Form 497 BLACKROCK FUNDS

January 21, 2022 12:57 PM EST

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STATEMENT OF ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

BlackRock FundsSM

BlackRock Global Equity Absolute Return Fund

100 Bellevue Parkway, Wilmington, Delaware 19809 • Phone No. (800) 441-7762

 

 

This Statement of Additional Information of BlackRock Global Equity Absolute Return Fund (the “Fund”), a series of BlackRock FundsSM (the “Trust”), is not a prospectus and should be read in conjunction with the Investor A, Institutional and Class K Shares Prospectuses of the Fund, dated December 21, 2021, as they may be amended or supplemented from time to time (the “Prospectus”), which have been filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “Commission” or the “SEC”) and can be obtained, without charge, by calling (800) 441-7762 or by writing to the Fund at the above address. The Fund’s Prospectuses are incorporated by reference into this Statement of Additional Information, and Part I of this Statement of Additional Information and the portions of Part II of this Statement of Additional Information that relate to the Fund have been incorporated by reference into the Fund’s Prospectus. The portions of Part II of this Statement of Additional Information that do not relate to the Fund do not form a part of the Fund’s Statement of Additional Information, have not been incorporated by reference into the Fund’s Prospectuses and should not be relied upon by investors in the Fund.

References to the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “Investment Company Act”), or other applicable law, will include any rules promulgated thereunder and any guidance, interpretations or modifications by the Commission, Commission staff or other authority with appropriate jurisdiction, including court interpretations, and exemptive, no-action or other relief or permission from the Commission, Commission staff or other authority.

 

 

BlackRock Advisors, LLC — Manager

BlackRock Investments, LLC — Distributor

 

 

 

     Ticker Symbols

Class

   BlackRock Global
Equity Absolute
Return Fund
Investor A Shares    BGRAX
Institutional Shares    BABSX
Class K Shares    BGRKX

The date of this Statement of Additional Information is December 21, 2021 (as amended January 21, 2022).


TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

    Page  

PART I

 

Investment Objective and Policies

    I-1  

Investment Restrictions

    I-5  

Information on Trustees and Officers

    I-7  

Management, Advisory and Other Service Arrangements

    I-17  

Information on Sales Charges and Distribution Related Expenses

    I-22  

Computation of Offering Price Per Share

    I-22  

Portfolio Transactions and Brokerage

    I-22  

Additional Information

    I-23  

Financial Statements

    I-24  

PART II

 

Investment Risks and Considerations

    II-1  

Management and Other Service Arrangements

    II-73  

Selective Disclosure of Portfolio Holdings

    II-76  

Purchase of Shares

    II-88  

Redemption of Shares

    II-105  

Shareholder Services

    II-107  

Pricing of Shares

    II-111  

Portfolio Transactions and Brokerage

    II-114  

Dividends and Taxes

    II-118  

Performance Data

    II-125  

Proxy Voting Policies and Procedures

    II-127  

General Information

    II-127  

Appendix A — Description of Bond Ratings

    A-1  

Appendix B — Proxy Voting Policies

    B-1  


PART I: INFORMATION ABOUT BLACKROCK GLOBAL EQUITY ABSOLUTE RETURN FUND

Part I of this Statement of Additional Information (“SAI”) sets forth information about BlackRock Global Equity Absolute Return Fund (the “Fund”), a series of BlackRock FundsSM (the “Trust”). It includes information about the Trust’s Board of Trustees (the “Board”), the advisory and management services provided to and the management fees paid by the Fund and information about other fees applicable to and services provided to the Fund. This Part I of this SAI should be read in conjunction with the Fund’s Prospectuses and those portions of Part II of this SAI that pertain to the Fund.

 

I.   Investment Objective and Policies

Please see the section “Details About the Fund — How The Fund Invests” in the Fund’s Prospectuses for information about the Fund’s investment objective and policies.

The Fund is subject to Rule 35d-1 under the Investment Company Act and will not change its investment policies required by that rule without giving shareholders 60 days’ prior written notice.

For purposes of calculating compliance with the Fund’s policy of seeking to invest, under normal circumstances, at least 80% of its net assets, plus the amount of any borrowings for investment purposes, in equity securities and derivatives with similar economic characteristics, the Fund values derivatives at the gross notional amount of such derivatives.

In implementing the Fund’s investment strategy, from time to time, BlackRock Advisors, LLC (“BlackRock” or the “Manager”), the Fund’s investment manager, may consider and employ techniques and strategies designed to minimize and defer the U.S. federal income taxes which may be incurred by shareholders in connection with their investment in the Fund.

Set forth below is a listing of some of the types of investments and investment strategies that the Fund may use, and the risks and considerations associated with those investments and investment strategies. Please see Part II of this SAI for further information on these investments and investment strategies. Information contained in Part II about the risks and considerations associated with investments and/or investment strategies applies only to the extent the Fund makes each type of investment or uses each investment strategy. Information that does not apply to the Fund does not form a part of the Fund’s SAI and should not be relied on by investors in the Fund.

Only information that is clearly identified as applicable to the Fund is considered to form a part of the Fund’s SAI.

 

    

Global Equity
Absolute

Return

144A Securities

  X

Asset-Backed Securities

   

Asset-Based Securities

  X

Precious Metal-Related Securities

  X

Borrowing and Leverage

  X

Cash Flows; Expenses

   

Cash Management

  X

Collateralized Debt Obligations

   

Collateralized Bond Obligations

   

Collateralized Loan Obligations

   

Commercial Paper

  X

Commodity-Linked Derivative Instruments and Hybrid Instruments

   

Qualifying Hybrid Instruments

   

 

I-1


    

Global Equity
Absolute

Return

Hybrid Instruments Without Principal Protection

   

Limitations on Leverage

   

Counterparty Risk

   

Convertible Securities

  X

Corporate Loans

   

Direct Lending

   

Credit Linked Securities

   

Cyber Security Issues

  X

Debt Securities

  X

Inflation-Indexed Bonds

   

Investment Grade Debt Obligations

  X

High Yield Investments (“Junk Bonds”)

   

Mezzanine Investments

   

Pay-in-kind Bonds

   

Supranational Entities

   

Depositary Receipts (ADRs, EDRs and GDRs)

  X

Derivatives

  X

Hedging

  X

Speculation

  X

Risk Factors in Derivatives

  X

Correlation Risk

  X

Counterparty Risk

  X

Credit Risk

  X

Currency Risk

  X

Illiquidity Risk

  X

Leverage Risk

  X

Market Risk

  X

Valuation Risk

  X

Volatility Risk

  X

Futures

  X

Swap Agreements

  X

Credit Default Swaps and Similar Instruments

  X

Interest Rate Swaps, Floors and Caps

   

Total Return Swaps

  X

Options

  X

Options on Securities and Securities Indices

  X

Call Options

  X

Put Options

  X

Options on Government National Mortgage Association (“GNMA”) Certificates

   

Options on Swaps (“Swaptions”)

  X

Foreign Exchange Transactions

  X

Spot Transactions and FX Forwards

  X

Currency Futures

  X

 

I-2


    

Global Equity
Absolute

Return

Currency Options

  X

Currency Swaps

  X

Distressed Securities

   

Environmental, Social and Governance (“ESG”) Integration

  X

Equity Securities

  X

Real Estate-Related Securities

  X

Securities of Smaller or Emerging Growth Companies

  X

Exchange-Traded Notes (“ETNs”)

  X

Foreign Investments

  X

Foreign Investment Risks

  X

Foreign Market Risk

  X

Foreign Economy Risk

  X

Currency Risk and Exchange Risk

  X

Governmental Supervision and Regulation/Accounting Standards

  X

Certain Risks of Holding Fund Assets Outside the United States

  X

Publicly Available Information

  X

Settlement Risk

  X

Sovereign Debt

  X

Withholding Tax Reclaims Risk

  X

Funding Agreements

   

Guarantees

   

Illiquid Investments

  X

Index Funds

   

Tracking Error Risk

   

S&P 500 Index

   

Russell Indexes

   

MSCI Indexes

   

FTSE Indexes

   

Bloomberg Indexes

   

ICE BofA Indexes

   

Indexed and Inverse Securities

  X

Inflation Risk

  X

Initial Public Offering (“IPO”) Risk

  X

Interfund Lending Program

  X

Borrowing, to the extent permitted by the Fund’s investment policies and restrictions

  X

Lending, to the extent permitted by the Fund’s investment policies and restrictions

  X

Investment in Emerging Markets

  X

Brady Bonds

   

China Investments Risk

  X

Investment in Other Investment Companies

  X

Exchange-Traded Funds

  X

Lease Obligations

   

LIBOR Risk

  X

 

I-3


    

Global Equity
Absolute

Return

Life Settlement Investments

   

Liquidity Risk Management

  X

Master Limited Partnerships

  X

Merger Transaction Risk

  X

Money Market Obligations of Domestic Banks, Foreign Banks and Foreign Branches of U.S. Banks

  X

Money Market Securities

  X

Mortgage-Related Securities

   

Mortgage-Backed Securities

   

Collateralized Mortgage Obligations (“CMOs”)

   

Adjustable Rate Mortgage Securities

   

CMO Residuals

   

Stripped Mortgage-Backed Securities

   

Tiered Index Bonds

   

TBA Commitments

   

Mortgage Dollar Rolls

   

Net Interest Margin (NIM) Securities

   

Municipal Investments

   

Risk Factors and Special Considerations Relating to Municipal Bonds

   

Description of Municipal Bonds

   

General Obligation Bonds

   

Revenue Bonds

   

Private Activity Bonds (“PABs”)

   

Moral Obligation Bonds

   

Municipal Notes

   

Municipal Commercial Paper

   

Municipal Lease Obligations

   

Tender Option Bonds

   

Yields

   

Variable Rate Demand Obligations (“VRDOs”) and Participating VRDOs

   

Transactions in Financial Futures Contracts on Municipal Indexes

   

Call Rights

   

Municipal Interest Rate Swap Transactions

   

Insured Municipal Bonds

   

Build America Bonds

   

Tax-Exempt Municipal Investments

   

Participation Notes

  X

Portfolio Turnover Rates

  X

Preferred Stock

  X

Tax-Exempt Preferred Shares

   

Trust Preferred Securities

  X

Real Estate Investment Trusts (“REITs”)

  X

Recent Market Events

  X

Repurchase Agreements and Purchase and Sale Contracts

  X

 

I-4


    

Global Equity
Absolute

Return

Restricted Securities

  X

Reverse Repurchase Agreements

  X

Rights Offerings and Warrants to Purchase

  X

Securities Lending

  X

Short Sales

  X

Special Purpose Acquisition Companies

  X

Standby Commitment Agreements

   

Stripped Securities

   

Structured Notes

  X

Taxability Risk

   

Temporary Defensive Measures

  X

U.S. Government Obligations

  X

U.S. Treasury Obligations

  X

U.S. Treasury Rolls

   

Utility Industries

  X

When-Issued Securities, Delayed Delivery Securities and Forward Commitments

  X

Yields and Ratings

   

Zero Coupon Securities

   

Regulation Regarding Derivatives. The Commodity Futures Trading Commission (“CFTC”) subjects advisers to registered investment companies to regulation by the CFTC if a fund that is advised by the investment adviser either (i) invests, directly or indirectly, more than a prescribed level of its liquidation value in CFTC-regulated futures, options and swaps (“CFTC Derivatives”), or (ii) markets itself as providing investment exposure to such instruments. Due to the Fund’s potential use of CFTC Derivatives above the prescribed levels, however, the Fund will be considered a “commodity pool” under the Commodity Exchange Act. Accordingly, BlackRock has registered as a “commodity pool operator” and is subject to CFTC regulation in respect of the Fund.

 

II.   Investment Restrictions

The Fund has adopted restrictions and policies relating to the investment of the Fund’s assets and its activities. Certain of the restrictions are fundamental policies of the Fund and may not be changed without the approval of the holders of a majority of the Fund’s outstanding voting securities (which for this purpose and under the Investment Company Act means the lesser of (i) 67% of the shares represented at a meeting at which more than 50% of the outstanding shares are represented or (ii) more than 50% of the outstanding shares).

Under these fundamental investment restrictions, the Fund may not:

1. Concentrate its investments in a particular industry, as that term is used in the Investment Company Act.

2. Borrow money, except as permitted under the Investment Company Act.

3. Issue senior securities to the extent such issuance would violate the Investment Company Act.

4. Purchase or hold real estate, except the Fund may purchase and hold securities or other instruments that are secured by, or linked to, real estate or interests therein, securities of real estate investment trusts, mortgage-related securities and securities of issuers engaged in the real estate business, and the Fund may purchase and hold real estate as a result of the ownership of securities or other instruments.

5. Underwrite securities issued by others, except to the extent that the sale of portfolio securities by the Fund may be deemed to be an underwriting or as otherwise permitted by applicable law.

 

I-5


6. Purchase or sell commodities or commodity contracts, except as permitted by the Investment Company Act.

7. Make loans to the extent prohibited by the Investment Company Act.

Notations Regarding the Fund’s Fundamental Investment Restrictions

The following notations are not considered to be part of the Fund’s fundamental investment restrictions and are subject to change without shareholder approval.

With respect to the fundamental policy relating to concentration set forth in (1) above, the Investment Company Act does not define what constitutes “concentration” in an industry. The Commission staff has taken the position that investment of 25% or more of a fund’s total assets in one or more issuers conducting their principal activities in the same industry or group of industries constitutes concentration. It is possible that interpretations of concentration could change in the future. The policy in (1) above will be interpreted to refer to concentration as that term may be interpreted from time to time. The policy also will be interpreted to permit investment without limit in the following: securities of the U.S. Government and its agencies or instrumentalities; securities of state, territory, possession or municipal governments and their authorities, agencies, instrumentalities or political subdivisions; and repurchase agreements collateralized by any such obligations. Accordingly, issuers of the foregoing securities will not be considered to be members of any industry. There also will be no limit on investment in issuers domiciled in a single jurisdiction or country. Finance companies will be considered to be in the industries of their parents if their activities are primarily related to financing the activities of the parents. Each foreign government will be considered to be a member of a separate industry. With respect to the Fund’s industry classifications, the Fund currently utilizes any one or more of the industry sub-classifications used by one or more widely recognized market indexes or rating group indexes, and/or as defined by Fund management. The policy also will be interpreted to give broad authority to the Fund as to how to classify issuers within or among industries.

With respect to the fundamental policy relating to borrowing money set forth in (2) above, the Investment Company Act permits the Fund to borrow money in amounts of up to one-third of the Fund’s total assets from banks for any purpose, and to borrow up to 5% of the Fund’s total assets from banks or other lenders for temporary purposes. (The Fund’s total assets include the amounts being borrowed.) In addition, the Fund has received an exemptive order from the SEC permitting it to borrow through the Interfund Lending Program (discussed below), subject to the conditions of the exemptive order. To limit the risks attendant to borrowing, the Investment Company Act requires the Fund to maintain at all times an “asset coverage” of at least 300% of the amount of its borrowings. Asset coverage means the ratio that the value of the Fund’s total assets (including amounts borrowed), minus liabilities other than borrowings, bears to the aggregate amount of all borrowings. Borrowing money to increase portfolio holdings is known as “leveraging.” Certain trading practices and investments, such as reverse repurchase agreements, may be considered to be borrowings or involve leverage and thus are subject to the Investment Company Act restrictions. In accordance with Commission staff guidance and interpretations, when the Fund engages in such transactions, the Fund instead of maintaining asset coverage of at least 300%, may segregate or earmark liquid assets, or enter into an offsetting position, in an amount at least equal to the Fund’s exposure, on a mark-to-market basis, to the transaction (as calculated pursuant to requirements of the Commission). The policy in (2) above will be interpreted to permit the Fund to engage in trading practices and investments that may be considered to be borrowing or to involve leverage to the extent permitted by the Investment Company Act and to permit the Fund to segregate or earmark liquid assets or enter into offsetting positions in accordance with the Investment Company Act. Short-term credits necessary for the settlement of securities transactions and arrangements with respect to securities lending will not be considered to be borrowings under the policy. Practices and investments that may involve leverage but are not considered to be borrowings are not subject to the policy.

With respect to the fundamental policy relating to underwriting set forth in (5) above, the Investment Company Act does not prohibit the Fund from engaging in the underwriting business or from underwriting the securities of other issuers; in fact, in the case of diversified funds, the Investment Company Act permits a

 

I-6


fund to have underwriting commitments of up to 25% of its assets under certain circumstances. Those circumstances currently are that the amount of the fund’s underwriting commitments, when added to the value of the fund’s investments in issuers where the fund owns more than 10% of the outstanding voting securities of those issuers, cannot exceed the 25% cap. A fund engaging in transactions involving the acquisition or disposition of portfolio securities may be considered to be an underwriter under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”). Although it is not believed that the application of the Securities Act provisions described above would cause the Fund to be engaged in the business of underwriting, the policy in (5) above will be interpreted not to prevent the Fund from engaging in transactions involving the acquisition or disposition of portfolio securities, regardless of whether the Fund may be considered to be an underwriter under the Securities Act or is otherwise engaged in the underwriting business to the extent permitted by applicable law.

With respect to the fundamental policy relating to lending set forth in (7) above, the Investment Company Act does not prohibit the Fund from making loans (including lending its securities); however, Commission staff interpretations currently prohibit funds from lending more than one-third of their total assets (including lending its securities), except through the purchase of debt obligations or the use of repurchase agreements. In addition, collateral arrangements with respect to options, forward currency and futures transactions and other derivative instruments (as applicable), as well as delays in the settlement of securities transactions, will not be considered loans.

Under its non-fundamental investment restrictions, which may be changed by the Board without shareholder approval, the Fund may not:

a. Purchase securities of other investment companies, except to the extent permitted by the Investment Company Act. As a matter of policy, however, the Fund will not purchase shares of any registered open-end investment company or registered unit investment trust, in reliance on Section 12(d)(1)(F) or (G) (the “fund of funds” provisions) of the Investment Company Act, at any time the Fund has knowledge that its shares are purchased by another investment company investor in reliance on the provisions of subparagraph (G) of Section 12(d)(1).

b. Make short sales of securities or maintain a short position, except to the extent permitted by the Fund’s Prospectus and SAI, as amended from time to time, and applicable law.

Unless otherwise indicated, all limitations under the Fund’s fundamental or non-fundamental investment restrictions apply only at the time that a transaction is undertaken. Any change in the percentage of the Fund’s assets invested in certain securities or other instruments resulting from market fluctuations or other changes in the Fund’s total assets will not require the Fund to dispose of an investment until BlackRock determines that it is practicable to sell or close out the investment without undue market or tax consequences.

 

III.   Information on Trustees and Officers

The Board consists of fourteen individuals (each, a “Trustee”), twelve of whom are not “interested persons” of the Trust as defined in the Investment Company Act (the “Independent Trustees”). The registered investment companies advised by the Manager or its affiliates (the “BlackRock-advised Funds”) are organized into one complex of open-end equity, multi-asset, index and money market funds (the “BlackRock Multi-Asset Complex”), one complex of closed-end funds and open-end non-index fixed-income funds (the “BlackRock Fixed-Income Complex”) and one complex of exchange-traded funds (each, a “BlackRock Fund Complex”). The Trust is included in the BlackRock Fund Complex referred to as the BlackRock Multi-Asset Complex. The Trustees also oversee as board members the operations of the other open-end registered investment companies included in the BlackRock Multi-Asset Complex.

The Board has overall responsibility for the oversight of the Trust and the Fund. The Chair of the Board is an Independent Trustee, and the Chair of each Board committee (each, a “Committee”) is an Independent Trustee. The Board has five standing Committees: an Audit Committee, a Governance and Nominating Committee, a Compliance Committee, a Performance Oversight Committee and an Ad Hoc Topics

 

I-7


Committee. The role of the Chair of the Board is to preside at all meetings of the Board and to act as a liaison with service providers, officers, attorneys and other Trustees generally between meetings. The Chair of each Committee performs a similar role with respect to the Committee. The Chair of the Board or the Chair of a Committee may also perform such other functions as may be delegated by the Board or the Committee from time to time. The Independent Trustees meet regularly outside the presence of Fund management, in executive session or with other service providers to the Fund. The Board has regular meetings five times a year, and may hold special meetings if required before its next regular meeting. Each Committee meets regularly to conduct the oversight functions delegated to that Committee by the Board and reports its findings to the Board. The Board and each standing Committee conduct annual assessments of their oversight function and structure. The Board has determined that the Board’s leadership structure is appropriate because it allows the Board to exercise independent judgment over management and to allocate areas of responsibility among Committees and the full Board to enhance effective oversight.

The Board has engaged the Manager to manage the Fund on a day-to-day basis. The Board is responsible for overseeing the Manager, other service providers, the operations of the Fund and associated risks in accordance with the provisions of the Investment Company Act, state law, other applicable laws, the Trust’s charter, and the Fund’s investment objective and strategies. The Board reviews, on an ongoing basis, the Fund’s performance, operations and investment strategies and techniques. The Board also conducts reviews of the Manager and its role in running the operations of the Fund.

Day-to-day risk management with respect to the Fund is the responsibility of the Manager or of sub-advisers or other service providers (depending on the nature of the risk), subject to the supervision of the Manager. The Fund is subject to a number of risks, including investment, compliance, operational and valuation risks, among others. While there are a number of risk management functions performed by the Manager and the sub-advisers or other service providers, as applicable, it is not possible to eliminate all of the risks applicable to the Fund. Risk oversight forms part of the Board’s general oversight of the Fund and is addressed as part of various Board and Committee activities. The Board, directly or through a Committee, also reviews reports from, among others, management, the independent registered public accounting firm for the Fund, sub-advisers and internal auditors for the investment adviser or its affiliates, as appropriate, regarding risks faced by the Fund and management’s or the service provider’s risk functions. The Committee system facilitates the timely and efficient consideration of matters by the Trustees, and facilitates effective oversight of compliance with legal and regulatory requirements and of the Fund’s activities and associated risks. The Board has appointed a Chief Compliance Officer, who oversees the implementation and testing of the Trust’s compliance program and reports to the Board regarding compliance matters for the Fund and its service providers. The Independent Trustees have engaged independent legal counsel to assist them in performing their oversight responsibilities.

Audit Committee. The members of the Audit Committee (the “Audit Committee”) are Henry R. Keizer (Chair), Neil A. Cotty and Kenneth L. Urish, all of whom are Independent Trustees. The principal responsibilities of the Audit Committee are to approve, and recommend to the full Board for approval, the selection, retention, termination and compensation of the Fund’s independent registered public accounting firm (the “Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm”) and to oversee the Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm’s work. The Audit Committee’s responsibilities include, without limitation, to (1) evaluate the qualifications and independence of the Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm; (2) approve all audit engagement terms and fees for the Fund; (3) review the conduct and results of each independent audit of the Fund’s annual financial statements; (4) review any issues raised by the Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm or Fund management regarding the accounting or financial reporting policies and practices of the Fund and the internal controls of the Fund and certain service providers; (5) oversee the performance of the Fund’s Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm; (6) review and discuss with management and the Fund’s Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm the performance and findings of the Fund’s internal auditors; (7) discuss with Fund management its policies regarding risk assessment and risk management as such matters relate to the Fund’s financial reporting and controls; (8) resolve any disagreements between Fund management and the Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm regarding financial reporting; and

 

I-8


(9) undertake such other duties and responsibilities as may from time to time be delegated by the Board to the Audit Committee. The Board has adopted a written charter for the Audit Committee. During the twelve months ended March 31, 2021, the Audit Committee met four times.

Governance and Nominating Committee. The members of the Governance and Nominating Committee (the “Governance Committee”) are Cynthia A. Montgomery (Chair), Bruce R. Bond, Susan J. Carter, Collette Chilton and Joseph P. Platt, all of whom are Independent Trustees. The principal responsibilities of the Governance Committee are to (1) identify individuals qualified to serve as Independent Trustees of the Trust and recommend Independent Trustee nominees for election by shareholders or appointment by the Board; (2) advise the Board with respect to Board composition, procedures and committees (other than the Audit Committee); (3) oversee periodic self-assessments of the Board and committees of the Board (other than the Audit Committee); (4) review and make recommendations regarding Independent Trustee compensation; (5) monitor corporate governance matters and develop appropriate recommendations to the Board; (6) act as the administrative committee with respect to Board policies and procedures, committee policies and procedures (other than the Audit Committee) and codes of ethics as they relate to Independent Trustees; and (7) undertake such other duties and responsibilities as may from time to time be delegated by the Board to the Governance Committee. The Governance Committee may consider nominations for the office of Trustee made by Fund shareholders as it deems appropriate. Fund shareholders who wish to recommend a nominee should send nominations to the Secretary of the Trust that include biographical information and set forth the qualifications of the proposed nominee. The Board has adopted a written charter for the Governance Committee. During the twelve months ended March 31, 2021, the Governance Committee met four times.

Compliance Committee. The members of the Compliance Committee (the “Compliance Committee”) are Lena G. Goldberg (Chair), Bruce R. Bond, Joseph P. Platt, Kenneth L. Urish and Claire A. Walton, all of whom are Independent Trustees. The Compliance Committee’s purpose is to assist the Board in fulfilling its responsibility to oversee regulatory and fiduciary compliance matters involving the Trust, the fund-related activities of BlackRock and any sub-adviser and the Trust’s third-party service providers. The Compliance Committee’s responsibilities include, without limitation, to (1) oversee the compliance policies and procedures of the Trust and its service providers and recommend changes or additions to such policies and procedures; (2) review information on and, where appropriate, recommend policies concerning the Trust’s compliance with applicable law; (3) review reports from, oversee the annual performance review of, and make certain recommendations and determinations regarding the Trust’s Chief Compliance Officer (the “CCO”), including determining the amount and structure of the CCO’s compensation and recommending such amount and structure to the full Board for approval and ratification; and (4) undertake such other duties and responsibilities as may from time to time be delegated by the Board to the Compliance Committee. The Board has adopted a written charter for the Compliance Committee. During the twelve months ended March 31, 2021, the Compliance Committee met four times.

Performance Oversight Committee. The members of the Performance Oversight Committee (the “Performance Oversight Committee”) are Donald C. Opatrny (Chair), Susan J. Carter, Collette Chilton, Neil A. Cotty and Claire A. Walton, all of whom are Independent Trustees. The Performance Oversight Committee’s purpose is to assist the Board in fulfilling its responsibility to oversee the Fund’s investment performance relative to its agreed-upon performance objectives and to assist the Independent Trustees in their consideration of investment advisory agreements. The Performance Oversight Committee’s responsibilities include, without limitation, to (1) review information on, and make recommendations to the full Board in respect of, the Fund’s investment objective, policies and practices; (2) review information on the Fund’s investment performance; (3) review information on appropriate benchmarks and competitive universes and unusual or exceptional investment matters; (4) review personnel and other resources devoted to management of the Fund and evaluate the nature and quality of information furnished to the Performance Oversight Committee; (5) recommend any required action regarding changes in fundamental and non-fundamental investment policies and restrictions, fund mergers or liquidations; (6) request and review information on the nature, extent and quality of services provided to the shareholders; (7) make recommendations to the Board concerning the approval or renewal of investment advisory agreements; and (8) undertake such other duties

 

I-9


and responsibilities as may from time to time be delegated by the Board to the Performance Oversight Committee. The Board has adopted a written charter for the Performance Oversight Committee. During the twelve months ended March 31, 2021, the Performance Oversight Committee met four times.

Ad Hoc Topics Committee. The members of the Ad Hoc Topics Committee (the “Ad Hoc Topics Committee”) are Mark Stalnecker (Chair) and Lena G. Goldberg, both of whom are Independent Trustees, and John M. Perlowski, who serves as an interested Trustee. The principal responsibilities of the Ad Hoc Topics Committee are to (1) act on routine matters between meetings of the Board; (2) act on such matters as may require urgent action between meetings of the Board; and (3) exercise such other authority as may from time to time be delegated to the Ad Hoc Topics Committee by the Board. The Board has adopted a written charter for the Ad Hoc Topics Committee. During the twelve months ended March 31, 2021, the Ad Hoc Topics Committee did not meet.

The Governance Committee has adopted a statement of policy that describes the experience, qualifications, skills and attributes that are necessary and desirable for potential Independent Trustee candidates (the “Statement of Policy”). The Board believes that each Independent Trustee satisfied, at the time he or she was initially elected or appointed a Trustee, and continues to satisfy, the standards contemplated by the Statement of Policy. Furthermore, in determining that a particular Independent Trustee was and continues to be qualified to serve as a Trustee, the Board has considered a variety of criteria, none of which, in isolation, was controlling. The Board believes that, collectively, the Independent Trustees have balanced and diverse experience, skills, attributes and qualifications, which allow the Board to operate effectively in governing the Trust and protecting the interests of shareholders. Among the attributes common to all Independent Trustees are their ability to review critically, evaluate, question and discuss information provided to them, to interact effectively with the Fund’s investment adviser, sub-advisers, other service providers, counsel and the Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm, and to exercise effective business judgment in the performance of their duties as Trustees.

Each Trustee’s ability to perform his or her duties effectively is evidenced by his or her educational background or professional training; business, consulting, public service or academic positions; experience from service as a board member of the Trust and the other funds in the BlackRock Fund Complexes (and any predecessor funds), other investment funds, public companies, non-profit entities or other organizations; ongoing commitment to and participation in Board and Committee meetings, as well as his or her leadership of standing and ad hoc committees throughout the years; or other relevant life experiences.

The table below discusses some of the experiences, qualifications and skills of each of the Trustees that support the conclusion that each Trustee should serve on the Board.

 

Trustees

 

Experience, Qualifications and Skills

Independent Trustees  
Bruce R. Bond   Bruce R. Bond has served for approximately 20 years on the board of registered investment companies, having served as a member of the boards of certain BlackRock-advised Funds and predecessor funds, including the legacy-BlackRock funds and the State Street Research Mutual Funds. He also has executive management and business experience, having served as president and chief executive officer of several communications networking companies. Mr. Bond also has corporate governance experience from his service as a director of a computer equipment company.
Susan J. Carter   Susan J. Carter has over 35 years of experience in investment management. She has served as President & Chief Executive Officer of Commonfund Capital, Inc. (“CCI”), a registered investment adviser focused on non-profit investors, from 1997 to 2013, Chief Executive Officer of CCI from 2013 to 2014 and Senior Advisor to CCI in 2015. Ms. Carter also served as trustee to the Pacific Pension Institute from 2014 to 2018. She currently serves as trustee to the Financial Accounting Foundation, Advisory Board Member for the Center for Private Equity and Entrepreneurship at Tuck School of Business, Board Member for Girls Who Invest, Advisory Board Member for Bridges Fund Management and Practitioner Advisory Board Member for Private Capital Research Institute (“PCRI”). These positions have provided her with insight and perspective on the markets and the economy.
Collette Chilton   Collette Chilton has over 20 years of experience in investment management. She has held the position of Chief Investment Officer of Williams College since October 2006. Prior to that she was President and Chief Investment Officer of Lucent Asset Management Corporation, where she oversaw approximately $40 billion in pension and retirement savings assets for the company. These positions have provided her with insight and perspective on the markets and the economy.

