax credit recoverables and payments related to prepaids and advances, partially offset by;
An increase related to higher trade and other payables and transaction related accruals during the second quarter.

Net change in working capital movement was a cash outflow of $53.7 million for the six months ended June 30, 2022. Working capital for the six months was impacted by several items including:
Net increases in materials and supplies inventories at certain mines due to higher material and supply levels to mitigate current geopolitical conflict risks, and;
The timing of collection of indirect tax credit recoverables and payments related to prepaids and advances.

Total Debt

Total debt was $773.5 million as at June 30, 2022, compared to $772.8 million as at December 31, 2021, the difference fully attributable to the amortization of deferred issuance costs. Yamana believes that a strong financial position and financial resilience also requires a manageable debt maturity profile. During the third quarter of 2021, the Company took advantage of market conditions to improve the terms of its outstanding notes by extending maturity and reducing carrying costs, by completing an offering of $500 million aggregate principal amount of its 2.630% Senior Notes due August 15, 2031. The Senior 2031 Notes are unsecured, senior obligations of Yamana and are unconditionally guaranteed by certain of Yamana’s subsidiaries that are also guarantors under Yamana’s credit facility. Yamana used the net proceeds from the offering, together with cash on hand, to fund the redemptions of its 4.76% Series C Senior Notes due 2022, its 4.91% Series D Senior Notes due 2024, its 4.78% Series B Senior Notes due 2023 and its 4.950% Senior Notes due 2024. The completion of the offering of the Senior 2031 Notes and the subsequent redemption of the existing notes represents the culmination of significant debt reduction efforts initiated in 2019.

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LIQUIDITY

Planned growth, development activities, expenditures and commitments are expected to be sufficiently funded by recent and potential monetization and financing transactions, future operating cash flows and available credit facilities. As at June 30, 2022, the financial resources available to the Company for meeting its financial obligations include $750.0 million from its revolving credit facility.

The Company’s near-term financial obligations include financial commitments of $157.0 million. The Company remains committed to maintaining amongst the strongest financial position in the industry and continues with its objective of achieving a positive net cash position.

SOURCES AND USES OF CASH

The following table summarizes cash inflows and outflows for the following periods:
For the three months ended June 30,For the six months ended June 30,
(In millions of US Dollars)2022 2021 2022 2021 
Cash flows from operating activities$187.8 $153.5 $339.3 $313.6 
Cash flows from operating activities before net change in working capital$195.9 $167.8 $393.0 $351.1 
Cash flows used in investing activities $(116.9)$(81.1)$(237.6)$(185.1)
Cash flows used in financing activities $(40.4)$(48.8)$(79.7)$(77.7)
Net free cash flow(1)