 

I-10


Trustees

 

Experience, Qualifications and Skills

Neil A. Cotty   Neil A. Cotty has more than 30 years of experience in the financial services industry, including 19 years at Bank of America Corporation and its affiliates, where he served, at different times, as the Chief Financial Officer of various businesses including Investment Banking, Global Markets, Wealth Management and Consumer and also served ten years as the Chief Accounting Officer for Bank of America Corporation. Mr. Cotty has been determined by the Audit Committee to be an audit committee financial expert, as such term is defined in the applicable Commission rules.
Lena G. Goldberg   Lena G. Goldberg has more than 20 years of business and oversight experience, most recently through her service as a senior lecturer at Harvard Business School. Prior thereto, she held legal and management positions at FMR LLC/Fidelity Investments as well as positions on the boards of various Fidelity subsidiaries over a 12-year period. She has additional corporate governance experience as a member of board and advisory committees for privately held corporations and non-profit organizations. Ms. Goldberg also has more than 17 years of legal experience as an attorney in private practice, including as a partner in a law firm.
Henry R. Keizer   Henry R. Keizer brings over 40 years of executive, financial, operational, strategic and global expertise gained through his 35 year career at KPMG, a global professional services organization and by his service as a director to both publicly and privately held organizations. He has extensive experience with issues facing complex, global companies and expertise in financial reporting, accounting, auditing, risk management, and regulatory affairs for such companies. Mr. Keizer’s experience also includes service as an audit committee chair to both publicly and privately held organizations across numerous industries including professional services, property and casualty reinsurance, insurance, diversified financial services, banking, direct to consumer, business to business and technology. Mr. Keizer is a certified public accountant and also served on the board of the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants. Mr. Keizer has been determined by the Audit Committee to be an audit committee financial expert, as such term is defined in the applicable Commission rules.
Cynthia A. Montgomery   Cynthia A. Montgomery has served for over 20 years on the boards of registered investment companies, most recently as a member of the boards of certain BlackRock-advised Funds and predecessor funds, including the legacy Merrill Lynch Investment Managers, L.P. (“MLIM”) funds. The Board benefits from Ms. Montgomery’s more than 20 years of academic experience as a professor at Harvard Business School where she taught courses on corporate strategy and corporate governance. Ms. Montgomery also has business management and corporate governance experience through her service on the corporate boards of a variety of public companies. She has also authored numerous articles and books on these topics.
Donald C. Opatrny   Donald C. Opatrny has more than 40 years of business, oversight and executive experience, including through his service as president, director and investment committee chair for academic and not-for-profit organizations, and his experience as a partner, managing director and advisory director at Goldman Sachs for 32 years. He also has investment management experience as a board member of Athena Capital Advisors LLC.
Joseph P. Platt   Joseph P. Platt has served for over 15 years on the boards of registered investment companies, most recently as a member of the boards of certain BlackRock-advised Funds and predecessor funds, including the legacy BlackRock funds. Mr. Platt currently serves as general partner at Thorn Partners, LP, a private investment company. Prior to his joining Thorn Partners, LP, he was an owner, director and executive vice president with Johnson and Higgins, an insurance broker and employee benefits consultant. He has over 25 years of experience in the areas of insurance, compensation and benefits. Mr. Platt also serves on the boards of public, private and non-profit companies.
Mark Stalnecker   Mark Stalnecker has gained a wealth of experience in investing and asset management from his over 13 years of service as the Chief Investment Officer of the University of Delaware as well as from his various positions with First Union Corporation, including Senior Vice President and State Investment Director of First Investment Advisors. The Board benefits from his experience and perspective as the Chief Investment Officer of a university endowment and from the oversight experience he gained from service on various private and non-profit boards.
Kenneth L. Urish   Kenneth L. Urish has served for over 15 years on the boards of registered investment companies, most recently as a member of the boards of certain BlackRock-advised Funds and predecessor funds, including the legacy BlackRock funds. He has over 30 years of experience in public accounting. Mr. Urish has served as a managing member of an accounting and consulting firm. Mr. Urish has been determined by the Audit Committee to be an audit committee financial expert, as such term is defined in the applicable Commission rules.
Claire A. Walton   Claire A. Walton has over 25 years of experience in investment management. She has served as the Chief Operating Officer and Chief Financial Officer of Liberty Square Asset Management, LP from 1998 to 2015, an investment manager that specialized in long/short non-U.S. equity investments, and has been an owner and General Partner of Neon Liberty Capital Management, LLC since 2003, a firm focusing on long/short equities in global emerging and frontier markets. These positions have provided her with insight and perspective on the markets and the economy.
Interested Trustees  
Robert Fairbairn   Robert Fairbairn has more than 25 years of experience with BlackRock, Inc. and over 30 years of experience in finance and asset management. In particular, Mr. Fairbairn’s positions as Vice Chairman of BlackRock, Inc., Member of BlackRock’s Global Executive and Global Operating Committees and Co-Chair of BlackRock’s Human Capital Committee provide the Board with a wealth of practical business knowledge and leadership. In addition, Mr. Fairbairn has global investment management and oversight experience through his former positions as Global Head of BlackRock’s Retail and iShares® businesses, Head of BlackRock’s Global Client Group, Chairman of BlackRock’s international businesses and his previous oversight over BlackRock’s Strategic Partner Program and Strategic Product Management Group. Mr. Fairbairn also serves as a board member for the funds in the BlackRock Fixed-Income Complex.

 

I-11


Trustees

 

Experience, Qualifications and Skills

John M. Perlowski   John M. Perlowski’s experience as Managing Director of BlackRock, Inc. since 2009, as the Head of BlackRock Global Accounting and Product Services since 2009, and as President and Chief Executive Officer of the BlackRock-advised Funds provides him with a strong understanding of the BlackRock-advised Funds, their operations, and the business and regulatory issues facing the BlackRock-advised Funds. Mr. Perlowski’s prior position as Managing Director and Chief Operating Officer of the Global Product Group at Goldman Sachs Asset Management, and his former service as Treasurer and Senior Vice President of the Goldman Sachs Mutual Funds and as Director of the Goldman Sachs Offshore Funds provides the Board with the benefit of his experience with the management practices of other financial companies. Mr. Perlowski also serves as a board member for the funds in the BlackRock Fixed-Income Complex.

Biographical Information

Certain biographical and other information relating to the Trustees of the Trust is set forth below, including their address and year of birth, principal occupations for at least the last five years, length of time served, total number of registered investment companies and investment portfolios overseen in the BlackRock-advised Funds and any currently held public company and other investment company directorships.

 

Name
and Year of Birth1,2

 

Position(s)
Held
(Length
of Service)3

 

Principal Occupation(s)
During Past Five Years

 

Number of
BlackRock-
Advised
Registered
Investment
Companies
(“RICs”)
Consisting of
Investment
Portfolios
(“Portfolios”)
Overseen

 

Public
Company and
Other
Investment
Company
Directorships
Held During
Past Five Years

Independent Trustees        
Mark Stalnecker
1951
  Chair of the Board
(Since 2019) and Trustee
(Since 2015)
  Chief Investment Officer, University of Delaware from 1999 to 2013; Trustee and Chair of the Finance and Investment Committees, Winterthur Museum and Country Estate from 2005 to 2016; Member of the Investment Committee, Delaware Public Employees’ Retirement System since 2002; Member of the Investment Committee, Christiana Care Health System from 2009 to 2017; Member of the Investment Committee, Delaware Community Foundation from 2013 to 2014; Director and Chair of the Audit Committee, SEI Private Trust Co. from 2001 to 2014.   30 RICs
consisting of
159 Portfolios
  None
Bruce R. Bond
1946
  Trustee
(Since 2019)
  Board Member, Amsphere Limited (software) since 2018; Trustee and Member of the Governance Committee, State Street Research Mutual Funds from 1997 to 2005; Board Member of Governance, Audit and Finance Committee, Avaya Inc. (computer equipment) from 2003 to 2007.   30 RICs
consisting of
159 Portfolios
  None
Susan J. Carter
1956
  Trustee
(Since 2016)
  Director, Pacific Pension Institute from 2014 to 2018; Advisory Board Member, Center for Private Equity and Entrepreneurship at Tuck School of Business since 1997; Senior Advisor, CCI (investment adviser) in 2015; Chief Executive Officer, CCI from 2013 to 2014; President & Chief Executive Officer, CCI from 1997 to 2013; Advisory Board Member, Girls Who Invest from 2015 to 2018 and Board Member thereof since 2018; Advisory Board Member, Bridges Fund Management since 2016; Trustee, Financial Accounting Foundation since 2017; Practitioner Advisory Board Member, PCRI since 2017; Lecturer in the Practice of Management, Yale School of Management since 2019; Advisor to Finance Committee, Altman Foundation since 2020.   30 RICs
consisting of
159 Portfolios
  None
Collette Chilton
1958
  Trustee
(Since 2015)
  Chief Investment Officer, Williams College since 2006; Chief Investment Officer, Lucent Asset Management Corporation from 1998 to 2006; Director, Boys and Girls Club of Boston since 2017; Director, B1 Capital Since 2018; Director, David and Lucile Packard Foundation since 2020.   30 RICs
consisting of
159 Portfolios
  None

 

I-12


Name
and Year of Birth1,2

 

Position(s)
Held
(Length
of Service)3

 

Principal Occupation(s)
During Past Five Years

 

Number of
BlackRock-
Advised
Registered
Investment
Companies
(“RICs”)
Consisting of
Investment
Portfolios
(“Portfolios”)
Overseen

 

Public
Company and
Other
Investment
Company
Directorships
Held During
Past Five Years

Neil A. Cotty
1954
  Trustee
(Since 2016)
  Bank of America Corporation from 1996 to 2015, serving in various senior finance leadership roles, including Chief Accounting Officer from 2009 to 2015, Chief Financial Officer of Global Banking, Markets and Wealth Management from 2008 to 2009, Chief Accounting Officer from 2004 to 2008, Chief Financial Officer of Consumer Bank from 2003 to 2004, Chief Financial Officer of Global Corporate Investment Bank from 1999 to 2002.   30 RICs
consisting of
159 Portfolios
  None
Lena G. Goldberg
1949
  Trustee
(Since 2019)
  Director, Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, Inc. since 2013; Senior Lecturer, Harvard Business School from 2008 to 2021; FMR LLC/Fidelity Investments (financial services) from 1996 to 2008, serving in various senior roles including Executive Vice President – Strategic Corporate Initiatives and Executive Vice President and General Counsel; Partner, Sullivan & Worcester LLP from 1985 to 1996 and Associate thereof from 1979 to 1985.   30 RICs
consisting of
159 Portfolios
  None
Henry R. Keizer
1956
  Trustee
(Since 2019)
  Director, Park Indemnity Ltd. (captive insurer) since 2010; Director, MUFG Americas Holdings Corporation and MUFG Union Bank, N.A. (financial and bank holding company) from 2014 to 2016; Director, American Institute of Certified Public Accountants from 2009 to 2011; Director, KPMG LLP (audit, tax and advisory services) from 2004 to 2005 and 2010 to 2012; Director, KPMG International in 2012, Deputy Chairman and Chief Operating Officer thereof from 2010 to 2012 and U.S. Vice Chairman of Audit thereof from 2005 to 2010; Global Head of Audit, KPMGI (consortium of KPMG firms) from 2006 to 2010; Director, YMCA of Greater New York from 2006 to 2010.   30 RICs
consisting of
159 Portfolios
  Hertz Global Holdings (car rental); Sealed Air Corp. (packaging); GrafTech International Ltd. (materials manufacturing); Montpelier Re Holdings, Ltd. (publicly held property and casualty reinsurance) from 2013 to 2015; WABCO (commercial vehicle safety systems) from 2015 to 2020.

Cynthia A. Montgomery

1952

  Trustee
(Since 2007)
  Professor, Harvard Business School since 1989.   30 RICs
consisting of
159 Portfolios
  Newell Rubbermaid, Inc. (manufacturing) from 1995 to 2016
Donald C. Opatrny
1952
  Trustee
(Since 2019)
  Trustee, Vice Chair, Member of the Executive Committee and Chair of the Investment Committee, Cornell University from 2004 to 2019; President, Trustee and Member of the Investment Committee, The Aldrich Contemporary Art Museum from 2007 to 2014; Member of the Board and Investment Committee, University School from 2007 to 2018; Member of the Investment Committee, Mellon Foundation from 2009 to 2015; Trustee, Artstor (a Mellon Foundation affiliate) from 2010 to 2015; President and Trustee, the Center for the Arts, Jackson Hole from 2011 to 2018; Director, Athena Capital Advisors LLC (investment management firm) since 2013; Trustee and Chair of the Investment Committee, Community Foundation of Jackson Hole since 2014; Member of Affordable Housing Supply Board of Jackson, Wyoming since 2017; Member, Investment Funds Committee, State of Wyoming since 2017; Trustee, Phoenix Art Museum since 2018; Trustee, Arizona Community Foundation and Member of Investment Committee since 2020.   30 RICs
consisting of
159 Portfolios
  None

 

I-13


Name
and Year of Birth1,2

 

Position(s)
Held
(Length
of Service)3

 

Principal Occupation(s)
During Past Five Years

 

Number of
BlackRock-
Advised
Registered
Investment
Companies
(“RICs”)
Consisting of
Investment
Portfolios
(“Portfolios”)
Overseen

 

Public
Company and
Other
Investment
Company
Directorships
Held During
Past Five Years

Joseph P. Platt
1947
  Trustee
(Since 2007)
  General Partner, Thorn Partners, LP (private investments) since 1998; Director, WQED Multi-Media (public broadcasting not-for-profit) since 2001; Chair, Basic Health International (non-profit) since 2015.   30 RICs
consisting of
159 Portfolios
 

Greenlight Capital Re, Ltd. (reinsurance

company); Consol

Energy Inc.

Kenneth L. Urish
1951
  Trustee
(Since 2007)
  Managing Partner, Urish Popeck & Co., LLC (certified public accountants and consultants) since 1976; Past-Chairman of the Professional Ethics Committee of the Pennsylvania Institute of Certified Public Accountants and Committee Member thereof since 2007; Member of External Advisory Board, The Pennsylvania State University Accounting Department since founding in 2001; Principal, UP Strategic Wealth Investment Advisors, LLC since 2013; Trustee, The Holy Family Institute from 2001 to 2010; President and Trustee, Pittsburgh Catholic Publishing Associates from 2003 to 2008; Director, Inter-Tel from 2006 to 2007; Member, Advisory Board, ESG Competent Board since 2020.   30 RICs
consisting of
159 Portfolios
  None
Claire A. Walton
1957
  Trustee
(Since 2016)
  Chief Operating Officer and Chief Financial Officer of Liberty Square Asset Management, LP from 1998 to 2015; General Partner of Neon Liberty Capital Management, LLC since 2003; Director, Boston Hedge Fund Group from 2009 to 2018; Director, Woodstock Ski Runners since 2013; Director, Massachusetts Council on Economic Education from 2013 to 2015.   30 RICs
consisting of
159 Portfolios
  None
Interested Trustees4        
Robert Fairbairn
1965
  Trustee
(Since 2018)
  Vice Chairman of BlackRock, Inc. since 2019; Member of BlackRock’s Global Executive and Global Operating Committees; Co-Chair of BlackRock’s Human Capital Committee; Senior Managing Director of BlackRock, Inc. from 2010 to 2019; oversaw BlackRock’s Strategic Partner Program and Strategic Product Management Group from 2012 to 2019; Member of the Board of Managers of BlackRock Investments, LLC from 2011 to 2018; Global Head of BlackRock’s Retail and iShares® businesses from 2012 to 2016.   104 RICs
consisting of
262 Portfolios
  None
John M. Perlowski5
1964
 

Trustee
(Since 2015)

 

President
and Chief Executive Officer
(Since 2010)

  Managing Director of BlackRock, Inc. since 2009; Head of BlackRock Global Accounting and Product Services since 2009; Advisory Director of Family Resource Network (charitable foundation) since 2009.   106 RICs
consisting of
262 Portfolios
  None

 

1    The address of each Trustee is c/o BlackRock, Inc., 55 East 52nd Street, New York, New York 10055.
2    Independent Trustees serve until their resignation, retirement, removal or death, or until December 31 of the year in which they turn 75. The Board may determine to extend the terms of Independent Trustees on a case-by-case basis, as appropriate.
3    Following the combination of MLIM and BlackRock, Inc. in September 2006, the various legacy MLIM and legacy BlackRock fund boards were realigned and consolidated into three new fund boards in 2007. Furthermore, effective January 1, 2019, three BlackRock Fund Complexes were realigned and consolidated into two BlackRock Fund Complexes. As a result, although the chart shows the year that each Independent Trustee joined the Board, certain Independent Trustees first became members of the boards of other BlackRock-advised Funds, legacy MLIM funds or legacy BlackRock funds as follows: Bruce R. Bond, 2005; Cynthia A. Montgomery, 1994; Joseph P. Platt, 1999; Kenneth L. Urish, 1999; Lena G. Goldberg, 2016; Henry R. Keizer, 2016; Donald C. Opatrny, 2015.
4    Mr. Fairbairn and Mr. Perlowski are both “interested persons,” as defined in the Investment Company Act, of the Trust based on their positions with BlackRock, Inc. and its affiliates. Mr. Fairbairn and Mr. Perlowski are also board members of the BlackRock Fixed-Income Complex.
5    Mr. Perlowski is also a trustee of the BlackRock Credit Strategies Fund and BlackRock Private Investments Fund.

 

I-14


Certain biographical and other information relating to the officers of the Trust who are not Trustees is set forth below, including their address and year of birth, principal occupations for at least the last five years and length of time served.

 

Name
and Year of Birth1,2

 

Position(s)
Held
(Length
of Service)

 

Principal Occupation(s)
During Past Five Years

Officers Who Are Not Trustees  
Thomas Callahan
1968
  Vice President
(Since 2016)
  Managing Director of BlackRock, Inc. since 2013; Member of the Board of Managers of BlackRock Investments, LLC (principal underwriter) since 2019 and Managing Director thereof since 2017; Head of BlackRock’s Global Cash Management Business since 2016; Co-Head of the Global Cash Management Business from 2014 to 2016; Deputy Head of the Global Cash Management Business from 2013 to 2014; Member of the Cash Management Group Executive Committee since 2013; Chief Executive Officer of NYSE Liffe U.S. from 2008 to 2013.
Jennifer McGovern
1977
  Vice President
(Since 2014)
  Managing Director of BlackRock, Inc. since 2016; Director of BlackRock, Inc. from 2011 to 2015; Head of Americas Product Development and Governance for BlackRock’s Global Product Group since 2019; Head of Product Structure and Oversight for BlackRock’s U.S. Wealth Advisory Group from 2013 to 2019.
Trent Walker
1974
  Chief
Financial
Officer
(Since 2021)
  Managing Director of BlackRock, Inc. since September 2019; Executive Vice President of PIMCO from 2016 to 2019; Senior Vice President of PIMCO from 2008 to 2015; Treasurer from 2013 to 2019 and Assistant Treasurer from 2007 to 2017 of PIMCO Funds, PIMCO Variable Insurance Trust, PIMCO ETF Trust, PIMCO Equity Series, PIMCO Equity Series VIT, PIMCO Managed Accounts Trust, 2 PIMCO-sponsored interval funds and 21 PIMCO-sponsored closed-end funds.
Jay M. Fife
1970
  Treasurer
(Since 2007)
  Managing Director of BlackRock, Inc. since 2007.
Charles Park
1967
  Chief Compliance Officer
(Since 2014)
  Anti-Money Laundering Compliance Officer for certain BlackRock-advised Funds from 2014 to 2015; Chief Compliance Officer of BlackRock Advisors, LLC and the BlackRock-advised Funds in the BlackRock Multi-Asset Complex and the BlackRock Fixed-Income Complex since 2014; Principal of and Chief Compliance Officer for iShares® Delaware Trust Sponsor LLC since 2012 and BlackRock Fund Advisors (“BFA”) since 2006; Chief Compliance Officer for the BFA-advised iShares® exchange traded funds since 2006; Chief Compliance Officer for BlackRock Asset Management International Inc. since 2012.
Lisa Belle
1968
  Anti-Money Laundering Compliance Officer
(Since 2019)
  Managing Director of BlackRock, Inc. since 2019; Global Financial Crime Head for Asset and Wealth Management of JP Morgan from 2013 to 2019; Managing Director of RBS Securities from 2012 to 2013; Head of Financial Crimes for Barclays Wealth Americas from 2010 to 2012.
Janey Ahn
1975
  Secretary
(Since 2019)
  Managing Director of BlackRock, Inc. since 2018; Director of BlackRock, Inc. from 2009 to 2017.

 

1    The address of each Officer is c/o BlackRock, Inc., 55 East 52nd Street, New York, New York 10055.
2    Officers of the Trust serve at the pleasure of the Board.

Share Ownership

Information relating to each Trustee’s share ownership in the Fund and in all BlackRock-advised Funds that are currently overseen by the respective Trustee (“Supervised Funds”) as of December 31, 2020 is set forth in the chart below.

 

Name

    

Aggregate Dollar
Range of Equity
Securities in
Supervised Funds

Independent Trustees:     

Bruce R. Bond

     Over $100,000

Susan J. Carter

     Over $100,000

Collette Chilton

     Over $100,000

 

I-15


Name

    

Aggregate Dollar
Range of Equity
Securities in
Supervised Funds

Neil A. Cotty

     Over $100,000

Lena G. Goldberg

     Over $100,000

Henry R. Keizer

     Over $100,000

Cynthia A. Montgomery

     Over $100,000

Donald C. Opatrny

     Over $100,000

Joseph P. Platt

     Over $100,000

Mark Stalnecker

     Over $100,000

Kenneth L. Urish

     Over $100,000

Claire A. Walton

     Over $100,000
Interested Trustees:     

Robert Fairbairn

     Over $100,000

John M. Perlowski

     Over $100,000

As of December 2, 2021, the Trustees and officers of the Trust as a group owned an aggregate of less than 1% of any class of the outstanding shares of the Fund. As of December 31, 2020, none of the Independent Trustees of the Trust or their immediate family members owned beneficially or of record any securities of the Fund’s investment adviser, principal underwriter, or any person directly or indirectly controlling, controlled by, or under common control with such entities.

Compensation of Trustees

Each Trustee who is an Independent Trustee is paid as compensation an annual retainer of $300,000 per year for his or her services as a board member of the BlackRock-advised Funds in the BlackRock Multi-Asset Complex, including the Trust, and a $20,000 board meeting fee to be paid for each in-person board meeting attended (and may receive a board meeting fee for telephonic attendance at board meetings), for up to five board meetings held in a calendar year (compensation for meetings in excess of this number to be determined on a case-by-case basis), together with out-of-pocket expenses in accordance with a board policy on travel and other business expenses relating to attendance at meetings. The Chairs of the Audit Committee, Compliance Committee, Governance Committee and Performance Committee are paid as compensation an additional annual retainer of $30,000, respectively. The Chair of the Boards is paid an additional annual retainer of $120,000.

The following table sets forth the estimated compensation the Trust expects to pay the Trustees, on behalf of the Fund, for the fiscal year ending March 31, 2023 and the aggregate compensation paid to them by all BlackRock-advised Funds for the calendar year ended December 31, 2020.

 

Name

    

Estimated
Compensation
from the Fund

    

Estimated Annual
Benefits upon

Retirement

    

Aggregate
Compensation from
the Fund and
Other BlackRock-
Advised Funds1

Independent Trustees:               

Bruce R. Bond

     $696      None      $400,000

Susan J. Carter

     $696      None      $400,000

Collette Chilton

     $696      None      $400,000

Neil A. Cotty

     $696      None      $400,000

Lena G. Goldberg2

     $696      None      $430,000

Henry R. Keizer3

     $696      None      $430,000

Cynthia A. Montgomery4

     $696      None      $430,000

Donald C. Opatrny5

     $696      None      $430,000

Joseph P. Platt

     $696      None      $400,000

 

I-16


Name

    

Estimated
Compensation
from the Fund

    

Estimated Annual
Benefits upon

Retirement

    

Aggregate
Compensation from
the Fund and
Other BlackRock-
Advised Funds1

Mark Stalnecker6

     $697      None      $520,000

Kenneth L. Urish

     $696      None      $400,000

Claire A. Walton

     $696      None      $400,000
Interested Trustees:               

Robert Fairbairn

     None      None      None

John M. Perlowski

     None      None      None

 

1    For the number of BlackRock-advised Funds from which each Trustee receives compensation, see the Biographical Information chart beginning on page I-12.
2    Chair of the Compliance Committee.
3    Chair of the Audit Committee.
4    Chair of the Governance Committee.
5    Chair of the Performance Oversight Committee.
6    Chair of the Board and Chair of the Ad Hoc Topics Committee.

 

IV.   Management, Advisory and Other Service Arrangements

Management Agreement

The Trust, on behalf of the Fund, has entered into an investment advisory agreement with BlackRock pursuant to which BlackRock is entitled to receive fees for the services it provides (the “Management Agreement”).

BlackRock has contractually agreed to waive the management fee with respect to any portion of the Fund’s assets estimated to be attributable to investments in other equity and fixed-income mutual funds and exchange-traded funds managed by BlackRock or its affiliates that have a contractual management fee, through June 30, 2023. BlackRock has contractually agreed to waive its management fees by the amount of investment advisory fees the Fund pays to BlackRock indirectly through its investment in money market funds managed by BlackRock or its affiliates, through June 30, 2023. The contractual agreements may be terminated upon 90 days’ notice by a majority of the Independent Trustees or by a vote of a majority of the outstanding voting securities of the Fund.

With respect to the contractual agreement to cap net expenses, if during the Fund’s fiscal year the operating expenses of a share class, that at any time during the prior two fiscal years received a waiver and/or reimbursement from BlackRock, are less than the current expense limit for that share class, the share class is required to repay BlackRock up to the lesser of (a) the amount of fees waived or expenses reimbursed during those prior two fiscal years under the agreement and (b) an amount not to exceed either (x) the current expense limit of that share class or (y) the expense limit of the share class in effect at the time that the share class received the applicable waiver and/or reimbursement, provided that: (i) the Fund of which the share class is a part has more than $50 million in assets and (ii) BlackRock or an affiliate serves as the Fund’s manager or administrator. This repayment arrangement will terminate on December 21, 2028 and applies only to the contractual cap on net expenses and does not apply to the contractual management fee waivers described above or any voluntary waivers that may be in effect from time to time.

Pursuant to the Management Agreement, BlackRock may from time to time, in its sole discretion to the extent permitted by applicable law, appoint one or more sub-advisers, including, without limitation, affiliates of the Manager, to perform investment advisory services with respect to the Fund. In addition, the Manager may delegate certain of its investment advisory functions under the Management Agreement to one or more of its affiliates to the extent permitted by applicable law. BlackRock may terminate any or all sub-advisers or such delegation arrangements in its sole discretion at any time to the extent permitted by applicable law.

 

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BlackRock entered into a sub-advisory agreement with BlackRock International Limited (“BIL” or the “Sub-Adviser”), pursuant to which BlackRock pays the Sub-Adviser for providing services to BlackRock with respect to that portion of the Fund for which it acts as sub-adviser a monthly fee at an annual rate equal to a percentage of the management fee paid to BlackRock under the Management Agreement.

As of the date of this SAI, the Fund has not made any payments to BlackRock for management services.

Administration Arrangements

BlackRock serves as the Fund’s administrator (in such capacity, the “Administrator”) pursuant to an administration agreement (the “Administration Agreement”). The Administrator has agreed to maintain office facilities for the Fund; furnish the Fund with clerical, bookkeeping and administrative services; oversee the determination and publication of the Fund’s net asset value; oversee the preparation and filing of Federal, state and local income tax returns; prepare certain reports required by regulatory authorities; calculate various contractual expenses; determine the amount of dividends and distributions available for payment by the Fund to its shareholders; prepare and arrange for the printing of dividend notices to shareholders; provide Fund service providers with such information as is required to effect the payment of dividends and distributions; and serve as liaison with the Trust’s officers, independent accountants, legal counsel, custodian, accounting agent and transfer and dividend disbursing agent in establishing the accounting policies of the Fund and monitoring financial and shareholder accounting services. The Administrator may from time to time voluntarily waive administration fees with respect to the Fund and may voluntarily reimburse the Fund for expenses.

Under the Administration Agreement, the Trust, on behalf of the Fund, pays to the Administrator a fee, computed daily and payable monthly, at an aggregate annual rate of (i) 0.0425% of the first $500 million of the Fund’s average daily net assets, 0.040% of the next $500 million of the Fund’s average daily net assets, 0.0375% of the next $1 billion of the Fund’s average daily net assets, 0.035% of the next $2 billion of the Fund’s average daily net assets, 0.0325% of the next $9 billion of the Fund’s average daily net assets and 0.030% of the average daily net assets of the Fund in excess of $13 billion and (ii) 0.020% of average daily net assets allocated to each class of shares of the Fund.

The Trust and its service providers may engage third party plan administrators who provide trustee, administrative and recordkeeping services for certain employee benefit, profit-sharing and retirement plans as agents for the Trust with respect to such plans, for the purpose of accepting orders for the purchase and redemption of shares of the Trust.

In addition, pursuant to a Shareholders’ Administrative Services Agreement, BlackRock provides certain shareholder liaison services in connection with the Trust’s investor service center. The Trust, on behalf of the Fund, reimburses BlackRock for its costs in maintaining the service center, which costs include, among other things, employee salaries, leasehold expenses, and other out-of-pocket expenses.

As of the date of this SAI, the Fund has not made any payments to BlackRock pursuant to the shareholders’ administrative services agreement.

Information Regarding the Portfolio Managers

James Bristow and Gareth Williams are the portfolio managers and are jointly and primarily responsible for the day-to-day management of The Fund.

Other Funds and Accounts Managed

The following tables set forth information about the funds and accounts other than the Fund for which the portfolio managers are primarily responsible for the day-to-day portfolio management as of October 31, 2021.

 

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BlackRock Global Equity Absolute Return Fund

 

     Number of Other Accounts Managed
and Assets by Account Type
   Number of Other Accounts and
Assets for Which Advisory Fee  is
Performance-Based

Name of Portfolio Manager

   Other
Registered
Investment
Companies
   Other Pooled
Investment
Vehicles
   Other
Accounts
   Other
Registered
Investment
Companies
   Other Pooled
Investment
Vehicles
   Other
Accounts
James Bristow    2    2    1    0    1    0
   $2.77 Billion    $210.7 Million    $347.2 Million    $0    $84.00 Million    $0
Gareth Williams    2    2    1    0    1    0
   $2.77 Billion    210.6 Million    $347.2 Million    $0    $84.00 Million    $0

Portfolio Manager Compensation Overview

The discussion below describes the portfolio managers’ compensation as of October 31, 2021.

BlackRock’s financial arrangements with its portfolio managers, its competitive compensation and its career path emphasis at all levels reflect the value senior management places on key resources. Compensation may include a variety of components and may vary from year to year based on a number of factors. The principal components of compensation include a base salary, a performance-based discretionary bonus, participation in various benefits programs and one or more of the incentive compensation programs established by BlackRock.

Base Compensation. Generally, portfolio managers receive base compensation based on their position with the firm.

Discretionary Incentive Compensation

Generally, discretionary incentive compensation for Fundamental Equities portfolio managers is based on a formulaic compensation program. BlackRock’s formulaic portfolio manager compensation program is based on team revenue and pre-tax investment performance relative to appropriate competitors or benchmarks over 1-, 3- and 5-year performance periods, as applicable. In most cases, these benchmarks are the same as the benchmark or benchmarks against which the performance of the Fund or other accounts managed by the portfolio managers are measured. BlackRock’s Chief Investment Officers determine the benchmarks or rankings against which the performance of the Fund and other accounts managed by each portfolio management team is compared and the period of time overwhich performance is evaluated. With respect to these portfolio managers, such benchmarks for the Fund and other accounts are: LIBOR 3 Month Index; MSCI ACWI Financials Index; MSCI All Country World ex US - Net Return.

A smaller element of portfolio manager discretionary compensation may include consideration of: financial results, expense control, profit margins, strategic planning and implementation, quality of client service, market share, corporate reputation, capital allocation, compliance and risk control, leadership, technology and innovation. These factors are considered collectively by BlackRock management and the relevant Chief Investment Officers.

Distribution of Discretionary Incentive Compensation. Discretionary incentive compensation is distributed to portfolio managers in a combination of cash, deferred BlackRock, Inc. stock awards, and/or deferred cash awards that notionally track the return of certain BlackRock investment products.

Portfolio managers receive their annual discretionary incentive compensation in the form of cash. Portfolio managers whose total compensation is above a specified threshold also receive deferred BlackRock, Inc. stock awards annually as part of their discretionary incentive compensation. Paying a portion of discretionary incentive compensation in the form of deferred BlackRock, Inc. stock puts compensation earned by a portfolio manager for a given year “at risk” based on BlackRock’s ability to sustain and improve its performance over future periods. In some cases, additional deferred BlackRock, Inc. stock may be granted to certain key employees as part of a long-term incentive award to aid in retention, align interests with long-term shareholders and motivate performance. Deferred BlackRock, Inc. stock awards are generally granted in the

 

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form of BlackRock, Inc. restricted stock units that vest pursuant to the terms of the applicable plan and, once vested, settle in BlackRock, Inc. common stock. The portfolio managers of this Fund have deferred BlackRock, Inc. stock awards.

For certain portfolio managers, a portion of the discretionary incentive compensation is also distributed in the form of deferred cash awards that notionally track the returns of select BlackRock investment products they manage, which provides direct alignment of portfolio manager discretionary incentive compensation with investment product results. Deferred cash awards vest ratably over a number of years and, once vested, settle in the form of cash. Only portfolio managers who manage specified products and whose total compensation is above a specified threshold are eligible to participate in the deferred cash award program.

Other Compensation Benefits. In addition to base salary and discretionary incentive compensation, portfolio managers may be eligible to receive or participate in one or more of the following:

Incentive Savings Plans — BlackRock, Inc. has created a variety of incentive savings plans in which BlackRock employees are eligible to participate, including a 401(k) plan, the BlackRock Retirement Savings Plan (RSP), and the BlackRock Employee Stock Purchase Plan (ESPP). The employer contribution components of the RSP include a company match equal to 50% of the first 8% of eligible pay contributed to the plan capped at $5,000 per year, and a company retirement contribution equal to 3-5% of eligible compensation up to the Internal Revenue Service limit ($290,000 for 2021). The RSP offers a range of investment options, including registered investment companies and collective investment funds managed by the firm. BlackRock contributions follow the investment direction set by participants for their own contributions or, absent participant investment direction, are invested into a target date fund that corresponds to, or is closest to, the year in which the participant attains age 65. The ESPP allows for investment in BlackRock common stock at a 5% discount on the fair market value of the stock on the purchase date. Annual participation in the ESPP is limited to the purchase of 1,000 shares of common stock or a dollar value of $25,000 based on its fair market value on the purchase date. All of the eligible portfolio managers are eligible to participate in these plans.

Portfolio Manager Beneficial Holdings

The Fund has not yet made its shares available for sale; therefore the portfolio managers owned no shares of the Fund as of the date of this SAI.

Portfolio Manager Potential Material Conflicts of Interest

BlackRock has built a professional working environment, firm-wide compliance culture and compliance procedures and systems designed to protect against potential incentives that may favor one account over another. BlackRock has adopted policies and procedures that address the allocation of investment opportunities, execution of portfolio transactions, personal trading by employees and other potential conflicts of interest that are designed to ensure that all client accounts are treated equitably over time. Nevertheless, BlackRock furnishes investment management and advisory services to numerous clients in addition to the Fund, and BlackRock may, consistent with applicable law, make investment recommendations to other clients or accounts (including accounts which are hedge funds or have performance or higher fees paid to BlackRock, or in which portfolio managers have a personal interest in the receipt of such fees), which may be the same as or different from those made to the Fund. In addition, BlackRock, its affiliates and significant shareholders and any officer, director, shareholder or employee may or may not have an interest in the securities whose purchase and sale BlackRock recommends to the Fund. BlackRock, or any of its affiliates or significant shareholders, or any officer, director, shareholder, employee or any member of their families may take different actions than those recommended to the Fund by BlackRock with respect to the same securities. Moreover, BlackRock may refrain from rendering any advice or services concerning securities of companies of which any of BlackRock’s (or its affiliates’ or significant shareholders’) officers, directors or employees are directors or officers, or companies as to which BlackRock or any of its affiliates or significant shareholders or the officers, directors and employees of any of them has any substantial economic interest or possesses

 

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material non-public information. Certain portfolio managers also may manage accounts whose investment strategies may at times be opposed to the strategy utilized for a Fund. It should also be noted a portfolio manager may be managing hedge fund and/or long only accounts, or may be part of a team managing hedge fund and/or long only accounts, subject to incentive fees. Such portfolio managers may therefore be entitled to receive a portion of any incentive fees earned on such accounts. Currently, the portfolio managers of this Fund are not entitled to receive a portion of incentive fees of other accounts.

As a fiduciary, BlackRock owes a duty of loyalty to its clients and must treat each client fairly. When BlackRock purchases or sells securities for more than one account, the trades must be allocated in a manner consistent with its fiduciary duties. BlackRock attempts to allocate investments in a fair and equitable manner among client accounts, with no account receiving preferential treatment. To this end, BlackRock has adopted policies that are intended to ensure reasonable efficiency in client transactions and provide BlackRock with sufficient flexibility to allocate investments in a manner that is consistent with the particular investment discipline and client base, as appropriate.

Accounting Services

BNY Mellon Investment Servicing (US) Inc. (“BNY MIS”) serves as the accounting services provider for the Fund. BNY MIS records investment, capital share and income and expense activities; verifies and transmits trade tickets; maintains accounting ledgers for investment securities; maintains tax lots; reconciles cash with the Fund’s custodian; reports cash balances to BlackRock; prepares certain financial statements; calculates expenses, gains, losses and income; controls disbursements; works with independent pricing sources; and computes and reports net asset value. In connection with its accounting services, BNY MIS also provides certain administration services.

As of the date of this SAI, the Fund has not made any payments to BNY MIS for accounting services.

Custodian

The Bank of New York Mellon, which has its principal place of business at 240 Greenwich Street, New York, NY 10286, serves as the custodian for the Fund (the “Custodian”). The Custodian, among other responsibilities, maintains a custody account or accounts in the name of the Fund, receives and delivers all assets for the Fund upon purchase and upon sale or maturity, and collects and receives all income and other payments and distributions on account of the assets of the Fund.

Transfer Agent

BNY Mellon Investment Servicing (US) Inc., which has its principal place of business at 301 Bellevue Parkway, Wilmington, DE 19809, serves as transfer agent and dividend disbursing agent for the Fund.

Credit Agreement

It is expected that the Trust, on behalf of the Fund, will become a party to a 364-day, $2.25 billion credit agreement, along with certain other funds managed by the Manager and its affiliates (“Participating Funds”) with a group of lenders, which facility terminates on April 14, 2022, unless otherwise extended or renewed (the “Credit Agreement”). Excluding commitments designated for a certain Participating Fund, the Participating Funds, including the Fund upon becoming a party to the Credit Agreement, can borrow up to an aggregate commitment amount of $1.75 billion at any time outstanding, subject to asset coverage and other limitations as specified in the Credit Agreement. The Fund may borrow under the Credit Agreement to meet shareholder redemptions and for other lawful purposes. However, The Fund may not borrow under the Credit Agreement for leverage. The Fund may borrow up to the maximum amount allowable under its current Prospectuses and SAI, subject to various other legal, regulatory or contractual limits. Borrowing results in interest expense and other fees and expenses for the Fund which may impact the Fund’s net expenses. The costs of borrowing may reduce the Fund’s return. The Fund is charged its pro rata share of upfront fees and commitment fees on the aggregate commitment amount based on its net assets. If the Fund

 

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borrows pursuant to the Credit Agreement, the Fund is will be charged interest at a variable rate. Such variable interest rate may be based on the one-month London Interbank Offered Rate for US dollar obligations (“LIBOR”) plus a spread. If LIBOR ceases to be published or representative before the termination of the Credit Agreement, LIBOR would be replaced under the terms of the Credit Agreement by a variable rate based on the Secured Overnight Financing Rate (“SOFR”) published by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York. There is no assurance that any variable rate based on SOFR will be the economic equivalent of LIBOR. SOFR based rates will differ from LIBOR, and the differences may be material.

 

V.   Information on Sales Charges and Distribution Related Expenses

BlackRock Investments, LLC (“BRIL” or the “Distributor”) acts as the Fund’s sole distributor. As of the date of this SAI, the Fund has not made any payments to the Distributor.

 

VI.   Computation of Offering Price Per Share

An illustration of the computation of the offering price for the Investor A Shares of the Fund based on a hypothetical investment of $10,000 is set forth below.

 

Computation of Offering Price Per Share:

     BlackRock Global Equity Absolute
Return Fund
 
Net Assets        $10,000  
Number of Shares Outstanding        1,000  
Net Asset Value Per Share (net assets divided by number of shares outstanding)        $10.00  
Sales Charge (5.25% of offering price; 5.54% of net asset value per share)1        0.55  
Offering Price        $10.55  

 

1    Rounded to the nearest one-hundredth percent; assumes maximum sales charge is applicable.

The offering price for the Fund’s other share classes is equal to the share class’ net asset value computed as set forth above for Investor A Shares. Though not subject to a sales charge, certain share classes may be subject to a CDSC on redemption. For more information on the purchasing and valuation of shares, please see “Purchase of Shares” and “Pricing of Shares” in Part II of this SAI.

 

VII.   Portfolio Transactions and Brokerage

See “Portfolio Transactions and Brokerage” in Part II of this SAI for more information.

As of the date of this SAI, the Fund has not paid any brokerage commissions.

As of the date of this SAI, the Fund has not held any securities of its regular brokers or dealers (as defined in Rule 10b-1 under the Investment Company Act) or its parents.

Securities Lending

The Fund conducts its securities lending pursuant to an exemptive order from the Commission permitting it to lend portfolio securities to borrowers affiliated with the Fund and to retain an affiliate of the Fund as lending agent. To the extent that the Fund engages in securities lending, BlackRock Investment Management, LLC (“BIM”), an affiliate of the Manager, acts as securities lending agent for the Fund, subject to the overall supervision of the Manager. BIM administers the lending program in accordance with guidelines approved by the Board.

The Fund retains a portion of securities lending income and remits a remaining portion to BIM as compensation for its services as securities lending agent. Securities lending income is equal to the total of income earned from the reinvestment of cash collateral (and excludes collateral investment expenses as defined below), and any fees or other payments to and from borrowers of securities. As securities lending agent, BIM bears all operational costs directly related to securities lending. The Fund is responsible for

 

I-22


expenses in connection with the investment of cash collateral received for securities on loan (the “collateral investment expenses”). The cash collateral is invested in a private investment company managed by the Manager or its affiliates. However, BIM has agreed to cap the collateral investment expenses of the private investment company to an annual rate of 0.04%. In addition, in accordance with the exemptive order, the investment adviser to the private investment company will not charge any advisory fees with respect to shares purchased by the Fund. Such shares also will not be subject to a sales load, distribution fee or service fee. If the private investment company’s weekly liquid assets fall below 30% of its total assets, BIM, as managing member of the private investment company, is permitted at any time, if it determines it to be in the best interests of the private investment company, to impose a liquidity fee of up to 2% of the value of units withdrawn or impose a redemption gate that temporarily suspends the right of withdrawal out of the private investment company. In addition, if the private investment company’s weekly liquid assets fall below 10% of its total assets at the end of any business day, the private investment company will impose a liquidity fee in the default amount of 1% of the amount withdrawn, generally effective as of the next business day, unless BIM determines that a higher (not to exceed 2%) or lower fee level or not imposing a liquidity fee is in the best interests of the private investment company. The shares of the private investment company purchased by the Fund would be subject to any such liquidity fee or redemption gate imposed.

Under the securities lending program, the Fund is categorized into a specific asset class. The determination of the Fund’s asset class category (fixed-income, domestic equity, international equity, or fund of funds), each of which may be subject to a different fee arrangement, is based on a methodology agreed to between the Trust and BIM.

Pursuant to the current securities lending agreement: (i) the Fund retains 82% of securities lending income (which excludes collateral investment expenses); and (ii) this amount can never be less than 70% of the sum of securities lending income plus collateral investment expenses.

In addition, commencing the business day following the date that the aggregate securities lending income earned across the BlackRock Multi-Asset Complex in a calendar year exceeds a specified threshold, the Fund, pursuant to the current securities lending agreement, will receive for the remainder of that calendar year securities lending income as follows: (i) 85% of securities lending income (which excludes collateral investment expenses); and (ii) this amount can never be less than 70% of the sum of securities lending income plus collateral investment expenses.

As of the date of this SAI, the Fund has no income and fees/compensation related to its securities lending activities.

 

VIII.   Additional Information

Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm. Deloitte & Touche LLP, with offices at 200 Berkeley Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02116, serves as the Fund’s independent registered public accounting firm.

Counsel. Sidley Austin LLP, with offices at 787 Seventh Avenue, New York, New York 10019, serves as the Fund’s counsel.

The Trust

The Trust was organized as a Massachusetts business trust on December 22, 1988, and is registered under the Investment Company Act as an open-end management investment company. The Fund is classified as non-diversified. Effective January 31, 1998, the Trust changed its name from Compass Capital FundsSM to BlackRock FundsSM. The Trust is authorized to issue an unlimited number of shares of beneficial interest with a par value of $0.001 per share, which may be divided into different series and classes.

Under Massachusetts law, shareholders of a business trust may, under certain circumstances, be held personally liable as partners for the obligations of the Trust. However, the Trust’s Declaration of Trust provides that shareholders shall not be subject to any personal liability in connection with the assets of the Trust for the acts or obligations of the Trust, and that every note, bond, contract, order or other undertaking

 

I-23


made by the Trust shall contain a provision to the effect that the shareholders are not personally liable thereunder. The Declaration of Trust provides for indemnification out of Trust property of any shareholder held personally liable solely by reason of his being or having been a shareholder and not because of such shareholder’s acts or omissions or some other reason. The Declaration of Trust also provides that the Trust shall, upon request, assume the defense of any claim made against any shareholder for any act or obligation of the Trust, and shall satisfy any judgment thereon.

The Declaration of Trust further provides that all persons having any claim against the Trustees or Trust shall look solely to the Trust property for payment; that no Trustee of the Trust shall be personally liable for or on account of any contract, debt, tort, claim, damage, judgment or decree arising out of or connected with the administration or preservation of the Trust property or the conduct of any business of the Trust; and that no Trustee shall be personally liable to any person for any action or failure to act except by reason of such Trustee’s own bad faith, willful misfeasance, gross negligence or reckless disregard of his duties as a Trustee.

With the exception stated, the Declaration of Trust provides that a Trustee is entitled to be indemnified against all liabilities and expenses reasonably incurred by such Trustee in connection with the defense or disposition of any proceeding in which he may be involved or with which he may be threatened by reason of his being or having been a Trustee, and that the Trust will indemnify officers, representatives and employees of the Trust to the same extent that trustees are entitled to indemnification.

Principal Shareholders

As of December 17, 2021, the Fund has no outstanding shares.

 

IX.   Financial Statements

None.

 

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PART II

Throughout this Statement of Additional Information (“SAI”), each BlackRock-advised fund may be referred to as a “Fund” or collectively with others as the “Funds.” Certain Funds may also be referred to as “Municipal Funds” if they invest certain of their assets in municipal investments described below.

Each Fund is organized either as a Maryland corporation, a Massachusetts business trust or a Delaware statutory trust. In each jurisdiction, nomenclature varies. For ease and clarity of presentation, shares of common stock and shares of beneficial interest are referred to herein as “shares” or “Common Stock,” holders of shares of Common Stock are referred to as “shareholders,” the trustees or directors of each Fund are referred to as “Directors,” the boards of trustees/directors of each Fund are referred to as the “Board of Directors” or the “Board,” BlackRock Advisors, LLC, BlackRock Fund Advisors or their respective affiliates is the investment adviser or manager of each Fund and is referred to herein as the “Manager” or “BlackRock,” and the investment advisory agreement or management agreement applicable to each Fund is referred to as the “Management Agreement.” Each Fund’s Articles of Incorporation or Declaration of Trust, together with all amendments thereto, is referred to as its “charter.” The Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended, is referred to herein as the “Investment Company Act.” The Securities Act of 1933, as amended, is referred to herein as the “Securities Act.” The Securities and Exchange Commission is referred to herein as the “Commission” or the “SEC.”

Certain Funds are “feeder” funds (each, a “Feeder Fund”) that invest all or a portion of their assets in a corresponding “master” portfolio (each, a “Master Portfolio”) of a master limited liability company (each, a “Master LLC”), a mutual fund that has the same objective and strategies as the Feeder Fund. All investments are generally made at the level of the Master Portfolio. This structure is sometimes called a “master/feeder” structure. A Feeder Fund’s investment results will correspond directly to the investment results of the underlying Master Portfolio in which it invests. For simplicity, this SAI uses the term “Fund” to include both a Feeder Fund and its Master Portfolio.

In addition to containing information about the Funds, Part II of this SAI contains general information about all funds in the BlackRock-advised fund complex. Certain information contained herein may not be relevant to a particular Fund.

INVESTMENT RISKS AND CONSIDERATIONS

Set forth below are descriptions of some of the types of investments and investment strategies that one or more of the Funds may use, and the risks and considerations associated with those investments and investment strategies. Please see each Fund’s prospectuses (the “Prospectus”) and the “Investment Objective and Policies” or “Investment Objectives and Policies” section, as applicable, of Part I of this SAI for further information on each Fund’s investment policies and risks. Information contained in this section about the risks and considerations associated with a Fund’s investments and/or investment strategies applies only to those Funds specifically identified in Part I of this SAI as making each type of investment or using each investment strategy (each, a “Covered Fund”). Information that does not apply to a Covered Fund does not form a part of that Covered Fund’s SAI and should not be relied on by investors in that Covered Fund. Only information that is clearly identified as applicable to a Covered Fund is considered to form a part of that Covered Fund’s SAI.

144A Securities. A Fund may purchase securities that can be offered and sold only to “qualified institutional buyers” pursuant to Rule 144A under the Securities Act. See “Restricted Securities” below.

Asset-Backed Securities. Asset-backed securities are securities backed by home equity loans, installment sale contracts, credit card receivables or other assets. Asset-backed securities are “pass-through” securities, meaning that principal and interest payments — net of expenses — made by the borrower on the underlying assets (such as credit card receivables) are passed through to a Fund. The value of asset-backed securities, like that of traditional fixed-income securities, typically increases when interest rates fall and decreases when interest rates rise. However, asset-backed securities differ from traditional fixed-income securities because of their potential for prepayment. The price paid by a Fund for its asset-backed securities, the yield the Fund expects to receive from such securities and the average life of the securities are based on a number of factors, including the anticipated rate of prepayment of the underlying assets. In a period of declining interest rates, borrowers may prepay the underlying assets more quickly than anticipated, thereby reducing the yield to maturity and the average life of the asset-backed securities. Moreover, when a Fund reinvests the proceeds of a prepayment in these circumstances, it will likely receive a rate of interest that is lower than the rate on the security that was prepaid. To the extent that a Fund purchases asset-backed securities at a premium, prepayments may result in a loss to the extent of the premium paid. If a Fund buys such securities at a discount, both scheduled payments and unscheduled

 

II-1


prepayments will increase current and total returns and unscheduled prepayments will also accelerate the recognition of income which, when distributed to shareholders, will be taxable as ordinary income. In a period of rising interest rates, prepayments of the underlying assets may occur at a slower than expected rate, creating maturity extension risk. This particular risk may effectively change a security that was considered short- or intermediate-term at the time of purchase into a longer term security. Since the value of longer-term securities generally fluctuates more widely in response to changes in interest rates than does the value of shorter-term securities, maturity extension risk could increase the volatility of the Fund. When interest rates decline, the value of an asset-backed security with prepayment features may not increase as much as that of other fixed-income securities, and, as noted above, changes in market rates of interest may accelerate or retard prepayments and thus affect maturities.

Asset-Based Securities. Certain Funds may invest in debt, preferred or convertible securities, the principal amount, redemption terms or conversion terms of which are related to the market price of some natural resource asset such as gold bullion. These securities are referred to as “asset-based securities.” A Fund will purchase only asset-based securities that are rated, or are issued by issuers that have outstanding debt obligations rated, investment grade (for example, AAA, AA, A or BBB by S&P Global Ratings (“S&P”) or Fitch Ratings (“Fitch”), or Baa by Moody’s Investors Service, Inc. (“Moody’s”) or commercial paper rated A-1 by S&P or Prime-1 by Moody’s) or by issuers that the Manager has determined to be of similar creditworthiness. Obligations ranked in the fourth highest rating category, while considered “investment grade,” may have certain speculative characteristics and may be more likely to be downgraded than securities rated in the three highest rating categories. If an asset-based security is backed by a bank letter of credit or other similar facility, the Manager may take such backing into account in determining the creditworthiness of the issuer. While the market prices for an asset-based security and the related natural resource asset generally are expected to move in the same direction, there may not be perfect correlation in the two price movements. Asset-based securities may not be secured by a security interest in or claim on the underlying natural resource asset. The asset-based securities in which a Fund may invest may bear interest or pay preferred dividends at below market (or even relatively nominal) rates. Certain asset-based securities may be payable at maturity in cash at the stated principal amount or, at the option of the holder, directly in a stated amount of the asset to which it is related. In such instance, because no Fund presently intends to invest directly in natural resource assets, a Fund would sell the asset-based security in the secondary market, to the extent one exists, prior to maturity if the value of the stated amount of the asset exceeds the stated principal amount and thereby realize the appreciation in the underlying asset.

Precious Metal-Related Securities. A Fund may invest in the equity and other securities of companies that explore for, extract, process or deal in precious metals (e.g., gold, silver and platinum), and in asset-based securities indexed to the value of such metals. Such securities may be purchased when they are believed to be attractively priced in relation to the value of a company’s precious metal-related assets or when the values of precious metals are expected to benefit from inflationary pressure or other economic, political or financial uncertainty or instability. Based on historical experience, during periods of economic or financial instability the securities of companies involved in precious metals may be subject to extreme price fluctuations, reflecting the high volatility of precious metal prices during such periods. In addition, the instability of precious metal prices may result in volatile earnings of precious metal-related companies, which may, in turn, adversely affect the financial condition of such companies. The major producers of gold include the Republic of South Africa, Russia, Canada, the United States, Brazil and Australia. Sales of gold by Russia are largely unpredictable and often relate to political and economic considerations rather than to market forces. Economic, financial, social and political factors within South Africa may significantly affect South African gold production.

Borrowing and Leverage. Each Fund may borrow as a temporary measure for extraordinary or emergency purposes, including to meet redemptions or to settle securities transactions. Certain Funds will not purchase securities at any time when borrowings exceed 5% of their total assets, except (a) to honor prior commitments or (b) to exercise subscription rights when outstanding borrowings have been obtained exclusively for settlements of other securities transactions.

Certain Funds may also borrow in order to make investments, to the extent disclosed in such Fund’s Prospectus. The purchase of securities while borrowings are outstanding will have the effect of leveraging the Fund. Such leveraging increases the Fund’s exposure to capital risk, and borrowed funds are subject to interest costs that will reduce net income. The use of leverage by a Fund creates an opportunity for greater total return, but, at the same time, creates special risks. For example, leveraging may exaggerate changes in the net asset value (“NAV”) of Fund shares and in the yield on the Fund’s portfolio. Although the principal of such borrowings will be fixed, the Fund’s assets may change in value during the time the borrowings are outstanding. Borrowings will create interest expenses for the Fund that can exceed the income from the assets purchased with the borrowings. To the extent the income or capital appreciation derived from securities purchased with borrowed funds exceeds the interest the Fund will have to pay on the borrowings, the Fund’s return will be greater than if leverage had not been used. Conversely, if the

 

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income or capital appreciation from the securities purchased with such borrowed funds is not sufficient to cover the cost of borrowing, the return to the Fund will be less than if leverage had not been used and, therefore, the amount available for distribution to shareholders as dividends will be reduced. In the latter case, the Manager in its best judgment nevertheless may determine to maintain the Fund’s leveraged position if it expects that the benefits to the Fund’s shareholders of maintaining the leveraged position will outweigh the current reduced return.

Certain types of borrowings by a Fund may result in the Fund being subject to covenants in credit agreements relating to asset coverage, portfolio composition requirements and other matters. It is not anticipated that observance of such covenants would impede the Manager from managing a Fund’s portfolio in accordance with the Fund’s investment objectives and policies. However, a breach of any such covenants not cured within the specified cure period may result in acceleration of outstanding indebtedness and require the Fund to dispose of portfolio investments at a time when it may be disadvantageous to do so.

Each Fund may at times borrow from affiliates of the Manager, provided that the terms of such borrowings are no less favorable than those available from comparable sources of funds in the marketplace.

To the extent permitted by a Fund’s investment policies and restrictions and subject to the conditions of an exemptive order issued by the SEC, as described below under “Investment Risks and Considerations — Interfund Lending Program,” such Fund may borrow for temporary purposes through the Interfund Lending Program (as defined below).

Cash Flows; Expenses. The ability of each Fund to satisfy its investment objective depends to some extent on the Manager’s ability to manage cash flow (primarily from purchases and redemptions and distributions from the Fund’s investments). The Manager will make investment changes to a Fund’s portfolio to accommodate cash flow while continuing to seek to replicate the total return of the Fund’s target index. Investors should also be aware that the investment performance of each index is a hypothetical number which does not take into account brokerage commissions and other transaction costs, custody and other costs of investing, and any incremental operating costs (e.g., transfer agency and accounting costs) that will be borne by the Funds. Finally, since each Fund seeks to replicate the total return of its target index, the Manager generally will not attempt to judge the merits of any particular security as an investment.

Cash Management. Generally, the Manager will employ futures and options on futures to provide liquidity necessary to meet anticipated redemptions or for day-to-day operating purposes. However, if considered appropriate in the opinion of the Manager, a portion of a Fund’s assets may be invested in certain types of instruments with remaining maturities of 397 days or less for liquidity purposes. Such instruments would consist of: (i) obligations of the U.S. Government, its agencies, instrumentalities, authorities or political subdivisions (“U.S. Government Securities”); (ii) other fixed-income securities rated Aa or higher by Moody’s or AA or higher by S&P or, if unrated, of comparable quality in the opinion of the Manager; (iii) commercial paper; (iv) bank obligations, including negotiable certificates of deposit, time deposits and bankers’ acceptances; and (v) repurchase agreements. At the time the Fund invests in commercial paper, bank obligations or repurchase agreements, the issuer or the issuer’s parent must have outstanding debt rated Aa or higher by Moody’s or AA or higher by S&P or outstanding commercial paper, bank obligations or other short-term obligations rated Prime-1 by Moody’s or A-1 by S&P; or, if no such ratings are available, the instrument must be of comparable quality in the opinion of the Manager. For more information on money market instruments, see “Money Market Securities” below.

Collateralized Debt Obligations. Certain Funds may invest in collateralized debt obligations (“CDOs”), which include collateralized bond obligations (“CBOs”), collateralized loan obligations (“CLOs”) and other similarly structured securities. CDOs are types of asset-backed securities. A CBO is ordinarily issued by a trust or other special purpose entity (“SPE”) and is typically backed by a diversified pool of fixed-income securities (which may include high risk, below investment grade securities) held by such issuer. A CLO is ordinarily issued by a trust or other SPE and is typically collateralized by a pool of loans, which may include, among others, domestic and non-U.S. senior secured loans, senior unsecured loans, and subordinate corporate loans, including loans that may be rated below investment grade or equivalent unrated loans, held by such issuer. Investments in a CLO organized outside of the United States may not be deemed to be foreign securities if the CLO is collateralized by a pool of loans, a substantial portion of which are U.S. loans. Although certain CDOs may benefit from credit enhancement in the form of a senior-subordinate structure, over-collateralization or bond insurance, such enhancement may not always be present, and may fail to protect a Fund against the risk of loss on default of the collateral. Certain CDO issuers may use derivatives contracts to create “synthetic” exposure to assets rather than holding such assets directly, which entails the risks of derivative instruments described elsewhere in this SAI. CDOs may charge management fees and administrative expenses, which are in addition to those of a Fund.

 

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For both CBOs and CLOs, the cash flows from the SPE are split into two or more portions, called tranches, varying in risk and yield. The riskiest portion is the “equity” tranche, which bears the first loss from defaults from the bonds or loans in the SPE and serves to protect the other, more senior tranches from default (though such protection is not complete). Since it is partially protected from defaults, a senior tranche from a CBO or CLO typically has higher ratings and lower yields than its underlying securities, and may be rated investment grade. Despite the protection from the equity tranche, CBO or CLO tranches can experience substantial losses due to actual defaults, downgrades of the underlying collateral by rating agencies, forced liquidation of the collateral pool due to a failure of coverage tests, increased sensitivity to defaults due to collateral default and disappearance of protecting tranches, market anticipation of defaults as well as investor aversion to CBO or CLO securities as a class. Interest on certain tranches of a CDO may be paid in kind or deferred and capitalized (paid in the form of obligations of the same type rather than cash), which involves continued exposure to default risk with respect to such payments.

The risks of an investment in a CDO depend largely on the type of the collateral securities and the class of the CDO in which a Fund invests. Normally, CBOs, CLOs and other CDOs are privately offered and sold, and thus are not registered under the securities laws. However, an active dealer market may exist for CDOs, allowing a CDO to qualify for Rule 144A transactions. In addition to the normal risks associated with fixed-income securities and asset-backed securities generally discussed elsewhere in this SAI, CDOs carry additional risks including, but not limited to: (i) the possibility that distributions from collateral securities will not be adequate to make interest or other payments; (ii) the risk that the collateral may default or decline in value or be downgraded, if rated by a nationally recognized statistical rating organization (“NRSRO”); (iii) a Fund may invest in tranches of CDOs that are subordinate to other tranches; (iv) the structure and complexity of the transaction and the legal documents could lead to disputes among investors regarding the characterization of proceeds; (v) the investment return achieved by the Fund could be significantly different than those predicted by financial models; (vi) the lack of a readily available secondary market for CDOs; (vii) the risk of forced “fire sale” liquidation due to technical defaults such as coverage test failures; and (viii) the CDO’s manager may perform poorly.

Commercial Paper. Certain Funds may purchase commercial paper. Commercial paper purchasable by each Fund includes “Section 4(a)(2) paper,” a term that includes debt obligations issued in reliance on the “private placement” exemption from registration afforded by Section 4(a)(2) of the Securities Act. Section 4(a)(2) paper is restricted as to disposition under the Federal securities laws, and is frequently sold (and resold) to institutional investors such as the Fund through or with the assistance of investment dealers who make a market in the Section 4(a)(2) paper, thereby providing liquidity. Certain transactions in Section 4(a)(2) paper may qualify for the registration exemption provided in Rule 144A under the Securities Act. Most Funds can purchase commercial paper rated (at the time of purchase) “A-1” by S&P or “Prime-1” by Moody’s or when deemed advisable by a Fund’s Manager or sub-adviser, “high quality” issues rated “A-2”, “Prime-2” or “F-2” by S&P, Moody’s or Fitch, respectively.

Commodity-Linked Derivative Instruments and Hybrid Instruments. Certain Funds seek to gain exposure to the commodities markets primarily through investments in hybrid instruments. Hybrid instruments are either equity or debt derivative securities with one or more commodity-dependent components that have payment features similar to a commodity futures contract, a commodity option contract, or a combination of both. Therefore, these instruments are “commodity-linked.” They are considered “hybrid” instruments because they have both commodity-like and security-like characteristics. Hybrid instruments are derivative instruments because at least part of their value is derived from the value of an underlying commodity, futures contract, index or other readily measurable economic variable.

The prices of commodity-linked derivative instruments may move in different directions than investments in traditional equity and debt securities when the value of those traditional securities is declining due to adverse economic conditions. As an example, during periods of rising inflation, debt securities have historically tended to decline in value due to the general increase in prevailing interest rates. Conversely, during those same periods of rising inflation, the prices of certain commodities, such as oil and metals, have historically tended to increase. Of course, there cannot be any guarantee that these investments will perform in that manner in the future, and at certain times the price movements of commodity-linked instruments have been parallel to those of debt and equity securities. Commodities have historically tended to increase and decrease in value during different parts of the business cycle than financial assets. Nevertheless, at various times, commodities prices may move in tandem with the prices of financial assets and thus may not provide overall portfolio diversification benefits. Under favorable economic conditions, the Fund’s investments may be expected to under-perform an investment in traditional securities. Over the long term, the returns on the Fund’s investments are expected to exhibit low or negative correlation with stocks and bonds.

 

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Qualifying Hybrid Instruments. Certain Funds may invest in hybrid instruments that qualify for exclusion from regulation under the Commodity Exchange Act and the regulations adopted thereunder. A hybrid instrument that qualifies for this exclusion from regulation must be “predominantly a security.” A hybrid instrument is considered to be predominantly a security if (a) the issuer of the hybrid instrument receives payment in full of the purchase price of the hybrid instrument, substantially contemporaneously with delivery of the hybrid instrument; (b) the purchaser or holder of the hybrid instrument is not required to make any payment to the issuer in addition to the purchase price paid under subparagraph (a), whether as margin, settlement payment, or otherwise, during the life of the hybrid instrument or at maturity; (c) the issuer of the hybrid instrument is not subject by the terms of the instrument to mark-to-market margining requirements; and (d) the hybrid instrument is not marketed as a contract of sale of a commodity for future delivery (or option on such a contract) subject to applicable provisions of the Commodity Exchange Act. Hybrid instruments may be principal protected, partially protected, or offer no principal protection. A principal protected hybrid instrument means that the issuer will pay, at a minimum, the par value of the note at maturity. Therefore, if the commodity value to which the hybrid instrument is linked declines over the life of the note, the Fund will receive at maturity the face or stated value of the note. With a principal protected hybrid instrument, the Fund will receive at maturity the greater of the par value of the note or the increase in its value based on the underlying commodity or index. This protection is, in effect, an option whose value is subject to the volatility and price level of the underlying commodity. The Manager’s decision whether to use principal protection depends in part on the cost of the protection. In addition, the protection feature depends upon the ability of the issuer to meet its obligation to buy back the security, and, therefore, depends on the creditworthiness of the issuer. With full principal protection, the Fund will receive at maturity of the hybrid instrument either the stated par value of the hybrid instrument, or potentially, an amount greater than the stated par value if the underlying commodity, index, futures contract or economic variable to which the hybrid instrument is linked has increased in value. Partially protected hybrid instruments may suffer some loss of principal if the underlying commodity, index, futures contract or economic variable to which the hybrid instrument is linked declines in value during the term of the hybrid instrument. However, partially protected hybrid instruments have a specified limit as to the amount of principal that they may lose.

Hybrid Instruments Without Principal Protection. Certain Funds may invest in hybrid instruments that offer no principal protection. At maturity, there is a risk that the underlying commodity price, futures contract, index or other economic variable may have declined sufficiently in value such that some or all of the face value of the hybrid instrument might not be returned. The Manager, at its discretion, may invest in a partially protected principal structured note or a note without principal protection. In deciding to purchase a note without principal protection, the Manager may consider, among other things, the expected performance of the underlying commodity futures contract, index or other economic variable over the term of the note, the cost of the note, and any other economic factors that the Manager believes are relevant.

Limitations on Leverage. Some of the hybrid instruments in which a Fund may invest may involve leverage. To avoid being subject to undue leverage risk, a Fund will seek to limit the amount of economic leverage it has under any one hybrid instrument that it buys and the leverage of the Fund’s overall portfolio. A Fund will not invest in a hybrid instrument if, at the time of purchase: (i) that instrument’s “leverage ratio” exceeds 300% of the price increase in the underlying commodity, futures contract, index or other economic variable or (ii) the Fund’s “portfolio leverage ratio” exceeds 150%, measured at the time of purchase. “Leverage ratio” is the expected increase in the value of a hybrid instrument, assuming a one percent price increase in the underlying commodity, futures contract, index or other economic factor. In other words, for a hybrid instrument with a leverage factor of 150%, a 1% gain in the underlying economic variable would be expected to result in a 1.5% gain in value for the hybrid instrument. Conversely, a hybrid instrument with a leverage factor of 150% would suffer a 1.5% loss if the underlying economic variable lost 1% of its value. “Portfolio leverage ratio” is defined as the average (mean) leverage ratio of all instruments in a Fund’s portfolio, weighted by the market values of such instruments or, in the case of futures contracts, their notional values. To the extent that the policy on a Fund’s use of leverage stated above conflicts with the Investment Company Act or the rules and regulations thereunder, the Fund will comply with the applicable provisions of the Investment Company Act. A Fund may at times or from time to time decide not to use leverage in its investments or use less leverage than may otherwise be allowable.

Counterparty Risk. A significant risk of hybrid instruments is counterparty risk. Unlike exchange-traded futures and options, which are standard contracts, hybrid instruments are customized securities, tailor-made by a specific issuer. With a listed futures or options contract, an investor’s counterparty is the exchange clearinghouse. Exchange clearinghouses are capitalized by the exchange members and typically have high investment grade ratings (e.g., ratings of AAA or AA by S&P). Therefore, the risk is small that an exchange clearinghouse might be unable to meet its obligations at maturity. However, with a hybrid instrument, a Fund will take on the counterparty credit risk of the issuer. That is, at maturity of the hybrid instrument, there is a risk that the issuer may be unable to perform its obligations under the structured note.

 

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Convertible Securities. A convertible security is a bond, debenture, note, preferred stock or other security that may be converted into or exchanged for a prescribed amount of common stock or other equity security of the same or a different issuer within a particular period of time at a specified price or formula. A convertible security entitles the holder to receive interest paid or accrued on debt or the dividend paid on preferred stock until the convertible security matures or is redeemed, converted or exchanged. Before conversion, convertible securities have characteristics similar to nonconvertible income securities in that they ordinarily provide a stable stream of income with generally higher yields than those of common stocks of the same or similar issuers, but lower yields than comparable nonconvertible securities. The value of a convertible security is influenced by changes in interest rates, with investment value declining as interest rates increase and increasing as interest rates decline. The credit standing of the issuer and other factors also may have an effect on the convertible security’s investment value. Convertible securities rank senior to common stock in a corporation’s capital structure but are usually subordinated to comparable nonconvertible securities. Convertible securities may be subject to redemption at the option of the issuer at a price established in the convertible security’s governing instrument.

The characteristics of convertible securities make them potentially attractive investments for an investment company seeking a high total return from capital appreciation and investment income. These characteristics include the potential for capital appreciation as the value of the underlying common stock increases, the relatively high yield received from dividend or interest payments as compared to common stock dividends and decreased risks of decline in value relative to the underlying common stock due to their fixed-income nature. As a result of the conversion feature, however, the interest rate or dividend preference on a convertible security is generally less than would be the case if the securities were issued in nonconvertible form.

In analyzing convertible securities, the Manager will consider both the yield on the convertible security relative to its credit quality and the potential capital appreciation that is offered by the underlying common stock, among other things.

Convertible securities are issued and traded in a number of securities markets. Even in cases where a substantial portion of the convertible securities held by a Fund are denominated in U.S. dollars, the underlying equity securities may be quoted in the currency of the country where the issuer is domiciled. As a result, fluctuations in the exchange rate between the currency in which the debt security is denominated and the currency in which the share price is quoted will affect the value of the convertible security. With respect to convertible securities denominated in a currency different from that of the underlying equity securities, the conversion price may be based on a fixed exchange rate established at the time the security is issued, which may increase the effects of currency risk. As described below, a Fund is authorized to enter into foreign currency hedging transactions in which it may seek to reduce the effect of exchange rate fluctuations.

Apart from currency considerations, the value of convertible securities is influenced by both the yield on nonconvertible securities of comparable issuers and by the value of the underlying common stock. The value of a convertible security viewed without regard to its conversion feature (i.e., strictly on the basis of its yield) is sometimes referred to as its “investment value.” To the extent interest rates change, the investment value of the convertible security typically will fluctuate. At the same time, however, the value of the convertible security will be influenced by its “conversion value,” which is the market value of the underlying common stock that would be obtained if the convertible security were converted. Conversion value fluctuates directly with the price of the underlying common stock. If the conversion value of a convertible security is substantially below its investment value, the price of the convertible security is governed principally by its investment value. To the extent the conversion value of a convertible security increases to a point that approximates or exceeds its investment value, the price of the convertible security will be influenced principally by its conversion value. A convertible security will sell at a premium over the conversion value to the extent investors place value on the right to acquire the underlying common stock while holding a fixed-income security. The yield and conversion premium of convertible securities issued in Japan and the Euromarket are frequently determined at levels that cause the conversion value to affect their market value more than the securities’ investment value.

Holders of convertible securities generally have a claim on the assets of the issuer prior to the common stockholders but may be subordinated to other debt securities of the same issuer. A convertible security may be subject to redemption at the option of the issuer at a price established in a charter provision, indenture or other governing instrument pursuant to which the convertible security was issued. If a convertible security held by a Fund is called for redemption, the Fund will be required to redeem the security, convert it into the underlying common stock or sell it to a third party. Certain convertible debt securities may provide a put option to the holder, which entitles the holder to cause the security to be redeemed by the issuer at a premium over the stated principal amount of the debt security under certain circumstances.

A Fund may also invest in synthetic convertible securities. Synthetic convertible securities may include either Cash-Settled Convertibles or Manufactured Convertibles. “Cash-Settled Convertibles” are instruments that are created by the issuer and have

 

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the economic characteristics of traditional convertible securities but may not actually permit conversion into the underlying equity securities in all circumstances. As an example, a private company may issue a Cash-Settled Convertible that is convertible into common stock only if the company successfully completes a public offering of its common stock prior to maturity and otherwise pays a cash amount to reflect any equity appreciation. “Manufactured Convertibles” are created by the Manager or another party by combining separate securities that possess one of the two principal characteristics of a convertible security, i.e., fixed-income (“fixed-income component”) or a right to acquire equity securities (“convertibility component”). The fixed-income component is achieved by investing in nonconvertible fixed-income securities, such as nonconvertible bonds, preferred stocks and money market instruments. The convertibility component is achieved by investing in call options, warrants, or other securities with equity conversion features (“equity features”) granting the holder the right to purchase a specified quantity of the underlying stocks within a specified period of time at a specified price or, in the case of a stock index option, the right to receive a cash payment based on the value of the underlying stock index.

A Manufactured Convertible differs from traditional convertible securities in several respects. Unlike a traditional convertible security, which is a single security that has a unitary market value, a Manufactured Convertible is comprised of two or more separate securities, each with its own market value. Therefore, the total “market value” of such a Manufactured Convertible is the sum of the values of its fixed-income component and its convertibility component.

More flexibility is possible in the creation of a Manufactured Convertible than in the purchase of a traditional convertible security. Because many corporations have not issued convertible securities, the Manager may combine a fixed-income instrument and an equity feature with respect to the stock of the issuer of the fixed-income instrument to create a synthetic convertible security otherwise unavailable in the market. The Manager may also combine a fixed-income instrument of an issuer with an equity feature with respect to the stock of a different issuer when the Manager believes such a Manufactured Convertible would better promote a Fund’s objective than alternative investments. For example, the Manager may combine an equity feature with respect to an issuer’s stock with a fixed-income security of a different issuer in the same industry to diversify the Fund’s credit exposure, or with a U.S. Treasury instrument to create a Manufactured Convertible with a higher credit profile than a traditional convertible security issued by that issuer. A Manufactured Convertible also is a more flexible investment in that its two components may be purchased separately and, upon purchasing the separate securities, “combined” to create a Manufactured Convertible. For example, the Fund may purchase a warrant for eventual inclusion in a Manufactured Convertible while postponing the purchase of a suitable bond to pair with the warrant pending development of more favorable market conditions.

The value of a Manufactured Convertible may respond to certain market fluctuations differently from a traditional convertible security with similar characteristics. For example, in the event a Fund created a Manufactured Convertible by combining a short-term U.S. Treasury instrument and a call option on a stock, the Manufactured Convertible would be expected to outperform a traditional convertible of similar maturity that is convertible into that stock during periods when Treasury instruments outperform corporate fixed-income securities and underperform during periods when corporate fixed-income securities outperform Treasury instruments.

Corporate Loans. Certain Funds may invest in corporate loans. Corporate loans are generally non-investment grade floating rate instruments. Usually, they are freely callable at the issuer’s option. Certain Funds may invest in fixed and floating rate loans (“Loans”) arranged through private negotiations between a corporate borrower or a foreign sovereign entity and one or more financial institutions or institutional investors (“Lenders”). A Fund may invest in such Loans in the form of participations in Loans (“Participations”) and assignments of all or a portion of Loans from third parties (“Assignments”). A Fund considers these investments to be investments in debt securities for purposes of its investment policies. Participations typically will result in the Fund having a contractual relationship only with the Lender, not with the borrower. The Fund will have the right to receive payments of principal, interest and any fees to which it is entitled only from the Lender selling the Participation and only upon receipt by the Lender of the payments from the borrower. In connection with purchasing Participations, the Fund generally will have no right to enforce compliance by the borrower with the terms of the loan agreement relating to the Loans, nor any rights of set-off against the borrower, and the Fund may not benefit directly from any collateral supporting the Loan in which it has purchased the Participation. As a result, the Fund will assume the credit risk of both the borrower and the Lender that is selling the Participation. In the event of the insolvency of the Lender selling the Participation, the Fund may be treated as a general creditor of the Lender and may not benefit from any set-off between the Lender and the borrower. The Fund will acquire Participations only if the Lender interpositioned between the Fund and the borrower is determined by the Fund’s manager to be creditworthy. When the Fund purchases Assignments from Lenders, the Fund will acquire direct rights against the borrower on the Loan, and will not have exposure to a counterparty’s credit risk. The Funds may enter into Participations and Assignments on

 

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a forward commitment or “when-issued” basis, whereby a Fund would agree to purchase a Participation or Assignment at set terms in the future. For more information on forward commitments and when-issued securities, see “When-Issued Securities, Delayed Delivery Securities and Forward Commitments” below.

A Fund may have difficulty disposing of Assignments and Participations. In certain cases, the market for such instruments may lack sufficient liquidity, and therefore the Fund anticipates that in such cases such instruments could be sold only to a limited number of institutional investors. The lack of a sufficiently liquid secondary market may have an adverse impact on the value of such instruments and on the Fund’s ability to dispose of particular Assignments or Participations in response to a specific economic event, such as deterioration in the creditworthiness of the borrower.

Leading financial institutions often act as agent for a broader group of Lenders, generally referred to as a syndicate. The syndicate’s agent arranges the loans, holds collateral and accepts payments of principal and interest. If the agent develops financial problems, a Fund may not recover its investment or recovery may be delayed.

The Loans in which the Fund may invest are subject to the risk of loss of principal and income. Although borrowers frequently provide collateral to secure repayment of these obligations they do not always do so. If they do provide collateral, the value of the collateral may not completely cover the borrower’s obligations at the time of a default. If a borrower files for protection from its creditors under the U.S. bankruptcy laws, these laws may limit a Fund’s rights to its collateral. In addition, the value of collateral may erode during a bankruptcy case. In the event of a bankruptcy, the holder of a Loan may not recover its principal, may experience a long delay in recovering its investment and may not receive interest during the delay.

Transactions in corporate loans may settle on a delayed basis. As a result, the proceeds from the sale of corporate loans may not be readily available to make additional investments or to meet a Fund’s redemption obligations. To the extent the extended settlement process gives rise to short-term liquidity needs, a Fund may hold additional cash, sell investments or temporarily borrow from banks and other lenders.

In certain circumstances, Loans may not be deemed to be securities under certain federal securities laws. Therefore, in the event of fraud or misrepresentation by a borrower or an arranger, Lenders and purchasers of interests in Loans, such as the Funds, may not have the protection of the anti-fraud provisions of the federal securities laws as would otherwise be available for bonds or stocks. Instead, in such cases, parties generally would rely on the contractual provisions in the Loan agreement itself and common-law fraud protections under applicable state law.

Direct Lending. The Fund may act as the originator for direct loans and engage in direct lending. Direct loans between the Fund and a borrower may not be administered by an underwriter or agent bank. The Fund may provide financing to commercial borrowers directly or through companies acquired (or created) and owned by or otherwise affiliated with the Fund. The terms of the direct loans are negotiated with borrowers in private transactions. Furthermore, a direct loan may be secured or unsecured.

In determining whether to make a direct loan, the Fund will rely primarily upon the creditworthiness of the borrower and/or any collateral for payment of interest and repayment of principal. The risks associated with direct loans are substantially similar to those associated with investing in corporate loans. In making a direct loan, the Fund is exposed to the risk that the borrower may default or become insolvent and, consequently, that the Fund will lose money on the loan. Furthermore, direct loans may subject the Fund to liquidity and interest rate risk and certain direct loans may be deemed illiquid. Direct loans are not publicly traded and may not have a secondary market. The lack of a secondary market for direct loans may have an adverse impact on the ability of the Fund to dispose of a direct loan and/or to value the direct loan.

When engaging in direct lending, the Fund’s performance may depend, in part, on the ability of the Fund to originate loans on advantageous terms. In originating loans, the Fund will compete with a broad spectrum of lenders. Increased competition for, or a diminishment in the available supply of, qualifying loans could result in lower yields on such loans, which could reduce Fund performance.

As part of its lending activities, the Fund may originate loans to companies that are experiencing significant financial or business difficulties, including companies involved in bankruptcy or other reorganization and liquidation proceedings. Although the terms of such financing may result in significant financial returns to the Fund, they involve a substantial degree of risk. The level of analytical sophistication, both financial and legal, necessary for successful financing to companies experiencing significant business and financial difficulties is unusually high.

 

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Credit Linked Securities. Among the income producing securities in which a Fund may invest are credit linked securities, which are issued by a limited purpose trust or other vehicle that, in turn, invests in a derivative instrument or basket of derivative instruments, such as credit default swaps, interest rate swaps and other securities, in order to provide exposure to certain fixed-income markets. For instance, a Fund may invest in credit linked securities as a cash management tool in order to gain exposure to a certain market and/or to remain fully invested when more traditional income producing securities are not available.

Like an investment in a bond, investments in these credit linked securities represent the right to receive periodic income payments (in the form of distributions) and payment of principal at the end of the term of the security.

However, these payments are conditioned on the issuer’s receipt of payments from, and the issuer’s potential obligations to, the counterparties to the derivative instruments and other securities in which the issuer invests. For instance, the issuer may sell one or more credit default swaps, under which the issuer would receive a stream of payments over the term of the swap agreements provided that no event of default has occurred with respect to the referenced debt obligation upon which the swap is based. If a default occurs, the stream of payments may stop and the issuer would be obligated to pay the counterparty the par (or other agreed upon value) of the referenced debt obligation. This, in turn, would reduce the amount of income and principal that a Fund would receive. A Fund’s investments in these instruments are indirectly subject to the risks associated with derivative instruments, including, among others, credit risk, default or similar event risk, counterparty risk, interest rate risk, leverage risk and management risk. It is also expected that the securities will be exempt from registration under the Securities Act. Accordingly, there may be no established trading market for the securities and they may constitute illiquid investments.

Cyber Security Issues. With the increased use of technologies such as the Internet to conduct business, each Fund is susceptible to operational, information security and related risks. In general, cyber incidents can result from deliberate attacks or unintentional events. Cyber attacks include, but are not limited to, gaining unauthorized access to digital systems (e.g., through “hacking” or malicious software coding) for purposes of misappropriating assets or sensitive information, corrupting data, or causing operational disruption. Cyber attacks may also be carried out in a manner that does not require gaining unauthorized access, such as causing denial-of-service attacks on websites (i.e., efforts to make network services unavailable to intended users). Cyber security failures or breaches by a Fund’s adviser, sub-adviser(s) and other service providers (including, but not limited to, Fund accountants, custodians, transfer agents and administrators), and the issuers of securities in which the Funds invest, have the ability to cause disruptions and impact business operations, potentially resulting in financial losses, interference with a Fund’s ability to calculate its NAV, impediments to trading, the inability of Fund shareholders to transact business, violations of applicable privacy and other laws, regulatory fines, penalties, reputational damage, reimbursement or other compensation costs, or additional compliance costs. In addition, substantial costs may be incurred in order to prevent any cyber incidents in the future. While the Funds have established business continuity plans in the event of, and risk management systems to prevent, such cyber attacks, there are inherent limitations in such plans and systems including the possibility that certain risks have not been identified. Furthermore, the Funds cannot control the cyber security plans and systems put in place by service providers to the Funds and issuers in which the Funds invest. The Funds and their shareholders could be negatively impacted as a result.

Debt Securities. Debt securities, such as bonds, involve credit risk. This is the risk that the issuer will not make timely payments of principal and interest. The degree of credit risk depends on the issuer’s financial condition and on the terms of the debt securities. Changes in an issuer’s credit rating or the market’s perception of an issuer’s creditworthiness may also affect the value of a Fund’s investment in that issuer. Credit risk is reduced to the extent a Fund limits its debt investments to U.S. Government Securities.

All debt securities, however, are subject to interest rate risk. This is the risk that the value of the security may fall when interest rates rise. If interest rates move sharply in a manner not anticipated by Fund management, a Fund’s investments in debt securities could be adversely affected and the Fund could lose money. In general, the market price of debt securities with longer maturities will go up or down more in response to changes in interest rates than will the market price of shorter-term debt securities.

During periods of rising interest rates, the average life of certain fixed-income securities is extended because of slower than expected principal payments. This may lock in a below-market interest rate and extend the duration of these fixed-income securities, especially mortgage-related securities, making them more sensitive to changes in interest rates. As a result, in a period of rising interest rates, these securities may exhibit additional volatility and lose value. This is known as extension risk.

The value of fixed-income securities in the Funds can be expected to vary inversely with changes in prevailing interest rates. Fixed-income securities with longer maturities, which tend to produce higher yields, are subject to potentially greater capital appreciation and depreciation than securities with shorter maturities. The Funds are not restricted to any maximum or minimum time to maturity in purchasing individual portfolio securities, and the average maturity of a Fund’s assets will vary.

 

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Inflation-Indexed Bonds. Certain Funds may invest in inflation-indexed bonds, which are fixed-income securities or other instruments whose principal value is periodically adjusted according to the rate of inflation. Two structures are common. The U.S. Treasury and some other issuers use a structure that accrues inflation into the principal value of the bond. Most other issuers pay out the Consumer Price Index (“CPI”) accruals as part of a semi-annual coupon.

Inflation-indexed securities issued by the U.S. Treasury have maturities of five, ten or thirty years, although it is possible that securities with other maturities will be issued in the future. The U.S. Treasury securities pay interest on a semi-annual basis, equal to a fixed percentage of the inflation-adjusted principal amount. For example, if a Fund purchased an inflation-indexed bond with a par value of $1,000 and a 3% real rate of return coupon (payable 1.5% semi-annually), and inflation over the first six months was 1%, the mid-year par value of the bond would be $1,010 and the first semi-annual interest payment would be $15.15 ($1,010 times 1.5%). If inflation during the second half of the year resulted in the whole year’s inflation equaling 3%, the end-of-year par value of the bond would be $1,030 and the second semi-annual interest payment would be $15.45 ($1,030 times 1.5%).

If the periodic adjustment rate measuring inflation falls, the principal value of inflation-indexed bonds will be adjusted downward, and, consequently, the interest payable on these securities (calculated with respect to a smaller principal amount) will be reduced. Repayment of the original bond principal upon maturity (as adjusted for inflation) is guaranteed in the case of U.S. Treasury inflation-indexed bonds, even during a period of deflation. However, the current market value of the bonds is not guaranteed, and will fluctuate. Certain Funds may also invest in other inflation related bonds which may or may not provide a similar guarantee. If a guarantee of principal is not provided, the adjusted principal value of the bond repaid at maturity may be less than the original principal. In addition, if the Fund purchases inflation-indexed bonds offered by foreign issuers, the rate of inflation measured by the foreign inflation index may not be correlated to the rate of inflation in the United States.

The value of inflation-indexed bonds is expected to change in response to changes in real interest rates. Real interest rates, in turn, are tied to the relationship between nominal interest rates and the rate of inflation. Therefore, if inflation were to rise at a faster rate than nominal interest rates, real interest rates might decline, leading to an increase in value of inflation-indexed bonds. In contrast, if nominal interest rates increased at a faster rate than inflation, real interest rates might rise, leading to a decrease in value of inflation-indexed bonds. There can be no assurance, however, that the value of inflation-indexed bonds will be directly correlated to changes in interest rates.

While these securities are expected to be protected from long-term inflationary trends, short-term increases in inflation may lead to a decline in value. If interest rates rise due to reasons other than inflation (for example, due to changes in currency exchange rates), investors in these securities may not be protected to the extent that the increase is not reflected in the bond’s inflation measure.

In general, the measure used to determine the periodic adjustment of U.S. inflation-indexed bonds is the Consumer Price Index for Urban Consumers (“CPI-U”), which is calculated monthly by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. The CPI-U is a measurement of changes in the cost of living, made up of components such as housing, food, transportation and energy. Inflation-indexed bonds issued by a foreign government are generally adjusted to reflect a comparable inflation index, calculated by that government. There can be no assurance that the CPI-U or any foreign inflation index will accurately measure the real rate of inflation in the prices of goods and services. Moreover, there can be no assurance that the rate of inflation in a foreign country will be correlated to the rate of inflation in the United States.

Any increase in the principal amount of an inflation-indexed bond will be considered taxable ordinary income, even though investors do not receive their principal until maturity.

Investment Grade Debt Obligations. Certain Funds may invest in “investment grade securities,” which are securities rated in the four highest rating categories of an NRSRO or deemed to be of equivalent quality by a Fund’s Manager. Certain Funds may invest in debt securities rated Aaa by Moody’s or AAA by S&P. It should be noted that debt obligations rated in the lowest of the top four ratings (i.e., “Baa” by Moody’s or “BBB” by S&P) are considered to have some speculative characteristics and are more sensitive to economic change than higher rated securities. If an investment grade security of a Fund is subsequently downgraded below investment grade, the Fund’s Manager will consider such an event in determining whether the Fund should continue to hold the security. Subject to its investment strategies, there is no limit on the amount of such downgraded securities a Fund may hold.

See Appendix A to this SAI for a description of applicable securities ratings.

High Yield Investments (“Junk Bonds”).

Non-investment grade or “high yield” fixed-income or convertible securities commonly known to investors as “junk bonds” are debt securities that are rated below investment grade by the major rating agencies or are securities that Fund management believes

 

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are of comparable quality. While generally providing greater income and opportunity for gain, non-investment grade debt securities may be subject to greater risks than securities which have higher credit ratings, including a high risk of default, and their yields will fluctuate over time. High yield securities will generally be in the lower rating categories of recognized rating agencies (rated “Ba” or lower by Moody’s or “BB” or lower by S&P) or will be non-rated. The credit rating of a high yield security does not necessarily address its market value risk, and ratings may from time to time change, positively or negatively, to reflect developments regarding the issuer’s financial condition. High yield securities are considered to be speculative with respect to the capacity of the issuer to timely repay principal and pay interest or dividends in accordance with the terms of the obligation and may have more credit risk than higher rated securities.

The major risks in junk bond investments include the following:

 

   

Junk bonds may be issued by less creditworthy companies. These securities are vulnerable to adverse changes in the issuer’s industry and to general economic conditions. Issuers of junk bonds may be unable to meet their interest or principal payment obligations because of an economic downturn, specific issuer developments or the unavailability of additional financing.

 

   

The issuers of junk bonds may have a larger amount of outstanding debt relative to their assets than issuers of investment grade bonds. If the issuer experiences financial stress, it may be unable to meet its debt obligations.

The issuer’s ability to pay its debt obligations also may be lessened by specific issuer developments, or the unavailability of additional financing. Issuers of high yield securities are often in the growth stage of their development and/or involved in a reorganization or takeover.

 

   

Junk bonds are frequently ranked junior to claims by other creditors. If the issuer cannot meet its obligations, the senior obligations are generally paid off before the junior obligations, which will potentially limit a Fund’s ability to fully recover principal or to receive interest payments when senior securities are in default. Thus, investors in high yield securities have a lower degree of protection with respect to principal and interest payments then do investors in higher rated securities.

 

   

Junk bonds frequently have redemption features that permit an issuer to repurchase the security from a Fund before it matures. If an issuer redeems the junk bonds, a Fund may have to invest the proceeds in bonds with lower yields and may lose income.

 

   

Prices of junk bonds are subject to extreme price fluctuations. Negative economic developments may have a greater impact on the prices of junk bonds than on those of other higher rated fixed-income securities.

 

   

Junk bonds may be less liquid than higher rated fixed-income securities even under normal economic conditions. Under certain economic and/or market conditions, a Fund may have difficulty disposing of certain high yield securities due to the limited number of investors in that sector of the market. There are fewer dealers in the junk bond market, and there may be significant differences in the prices quoted for junk bonds by the dealers, and such quotations may not be the actual prices available for a purchase or sale. Because junk bonds are less liquid than higher rated bonds, judgment may play a greater role in valuing certain of a Fund’s portfolio securities than in the case of securities trading in a more liquid market.

 

   

The secondary markets for high yield securities are not as liquid as the secondary markets for higher rated securities. The secondary markets for high yield securities are concentrated in relatively few market makers and participants in the markets are mostly institutional investors, including insurance companies, banks, other financial institutions and mutual funds. In addition, the trading volume for high yield securities is generally lower than that for higher rated securities and the secondary markets could contract under adverse market or economic conditions independent of any specific adverse changes in the condition of a particular issuer. Under certain economic and/or market conditions, a Fund may have difficulty disposing of certain high yield securities due to the limited number of investors in that sector of the market. An illiquid secondary market may adversely affect the market price of the high yield security, which may result in increased difficulty selling the particular issue and obtaining accurate market quotations on the issue when valuing a Fund’s assets. Market quotations on high yield securities are available only from a limited number of dealers, and such quotations may not be the actual prices available for a purchase or sale. When the secondary market for high yield securities becomes more illiquid, or in the absence of readily available

 

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market quotations for such securities, the relative lack of reliable objective data makes it more difficult to value a Fund’s securities, and judgment plays a more important role in determining such valuations.

 

   

A Fund may incur expenses to the extent necessary to seek recovery upon default or to negotiate new terms with a defaulting issuer.

 

   

The junk bond markets may react strongly to adverse news about an issuer or the economy, or to the perception or expectation of adverse news, whether or not it is based on fundamental analysis. Additionally, prices for high yield securities may be affected by legislative and regulatory developments. These developments could adversely affect a Fund’s NAV and investment practices, the secondary market for high yield securities, the financial condition of issuers of these securities and the value and liquidity of outstanding high yield securities, especially in a thinly traded market. For example, federal legislation requiring the divestiture by federally insured savings and loan associations of their investments in high yield bonds and limiting the deductibility of interest by certain corporate issuers of high yield bonds adversely affected the market in the past.

 

   

The rating assigned by a rating agency evaluates the issuing agency’s assessment of the safety of a non-investment grade security’s principal and interest payments, but does not address market value risk. Because such ratings of the ratings agencies may not always reflect current conditions and events, in addition to using recognized rating agencies and other sources, the sub-adviser performs its own analysis of the issuers whose non-investment grade securities a Fund holds. Because of this, the Fund’s performance may depend more on the sub-adviser’s own credit analysis than in the case of mutual funds investing in higher-rated securities.

In selecting non-investment grade securities, the adviser or sub-adviser considers factors such as those relating to the creditworthiness of issuers, the ratings and performance of the securities, the protections afforded the securities and the diversity of the Fund. The sub-adviser continuously monitors the issuers of non-investment grade securities held by the Fund for their ability to make required principal and interest payments, as well as in an effort to control the liquidity of the Fund so that it can meet redemption requests. If a security’s rating is reduced below the minimum credit rating that is permitted for a Fund, the Fund’s sub-adviser will consider whether the Fund should continue to hold the security.

In the event that a Fund investing in high yield securities experiences an unexpected level of net redemptions, the Fund could be forced to sell its holdings without regard to the investment merits, thereby decreasing the assets upon which the Fund’s rate of return is based.

The costs attributable to investing in the junk bond markets are usually higher for several reasons, such as higher investment research costs and higher commission costs.

Mezzanine Investments. Certain Funds, consistent with their restrictions on investing in securities of a specific credit quality, may invest in certain high yield securities known as mezzanine investments, which are subordinated debt securities which are generally issued in private placements in connection with an equity security (e.g., with attached warrants). Such mezzanine investments may be issued with or without registration rights. Similar to other high yield securities, maturities of mezzanine investments are typically seven to ten years, but the expected average life is significantly shorter at three to five years. Mezzanine investments are usually unsecured and subordinate to other obligations of the issuer.

Pay-in-kind Bonds. Certain Funds may invest in pay-in-kind, or PIK, bonds. PIK bonds are bonds which pay interest through the issuance of additional debt or equity securities. Similar to zero coupon obligations, pay-in-kind bonds also carry additional risk as holders of these types of securities realize no cash until the cash payment date unless a portion of such securities is sold and, if the issuer defaults, a Fund may obtain no return at all on its investment. The market price of pay-in-kind bonds is affected by interest rate changes to a greater extent, and therefore tends to be more volatile, than that of securities which pay interest in cash. Additionally, current U.S. federal tax law requires the holder of pay-in-kind bonds to accrue income with respect to these securities prior to the receipt of cash payments. To maintain its qualification as a regulated investment company and avoid liability for U.S. federal income and excise taxes, each Fund may be required to distribute income accrued with respect to these securities and may have to dispose of portfolio securities under disadvantageous circumstances in order to generate cash to satisfy these distribution requirements.

Supranational Entities. A Fund may invest in debt securities of supranational entities. Examples of such entities include the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (the World Bank), the European Steel and Coal Community, the Asian Development Bank and the Inter-American Development Bank. The government members, or “stockholders,” usually make initial

 

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capital contributions to the supranational entity and in many cases are committed to make additional capital contributions if the supranational entity is unable to repay its borrowings. There is no guarantee that one or more stockholders of a supranational entity will continue to make any necessary additional capital contributions. If such contributions are not made, the entity may be unable to pay interest or repay principal on its debt securities, and a Fund may lose money on such investments.

Depositary Receipts (ADRs, EDRs and GDRs). Certain Funds may invest in the securities of foreign issuers in the form of Depositary Receipts or other securities convertible into securities of foreign issuers. Depositary Receipts may not necessarily be denominated in the same currency as the underlying securities into which they may be converted. The Fund may invest in both sponsored and unsponsored American Depositary Receipts (“ADRs”), European Depositary Receipts (“EDRs”), Global Depositary Receipts (“GDRs”) and other similar global instruments. ADRs typically are issued by an American bank or trust company and evidence ownership of underlying securities issued by a foreign corporation. EDRs, which are sometimes referred to as Continental Depositary Receipts, are receipts issued in Europe, typically by foreign banks and trust companies, that evidence ownership of either foreign or domestic underlying securities. GDRs are depositary receipts structured like global debt issues to facilitate trading on an international basis. In addition to investment risks associated with the underlying issuer, Depositary Receipts expose a Fund to additional risks associated with the non-uniform terms that apply to Depositary Receipt programs, credit exposure to the depository bank and to the sponsors and other parties with whom the depository bank establishes the programs, currency risk and the risk of an illiquid market for Depositary Receipts. Unsponsored ADR, EDR and GDR programs are organized independently and without the cooperation of the issuer of the underlying securities. Unsponsored programs generally expose investors to greater risks than sponsored programs and do not provide holders with many of the shareholder benefits that come from investing in a sponsored Depositary Receipt. Available information concerning the issuer may not be as current as for sponsored ADRs, EDRs and GDRs, and the prices of unsponsored ADRs, EDRs and GDRs may be more volatile than if such instruments were sponsored by the issuer. Depositary Receipts are generally subject to the same risks as the foreign securities that they evidence or into which they may be converted. Investments in ADRs, EDRs and GDRs present additional investment considerations as described under “Foreign Investment Risks.”

Derivatives.

General. Each Fund may use instruments referred to as derivatives, which are financial instruments that derive their value from one or more securities, commodities (such as gold or oil), currencies, interest rates, credit events or indices (a measure of value or rates, such as the S&P 500 Index or the prime lending rate). Derivatives may allow a Fund to increase or decrease the level of risk to which the Fund is exposed more quickly and efficiently than with other transactions. Certain Funds may use derivatives to maintain a portion of their long and short positions. Unless otherwise permitted, no Fund may use derivatives to gain exposure to an asset or asset class it is prohibited by its investment restrictions from purchasing directly. As described below, derivatives can be used for hedging or speculative purposes. Funds will engage in transaction-level payment netting, i.e., the payment obligations of derivatives contracts are netted against one another with the Fund receiving or paying, as the case may be, only the net amount of the two payment streams.

Hedging. Each Fund may use derivatives for hedging purposes, in which a derivative is used to offset the risks associated with other Fund holdings. Losses on other investments may be substantially reduced by gains on a derivative that reacts in an opposite manner to market movements. Although hedging may reduce losses, it may also reduce or eliminate gains. In addition, hedging may cause losses if the market moves in an unanticipated manner, or if the cost of the derivative outweighs the benefit of the hedge. The effectiveness of hedging may be reduced by correlation risk, i.e., the risk that changes in the value of the derivative will not match those of the holdings being hedged as expected by a Fund, which may result in additional losses to the Fund. The inability to close or offset derivatives could also reduce the effectiveness of a Fund’s hedging. There is no assurance that a Fund’s hedging will be effective. No Fund is required to use derivatives to hedge.

Speculation. Certain Funds may also use derivatives for speculative purposes to seek to enhance returns. The use of a derivative is speculative if the Fund is primarily seeking to achieve gains, rather than offset the risk of other positions. To the extent a Fund invests in a derivative for speculative purposes, the Fund will be fully exposed to the risks of loss of that derivative, which may sometimes be greater than the derivative’s cost, and the potential for loss in certain cases may be unlimited.

Regulation of Derivatives.

The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (“Dodd-Frank”), enacted in July 2010, includes provisions that comprehensively regulate the over-the-counter (“OTC”) derivatives markets for the first time. While the Commodity Futures

 

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Trading Commission (“CFTC”) and other U.S. regulators have adopted many of the required Dodd-Frank regulations, certain regulations have only recently become effective and other regulations remain to be adopted. The full impact of Dodd-Frank on the Funds remains uncertain.

OTC derivatives dealers are now required to register with the CFTC as “swap dealers” and will ultimately be required to register with the SEC as “security-based swap dealers”. Registered swap dealers are subject to various regulatory requirements, including, but not limited to, margin, recordkeeping, reporting, transparency, position limits, limitations on conflicts of interest, business conduct standards, minimum capital requirements and other regulatory requirements.

The CFTC requires that certain interest rate swaps and certain credit default swaps must be executed in regulated markets and be submitted for clearing to regulated clearinghouses. The SEC is also expected to impose similar requirements on certain security-based derivatives in the future. OTC derivatives trades submitted for clearing are subject to minimum initial and variation margin requirements set by the relevant clearinghouse, as well as margin requirements mandated by the CFTC, SEC and/or federal prudential regulators. In addition, futures commission merchants (“FCMs”), who act as clearing members on behalf of customers for cleared OTC derivatives and futures contracts, also have discretion to increase a Fund’s margin requirements for these transactions beyond any regulatory and clearinghouse minimums subject to any restrictions on such discretion in the documentation between the FCM and the customer. These regulatory requirements may make it more difficult and costly for the Funds to enter into highly tailored or customized transactions, potentially rendering certain investment strategies impossible or not economically feasible. If a Fund decides to execute and clear cleared OTC derivatives and/or futures contracts through execution facilities, exchanges or clearinghouses, either indirectly through an executing broker, clearing member FCM or as a direct member, a Fund would be required to comply with the rules of the execution facility, exchange or clearinghouse and other applicable law.

With respect to cleared OTC derivatives and futures contracts and options on futures, a Fund will not face a clearinghouse directly but rather will do so through a FCM that is registered with the CFTC and/or SEC and that acts as a clearing member. A Fund may face the indirect risk of the failure of another clearing member customer to meet its obligations to its clearing member. Such scenario could arise due to a default by the clearing member on its obligations to the clearinghouse simultaneously with a customer’s failure to meet its obligations to the clearing member.

Clearing member FCMs are required to post initial margin to the clearinghouses through which they clear their customers’ cleared OTC derivatives and futures contracts, instead of using such initial margin in their businesses, as was widely permitted before Dodd-Frank. While an FCM may require its customer to post initial margin in excess of clearinghouse requirements, and certain clearinghouses may share a portion of their earnings on initial margin with their clearing members, some portion of the initial margin that is passed through to the clearinghouse does not generate earnings for the FCM. The inability of FCMs to earn the same levels of returns on initial margin for cleared OTC derivatives as they could earn with respect to non-cleared OTC derivatives may cause FCMs to charge higher fees, or provide less favorable pricing on cleared OTC derivatives than swap dealers will provide for non-cleared OTC derivatives. Furthermore, customers, including the Funds, are subject to additional fees payable to FCMs with respect to cleared OTC derivatives, which may raise the cost to Funds of clearing as compared to trading non-cleared OTC derivatives bilaterally.

With respect to non-cleared OTC derivatives, swap dealers are now required to post and collect collateral on a daily basis to secure mark-to-market obligations (“variation margin”) in the form of cash and other liquid securities (subject to minimum haircuts) when trading OTC derivatives with a Fund. Shares of investment companies (other than certain money market funds) may not be posted as collateral under these regulations. Requirements for posting of initial margin in connection with OTC derivatives will be phased-in through at least 2021. These requirements will increase the amount of collateral a Fund is required to provide and the costs associated with providing it if a Fund becomes subject to these requirements.

The CFTC and the U.S. commodities exchanges impose limits on the maximum net long or net short speculative positions that any person may hold or control in any particular futures or options contracts traded on U.S. commodities exchanges. For example, the CFTC has historically imposed speculative position limits on a number of agricultural commodities (e.g., corn, oats, wheat, soybeans and cotton) and United States commodities exchanges currently impose speculative position limits on many other commodities. A Fund could be required to liquidate positions it holds in order to comply with position limits or may not be able to fully implement trading instructions generated by its trading models, in order to comply with position limits. Any such liquidation or limited implementation could result in substantial costs to a Fund.

Dodd-Frank significantly expanded the CFTC’s authority to impose position limits with respect to agricultural commodities and other physical commodity futures contracts, options on these futures contracts and economically equivalent swaps. In October

 

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2020, the CFTC adopted a new set of speculative position limit rules with respect to agricultural commodities and other physical commodity futures contracts, options on these futures contracts (“core referenced futures contracts”) and economically equivalent swaps. An economically equivalent swap is a swap with identical material contractual specifications, terms and conditions to a core referenced futures contract, disregarding differences with respect to any of the following: (1) lot size specifications or notional amounts, (2) post-trade risk management arrangements and (3) delivery dates for physically-settled swaps as long as these delivery dates diverge by less than one calendar day from the referenced contract’s delivery date (or, for natural gas, two calendar days). A cash-settled swap could only be deemed to be economically equivalent to a cash-settled referenced contract, and a physically-settled swap could only be deemed to be economically equivalent to a physically-settled referenced contract. However, a cash-settled swap that initially did not qualify as economically equivalent due to the fact that there was no corresponding cash-settled core referenced futures contract could subsequently become an economically equivalent swap if a cash-settled futures contract market were to subsequently be developed. The CFTC’s new position limits rules include an exemption from limits for bona fide hedging transactions or positions. A bona fide hedging transaction or position may exceed the applicable federal position limits if the transaction or position: (1) represents a substitute for transactions or positions made or to be made at a later time in a physical marketing channel; (2) is economically appropriate to the reduction of price risks in the conduct and management of a commercial enterprise; and (3) arises from the potential change in value of (A) assets which a person owns, produces, manufactures, processes or merchandises, or anticipates owning, producing, manufacturing, processing or merchandising; (B) liabilities which a person owes or anticipates incurring; or (C) services that a person provides or purchases, or anticipates providing or purchasing. The CFTC’s new position rules set forth a list of enumerated bona fide hedges for which a market participant is not required to request prior approval from the CFTC in order to hold a bona fide hedge position above the federal position limit. However, a market participant holding an enumerated bona fide hedge position still would need to request an exemption from the relevant exchange for exchange-set limits. For non-enumerated bona fide hedge positions, a market participant may request CFTC approval which must be granted prior to exceeding the applicable federal position limit, except where there is a demonstrated sudden or unforeseen increase in bona fide hedging needs (in which case the application must be submitted within five business days after the market participant exceeds the applicable limit). The compliance dates for the CFTC’s new federal speculative position limits are January 1, 2022 for the core referenced futures contracts and January 1, 2023 for economically equivalent swaps. While the ultimate effect of the final position limit rules are not yet known, these limits will likely restrict the ability of many market participants to trade in the commodities markets to the same extent as they have in the past. These rules may, among other things, reduce liquidity, increase market volatility, limit the size and duration of positions available to market participants, and increase costs in these markets, which could adversely affect a Fund.

These new regulations and the resulting increased costs and regulatory oversight requirements may result in market participants being required or deciding to limit their trading activities, which could lead to decreased market liquidity and increased market volatility. In addition, transaction costs incurred by market participants are likely to be higher due to the increased costs of compliance with the new regulations. These consequences could adversely affect a Fund’s returns.

Regulatory bodies outside the U.S. have also passed, proposed, or may propose in the future, legislation similar to Dodd-Frank or other legislation that could increase the costs of participating in, or otherwise adversely impact the liquidity of, participating in the commodities markets. For example, the European Market Infrastructure Regulation (Regulation (EU) No 648/2012) (“EMIR”) introduced certain requirements in respect of OTC derivatives including: (i) the mandatory clearing of OTC derivative contracts declared subject to the clearing obligation; (ii) risk mitigation techniques in respect of uncleared OTC derivative contracts, including the mandatory margining of uncleared OTC derivative contracts; and (iii) reporting and recordkeeping requirements in respect of all derivatives contracts. By way of further example, the European Union Markets in Financial Instruments Directive (Directive 2014/65/EU) and Markets in Financial Instruments Regulation (Regulation (EU) No 600/2014) (together “MiFID II”), which have applied since January 3, 2018, govern the provision of investment services and activities in relation to, as well as the organized trading of, financial instruments such as shares, bonds, units in collective investment schemes and derivatives. In particular, MiFID II requires European Union Member States to apply position limits to the size of a net position a person can hold at any time in commodity derivatives traded on European Union trading venues and in “economically equivalent” OTC contracts. If the requirements of EMIR and MiFID II apply, the cost of derivatives transactions is expected to increase.

In addition, regulations adopted by global prudential regulators that are now in effect require certain prudentially regulated entities and certain of their affiliates and subsidiaries (including swap dealers) to include in their derivatives contracts and certain other financial contracts, terms that delay or restrict the rights of counterparties (such as the Funds) to terminate such contracts, foreclose upon collateral, exercise other default rights or restrict transfers of credit support in the event that the prudentially regulated entity and/or its affiliates are subject to certain types of resolution or insolvency proceedings. Similar regulations and

 

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laws have been adopted in non-U.S. jurisdictions that may apply to a Fund’s counterparties located in those jurisdictions. It is possible that these new requirements, as well as potential additional related government regulation, could adversely affect a Fund’s ability to terminate existing derivatives contracts, exercise default rights or satisfy obligations owed to it with collateral received under such contracts.

Risk Factors in Derivatives.

There are significant risks that apply generally to derivatives transactions, including:

Correlation Risk — the risk that changes in the value of a derivative will not match the changes in the value of the portfolio holdings that are being hedged or of the particular market or security to which the Fund seeks exposure.

Counterparty Risk — the risk that a derivatives transaction counterparty will be unable or unwilling to make payments or otherwise honor its obligations to a Fund. A Fund will typically attempt to minimize counterparty risk by engaging in OTC derivatives transactions only with creditworthy entities that have substantial capital or that have provided the Fund with a third-party guaranty or other credit support.

Credit Risk — the risk that the reference entity in a credit default swap or similar derivative will not be able to honor its financial obligations.

Currency Risk — the risk that changes in the exchange rate between two currencies will adversely affect the value (in U.S. dollar terms) of an investment.

Illiquidity Risk — the risk that certain securities or instruments may be difficult or impossible to sell at the time or at the price desired by the seller. There can be no assurance that a Fund will be able to unwind or offset a derivative at its desired price, in a secondary market or otherwise. It may, therefore, not be possible for the Fund to unwind its position in a derivative without incurring substantial losses (if at all). Certain OTC derivatives, including swaps and OTC options, involve substantial illiquidity risk. Illiquidity may also make it more difficult for a Fund to ascertain a market value for such derivatives. A Fund will, therefore, acquire illiquid OTC derivatives (i) if the agreement pursuant to which the instrument is purchased contains a formula price at which the instrument may be terminated or sold, or (ii) for which the Manager anticipates the Fund can receive on each business day at least two independent bids or offers, unless a quotation from only one dealer is available, in which case that dealer’s quotation may be used.

Leverage Risk — the risk associated with certain types of investments or trading strategies (such as, for example, borrowing money to increase the amount of investments) that relatively small market movements may result in large changes in the value of an investment. Certain investments or trading strategies that involve leverage can result in losses that greatly exceed the amount originally invested.

Market Risk — the risk that changes in the value of one or more markets or changes with respect to the value of the underlying asset will adversely affect the value of a derivative. In the event of an adverse movement, a Fund may be required to pay substantial additional margin to maintain its position.

Valuation Risk — the risk that valuation sources for a derivative will not be readily available in the market. This is possible especially in times of market distress, since many market participants may be reluctant to purchase complex instruments or quote prices for them.

Volatility Risk — the risk that the value of derivatives will fluctuate significantly within a short time period.

Types of Derivatives Transactions.

A Fund may enter into derivatives transactions in accordance with its investment guidelines and restrictions, including the following:

Futures.

A Fund may enter into futures contracts (“futures”) and options on futures contracts. Futures are standardized, exchange-traded contracts that require a purchaser to take delivery, and a seller to make delivery, of a specified amount of an asset at a specified future date and price. Upon purchasing or selling a futures contract, a Fund is required to deposit initial margin equal to a

 

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percentage (generally less than 10%) of the contract value. Futures contracts are marked to market daily for the duration of the contract, and the Fund will either post additional margin or be entitled to a payment, as applicable, based on the mark-to-market movement of the contract.

A Fund may sell a futures contract prior to the completion of its term to limit its risk of loss from a decline in the market value of portfolio holdings correlated with the futures contract. However, in the event the market value of the portfolio holdings correlated with the futures contract increases rather than decreases, a Fund will realize a loss on the futures position and a lower return on the portfolio holdings than would have been realized without the purchase of the futures contract.

The purchase of a futures contract may provide a Fund a lower cost alternative to purchasing securities or commodities directly. In the event that such securities or commodities decline in value or a Fund determines not to complete an anticipatory hedge transaction relating to a futures contract, however, the Fund may realize a loss relating to the futures position.

Futures contracts are also subject to position limits. In order to comply with position limits, a Fund may be required to liquidate positions or may not be able to fully implement trading instructions. Any such liquidation or limited implementation could result in substantial costs to a Fund. See “Regulation of OTC Derivatives” above.

A Fund is also permitted to purchase or sell call and put options on futures contracts, including financial futures and stock indices. Generally, these strategies would be used under the same market and market sector conditions (i.e., conditions relating to specific types of investments) in which the Fund entered into futures transactions. A Fund may purchase put options or write call options on futures contracts and stock indices in lieu of selling the underlying futures contract in anticipation of a decrease in the market value of its securities. Similarly, a Fund can purchase call options, or write put options on futures contracts and stock indices, as a substitute for the purchase of such futures contracts to hedge against the increased cost resulting from an increase in the market value of securities which the Fund intends to purchase.

To maintain greater flexibility, a Fund may invest in instruments which have characteristics similar to futures contracts. These instruments may take a variety of forms, such as debt securities with interest or principal payments determined by reference to the value of a security, an index of securities or a commodity at a future point in time. The risks of such investments could reflect the risks of investing in futures and securities, including volatility and illiquidity.

When a Fund enters into futures contracts or writes options on futures contracts, the Fund will segregate liquid assets with a value at least equal to the Fund’s exposure, on a mark-to-market basis, to the transactions (as calculated pursuant to requirements of the CFTC). In certain instances, Funds may segregate liquid assets with a value at least equal to the Fund’s exposure on a notional basis when they enter into futures contracts or written options of futures contracts, consistent with the Funds’ policies and procedures.

Futures contracts and options on futures contracts are subject to significant correlation risk, leverage risk, illiquidity risk, market risk and counterparty risk with respect to a Fund’s futures broker or the clearinghouse. See “Risk Factors in Derivatives” above.

Swap Agreements.

A Fund may enter into swap agreements for hedging purposes or speculative purposes. Swap agreements are OTC contracts entered into primarily by financial institutions and institutional investors which may or may not be cleared by a central clearinghouse. In a standard “swap” transaction, two parties agree to exchange the returns earned or realized from one or more underlying assets or rates of return, which may be adjusted for an interest factor. The gross returns to be exchanged or “swapped” between the parties are generally calculated with respect to a “notional amount,” e.g., the return or increase in value of a particular dollar amount invested at a particular interest rate, in a particular foreign currency, or in a “basket” of securities representing a particular index. The notional amount of the swap agreement is only used to calculate the obligations that the parties to a swap agreement have agreed to exchange. A Fund’s obligations (or rights) under a swap agreement will generally be equal only to the net amount to be paid or received under the agreement based on the relative values of the positions held by each party to the agreement. A Fund’s obligations under a swap agreement will be accrued daily (offset against any amounts owing to the Fund) and any accrued but unpaid net amounts owed to a swap counterparty will be covered by segregating assets which are not considered illiquid investments under the Funds’ Liquidity Program (as defined below) (“liquid assets”), and which are unencumbered and marked-to-market daily, to avoid and potential leveraging of the Fund’s portfolio. Swaps that are not cleared involve substantial counterparty risk. A Fund will typically attempt to mitigate this counterparty risk by entering into swap

 

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agreements only with creditworthy entities that have substantial capital or that have provided the Fund with a third-party guaranty or other credit support. A Fund’s ability to use swap agreements may be restricted by the tax rules applicable to registered investment companies.

Credit Default Swaps and Similar Instruments. Certain Funds may enter into credit default swaps and similar instruments. Credit default swaps are standardized agreements in which the protection “buyer” pays the protection “seller” an up-front payment, or a periodic stream of payments, over the term of the contract, provided generally that no credit event on a reference obligation has occurred. If a credit event occurs, the seller generally must pay the buyer the difference between the notional amount of the contract and the value of a portfolio of securities issued by the reference entity. A Fund may be either the buyer or seller in the transaction. The Funds may enter into credit default swaps that reference the obligations of a single entity (“single-name CDS”) or the obligations of entities that make up an index (“index CDS”). References to “credit default swaps” shall collectively refer to single-name CDS and index CDS.

Credit default swaps have as reference obligations one or more securities or loans that are not currently held by a Fund. In circumstances in which a Fund does not own the securities or loans that are deliverable under a credit default swap, the Fund is exposed to the risk that deliverable securities will not be available in the market, or will be available only at unfavorable prices, as would be the case in a so-called “short squeeze.” In certain instances of issuer defaults or restructurings, it has been unclear under the standard industry documentation for credit default swaps whether or not a “credit event” triggering the seller’s payment obligation had occurred. Certain initiatives adopted by derivatives market participants, including the International Swaps and Derivatives Association (“ISDA”), are designed to implement uniform settlement terms into standard credit default swap documentation, as well as refine the practices for the transparent conduct of the credit default swap market generally. Among these initiatives are the ISDA Credit Derivatives Determination Committee and the implementation of market-wide cash settlement protocols applicable to all market-standard credit default swaps. These initiatives are intended to reduce both the uncertainty as to the occurrence of credit events and the risk of a “short squeeze” by providing that the ISDA Credit Derivatives Determinations Committee will make determinations as to whether a credit event has occurred, establish an auction to determine a settlement price and identify the deliverable securities for purposes of the auction, although the ISDA Credit Derivatives Determinations Committee may in certain limited circumstances refrain from doing so. In the event the ISDA Credit Derivatives Determinations Committee cannot reach a timely resolution with respect to a “credit event” or otherwise does not establish a cash settlement auction, a Fund may not be able to realize the full value of the credit default swap upon a default by the reference entity. Furthermore, a Fund may enter into certain credit default swaps or similar instruments that may not be covered by these initiatives.

If a Fund is a buyer, it will lose the payments made under the terms of the credit default swap and recover nothing should no credit event occur. If a Fund is a seller and a credit event occurs, the value of any deliverable obligation received by the Fund or the amount of cash settlement received by the Fund pursuant to the relevant cash settlement auction, together with the up-front or periodic payments previously received, may be less than the amount it pays to the buyer, resulting in a loss of value to the Fund. A Fund that sells credit default swaps incurs leveraged exposure to the credit of one or more reference entities and is subject to many of the same risks it would incur if it were holding debt securities issued by the relevant reference entity. However, a Fund will not have any legal recourse against any reference entity and will not benefit from any collateral securing the reference entity’s debt obligations. In the event the ISDA Credit Derivatives Determinations Committee does not establish a cash settlement auction and identify the relevant deliverable securities or loans, the credit default swap buyer will have broad discretion to select which of the reference entity’s debt obligations to deliver to the Fund following a credit event and will likely choose the obligations with the lowest market value in order to maximize the payment obligations of the Fund. In addition, credit default swaps generally trade on the basis of theoretical pricing and valuation models, which may not accurately value such swap positions when established or when subsequently traded or unwound under actual market conditions.

Dodd-Frank requires that certain index CDS be executed in regulated markets and submitted for clearing to regulated clearinghouses. See “Regulation of Derivatives” above. Other single-name CDS and index CDS are permitted, although not required, to be cleared through regulated clearinghouses. The Funds clear all credit default swaps that are subject to mandatory clearing and may voluntarily clear some, but not all, of the other credit default swaps not subject to mandatory clearing. The Funds face counterparty risk with respect to the clearinghouse when entering into cleared single-name CDS and cleared index CDS. The Funds face significant counterparty risk with respect to their counterparties to non-cleared credit default swaps and similar instruments. A Fund typically will enter into non-cleared credit default swaps and similar instruments with swap dealers and creditworthy entities that have substantial capital or that have provided the Fund with a third-party guaranty or other credit support.

 

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In addition, credit default swaps and similar instruments generally involve greater risks than if a Fund had invested in the reference obligation directly and are subject to significant credit risk, correlation risk, leverage risk, illiquidity risk and market risk. See “Risk Factors in Derivatives” above.

Interest Rate Swaps, Floors and Caps. Certain Funds may enter into OTC derivatives in the form of interest rate swaps and interest rate caps and floors. As described in further detail below, a Fund may enter into these transactions primarily to preserve a return or spread on a particular investment or portion of its holdings, as a duration management technique, to protect against an increase in the price of securities a Fund anticipates purchasing at a later date, or for speculation to increase returns.

Dodd-Frank requires that certain interest rate swaps be executed in regulated markets and submitted for clearing to regulated clearinghouses. See “Regulation of Derivatives” above. Other interest rate swaps are permitted, although not required, to be cleared. Most of the interest rate swaps entered into by the Funds are cleared. The Funds face counterparty risk with respect to the clearinghouse when entering into cleared interest rate swaps.

The Funds face significant counterparty risk with respect to their counterparties to non-cleared interest rate swaps and interest rate caps and floors. The typical counterparties for a Fund’s non-cleared interest rate derivatives transactions are swap dealers and other creditworthy entities that have substantial capital or that have provided the Fund with a third-party guaranty or other credit support. If the Fund’s counterparty defaults on such a transaction, a Fund will have contractual remedies with respect to the transaction. The market for interest rate swaps is relatively liquid in comparison with other similar instruments traded in the interbank market. A Fund may be limited in its ability to enter into certain interest rate derivatives due to applicable income tax requirements.

Interest rate swaps are transactions in which each party makes periodic interest payments based on a fixed or variable interest rate, index or asset in return for periodic payments from its counterparty based on a different fixed or variable interest rate, index or asset.

The purchase of an interest rate floor entitles the purchaser, to the extent that a specified index falls below a predetermined interest rate, to receive payments of interest on a notional principal amount from the party selling such interest rate floor.

The purchase of an interest rate cap entitles the purchaser, to the extent that a specified index rises above a predetermined interest rate, to receive payments of interest on a notional principal amount from the party selling such interest rate cap.

A Fund may enter into an interest rate swap to effectively exchange with another party their respective commitments to pay or receive interest, e.g., an exchange of fixed rate payments for floating rate payments. For example, if a Fund holds a mortgage-backed security with an interest rate that is reset only once each year, it may swap the right to receive interest at this fixed rate for the right to receive interest at a rate that is reset every week. This would enable a Fund to offset a decline in the value of the mortgage-backed security due to rising interest rates but would also limit its ability to benefit from falling interest rates. Conversely, if a Fund holds a mortgage-backed security with an interest rate that is reset every week and it would like to lock in what it believes to be a high interest rate for one year, it may swap the right to receive interest at this variable weekly rate for the right to receive interest at a rate that is fixed for one year. Such a swap would protect the Fund from a reduction in yield due to falling interest rates and may permit the Fund to enhance its income through the positive differential between one week and one year interest rates, but would preclude it from taking full advantage of rising interest rates.

Gains from transactions in interest rate swaps distributed to shareholders will be taxable as ordinary income or, in certain circumstances, as long term capital gains to shareholders.

Interest rate swaps and interest rate caps and floors may be subject to correlation risk, leverage risk, illiquidity risk and market risk. See “Risk Factors in Derivatives” above.

Total Return Swaps. Total return swaps are contracts in which one party agrees to make periodic payments to the other party based on the return of the assets underlying the contract in exchange for periodic payments based on a fixed or variable interest rate or the total return from different underlying assets. The return of the assets underlying the contract includes both the income generated by the asset and the change in market value of the asset. The asset underlying the contract may include a specified security, basket of securities or securities indices. Total return swaps on a specified security, basket of securities or securities indices may sometimes be referred to as “contracts for difference.”

Total return swaps may be used to obtain exposure to a security or market without owning or taking physical custody of such security or investing directly in such market. Upon entering into a total return swap, a Fund is required to deposit initial margin

 

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but the parties do not exchange the notional amount. As a result, total return swaps may effectively add leverage to the Fund’s portfolio because the Fund would be subject to investment exposure on the notional amount of the swap.

The net amount of the excess, if any, of the Fund’s obligations over its entitlements with respect to each total return swap will be accrued on a daily basis, and an amount of liquid assets having an aggregate NAV at least equal to the accrued excess will be segregated by the Fund. If the total return swap transaction is entered into on other than a net basis, the full amount of the Fund’s obligations will be accrued on a daily basis, and the full amount of the Fund’s obligations will be segregated by the Fund in an amount equal to or greater than the market value of the liabilities under the total return swap or the amount it would have cost the Fund initially to make an equivalent direct investment, plus or minus any amount the Fund is obligated to pay or is to receive under the total return swap.

Total return swaps are subject to significant correlation risk, leverage risk, illiquidity risk, market risk and counterparty risk. See “Risk Factors in Derivatives” above.

Options

Options on Securities and Securities Indices. A Fund may engage in transactions in options on individual securities, baskets of securities or securities indices, or particular measurements of value or rates, such as an index of the price of treasury securities or an index representative of short-term interest rates. Such investments may be made on exchanges and in the OTC markets. In general, exchange-traded options have standardized exercise prices and expiration dates and require the parties to post margin against their obligations, and the performance of the parties’ obligations in connection with such options is guaranteed by the exchange or a related clearing corporation. OTC options have more flexible terms negotiated between the buyer and the seller, but are subject to greater credit risk. OTC options also involve greater illiquidity risk.

A Fund may also engage in transactions in options which have additional features that result in different payment structures and/or expirations (commonly referred to as exotic options). For example, barrier options are exotic options that can only be exercised (or automatically expire) if the price of the underlying asset reaches one or more predetermined levels on or before expiration. Binary options are another example of exotic options which have a fixed all-or-nothing payout if one or more predetermined conditions are met. Exotic options are typically traded in OTC markets.

There are several risks associated with transactions in options on securities and indexes. For example, there are significant differences between the securities and options markets that could result in an imperfect correlation between these markets, causing a given transaction not to achieve its objectives. In addition, a liquid secondary market for particular options, whether traded OTC or on a national securities exchange (“Exchange”) may be absent for reasons which include the following: there may be insufficient trading interest in certain options; restrictions may be imposed by an Exchange on opening transactions or closing transactions or both; trading halts, suspensions or other restrictions may be imposed with respect to particular classes or series of options or underlying securities; unusual or unforeseen circumstances may interrupt normal operations on an Exchange; the facilities of an Exchange or the Options Clearing Corporation may not at all times be adequate to handle current trading volume; or one or more Exchanges could, for economic or other reasons, decide or be compelled at some future date to discontinue the trading of options (or a particular class or series of options), in which event the secondary market on that Exchange (or in that class or series of options) would cease to exist, although outstanding options that had been issued by the Options Clearing Corporation as a result of trades on that Exchange would continue to be exercisable in accordance with their terms.

Call Options. A Fund may purchase call options on any of the types of securities or instruments in which it may invest. A purchased call option gives a Fund the right to buy, and obligates the seller to sell, the underlying security at the exercise price at any time during the option period. A Fund also may purchase and sell call options on indices. Index options are similar to options on securities except that, rather than taking or making delivery of securities underlying the option at a specified price upon exercise, an index option gives the holder the right to receive cash upon exercise of the option if the level of the index upon which the option is based is greater than the exercise price of the option.

A call option is covered if a Fund holds a call on the same security or index as the call written where the exercise price of the call held is (i) equal to or less than the exercise price of the call written, or (ii) greater than the exercise price of the call written provided the difference is maintained by the Fund in liquid assets designated on the Manager’s or sub-adviser’s books and records to the extent required by Commission guidelines.

A Fund may write (i.e., sell) covered call options on the securities or instruments in which it may invest and to enter into closing purchase transactions with respect to certain of such options. A covered call option is an option in which a Fund, in return for a

 

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premium, gives another party a right to buy specified securities owned by the Fund at a specified future date and price set at the time of the contract. The principal reason for writing call options is the attempt to realize, through the receipt of premiums, a greater return than would be realized on the securities alone. By writing covered call options, a Fund gives up the opportunity, while the option is in effect, to profit from any price increase in the underlying security above the option exercise price. In addition, a Fund’s ability to sell the underlying security will be limited while the option is in effect unless the Fund enters into a closing purchase transaction. A closing purchase transaction cancels out a Fund’s position as the writer of an option by means of an offsetting purchase of an identical option prior to the expiration of the option it has written. Covered call options also serve as a partial hedge to the extent of the premium received against the price of the underlying security declining.

A Fund may write (i.e., sell) uncovered call options on securities or instruments in which it may invest but that are not currently held by the Fund. The principal reason for writing uncovered call options is to realize income without committing capital to the ownership of the underlying securities or instruments. When writing uncovered call options, a Fund must deposit and maintain sufficient margin with the broker-dealer through which it made the uncovered call option as collateral to ensure that the securities can be purchased for delivery if and when the option is exercised. In addition, in connection with each such transaction a Fund will segregate unencumbered liquid assets or cash with a value at least equal to the Fund’s exposure (the difference between the unpaid amounts owed by the Fund on such transaction minus any collateral deposited with the broker-dealer), on a mark-to-market basis (as calculated pursuant to requirements of the Commission). Such segregation will ensure that the Fund has assets available to satisfy its obligations with respect to the transaction and will avoid any potential leveraging of the Fund’s portfolio. Such segregation will not limit the Fund’s exposure to loss. During periods of declining securities prices or when prices are stable, writing uncovered calls can be a profitable strategy to increase a Fund’s income with minimal capital risk. Uncovered calls are riskier than covered calls because there is no underlying security held by a Fund that can act as a partial hedge. Uncovered calls have speculative characteristics and the potential for loss is unlimited. When an uncovered call is exercised, a Fund must purchase the underlying security to meet its call obligation. There is also a risk, especially with preferred and debt securities that lack sufficient liquidity, that the securities may not be available for purchase. If the purchase price exceeds the exercise price, a Fund will lose the difference.

Put Options. A Fund may purchase put options to seek to hedge against a decline in the value of its securities or to enhance its return. By buying a put option, a Fund acquires a right to sell the underlying securities or instruments at the exercise price, thus limiting the Fund’s risk of loss through a decline in the market value of the securities or instruments until the put option expires. The amount of any appreciation in the value of the underlying securities or instruments will be partially offset by the amount of the premium paid for the put option and any related transaction costs. Prior to its expiration, a put option may be sold in a closing sale transaction and profit or loss from the sale will depend on whether the amount received is more or less than the premium paid for the put option plus the related transaction costs. A closing sale transaction cancels out a Fund’s position as the purchaser of an option by means of an offsetting sale of an identical option prior to the expiration of the option it has purchased. A Fund also may purchase uncovered put options.

A Fund also may write (i.e., sell) put options on the types of securities or instruments that may be held by the Fund, provided that such put options are covered, meaning that such options are secured by segregated, liquid assets. A Fund will receive a premium for writing a put option, which increases the Fund’s return. Certain Funds will not sell puts if, as a result, more than 50% of such Fund’s assets would be required to cover its potential obligations under its hedging and other investment transactions.

A Fund also may write (i.e., sell) uncovered put options on securities or instruments in which it may invest but with respect to which the Fund does not currently have a corresponding short position or has not deposited as collateral cash equal to the exercise value of the put option with the broker-dealer through which it made the uncovered put option. The principal reason for writing uncovered put options is to receive premium income and to acquire such securities or instruments at a net cost below the current market value. A Fund has the obligation to buy the securities or instruments at an agreed upon price if the price of the securities or instruments decreases below the exercise price. If the price of the securities or instruments increases during the option period, the option will expire worthless and a Fund will retain the premium and will not have to purchase the securities or instruments at the exercise price. In connection with such a transaction, a Fund will segregate unencumbered liquid assets with a value at least equal to the Fund’s exposure, on a mark-to-market basis (as calculated pursuant to requirements of the Commission). Such segregation will ensure that a Fund has assets available to satisfy its obligations with respect to the transaction and will avoid any potential leveraging of the Fund’s portfolio. Such segregation will not limit the Fund’s exposure to loss.

Options on Government National Mortgage Association (“GNMA”) Certificates. The following information relates to the unique characteristics of options on GNMA Certificates. Since the remaining principal balance of GNMA Certificates declines each month as a result of mortgage payments, a Fund, as a writer of a GNMA call holding GNMA Certificates as “cover” to satisfy its

 

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delivery obligation in the event of exercise, may find that the GNMA Certificates it holds no longer have a sufficient remaining principal balance for this purpose. Should this occur, a Fund will purchase additional GNMA Certificates from the same pool (if obtainable) or other GNMA Certificates in the cash market in order to maintain its “cover.”

A GNMA Certificate held by a Fund to cover an option position in any but the nearest expiration month may cease to represent cover for the option in the event of a decline in the GNMA coupon rate at which new pools are originated under the FHA/VA loan ceiling in effect at any given time. If this should occur, a Fund will no longer be covered, and the Fund will either enter into a closing purchase transaction or replace such Certificate with a certificate that represents cover. When a Fund closes its position or replaces such Certificate, it may realize an unanticipated loss and incur transaction costs.

Options on Swaps (“Swaptions”). A swaption gives a counterparty the option (but not the obligation) to enter into a new swap agreement or to shorten, extend, cancel or otherwise modify an existing swap agreement, at a designated future time on specified terms. A Fund may write (i.e., sell) and purchase put and call swaptions. Depending on the terms of the particular option agreement, a Fund will generally incur a greater degree of risk when it writes a swaption than it will incur when it purchases a swaption. When a Fund purchases a swaption, it risks losing only the amount of the premium it has paid should it decide to let the option expire unexercised. However, when a Fund writes a swaption, upon exercise of the option the Fund will become obligated according to the terms of the underlying agreement and the potential for loss may be unlimited. Certain swaptions are permitted, although not required, to be cleared.

A Fund will likely enter into these transactions to preserve a return or spread on a particular investment or portion of its portfolio or to protect against any increase in the price of securities the Fund anticipates purchasing at a later date. A Fund generally will use these transactions for hedging purposes, not for speculation.

Swaptions may be subject to correlation risk, leverage risk, illiquidity risk and market risk. See “Risk Factors in Derivatives” above.

Foreign Exchange Transactions.

A Fund may enter into spot foreign exchange transactions, forward foreign exchange transactions (“FX forwards”) and currency swaps, purchase and sell currency options, currency futures and related options thereon (collectively, “Currency Instruments”) for purposes of hedging against the decline in the value of currencies in which its portfolio holdings are denominated against the U.S. dollar or, with respect to certain Funds, to seek to enhance returns.

Such transactions could be effected to hedge with respect to foreign dollar denominated securities owned by a Fund, sold by a Fund but not yet delivered, or committed or anticipated to be purchased by a Fund. As an illustration, a Fund may use such techniques to hedge the stated value in U.S. dollars of an investment in a yen-denominated security. For example, the Fund may purchase a foreign currency put option enabling it to sell a specified amount of yen for dollars at a specified price by a future date. To the extent the hedge is successful, a loss in the value of the yen relative to the dollar will tend to be offset by an increase in the value of the put option. To offset, in whole or in part, the cost of acquiring such a put option, the Fund may also sell a call option which, if exercised, requires it to sell a specified amount of yen for dollars at a specified price by a future date (a technique called a “straddle”). By selling such a call option in this illustration, the Fund gives up the opportunity to profit without limit from increases in the relative value of the yen to the dollar. “Straddles” of the type that may be used by a Fund are considered hedging transactions. Certain Funds have a fundamental investment restriction that restricts currency option strategies.

Hedging transactions involving Currency Instruments involve substantial risks, including correlation risk. A Fund’s use of Currency Instruments to effect hedging strategies is intended to reduce the volatility of the NAV of the Fund’s shares; however, the use of such hedging strategies will not prevent the NAV of the Fund’s shares from fluctuating. Moreover, although Currency Instruments will be used with the intention of hedging against adverse currency movements, transactions in Currency Instruments involve the risk that anticipated currency movements will not be accurately predicted and that the Fund’s hedging strategies will be ineffective. To the extent that a Fund hedges against anticipated currency movements that do not occur, the Fund may realize losses and decrease its total return. Furthermore, a Fund will only engage in hedging activities from time to time and may not be engaging in hedging activities when movements in currency exchange rates actually occur.

In connection with its trading in forward foreign currency contracts, a Fund will contract with a foreign or domestic bank, or foreign or domestic securities dealer, to make or take future delivery of a specified amount of a particular currency. There are no limitations on daily price moves in such forward contracts, and banks and dealers are not required to continue to make markets in

 

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such contracts. There have been periods during which certain banks or dealers have refused to quote prices for such forward contracts or have quoted prices with an unusually wide spread between the price at which the bank or dealer is prepared to buy and that at which it is prepared to sell. Governmental imposition of currency controls might limit any such forward contract trading. With respect to its trading of forward contracts, if any, a Fund will be subject to counterparty risk. Any such failure to perform by a counterparty would deprive the Fund of any profit potential or force the Fund to cover its commitments for resale, if any, at the then market price and could result in a loss to the Fund.

It may not be possible for a Fund to hedge against currency exchange rate movements, even if correctly anticipated, in the event that (i) the currency exchange rate movement is so generally anticipated that the Fund is not able to enter into a hedging transaction at an effective price, or (ii) the currency exchange rate movement relates to a market with respect to which Currency Instruments are not available and it is not possible to engage in effective foreign currency hedging. The cost to a Fund of engaging in foreign currency transactions varies with such factors as the currencies involved, the length of the contract period and the market conditions then prevailing. Since transactions in foreign currency exchange usually are conducted on a principal basis, no fees or commissions are involved.

A Fund will not hedge a currency in excess of the aggregate market value of the securities that it owns (including receivables for unsettled securities sales), or has committed to purchase or anticipates purchasing, which are denominated in such currency. Open positions in FX forwards used for non-hedging purposes will be covered by the segregation of liquid assets and are mark-to-market daily.

Spot Transactions and FX Forwards. FX forwards are OTC contracts to purchase or sell a specified amount of a specified currency or multinational currency unit at a specified price and specified future date. Spot foreign exchange transactions are similar but are settled in the current, or “spot”, market. A Fund will enter into foreign exchange transactions for purposes of hedging either a specific transaction or a portfolio position, or, with respect to certain Funds, to seek to enhance returns. FX forwards involve substantial currency risk, credit risk and liquidity risk. A Fund may enter into a foreign exchange transaction for purposes of hedging a specific transaction by, for example, purchasing a currency needed to settle a security transaction or selling a currency in which the Fund has received or anticipates receiving a dividend or distribution. A Fund may enter into a foreign exchange transaction for purposes of hedging a portfolio position by selling forward a currency in which a portfolio position of the Fund is denominated or by purchasing a currency in which the Fund anticipates acquiring a portfolio position in the near future. A Fund may also hedge a currency by entering into a transaction in a Currency Instrument denominated in a currency other than the currency being hedged (a “cross-hedge”). A Fund will only enter into a cross-hedge if the Manager believes that (i) there is a demonstrably high correlation between the currency in which the cross-hedge is denominated and the currency being hedged, and (ii) executing a cross-hedge through the currency in which the cross-hedge is denominated will be significantly more cost-effective or provide substantially greater liquidity than executing a similar hedging transaction by means of the currency being hedged.

A Fund may also engage in proxy hedging transactions to reduce the effect of currency fluctuations on the value of existing or anticipated holdings of portfolio securities. Proxy hedging is often used when the currency to which the Fund is exposed is difficult to hedge, or to hedge against the U.S. dollar. Proxy hedging entails entering into a forward contract to sell a currency whose changes in value are generally considered to be linked to a currency or currencies in which some or all of the Fund’s securities are, or are expected to be, denominated, and to buy U.S. dollars. Proxy hedging involves some of the same risks and considerations as other transactions with similar instruments. Currency transactions can result in losses to the Fund if the currency being hedged fluctuates in value to a degree or in a direction that is not anticipated. In addition, there is the risk that the perceived linkage between various currencies may not be present, including during the particular time that a Fund is engaging in proxy hedging.

A Fund may also cross-hedge currencies by entering into forward contracts to sell one or more currencies that are expected to decline in value relative to other currencies to which the Fund has or in which the Fund expects to have portfolio exposure. For example, a Fund may hold both Canadian government bonds and Japanese government bonds, and the Manager or sub-adviser may believe that Canadian dollars will deteriorate against Japanese yen. The Fund would sell Canadian dollars to reduce its exposure to that currency and buy Japanese yen. This strategy would be a hedge against a decline in the value of Canadian dollars, although it would expose the Fund to declines in the value of the Japanese yen relative to the U.S. dollar.

Some of the forward non-U.S. currency contracts entered into by the Funds are classified as non-deliverable forwards (“NDFs”). NDFs are cash-settled, short-term forward contracts that may be thinly traded or are denominated in non-convertible foreign currency, where the profit or loss at the time at the settlement date is calculated by taking the difference between the agreed upon

 

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exchange rate and the spot rate at the time of settlement, for an agreed upon notional amount of funds. All NDFs have a fixing date and a settlement date. The fixing date is the date at which the difference between the prevailing market exchange rate and the agreed upon exchange rate is calculated. The settlement date is the date by which the payment of the difference is due to the party receiving payment. NDFs are commonly quoted for time periods of one month up to two years, and are normally quoted and settled in U.S. dollars. They are often used to gain exposure to and/or hedge exposure to foreign currencies that are not internationally traded.

Currency Futures. A Fund may seek to enhance returns or hedge against the decline in the value of a currency through use of currency futures or options on currency futures. Currency futures are similar to forward foreign exchange transactions except that futures are standardized, exchange-traded contracts while forward foreign exchange transactions are traded in the OTC market. Currency futures involve substantial currency risk as well as the risks discussed above in “Futures”.

Currency Options. A Fund may seek to enhance returns or hedge against the decline in the value of a currency through the use of currency options. Certain Funds have fundamental investment restrictions that permit the purchase of currency options, but prohibit the writing of currency options. Currency options are similar to options on securities. For example, in consideration for an option premium the writer of a currency option is obligated to sell (in the case of a call option) or purchase (in the case of a put option) a specified amount of a specified currency on or before the expiration date for a specified amount of another currency. A Fund may engage in transactions in options on currencies either on exchanges or OTC markets. Such transactions in options may include exotic options on currencies, which are typically traded in OTC markets and have additional features that result in different payment structures and/or expirations. Where a Fund is permitted to write currency options, it may write covered call options on up to 100% of the currencies in its portfolio. See “Options” above. Currency options involve substantial currency risk, and may also involve credit, leverage or illiquidity risk.

Currency Swaps. A Fund may enter into currency swaps in order to protect against currency fluctuations or to hedge portfolio positions. Currency swaps are transactions in which one currency is simultaneously bought for a second currency on a spot basis and sold for the second currency on a forward basis. Currency swaps involve the exchange of the rights of a Fund and another party to make or receive payments in specified currencies, and typically require the delivery of the entire principal value of one designated currency in exchange for the other designated currency. As a result, the entire principal value of a currency swap is subject to the risk that the other party to the swap will default on its contractual delivery obligations.

Distressed Securities. A Fund may invest in securities, including loans purchased in the secondary market, that are the subject of bankruptcy proceedings or otherwise in default or in risk of being in default as to the repayment of principal and/or interest at the time of acquisition by the Fund or that are rated in the lower rating categories by one or more nationally recognized statistical rating organizations (for example, Ca or lower by Moody’s and CC or lower by S&P or Fitch) or, if unrated, are in the judgment of the Manager of equivalent quality (“Distressed Securities”). Investment in Distressed Securities is speculative and involves significant risks.

A Fund will generally make such investments only when the Manager believes it is reasonably likely that the issuer of the Distressed Securities will make an exchange offer or will be the subject of a plan of reorganization pursuant to which the Fund will receive new securities in return for the Distressed Securities. However, there can be no assurance that such an exchange offer will be made or that such a plan of reorganization will be adopted. In addition, a significant period of time may pass between the time at which a Fund makes its investment in Distressed Securities and the time that any such exchange offer or plan of reorganization is completed. During this period, it is unlikely that a Fund will receive any interest payments on the Distressed Securities, the Fund will be subject to significant uncertainty as to whether or not the exchange offer or plan of reorganization will be completed and the Fund may be required to bear certain extraordinary expenses to protect and recover its investment. Therefore, to the extent the Fund seeks capital appreciation through investment in distressed securities, the Fund’s ability to achieve current income for its shareholders may be diminished. The Fund also will be subject to significant uncertainty as to when and in what manner and for what value the obligations evidenced by the distressed securities will eventually be satisfied (e.g., through a liquidation of the obligor’s assets, an exchange offer or plan of reorganization involving the distressed securities or a payment of some amount in satisfaction of the obligation). Even if an exchange offer is made or plan of reorganization is adopted with respect to Distressed Securities held by a Fund, there can be no assurance that the securities or other assets received by a Fund in connection with such exchange offer or plan of reorganization will not have a lower value or income potential than may have been anticipated when the investment was made or no value. Moreover, any securities received by a Fund upon completion of an exchange offer or plan of reorganization may be restricted as to resale. Similarly, if a Fund participates in negotiations with respect to any exchange offer or plan of reorganization with respect to an issuer of Distressed Securities, the Fund may be restricted from disposing of such

 

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securities. To the extent that a Fund becomes involved in such proceedings, the Fund may have a more active participation in the affairs of the issuer than that assumed generally by an investor. The Fund, however, will not make investments for the purpose of exercising day-to-day management of any issuer’s affairs.

Environmental, Social and Governance (“ESG”) Integration. Although a Fund does not seek to implement a specific ESG, impact or sustainability strategy unless disclosed in its Prospectus, Fund management will consider ESG characteristics as part of the investment process for actively managed Funds. These considerations will vary depending on a Fund’s particular investment strategies and may include consideration of third-party research as well as consideration of proprietary BlackRock research across the ESG risks and opportunities regarding an issuer. Fund management will consider those ESG characteristics it deems relevant or additive when making investment decisions for a Fund. The ESG characteristics utilized in a Fund’s investment process are anticipated to evolve over time and one or more characteristics may not be relevant with respect to all issuers that are eligible for investment.

ESG characteristics are not the sole considerations when making investment decisions for a Fund. Further, investors can differ in their views of what constitutes positive or negative ESG characteristics. As a result, a Fund may invest in issuers that do not reflect the beliefs and values with respect to ESG of any particular investor. ESG considerations may affect a Fund’s exposure to certain companies or industries and a Fund may forego certain investment opportunities. While Fund management views ESG considerations as having the potential to contribute to a Fund’s long-term performance, there is no guarantee that such results will be achieved.

Certain Funds incorporate specific ESG, impact or sustainability considerations into their investment objectives, strategies, and/or processes, as described in the applicable Fund’s Prospectus.

Equity Securities. Certain Funds may invest in equity securities, which include common stock and, for certain Funds, preferred stock (including convertible preferred stock); bonds, notes and debentures convertible into common or preferred stock; stock purchase warrants and rights; equity interests in trusts; general and limited partnerships and limited liability companies; and depositary receipts. Stock markets are volatile. The price of equity securities will fluctuate and can decline and reduce the value of a portfolio investing in equities. The price of equity securities fluctuates based on changes in a company’s financial condition and overall market and economic conditions. The value of equity securities purchased by the Fund could decline if the financial condition of the companies the Fund invests in decline or if overall market and economic conditions deteriorate. They may also decline due to factors that affect a particular industry or industries, such as labor shortages or increase in production costs and competitive conditions within an industry. In addition, they may decline due to general market conditions that are not specifically related to a company or industry, such as real or perceived adverse economic conditions, changes in the general outlook for corporate earnings, changes in interest or currency rates or generally adverse investor sentiment.

From time to time certain of the Funds may invest in shares of companies through initial public offerings (“IPOs”). IPOs have the potential to produce, and have in fact produced, substantial gains for certain Funds. There is no assurance that any Fund will have continued access to profitable IPOs and therefore investors should not rely on these past gains as an indication of future performance. The investment performance of a Fund during periods when it is unable to invest significantly or at all in IPOs may be lower than during periods when it is able to do so. In addition, as a Fund increases in size, the impact of IPOs on its performance will generally decrease. Securities issued in IPOs are subject to many of the same risks as investing in companies with smaller market capitalizations. Securities issued in IPOs have no trading history, and information about the companies may be available for very limited periods. In addition, the prices of securities sold in IPOs may be highly volatile or may decline shortly after the initial public offering.

The Funds may invest in companies that have relatively small market capitalizations. These organizations will normally have more limited product lines, markets and financial resources and will be dependent upon a more limited management group than larger capitalized companies. In addition, it is more difficult to get information on smaller companies, which tend to be less well known, have shorter operating histories, do not have significant ownership by large investors and are followed by relatively few securities analysts. The securities of smaller capitalized companies are often traded in the OTC markets and may have fewer market makers and wider price spreads. This may result in greater price movements and less ability to sell a Fund’s investment than if the Fund held the securities of larger, more established companies.

For a discussion of the types of equity securities in which your Fund may invest and the risks associated with investing in such equity securities, see your Fund’s Prospectus.

 

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Real Estate-Related Securities. Although no Fund may invest directly in real estate, certain Funds may invest in equity securities of issuers that are principally engaged in the real estate industry. Such investments are subject to certain risks associated with the ownership of real estate and with the real estate industry in general. These risks include, among others: possible declines in the value of real estate; risks related to general and local economic conditions; possible lack of availability of mortgage funds or other limitations on access to capital; overbuilding; risks associated with leverage; market illiquidity; extended vacancies of properties; increase in competition, property taxes, capital expenditures and operating expenses; changes in zoning laws or other governmental regulation; costs resulting from the clean-up of, and liability to third parties for damages resulting from, environmental problems; tenant bankruptcies or other credit problems; casualty or condemnation losses; uninsured damages from floods, earthquakes or other natural disasters; limitations on and variations in rents, including decreases in market rates for rents; investment in developments that are not completed or that are subject to delays in completion; and changes in interest rates. To the extent that assets underlying a Fund’s investments are concentrated geographically, by property type or in certain other respects, the Fund may be subject to certain of the foregoing risks to a greater extent. Investments by a Fund in securities of companies providing mortgage servicing will be subject to the risks associated with refinancings and their impact on servicing rights.

In addition, if a Fund receives rental income or income from the disposition of real property acquired as a result of a default on securities the Fund owns, the receipt of such income may adversely affect the Fund’s ability to retain its tax status as a regulated investment company because of certain income source requirements applicable to regulated investment companies under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”).

Securities of Smaller or Emerging Growth Companies. Investment in smaller or emerging growth companies involves greater risk than is customarily associated with investments in more established companies. The securities of smaller or emerging growth companies may be subject to more abrupt or erratic market movements than larger, more established companies or the market average in general. These companies may have limited product lines, markets or financial resources, or they may be dependent on a limited management group.

While smaller or emerging growth company issuers may offer greater opportunities for capital appreciation than large cap issuers, investments in smaller or emerging growth companies may involve greater risks and thus may be considered speculative. Fund management believes that properly selected companies of this type have the potential to increase their earnings or market valuation at a rate substantially in excess of the general growth of the economy. Full development of these companies and trends frequently takes time.

Small cap and emerging growth securities will often be traded only in the OTC market or on a regional securities exchange and may not be traded every day or in the volume typical of trading on a national securities exchange. As a result, the disposition by a Fund of portfolio securities to meet redemptions or otherwise may require the Fund to make many small sales over a lengthy period of time, or to sell these securities at a discount from market prices or during periods when, in Fund management’s judgment, such disposition is not desirable.

The process of selection and continuous supervision by Fund management does not, of course, guarantee successful investment results; however, it does provide access to an asset class not available to the average individual due to the time and cost involved. Careful initial selection is particularly important in this area as many new enterprises have promise but lack certain of the fundamental factors necessary to prosper. Investing in small cap and emerging growth companies requires specialized research and analysis. In addition, many investors cannot invest sufficient assets in such companies to provide wide diversification.

Small companies are generally little known to most individual investors although some may be dominant in their respective industries. Fund management believes that relatively small companies will continue to have the opportunity to develop into significant business enterprises. A Fund may invest in securities of small issuers in the relatively early stages of business development that have a new technology, a unique or proprietary product or service, or a favorable market position. Such companies may not be counted upon to develop into major industrial companies, but Fund management believes that eventual recognition of their special value characteristics by the investment community can provide above-average long-term growth to the portfolio.

Equity securities of specific small cap issuers may present different opportunities for long-term capital appreciation during varying portions of economic or securities market cycles, as well as during varying stages of their business development. The market valuation of small cap issuers tends to fluctuate during economic or market cycles, presenting attractive investment opportunities at various points during these cycles.

 

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Smaller companies, due to the size and kinds of markets that they serve, may be less susceptible than large companies to intervention from the Federal government by means of price controls, regulations or litigation.

Exchange-Traded Notes (“ETNs”). Certain Funds may invest in ETNs. ETNs are generally notes representing debt of the issuer, usually a financial institution. ETNs combine both aspects of bonds and ETFs. An ETN’s returns are based on the performance of one or more underlying assets, reference rates or indexes, minus fees and expenses. Similar to ETFs, ETNs are listed on an exchange and traded in the secondary market. However, unlike an ETF, an ETN can be held until the ETN’s maturity, at which time the issuer will pay a return linked to the performance of the specific asset, index or rate (“reference instrument”) to which the ETN is linked minus certain fees. Unlike regular bonds, ETNs do not make periodic interest payments, and principal is not protected.

The value of an ETN may be influenced by, among other things, time to maturity, level of supply and demand for the ETN, volatility and lack of liquidity in underlying markets, changes in the applicable interest rates, the performance of the reference instrument, changes in the issuer’s credit rating and economic, legal, political or geographic events that affect the reference instrument. An ETN that is tied to a reference instrument may not replicate the performance of the reference instrument. ETNs also incur certain expenses not incurred by their applicable reference instrument. Some ETNs that use leverage may, at times, be illiquid and may be difficult to purchase or sell at a fair price. Levered ETNs are subject to the same risk as other instruments that use leverage in any form. While leverage allows for greater potential return, the potential for loss is also greater. Finally, additional losses may be incurred if the investment loses value because, in addition to the money lost on the investment, the loan still needs to be repaid.

Because the return on the ETN is dependent on the issuer’s ability or willingness to meet its obligations, the value of the ETN may change due to a change in the issuer’s credit rating, despite no change in the underlying reference instrument. The market value of ETN shares may differ from the value of the reference instrument. This difference in price may be due to the fact that the supply and demand in the market for ETN shares at any point in time is not always identical to the supply and demand in the market for the assets underlying the reference instrument that the ETN seeks to track.

There may be restrictions on the Fund’s right to redeem its investment in an ETN, which are generally meant to be held until maturity. The Fund’s decision to sell its ETN holdings may be limited by the availability of a secondary market. An investor in an ETN could lose some or all of the amount invested.

Foreign Investments.

Foreign Investment Risks. Certain Funds may invest in foreign securities, including securities from issuers located in emerging market countries. These securities may be denominated in U.S. dollars or in a foreign currency. Investing in foreign securities involves risks not typically associated with investing in securities of companies organized and operated in the United States that can increase the chances that a Fund will lose money.

Securities issued by certain companies organized outside the United States may not be deemed to be foreign securities (but rather deemed to be U.S. securities) if (i) the company’s principal operations are conducted from the U.S., (ii) the company’s equity securities trade principally on a U.S. stock exchange, (iii) the company does a substantial amount of business in the U.S. or (iv) the issuer of securities is included in the Fund’s primary U.S. benchmark index.

In addition to equity securities, foreign investments of the Funds may include: (a) debt obligations issued or guaranteed by foreign sovereign governments or their agencies, authorities, instrumentalities or political subdivisions, including a foreign state, province or municipality; (b) debt obligations of supranational organizations; (c) debt obligations of foreign banks and bank holding companies; (d) debt obligations of domestic banks and corporations issued in foreign currencies; (e) debt obligations denominated in the Euro; and (f) foreign corporate debt securities and commercial paper. Such securities may include loan participations and assignments, convertible securities and zero-coupon securities.

Dividends or interest on, or proceeds from the sale of, foreign securities may be subject to foreign withholding taxes.

Foreign Market Risk. Funds that may invest in foreign securities offer the potential for more diversification than a Fund that invests only in the United States because securities traded on foreign markets have often (though not always) performed differently from securities traded in the United States. However, such investments often involve risks not present in U.S. investments that can increase the chances that a Fund will lose money. In particular, a Fund is subject to the risk that, because there are generally fewer

 

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investors on foreign exchanges and a smaller number of shares traded each day, it may be difficult for the Fund to buy and sell securities on those exchanges. In addition, prices of foreign securities may fluctuate more than prices of securities traded in the United States. Investments in foreign markets may also be adversely affected by governmental actions such as the imposition of punitive taxes. In addition, economic conditions, such as volatile currency exchange rates and interest rates, political events, military action and other conditions may, without prior warning, lead to the governments of certain countries, or the U.S. Government with respect to certain countries, prohibiting or imposing substantial restrictions through capital controls and/or sanctions on foreign investing in the capital markets or certain industries in those countries. Capital controls and/or sanctions may include the prohibition of, or restrictions on, the ability to own or transfer currency, securities, derivatives or other assets and may also include retaliatory actions of one government against another government, such as seizure of assets. Any of these actions could severely impair a Fund’s ability to purchase, sell, transfer, receive, deliver or otherwise obtain exposure to foreign securities and assets, including the ability to transfer the Fund’s assets or income back into the United States, and could negatively impact the value and/or liquidity of such assets or otherwise adversely affect a Fund’s operations, causing the Fund to decline in value. Other potential foreign market risks include exchange controls, difficulties in pricing securities, defaults on foreign government securities, difficulties in enforcing favorable legal judgments in foreign courts, and political and social conditions, such as diplomatic relations, confiscatory taxation, expropriation, limitation on the removal of funds or assets, or imposition of (or change in) exchange control regulations. Legal remedies available to investors in certain foreign countries may be less extensive than those available to investors in the United States or other foreign countries. In addition, changes in government administrations or economic or monetary policies in the U.S. or abroad could result in appreciation or depreciation of portfolio securities and could favorably or adversely affect a Fund’s operations.

Foreign Economy Risk. The economies of certain foreign markets often do not compare favorably with that of the United States with respect to such issues as growth of gross national product, reinvestment of capital, resources, and balance of payments position. Certain such economies may rely heavily on particular industries or foreign capital and are more vulnerable to diplomatic developments, the imposition of economic sanctions against a particular country or countries, changes in international trading patterns, trade barriers, and other protectionist or retaliatory measures.

Currency Risk and Exchange Risk. Because foreign securities generally are denominated and pay dividends or interest in foreign currencies, the value of a Fund that invests in foreign securities as measured in U.S. dollars will be affected favorably or unfavorably by changes in exchange rates. Generally, when the U.S. dollar rises in value against a foreign currency, a security denominated in that currency loses value because the currency is worth fewer U.S. dollars. Conversely, when the U.S. dollar decreases in value against a foreign currency, a security denominated in that currency gains value because the currency is worth more U.S. dollars. This risk, generally known as “currency risk,” means that a stronger U.S. dollar will reduce returns for U.S. investors while a weak U.S. dollar will increase those returns.

Governmental Supervision and Regulation/Accounting Standards. Many foreign governments supervise and regulate stock exchanges, brokers and the sale of securities less than does the United States. Some countries may not have laws to protect investors comparable to the U.S. securities laws. For example, some foreign countries may have no laws or rules against insider trading. Insider trading occurs when a person buys or sells a company’s securities based on nonpublic information about that company. Accounting standards in other countries are not necessarily the same as in the United States. If the accounting standards in another country do not require as much detail as U.S. accounting standards, it may be harder for Fund management to completely and accurately determine a company’s financial condition. In addition, the U.S. Government has from time to time in the past imposed restrictions, through penalties and otherwise, on foreign investments by U.S. investors such as the Fund. If such restrictions should be reinstituted, it might become necessary for the Fund to invest all or substantially all of its assets in U.S. securities. Also, brokerage commissions and other costs of buying or selling securities often are higher in foreign countries than they are in the United States. This reduces the amount the Fund can earn on its investments.

Certain Risks of Holding Fund Assets Outside the United States. A Fund generally holds its foreign securities and cash in foreign banks and securities depositories. Some foreign banks and securities depositories may be recently organized or new to the foreign custody business. In addition, there may be limited or no regulatory oversight over their operations. Also, the laws of certain countries may put limits on a Fund’s ability to recover its assets if a foreign bank or depository or issuer of a security or any of their agents goes bankrupt. In addition, it is often more expensive for a Fund to buy, sell and hold securities in certain foreign markets than in the United States. The increased expense of investing in foreign markets reduces the amount a Fund can earn on its investments and typically results in a higher operating expense ratio for the Fund as compared to investment companies that invest only in the United States.

 

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Publicly Available Information. In general, less information is publicly available with respect to foreign issuers than is available with respect to U.S. companies. Most foreign companies are also not subject to the uniform accounting and financial reporting requirements applicable to issuers in the United States. While the volume of transactions effected on foreign stock exchanges has increased in recent years, it remains appreciably below that of the New York Stock Exchange. Accordingly, a Fund’s foreign investments may be less liquid than, and their prices may be more volatile than, comparable investments in securities in U.S. companies. In addition, there is generally less government supervision and regulation of securities exchanges, brokers and issuers in foreign countries than in the United States.

Settlement Risk. Settlement and clearance procedures in certain foreign markets differ significantly from those in the United States. Foreign settlement procedures and trade regulations also may involve certain risks (such as delays in payment for or delivery of securities) not typically generated by the settlement of U.S. investments.

Communications between the United States and emerging market countries may be unreliable, increasing the risk of delayed settlements or losses of security certificates in markets that still rely on physical settlement. Settlements in certain foreign countries at times have not kept pace with the number of securities transactions; these problems may make it difficult for a Fund to carry out transactions. If a Fund cannot settle or is delayed in settling a purchase of securities, it may miss attractive investment opportunities and certain of its assets may be uninvested with no return earned thereon for some period. If a Fund cannot settle or is delayed in settling a sale of securities, it may lose money if the value of the security then declines or, if it has contracted to sell the security to another party, the Fund could be liable to that party for any losses incurred.

Sovereign Debt. Investment in sovereign debt can involve a high degree of risk. The governmental entity that controls the repayment of sovereign debt may not be able or willing to repay the principal and/or interest when due in accordance with the terms of such debt. A governmental entity’s willingness or ability to repay principal and interest due in a timely manner may be affected by, among other factors, its cash flow situation, the extent of its foreign reserves, the availability of sufficient foreign exchange on the date a payment is due, the relative size of the debt service burden to the economy as a whole, the governmental entity’s policy towards the International Monetary Fund and the political constraints to which a governmental entity may be subject. Governmental entities may also be dependent on expected disbursements from foreign governments, multilateral agencies and others abroad to reduce principal and interest arrearages on their debt. The commitment on the part of these governments, agencies and others to make such disbursements may be conditioned on the implementation of economic reforms and/or economic performance and the timely service of such debtor’s obligations. Failure to implement such reforms, achieve such levels of economic performance or repay principal or interest when due may result in the cancellation of such third parties’ commitments to lend funds to the governmental entity, which may further impair such debtor’s ability or willingness to timely service its debts. Consequently, governmental entities may default on their sovereign debt.

Holders of sovereign debt may be requested to participate in the rescheduling of such debt and to extend further loans to governmental entities. In the event of a default by a governmental entity, there may be few or no effective legal remedies for collecting on such debt.

Withholding Tax Reclaims Risk. A Fund may file claims to recover foreign withholding taxes on dividend and interest income (if any) received from issuers in certain countries and capital gains on the disposition of stocks or securities where such withholding tax reclaim is possible. Whether or when a Fund will receive a withholding tax refund is within the control of the tax authorities in such countries. Where a Fund expects to recover withholding taxes, the net asset value of the Fund generally includes accruals for such tax refunds. Each Fund regularly evaluates the probability of recovery. If the likelihood of recovery materially decreases, due to, for example, a change in tax regulation or approach in the foreign country, accruals in a Fund’s net asset value for such refunds may be written down partially or in full, which will adversely affect the Fund’s net asset value. Shareholders in a Fund at the time an accrual is written down will bear the impact of the resulting reduction in net asset value regardless of whether they were shareholders during the accrual period. Conversely, if a Fund receives a tax refund that has not been previously accrued, shareholders in the Fund at the time of the successful recovery will benefit from the resulting increase in the Fund’s net asset value. Shareholders who sold their shares prior to such time will not benefit from such increase in the Fund’s net asset value.

Funding Agreements. Certain Funds may invest in Guaranteed Investment Contracts and similar funding agreements. In connection with these investments, a Fund makes cash contributions to a deposit fund of an insurance company’s general account. The insurance company then credits to the Fund on a monthly basis guaranteed interest, which is based on an index (such as the London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”)). The funding agreements provide that this guaranteed interest will not be less than a certain minimum rate. The purchase price paid for a funding agreement becomes part of the general assets of the insurance

 

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company, and the contract is paid from the general assets of the insurance company. Generally, funding agreements are not assignable or transferable without the permission of the issuing insurance companies, and an active secondary market in some funding agreements does not currently exist.

Guarantees. A Fund may purchase securities which contain guarantees issued by an entity separate from the issuer of the security. Generally, the guarantor of a security (often an affiliate of the issuer) will fulfill an issuer’s payment obligations under a security if the issuer is unable to do so.

Illiquid Investments. Each Fund may invest up to an aggregate amount of 15% of its net assets in illiquid investments. An illiquid investment is any investment that a Fund reasonably expects cannot be sold or disposed of in current market conditions in seven calendar days or less without the sale or disposition significantly changing the market value of the investment. If illiquid investments exceed 15% of a Fund’s net assets, the Liquidity Rule (as defined below) and the Liquidity Program (as defined below) will require that certain remedial actions be taken. Illiquid investments may trade at a discount from comparable liquid investments. Investment of a Fund’s assets in illiquid investments may restrict the ability of the Fund to dispose of its investments in a timely fashion and for a fair price as well as its ability to take advantage of market opportunities. The risks associated with illiquidity will be particularly acute where a Fund’s operations require cash, such as when the Fund redeems shares or pays dividends, and could result in the Fund borrowing to meet short-term cash requirements or incurring capital losses on the sale of illiquid investments.

Index Funds

Tracking Error Risk. A Fund may be subject to tracking error, which is the divergence of the Fund’s performance from that of the Underlying Index. Tracking error may occur because of differences between the securities and other instruments held in the Fund’s portfolio and those included in the Underlying Index, pricing differences (including, as applicable, differences between a security’s price at the local market close and the Fund’s valuation of a security at the time of calculation of the Fund’s net asset value), differences in transaction costs incurred by the Fund, the Fund’s holding of uninvested cash, differences in timing of the accrual of or the valuation of dividends or other distributions, interest, the requirements to maintain pass-through tax treatment, portfolio transactions carried out to minimize the distribution of capital gains to shareholders, changes to the Underlying Index or the costs to the Fund of complying with various new or existing regulatory requirements. These risks may be heightened during times of increased market volatility or other unusual market conditions. In addition, tracking error may result because the Fund incurs fees and expenses, while the Underlying Index does not.

When an issuer is introduced by an index provider into an index tracked by a Fund, BFA may conduct an analysis on such issuer’s securities to identify and screen for outlier high risk behavior (such as rapid or unusual price growth that does not appear to be supported by publicly available information on the business and assets of the issuer, unusual or significant short interest or lending activity, negative sentiment, suspended trading or incorrect free-float calculations, which could be indicators of possible irregularities, miscalculations or even fraud). If it identifies such behavior, BFA may, where appropriate, alert the index provider as to the alleged issue. The index provider has sole discretion for the determination as to whether to continue to include the issuer’s securities in the rebalancing of its index. If the securities continue to be included in the index, BFA may underweight or exclude such securities from a Fund’s portfolio and, if it does so, such Fund will be subject to increased tracking error due to the divergence in the securities included in its portfolio from its underlying index. BFA’s underweighting or excluding such securities may result in a decline in a Fund’s net asset value. The application of the abovementioned analysis and screening to a Fund and its Underlying Index is in the sole discretion of BFA and its affiliates (without any guarantees). The analysis and screening may not exclude any or all high risk securities from an Underlying Index or a Fund’s portfolio, and the inclusion of such securities will result in an adverse impact to the Fund’s net asset value if one or more such securities declines in value.

S&P 500® Index (“S&P 500”). “Standard & Poor’s®,” “S&P®,” “S&P 500®,” “Standard & Poor’s 500,” and “500” are trademarks of S&P Global Inc. and have been licensed for use by certain mutual funds sponsored and advised by BlackRock or its affiliates (“BlackRock Funds”). No Fund is sponsored, endorsed, sold or promoted by S&P, a division of S&P Global Inc. S&P makes no representation regarding the advisability of investing in any Fund. S&P makes no representation or warranty, express or implied, to the owners of shares of a Fund or any member of the public regarding the advisability of investing in securities generally or in a Fund particularly or the ability of the S&P 500 to track general stock market performance. S&P’s only relationship to certain Funds is the licensing of certain trademarks and trade names of S&P and of the S&P 500 which is determined, composed and calculated by S&P without regard to the Funds. S&P has no obligation to take the needs of a Fund or

 

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the owners of shares of a Fund into consideration in determining, composing or calculating the S&P 500. S&P is not responsible for and has not participated in the determination of the prices and amount of any Fund or the timing of the issuance or sale of shares of a Fund or in the determination or calculation of the equation by which a Fund is to be converted into cash. S&P has no obligation or liability in connection with the administration, marketing or trading of any Fund.

S&P does not guarantee the accuracy and/or the completeness of the S&P 500 Index or any data included therein, and S&P shall have no liability for any errors, omissions, or interruptions therein. S&P makes no warranty, express or implied, as to results to be obtained by a Fund, owners of shares of a Fund, or any other person or entity from the use of the S&P 500 Index or any data included therein. S&P makes no express or implied warranties and expressly disclaims all warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose or use with respect to the S&P 500 Index or any data included therein. Without limiting any of the foregoing, in no event shall S&P have any liability for any special, punitive, indirect, or consequential damages (including lost profits), even if notified of the possibility of such damages.

Russell® Indexes. No Fund is promoted, sponsored or endorsed by, nor in any way affiliated with Russell Investments. Russell Investments is not responsible for and has not reviewed any Fund nor any associated literature or publications and Russell Investments makes no representation or warranty, express or implied, as to their accuracy, or completeness, or otherwise.

Russell Investments reserves the right, at any time and without notice, to alter, amend, terminate or in any way change a Russell Index. Russell Investments has no obligation to take the needs of any particular Fund or its participants or any other product or person into consideration in determining, composing or calculating the Russell Index.

Russell Investments’ publication of the Russell Indexes in no way suggests or implies an opinion by Russell Investments as to the attractiveness or appropriateness of investment in any or all securities upon which the Russell Indexes is based. Russell Investments makes no representation, warranty, or guarantee as to the accuracy, completeness, reliability, or otherwise of the Russell Indexes or any data included in the Russell Indexes. Russell Investments makes no representation or warranty regarding the use, or the results of use, of the Russell Indexes or any data included therein, or any security (or combination thereof) comprising the Russell Indexes. Russell Investments makes no other express or implied warranty, and expressly disclaims any warranty, of any kind, including, without means of limitation, any warranty of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose with respect to the Russell Indexes or any data or any security (or combination thereof) included therein.

MSCI Indexes. The MSCI Europe, Australasia and Far East (Capitalization Weighted) Index (“EAFE Index”) and the MSCI All-Country World ex-US Index (“ACWI ex-US Index” and together with the EAFE Index, the “MSCI Indexes” and individually an “MSCI Index”) are the exclusive property of MSCI, Inc. (“MSCI”). The EAFE Index and ACWI ex-US Index are service marks of MSCI and have been licensed for use by the Manager and its affiliates.

No Fund is sponsored, endorsed, sold or promoted by MSCI. MSCI makes no representation or warranty, express or implied, to the owners of shares of a Fund or any member of the public regarding the advisability of investing in securities generally or in a Fund particularly or the ability of an MSCI Index to track general stock market performance. MSCI is the licensor of certain trademarks, service marks and trade names of MSCI and of the MSCI Indexes. MSCI has no obligation to take the needs of any Fund or the owners of shares of a Fund into consideration in determining, composing or calculating an MSCI Index. MSCI is not responsible for and has not participated in the determination of the timing of, prices at, or quantities of shares of any Fund to be issued or in the determination or calculation of the equation by which the shares of a Fund are redeemable for cash. MSCI has no obligation or liability to owners of shares of a Fund in connection with the administration, marketing or trading of the Fund.

Although MSCI shall obtain information for inclusion in or for use in the calculation of an MSCI Index from sources which MSCI considers reliable, MSCI does not guarantee the accuracy and/or the completeness of the MSCI Index or any data included therein. MSCI makes no warranty, express or implied, as to results to be obtained by licensee, licensee’s customers and counterparties, owners of shares of a Fund, or any other person or entity from the use of an MSCI Index or any data included therein in connection with the rights licensed hereunder or for any other use. MSCI makes no express or implied warranties, and hereby expressly disclaims all warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose with respect to an MSCI Index or any data included therein. Without limiting any of the foregoing, in no event shall MSCI have any liability for any direct, indirect, special, punitive, consequential or any other damages (including lost profits) even if notified of the possibility of such damages.

Financial Times Stock Exchange (“FTSE”) Indexes. No Fund is promoted, sponsored or endorsed by, nor in any way affiliated with FTSE. FTSE is not responsible for and has not reviewed any Fund nor any associated literature or publications and FTSE makes no representation or warranty, express or implied, as to their accuracy, or completeness, or otherwise.

 

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FTSE reserves the right, at any time and without notice, to alter, amend, terminate or in any way change a FTSE Index. FTSE has no obligation to take the needs of any particular Fund or its participants or any other product or person into consideration in determining, composing or calculating the FTSE Index.

Bloomberg Indexes. No Fund is promoted, sponsored or endorsed by, nor in any way affiliated with Bloomberg Finance L.P. and its affiliates (collectively, “Bloomberg”). Bloomberg is not responsible for nor has it reviewed any Fund nor any associated literature or publications, and Bloomberg makes no representation or warranty, express or implied, as to their accuracy, or completeness, or otherwise.

Bloomberg reserves the right, at any time and without notice, to alter, amend, terminate or in any way change a Bloomberg Index. Bloomberg has no obligation to take the needs of any particular Fund or its participants or any other product or person into consideration in determining, composing or calculating a Bloomberg Index.

ICE BofA Indexes. No Fund is promoted, sponsored or endorsed by, nor in any way affiliated with Intercontinental Exchange, Inc. and its affiliates (collectively, “ICE”) or Bank of America or its affiliates (collectively, “BofA”). BofA is not the issuer or producer of the ICE BofA Indices, and its name is a trademark and service mark of its owner used under license. Neither ICE nor BofA is responsible for or has reviewed any Fund nor any associated literature or publications and ICE and BofA make no representation or warranty, express or implied, as to their accuracy, or completeness, or otherwise.

ICE reserves the right, at any time and without notice, to alter, amend, terminate or in any way change an ICE BofA Index. ICE has no obligation to take the needs of any particular Fund or its participants or any other product or person into consideration in determining, composing or calculating an ICE BofA Index.

Indexed and Inverse Securities. A Fund may invest in securities that provide a potential return based on a particular index of value or interest rates. For example, a Fund may invest in securities that pay interest based on an index of interest rates. The principal amount payable upon maturity of certain securities also may be based on the value of the index. To the extent a Fund invests in these types of securities, the Fund’s return on such securities will be subject to risk with respect to the value of the particular index: that is, if the value of the index falls, the value of the indexed securities owned by the Fund will fall. Interest and principal payable on certain securities may also be based on relative changes among particular indices. A Fund may also invest in so-called “inverse floating obligations” or “residual interest bonds” on which the interest rates vary inversely with a floating rate (which may be reset periodically by a Dutch auction, a remarketing agent, or by reference to a short-term tax-exempt interest rate index). A Fund may purchase synthetically-created inverse floating rate bonds evidenced by custodial or trust receipts. Generally, income on inverse floating rate bonds will decrease when interest rates increase, and will increase when interest rates decrease. Such securities have the effect of providing a degree of investment leverage, since they may increase or decrease in value in response to changes, as an illustration, in market interest rates at a rate that is a multiple of the rate at which fixed-rate securities increase or decrease in response to such changes. As a result, the market values of such securities will generally be more volatile than the market values of fixed-rate securities. To seek to limit the volatility of these securities, a Fund may purchase inverse floating obligations that have shorter-term maturities or that contain limitations on the extent to which the interest rate may vary. Certain investments in such obligations may be illiquid. The Manager believes that indexed and inverse floating obligations represent flexible portfolio management instruments for a Fund that allow the Fund to seek potential investment rewards, hedge other portfolio positions or vary the degree of investment leverage relatively efficiently under different market conditions. A Fund may invest in indexed and inverse securities for hedging purposes or to seek to increase returns. When used for hedging purposes, indexed and inverse securities involve correlation risk. Furthermore, where such a security includes a contingent liability, in the event of an adverse movement in the underlying index or interest rate, a Fund may be required to pay substantial additional margin to maintain the position.

The Funds may invest up to 10% of their total assets in leveraged inverse floating rate debt instruments (“inverse floaters”). Inverse floaters are securities the potential of which is inversely related to changes in interest rates. In general, the return on inverse floaters will decrease when short-term interest rates increase and increase when short-term rates decrease. Municipal tender option bonds, both taxable and tax-exempt, which may include inverse floating rate debt instruments, (including residual interests thereon) are excluded from this 10% limitation.

Inflation Risk. Like all mutual funds, the Funds are subject to inflation risk. Inflation risk is the risk that the present value of assets or income from investments will be less in the future as inflation decreases the value of money. As inflation increases, the present value of a Fund’s assets can decline as can the value of a Fund’s distributions.

 

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Initial Public Offering (“IPO”) Risk. The volume of initial public offerings and the levels at which the newly issued stocks trade in the secondary market are affected by the performance of the stock market overall. If initial public offerings are brought to the market, availability may be limited and a Fund may not be able to buy any shares at the offering price, or if it is able to buy shares, it may not be able to buy as many shares at the offering price as it would like. In addition, the prices of securities involved in initial public offerings are often subject to greater and more unpredictable price changes than more established stocks. IPOs have the potential to produce substantial gains. There is no assurance that any Fund will have access to profitable IPOs and therefore investors should not rely on any past gains from IPOs as an indication of future performance. The investment performance of a Fund during periods when it is unable to invest significantly or at all in IPOs may be lower than during periods when it is able to do so. In addition, as a Fund increases in size, the impact of IPOs on its performance will generally decrease. Securities issued in IPOs are subject to many of the same risks as investing in companies with smaller market capitalizations. Securities issued in IPOs have no trading history, and information about the companies may be available for very limited periods.

Interfund Lending Program. Pursuant to an exemptive order granted by the SEC (the “IFL Order”), a Fund, to the extent permitted by its investment policies and restrictions and subject to meeting the conditions of the IFL Order, has the ability to lend money to, and borrow money from, another Fund pursuant to a master interfund lending agreement (the “Interfund Lending Program”). Under the Interfund Lending Program, the Funds may lend or borrow money for temporary purposes directly to or from other Funds (an “Interfund Loan”). All Interfund Loans would consist only of uninvested cash reserves that the lending Fund otherwise would invest in short-term repurchase agreements or other short-term instruments. Although Funds that are money market funds may, to the extent permitted by their investment policies, participate in the Interfund Lending Program as borrowers or lenders, they typically will not need to participate as borrowers because they are required to comply with the liquidity provisions of Rule 2a-7 under the Investment Company Act.

If a Fund has outstanding bank borrowings, any Interfund Loans to the Fund would: (a) be at an interest rate equal to or lower than that of any outstanding bank loan, (b) be secured at least on an equal priority basis with at least an equivalent percentage of collateral to loan value as any outstanding bank loan that requires collateral, (c) have a maturity no longer than any outstanding bank loan (and in any event not over seven days), and (d) provide that, if an event of default occurs under any agreement evidencing an outstanding bank loan to the Fund, that event of default will automatically (without need for action or notice by the lending Fund) constitute an immediate event of default under the interfund lending agreement, entitling the lending Fund to call the Interfund Loan immediately (and exercise all rights with respect to any collateral), and cause such call to be made if the lending bank exercises its right to call its loan under its agreement with the borrowing Fund.

A Fund may borrow on an unsecured basis through the Interfund Lending Program only if its outstanding borrowings from all sources immediately after the borrowing total 10% or less of its total assets, provided that if the Fund has a secured loan outstanding from any other lender, including but not limited to another Fund, the Fund’s borrowing will be secured on at least an equal priority basis with at least an equivalent percentage of collateral to loan value as any outstanding loan that requires collateral. If a borrowing Fund’s total outstanding borrowings immediately after an Interfund Loan under the Interfund Lending Program exceed 10% of its total assets, the Fund may borrow through the Interfund Lending Program on a secured basis only. A Fund may not borrow under the Interfund Lending Program or from any other source if its total outstanding borrowings immediately after the borrowing would be more than 3313% of its total assets or any lower threshold provided for by the Fund’s investment restrictions.

No Fund may lend to another Fund through the Interfund Lending Program if the loan would cause the lending Fund’s aggregate outstanding loans through the Interfund Lending Program to exceed 15% of its current net assets at the time of the loan. A Fund’s Interfund Loans to any one Fund shall not exceed 5% of the lending Fund’s net assets. The duration of Interfund Loans will be limited to the time required to receive payment for securities sold, but in no event more than seven days, and for purposes of this condition, loans effected within seven days of each other will be treated as separate loan transactions. Each Interfund Loan may be called on one business day’s notice by a lending Fund and may be repaid on any day by a borrowing Fund.

The limitations described above and the other conditions of the IFL Order permitting interfund lending are designed to minimize the risks associated with interfund lending for both the lending Fund and the borrowing Fund. However, no borrowing or lending activity is without risk. When a Fund borrows money from another Fund under the Interfund Lending Program, there is a risk that the Interfund Loan could be called on one day’s notice, in which case the borrowing Fund may have to seek to borrow from a bank, which would likely involve higher rates, seek an Interfund Loan from another Fund, or liquidate portfolio securities if no lending sources are available to meet its liquidity needs. Interfund Loans are subject to the risk that the borrowing Fund could be unable to repay the loan when due, and a delay in repayment could result in a lost opportunity by the lending Fund or force the

 

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lending Fund to borrow or liquidate securities to meet its liquidity needs. No Fund may borrow more than the amount permitted by its investment restrictions. There can be no assurance that an interfund loan will be available to a borrowing or lending Fund.

Investment in Emerging Markets.

General.

Certain Funds may invest in the securities of issuers domiciled in various countries with emerging capital markets. Unless otherwise provided in a Fund’s Prospectus, a country with an emerging capital market is any country that is (i) generally recognized to be an emerging market country by the international financial community, such as the International Finance Corporation, or determined by the World Bank to have a low, middle or middle upper income economy; (ii) classified by the United Nations or its authorities to be developing; and/or (iii) included in a broad-based index that is generally representative of emerging markets. Countries with emerging markets can be found in regions such as Asia, Latin America, Eastern Europe and Africa.

Investments in the securities of issuers domiciled in countries with emerging capital markets involve certain additional risks that do not generally apply to investments in securities of issuers in more developed capital markets, such as (i) low or non-existent trading volume, resulting in market illiquidity and increased volatility in prices for such securities, as compared to securities of comparable issuers in more developed capital markets; (ii) uncertain national policies and social, political and economic instability, increasing the potential for expropriation of assets, confiscatory taxation, high rates of inflation or unfavorable diplomatic developments; (iii) possible fluctuations in exchange rates, differing legal systems and the existence or possible imposition of exchange controls, custodial restrictions or other foreign or U.S. governmental laws or restrictions applicable to such investments; (iv) national policies that may limit a Fund’s investment opportunities such as restrictions on investment in issuers or industries deemed sensitive to national interests; and (v) the lack or relatively early development of legal structures governing private and foreign investments and private property. In addition to withholding taxes on investment income, some countries with emerging markets may impose differential capital gains taxes on foreign investors.

Political and economic structures in emerging market countries may be undergoing significant evolution and rapid development, and these countries may lack the social, political and economic stability characteristic of more developed countries. In such a dynamic environment, there can be no assurance that any or all of these capital markets will continue to present viable investment opportunities for a Fund. In the past, governments of such nations have expropriated substantial amounts of private property, and most claims of the property owners have never been fully settled. There is no assurance that such expropriations will not reoccur. In such an event, it is possible that a Fund could lose the entire value of its investments in the affected market. As a result the risks described above, including the risks of nationalization or expropriation of assets, may be heightened. In addition, unanticipated political or social developments may affect the value of investments in these countries and the availability to a Fund of additional investments. The small size and inexperience of the securities markets in certain of these countries and the limited volume of trading in securities in these countries may make investments in the countries illiquid and more volatile than investments in Japan or most Western European countries.

Also, there may be less publicly available information about issuers in emerging markets than would be available about issuers in more developed capital markets, and such issuers may not be subject to accounting, auditing and financial reporting standards and requirements comparable to those to which U.S. companies are subject. In certain countries with emerging capital markets, reporting standards vary widely. As a result, traditional investment measurements used in the United States, such as price/earnings ratios, may not be applicable. Emerging market securities may be substantially less liquid than, and more volatile than, those of mature markets, and company shares may be held by a limited number of persons. This may adversely affect the timing and pricing of the Fund’s acquisition or disposal of securities.

Practices in relation to settlement of securities transactions in emerging markets involve higher risks than those in developed markets, in part because a Fund will need to use brokers and counterparties that are less well capitalized, and custody and registration of assets in some countries may be unreliable. The possibility of fraud, negligence, undue influence being exerted by the issuer or refusal to recognize ownership exists in some emerging markets, and, along with other factors, could result in ownership registration being completely lost. A Fund would absorb any loss resulting from such registration problems and may have no successful claim for compensation.

Investment in non-dollar denominated securities including securities from issuers located in emerging market countries may be on either a currency hedged or unhedged basis, and the Funds may hold from time to time various foreign currencies pending

 

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investment or conversion into U.S. dollars. Some of these instruments may have the characteristics of futures contracts. In addition, certain Funds may engage in foreign currency exchange transactions to seek to protect against changes in the level of future exchange rates which would adversely affect the Fund’s performance. These investments and transactions involving foreign securities, currencies, options (including options that relate to foreign currencies), futures, hedging and cross-hedging are described under “Derivatives.”

Risks of Investing in Asia-Pacific Countries. In addition to the risks of foreign investing and the risks of investing in developing markets, the developing market Asia-Pacific countries in which a Fund may invest are subject to certain additional or specific risks. Certain Funds may make substantial investments in Asia-Pacific countries. In many of these markets, there is a high concentration of market capitalization and trading volume in a small number of issuers representing a limited number of industries, as well as a high concentration of investors and financial intermediaries. Many of these markets also may be affected by developments with respect to more established markets in the region such as in Japan and Hong Kong. Brokers in developing market Asia-Pacific countries typically are fewer in number and less well capitalized than brokers in the United States. These factors, combined with the U.S. regulatory requirements for open-end investment companies and the restrictions on foreign investment discussed below, result in potentially fewer investment opportunities for a Fund and may have an adverse impact on the investment performance of the Fund.

Many of the developing market Asia-Pacific countries may be subject to a greater degree of economic, political and social instability than is the case in the United States and Western European countries. Such instability may result from, among other things: (i) authoritarian governments or military involvement in political and economic decision-making, including changes in government through extra-constitutional means; (ii) popular unrest associated with demands for improved political, economic and social conditions; (iii) internal insurgencies; (iv) hostile relations with neighboring countries; and (v) ethnic, religious and racial disaffection. In addition, the governments of many of such countries, such as Indonesia, have a substantial role in regulating and supervising the economy. Another risk common to most such countries is that the economy is heavily export oriented and, accordingly, is dependent upon international trade. The existence of overburdened infrastructure and obsolete financial systems also presents risks in certain countries, as do environmental problems. Certain economies also depend to a significant degree upon exports of primary commodities and, therefore, are vulnerable to changes in commodity prices that, in turn, may be affected by a variety of factors.

The legal systems in certain developing market Asia-Pacific countries also may have an adverse impact on the Fund. For example, while the potential liability of a shareholder in a U.S. corporation with respect to acts of the corporation is generally limited to the amount of the shareholder’s investment, the notion of limited liability is less clear in certain emerging market Asia-Pacific countries. Similarly, the rights of investors in developing market Asia-Pacific companies may be more limited than those of shareholders of U.S. corporations. It may be difficult or impossible to obtain and/or enforce a judgment in a developing market Asia-Pacific country.

Governments of many developing market Asia-Pacific countries have exercised and continue to exercise substantial influence over many aspects of the private sector. In certain cases, the government owns or controls many companies, including the largest in the country. Accordingly, government actions in the future could have a significant effect on economic conditions in developing market Asia-Pacific countries, which could affect private sector companies and a Fund itself, as well as the value of securities in the Fund’s portfolio. In addition, economic statistics of developing market Asia-Pacific countries may be less reliable than economic statistics of more developed nations.

In addition to the relative lack of publicly available information about developing market Asia-Pacific issuers and the possibility that such issuers may not be subject to the same accounting, auditing and financial reporting standards as U.S. companies, inflation accounting rules in some developing market Asia-Pacific countries require companies that keep accounting records in the local currency, for both tax and accounting purposes, to restate certain assets and liabilities on the company’s balance sheet in order to express items in terms of currency of constant purchasing power. Inflation accounting may indirectly generate losses or profits for certain developing market Asia-Pacific companies.

Satisfactory custodial services for investment securities may not be available in some developing Asia-Pacific countries, which may result in the Fund incurring additional costs and delays in providing transportation and custody services for such securities outside such countries.

Certain developing Asia-Pacific countries, such as the Philippines, India and Turkey, are especially large debtors to commercial banks and foreign governments.

 

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On March 11, 2011, a powerful earthquake and resulting tsunami struck northeastern Japan causing major damage along the coast, including damage to nuclear power plants in the region. Future similar disasters, and the resulting damage, could have a severe and negative impact on a Fund’s investment portfolio and, in the longer term, could impair the ability of issuers in which the Fund invests to conduct their businesses in the manner normally conducted.

Fund management may determine that, notwithstanding otherwise favorable investment criteria, it may not be practicable or appropriate to invest in a particular developing Asia-Pacific country. A Fund may invest in countries in which foreign investors, including management of the Fund, have had no or limited prior experience.

Restrictions on Foreign Investments in Asia-Pacific Countries. Some developing Asia-Pacific countries prohibit or impose substantial restrictions on investments in their capital markets, particularly their equity markets, by foreign entities such as a Fund. As illustrations, certain countries may require governmental approval prior to investments by foreign persons or limit the amount of investment by foreign persons in a particular company or limit the investment by foreign persons to only a specific class of securities of a company which may have less advantageous terms (including price and shareholder rights) than securities of the company available for purchase by nationals. There can be no assurance that a Fund will be able to obtain required governmental approvals in a timely manner. In addition, changes to restrictions on foreign ownership of securities subsequent to a Fund’s purchase of such securities may have an adverse effect on the value of such shares. Certain countries may restrict investment opportunities in issuers or industries deemed important to national interests.

The manner in which foreign investors may invest in companies in certain developing Asia-Pacific countries, as well as limitations on such investments, also may have an adverse impact on the operations of a Fund. For example, a Fund may be required in certain of such countries to invest initially through a local broker or other entity and then have the shares purchased re-registered in the name of the Fund. Re-registration may in some instances not be able to occur on a timely basis, resulting in a delay during which a Fund may be denied certain of its rights as an investor, including rights as to dividends or to be made aware of certain corporate actions. There also may be instances where a Fund places a purchase order but is subsequently informed, at the time of re-registration, that the permissible allocation of the investment to foreign investors has been filled, depriving the Fund of the ability to make its desired investment at that time.

Substantial limitations may exist in certain countries with respect to a Fund’s ability to repatriate investment income, capital or the proceeds of sales of securities by foreign investors. A Fund could be adversely affected by delays in, or a refusal to grant, any required governmental approval for repatriation of capital, as well as by the application to the Fund of any restrictions on investments. It is possible that certain countries may impose currency controls or other restrictions relating to their currencies or to securities of issuers in those countries. To the extent that such restrictions have the effect of making certain investments illiquid, securities may not be available for sale to meet redemptions. Depending on a variety of financial factors, the percentage of a Fund’s portfolio subject to currency controls may increase. In the event other countries impose similar controls, the portion of the Fund’s assets that may be used to meet redemptions may be further decreased. Even where there is no outright restriction on repatriation of capital, the mechanics of repatriation may affect certain aspects of the operations of a Fund (for example, if funds may be withdrawn only in certain currencies and/or only at an exchange rate established by the government).

In certain countries, banks or other financial institutions may be among the leading companies or have actively traded securities available for investment. The Investment Company Act restricts a Fund’s investments in any equity securities of an issuer that, in its most recent fiscal year, derived more than 15% of its revenues from “securities related activities,” as defined by the rules thereunder. These provisions may restrict a Fund’s investments in certain foreign banks and other financial institutions.

Political and economic structures in emerging market countries may be undergoing significant evolution and rapid development, and these countries may lack the social, political and economic stability characteristic of more developed countries. Some of these countries may have in the past failed to recognize private property rights and have at times nationalized or expropriated the assets of private companies. As a result the risks described above, including the risks of nationalization or expropriation of assets, may be heightened. In addition, unanticipated political or social developments may affect the value of investments in these countries and the availability to a Fund of additional investments in emerging market countries. The small size and inexperience of the securities markets in certain of these countries and the limited volume of trading in securities in these countries may make investments in the countries illiquid and more volatile than investments in Japan or most Western European countries. There may be little financial or accounting information available with respect to issuers located in certain emerging market countries, and it may be difficult to assess the value or prospects of an investment in such issuers.

 

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The expense ratios of the Funds investing significantly in foreign securities can be expected to be higher than those of Funds investing primarily in domestic securities. The costs attributable to investing abroad are usually higher for several reasons, such as the higher cost of custody of foreign securities, higher commissions paid on comparable transactions on foreign markets and additional costs arising from delays in settlements of transactions involving foreign securities.

Risks of Investments in Russia. A Fund may invest a portion of its assets in securities issued by companies located in Russia. The Russian securities market suffers from a variety of problems described above in “Investment in Emerging Markets” not encountered in more developed markets. The Russian securities market is relatively new, and a substantial portion of securities transactions are privately negotiated outside of stock exchanges. The inexperience of the Russian securities market and the limited volume of trading in securities in the market may make obtaining accurate prices on portfolio securities from independent sources more difficult than in more developed markets.

Because of the recent formation of the Russian securities markets, the underdeveloped state of Russia’s banking and telecommunication system and the legal and regulatory framework in Russia, settlement, clearing and registration of securities transactions are subject to additional risks. Prior to 2013, there was no central registration system for equity share registration in Russia and registration was carried out either by the issuers themselves or by registrars located throughout Russia. These registrars may not have been subject to effective state supervision or licensed with any governmental entity. In 2013, Russia established the National Settlement Depository (“NSD”) as a recognized central securities depository, and title to Russian equities is now based on the records of the NSD and not on the records of the local registrars. The implementation of the NSD is generally expected to decrease the risk of loss in connection with recording and transferring title to securities; however, loss may still occur. Additionally, issuers and registrars remain prominent in the validation and approval of documentation requirements for corporate action processing in Russia, and there remain inconsistent market standards in the Russian market with respect to the completion and submission of corporate action elections. To the extent that a Fund suffers a loss relating to title or corporate actions relating to its portfolio securities, it may be difficult for the Fund to enforce its rights or otherwise remedy the loss. In addition, Russia also may attempt to assert its influence in the region through economic or even military measures, as it did with Georgia in the summer of 2008 and the Ukraine in 2014. Such measures may have an adverse effect on the Russian economy, which may, in turn, negatively impact the Fund.

The United States and the Monetary Union of the European Union, along with the regulatory bodies of a number of countries including Japan, Australia, Norway, Switzerland and Canada (collectively, the “Sanctioning Bodies”), have imposed economic sanctions, which can consist of prohibiting certain securities trades, certain private transactions in the energy sector, asset freezes and prohibition of all business, against certain Russian individuals and Russian corporate entities. The Sanctioning Bodies could also institute broader sanctions on Russia. These sanctions, or even the threat of further sanctions, may result in the decline of the value and liquidity of Russian securities, a weakening of the ruble or other adverse consequences to the Russian economy. These sanctions could also result in the immediate freeze of Russian securities and/or funds invested in prohibited assets, impairing the ability of a Fund to buy, sell, receive or deliver those securities and/or assets. Sanctions could also result in Russia taking counter measures or retaliatory actions which may further impair the value and liquidity of Russian securities.

Risks of Investing in Saudi Arabia. The ability of foreign investors (such as a Fund) to invest in Saudi Arabian issuers is new and untested. Such ability could be restricted or revoked by the Saudi Arabian government at any time, and unforeseen risks could materialize due to foreign ownership in such securities. In addition, the Capital Market Authority (“CMA”) places investment limitations on the ownership of Saudi Arabian issuers by foreign investors, including a limitation on a Fund’s ownership of any single issuer listed on the Saudi Arabian Stock Exchange, which may prevent a Fund from investing in accordance with its strategy and contribute to tracking error against the Underlying Index. These restrictions may be changed or new restrictions, such as licensing requirements, special approvals or additional foreign taxes, may be instituted at any time. A Fund may not be able to obtain or maintain any such licenses or approvals and may not be able to buy and sell securities at full value. Major disruptions or regulatory changes could occur in the Saudi Arabian market, any of which could negatively impact a Fund. These risks may be exacerbated, compared to more developed markets, given the limited history of foreign investment in the Saudi Arabian market. Investments in Saudi Arabia may also be subject to loss due to expropriation or nationalization of assets and property or the imposition of restrictions on additional foreign investments and repatriation of capital. Such heightened risks may include, among others, restrictions on and government intervention in international trade, confiscatory taxation, political instability, including authoritarian and/or military involvement in governmental decision making, armed conflict, crime and instability as a result of religious, ethnic and/or socioeconomic unrest. Saudi Arabia has privatized, or has begun the process of privatizing, certain entities and industries. Newly privatized companies may face strong competition from government-sponsored competitors that have not

 

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been privatized. In some instances, investors in newly privatized entities have suffered losses due to the inability of the newly privatized entities to adjust quickly to a competitive environment or changing regulatory and legal standards or, in some cases, due to re-nationalization of such privatized entities. There is no assurance that similar losses will not recur. Further, under income tax laws imposed by the Department of Zakat and Income Tax, dividends paid by a Saudi Arabian company to foreign stockholders are generally subject to a 5% withholding tax (different tax rates may apply pursuant to an applicable treaty). Saudi Arabia is highly reliant on income from the sale of petroleum and trade with other countries involved in the sale of petroleum, and its economy is therefore vulnerable to changes in foreign currency values and the market for petroleum. As global demand for petroleum fluctuates, Saudi Arabia may be significantly impacted.

Like most Middle Eastern governments, the government of Saudi Arabia exercises substantial influence over many aspects of the private sector. Although liberalization in the wider economy is underway, in many areas it has lagged significantly: restrictions on foreign ownership persist, and the government has an ownership stake in many key industries. The situation is exacerbated by the fact that Saudi Arabia is governed by an absolute monarchy. Saudi Arabia has historically experienced strained relations with economic partners worldwide, including other countries in the Middle East due to geopolitical events. Incidents involving a Middle Eastern country’s or the region’s security, including terrorism, may cause uncertainty in their markets and may adversely affect its economy and a Fund’s investments. Governmental actions in the future could have a significant effect on economic conditions in Saudi Arabia, which could affect private sector companies and a Fund, as well as the value of securities in a Fund’s portfolio. Any economic sanctions on Saudi Arabian individuals or Saudi Arabian corporate entities, or even the threat of sanctions, may result in the decline of the value and liquidity of Saudi Arabian securities, a weakening of the Saudi riyal or other adverse consequences to the Saudi Arabian economy. In addition, Saudi Arabia’s economy relies heavily on cheap, foreign labor, and changes in the availability of this labor supply could have an adverse effect on the economy.

The securities markets in Saudi Arabia may not be as developed as those in other countries. As a result, securities markets in Saudi Arabia are subject to greater risks associated with market volatility, lower market capitalization, lower trading volume, illiquidity, inflation, greater price fluctuations, uncertainty regarding the existence of trading markets, governmental control and heavy regulation of labor and industry. Shares of certain Saudi Arabian companies tend to trade less frequently than those of companies on exchanges in more developed markets. Such infrequent trading may adversely affect the pricing of these securities and a Fund’s ability to sell these securities in the future. Current regulations in Saudi Arabian markets may require a Fund to execute trades of securities through a single broker. As a result, the Adviser will have less flexibility to choose among brokers on behalf of a Fund than is typically the case for investment managers.

Although the political situation in Saudi Arabia is largely stable, Saudi Arabia has historically experienced political instability, and there remains the possibility that the stability will not hold in the future or that instability in the larger Middle East region could adversely impact the economy of Saudi Arabia. Instability may be caused by military developments, government interventions in the marketplace, terrorism, extremist attitudes, attempted social or political reforms, religious differences, or other factors. Additionally, anti-Western views held by certain groups in the Middle East may influence government policies regarding foreign investment. Further developments in U.S. relations with Saudi Arabia and other Middle-Eastern countries may affect these attitudes and policies. The U.S. is a significant, and in some cases the most significant, trading partner of, or foreign investor in, Saudi Arabia. As a result, economic conditions of Saudi Arabia may be particularly affected by changes in the U.S. economy. A decrease in U.S. imports or exports, new trade and financial regulations or tariffs, changes in the U.S. dollar exchange rate or an economic slowdown in the U.S. may have a material adverse effect on the economic conditions of Saudi Arabia and, as a result, securities to which the Fund has exposure. Political instability in North Africa and the larger Middle East region has caused significant disruptions to many industries. Continued political and social unrest in these areas may negatively affect the value of securities in a Fund’s portfolio.

Certain issuers located in Saudi Arabia may operate in, or have dealings with, countries subject to sanctions and/or embargoes imposed by the U.S. government and the United Nations and/or countries identified by the U.S. government as state sponsors of terrorism. As a result, an issuer may sustain damage to its reputation if it is identified as an issuer which operates in, or has dealings with, such countries. A Fund, as an investor in such issuers will be indirectly subject to those risks.

Risks of Investing in Venezuela. Investment in Venezuela may subject a Fund to legal, regulatory, political, currency, security, expropriation and/or nationalization of assets and economic risk specific to Venezuela. Venezuela is extremely well endowed with natural resources and its economy is heavily dependent on export of natural resources to key trading partners. According to the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (“OPEC”), Venezuela boasts the world’s largest oil reserves. According to an industry report, Venezuela also has the continent’s largest natural gas reserves at an estimated 152 trillion cubic meters. Any act of

 

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terrorism, an armed conflict or a breakdown of a key trading relationship that disrupts the production or export of natural resources will likely negatively affect the Venezuelan economy. The government continues to control key sectors of the economy, including upstream oil and gas production, and has sought to increase its role in key sectors, such as telecommunications and steel. Meanwhile, ambiguities in the investment environment remain, such as continued high levels of bureaucracy and corruption, large macroeconomic imbalances, and political and policy uncertainty. Friction continues between the governments of the U.S. and Venezuela. The U.S. has imposed economic sanctions, which consist of asset freezes and sectoral sanctions, on certain Venezuelan individuals and Venezuelan corporate entities, and on the Venezuelan government. The U.S. could also institute broader sanctions on Venezuela. These sanctions, or even the threat of further sanctions, may result in the decline of the value and liquidity of Venezuelan securities, a weakening of the bolivar or other adverse consequences to the Venezuelan economy. These sanctions impair the ability of a Fund to buy, sell, receive or deliver those securities and/or assets. Additional sanctions against Venezuela may in the future be imposed by the U.S. or other countries. These factors, among others, can have a negative impact on a Fund’s investments.

Brady Bonds. Certain Funds may invest in Brady Bonds. A Fund’s emerging market debt securities may include emerging market governmental debt obligations commonly referred to as Brady Bonds. Brady Bonds are securities created through the exchange of existing commercial bank loans to sovereign entities for new obligations in connection with debt restructurings under a debt restructuring plan introduced by former U.S. Secretary of the Treasury, Nicholas F. Brady (the “Brady Plan”). Brady Plan debt restructurings have been implemented in a number of countries, including: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Bulgaria, Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Jordan, Mexico, Niger, Nigeria, Panama, Peru, the Philippines, Poland, Uruguay and Venezuela.

Brady Bonds may be collateralized or uncollateralized, are issued in various currencies (primarily the U.S. dollar) and are actively traded in the OTC secondary market. Brady Bonds are not considered to be U.S. Government Securities. U.S. dollar-denominated, collateralized Brady Bonds, which may be fixed rate par bonds or floating rate discount bonds, are generally collateralized in full as to principal by U.S. Treasury zero-coupon bonds having the same maturity as the Brady Bonds. Interest payments on these Brady Bonds generally are collateralized on a one-year or longer rolling-forward basis by cash or securities in an amount that, in the case of fixed rate bonds, is equal to at least one year of interest payments or, in the case of floating rate bonds, initially is equal to at least one year’s interest payments based on the applicable interest rate at that time and is adjusted at regular intervals thereafter. Certain Brady Bonds are entitled to “value recovery payments” in certain circumstances, which in effect constitute supplemental interest payments but generally are not collateralized. For example, some Mexican and Venezuelan Brady Bonds include attached value recovery options, which increase interest payments if oil revenues rise. Brady Bonds are often viewed as having three or four valuation components: (i) the collateralized repayment of principal at final maturity; (ii) the collateralized interest payments; (iii) the uncollateralized interest payments; and (iv) any uncollateralized repayment of principal at maturity (the uncollateralized amounts constitute the “residual risk”).

Most Mexican Brady Bonds issued to date have principal repayments at final maturity fully collateralized by U.S. Treasury zero-coupon bonds (or comparable collateral denominated in other currencies) and interest coupon payments collateralized on an 18-month rolling-forward basis by funds held in escrow by an agent for the bondholders. A significant portion of the Venezuelan Brady Bonds and the Argentine Brady Bonds issued to date have repayments at final maturity collateralized by U.S. Treasury zero-coupon bonds (or comparable collateral denominated in other currencies) and/or interest coupon payments collateralized on a 14-month (for Venezuela) or 12-month (for Argentina) rolling-forward basis by securities held by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York as collateral agent.

Brady Bonds involve various risk factors described above associated with investing in foreign securities, including the history of defaults with respect to commercial bank loans by public and private entities of countries issuing Brady Bonds. In light of the residual risk of Brady Bonds and, among other factors, the history of defaults, investments in Brady Bonds are considered speculative. There can be no assurance that Brady Bonds in which the Funds may invest will not be subject to restructuring arrangements or to requests for new credit, which may cause the Funds to suffer a loss of interest or principal on any of its holdings.

China Investments Risk.

Investments in securities of companies domiciled in the People’s Republic of China (“China” or the “PRC”) involve a high degree of risk and special considerations not typically associated with investing in the U.S. securities markets. Such heightened risks include, among others, an authoritarian government, popular unrest associated with demands for improved political, economic and social conditions, the impact of regional conflict on the economy and hostile relations with neighboring countries.

 

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Military conflicts, either in response to internal social unrest or conflicts with other countries, could disrupt economic development. The Chinese economy is vulnerable to the long-running disagreements and religious and nationalist disputes with Tibet and the Xinjiang region. Since 1997, there have been tensions between the Chinese government and many people in Hong Kong who perceive China as tightening control over Hong Kong’s semi-autonomous liberal political, economic, legal, and social framework. Recent protests and unrest have increased tensions even further. Due to the interconnected nature of the Hong Kong and Chinese economies, this instability in Hong Kong may cause uncertainty in the Hong Kong and Chinese markets. China has a complex territorial dispute regarding the sovereignty of Taiwan and has made threats of invasion; Taiwan-based companies and individuals are significant investors in China. Military conflict between China and Taiwan may adversely affect securities of Chinese issuers. In addition, China has strained international relations with Japan, India, Russia and other neighbors due to territorial disputes, historical animosities and other defense concerns. Additionally, China is alleged to have participated in state-sponsored cyberattacks against foreign companies and foreign governments. Actual and threatened responses to such activity and strained international relations, including purchasing restrictions, sanctions, tariffs or cyberattacks on the Chinese government or Chinese companies, may impact China’s economy and Chinese issuers of securities in which a Fund invests. China could be affected by military events on the Korean peninsula or internal instability within North Korea. These situations may cause uncertainty in the Chinese market and may adversely affect the performance of the Chinese economy.

The Chinese government has implemented significant economic reforms in order to liberalize trade policy, promote foreign investment in the economy, reduce government control of the economy and develop market mechanisms. However, there can be no assurance that these reforms will continue or that they will be effective. Despite reforms and privatizations of companies in certain sectors, the Chinese government still exercises substantial influence over many aspects of the private sector and may own or control many companies. Chinese companies, such as those in the financial services or technology sectors, and potentially other sectors in the future, are subject to the risk that Chinese authorities can intervene in their operations and structure. The Chinese government continues to maintain a major role in economic policy making and investing in China involves risks of losses due to expropriation, nationalization, confiscation of assets and property, and the imposition of restrictions on foreign investments and on repatriation of capital invested.

The Chinese government may intervene in the Chinese financial markets, such as by the imposition of trading restrictions, a ban on “naked” short selling or the suspension of short selling for certain stocks. This may affect market price and liquidity of these stocks, and may have an unpredictable impact on the investment activities of the Funds. Furthermore, such market interventions may have a negative impact on market sentiment which may in turn affect the performance of the securities markets and as a result the performance of the Funds.

In addition, there is less regulation and monitoring of the securities markets and the activities of investors, brokers and other participants in China than in the United States. Accordingly, issuers of securities in China are not subject to the same degree of regulation as those in the United States with respect to such matters as insider trading rules, tender offer regulation, stockholder proxy requirements and the requirements mandating timely and accurate disclosure of information. Stock markets in China are in the process of change and further development. This may lead to trading volatility, and difficulties in the settlement and recording of transactions and interpretation and application of the relevant regulations. Custodians may not be able to offer the level of service and safe-keeping in relation to the settlement and administration of securities in China that is customary in more developed markets.

In particular, there is a risk that a Fund may not be recognized as the owner of securities that are held on behalf of the Fund by a sub-custodian.

The Chinese government has taken positions that prevent the U.S. Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (“PCAOB”) from inspecting the audit work and practices of accounting firms in mainland China and Hong Kong for compliance with U.S. law and professional standards. Audits performed by PCAOB- registered accounting firms in mainland China and Hong Kong may be less reliable than those performed by firms subject to PCAOB inspection. Accordingly, information about the Chinese securities in which the Funds invest may be less reliable or complete. Under amendments to the Sarbanes-Oxley Act enacted in December 2020, which requires that the PCAOB be permitted to inspect the accounting firm of a U.S.-listed Chinese issuer, Chinese companies with securities listed on U.S. exchanges may be delisted if the PCAOB is unable to inspect the accounting firm.

The Renminbi (“RMB”) is currently not a freely convertible currency and is subject to foreign exchange control policies and repatriation restrictions imposed by the Chinese government. The imposition of currency controls may negatively impact performance and liquidity of the Funds as capital may become trapped in the PRC. The Funds could be adversely affected by

 

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delays in, or a refusal to grant, any required governmental approval for repatriation of capital, as well as by the application to the Funds of any restrictions on investments. Investing in entities either in, or which have a substantial portion of their operations in, the PRC may require the Funds to adopt special procedures, seek local government approvals or take other actions, each of which may involve additional costs and delays to the Funds.

While the Chinese economy has grown rapidly in recent years, there is no assurance that this growth rate will be maintained. China may experience substantial rates of inflation or economic recessions, causing a negative effect on its economy and securities market. China’s economy is heavily dependent on export growth. Reduction in spending on Chinese products and services, institution of tariffs or other trade barriers or a downturn in any of the economies of China’s key trading partners may have an adverse impact on the securities of Chinese issuers. The tax laws and regulations in the PRC are subject to change, including the issuance of authoritative guidance or enforcement, possibly with retroactive effect. The interpretation, applicability and enforcement of such laws by the PRC tax authorities are not as consistent and transparent as those of more developed nations, and may vary over time and from region to region. The application and enforcement of the PRC tax rules could have a significant adverse effect on a Fund and its investors, particularly in relation to capital gains withholding tax imposed upon non-residents. In addition, the accounting, auditing and financial reporting standards and practices applicable to Chinese companies may be less rigorous, and may result in significant differences between financial statements prepared in accordance with PRC accounting standards and practices and those prepared in accordance with international accounting standards.

From time to time and in recent months, China has experienced outbreaks of infectious illnesses and the country may be subject to other public health threats, infectious illnesses, diseases or similar issues in the future. Any spread of an infectious illness, public health threat or similar issue could reduce consumer demand or economic output, result in market closures, travel restrictions or quarantines, and generally have a significant impact on the Chinese economy, which in turn could adversely affect a Fund’s investments.

Risk of Investing through Stock Connect. China A-shares are equity securities of companies domiciled in China that trade on Chinese stock exchanges such as the Shanghai Stock Exchange (“SSE”) and the Shenzhen Stock Exchange (“SZSE”) (“A-shares”). Foreign investment in A-shares on the SSE and SZSE has historically not been permitted, other than through a license granted under regulations in the PRC known as the Qualified Foreign Institutional Investor and Renminbi Qualified Foreign Institutional Investor systems.

Investment in eligible A-shares listed and traded on the SSE or SZSE is also permitted through the Shanghai-Hong Kong Stock Connect program or the Shenzhen-Hong Kong Stock Connect program, as applicable (each, a “Stock Connect” and collectively, “Stock Connects”). Each Stock Connect is a securities trading and clearing links program established by The Stock Exchange of Hong Kong Limited (“SEHK”), the Hong Kong Securities Clearing Company Limited (“HKSCC”), the SSE or SZSE, as applicable, and China Securities Depository and Clearing Corporation Limited (“CSDCC”) that aims to provide mutual stock market access between the PRC and Hong Kong by permitting investors to trade and settle shares on each market through their local securities brokers. Under Stock Connects, a Fund’s trading of eligible A-shares listed on the SSE or SZSE, as applicable, would be effectuated through its Hong Kong broker and a securities trading service company established by SEHK.

Although no individual investment quotas or licensing requirements apply to investors in Stock Connects, trading through a Stock Connect’s Northbound Trading Link is subject to daily investment quota limitations which require that buy orders for A-shares be rejected once the daily quota is exceeded (although a Fund will be permitted to sell A-shares regardless of the quota). These limitations may restrict a Fund from investing in A-shares on a timely basis, which could affect the Fund’s ability to effectively pursue its investment strategy. Investment quotas are also subject to change. Investment in eligible A-shares through a Stock Connect is subject to trading, clearance and settlement procedures that could pose risks to a Fund. A-shares purchased through Stock Connects generally may not be sold or otherwise transferred other than through Stock Connects in accordance with applicable rules. For example, the PRC regulations require that in order for an investor to sell any A-share on a certain trading day, there must be sufficient A-shares in the investor’s account before the market opens on that day. If there are insufficient A-shares in the investor’s account, the sell order will be rejected by the SSE or SZSE, as applicable. SEHK carries out pre-trade checking on sell orders of certain stocks listed on the SSE market (“SSE Securities”) or SZSE market (“SZSE Securities”) of its participants (i.e., stock brokers) to ensure that this requirement is satisfied. While shares must be designated as eligible to be traded under a Stock Connect, those shares may also lose such designation, and if this occurs, such shares may be sold but cannot be purchased through a Stock Connect. In addition, Stock Connects will only operate on days when both the Chinese and Hong Kong markets are open for trading, and banking services are available in both markets on the corresponding settlement days. Therefore, an investment in A-shares through a Stock Connect may subject a Fund to a risk of price fluctuations on days when the

 

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Chinese market is open, but a Stock Connect is not trading. Moreover, day (turnaround) trading is not permitted on the A-shares market. If an investor buys A-shares on day “T,” the investor will only be able to sell the A-shares on or after day T+1. Further, since all trades of eligible A-shares must be settled in RMB, investors must have timely access to a reliable supply of offshore RMB, which cannot be guaranteed. There is also no assurance that RMB will not be subject to devaluation. Any devaluation of RMB could adversely affect a Fund’s investments. If a Fund holds a class of shares denominated in a local currency other than RMB, the Fund will be exposed to currency exchange risk if the Fund converts the local currency into RMB for investments in A-shares. A Fund may also incur conversion costs.

A-shares held through the nominee structure under a Stock Connect will be held through HKSCC as nominee on behalf of investors. The precise nature and rights of a Fund as the beneficial owner of the SSE Securities or SZSE Securities through HKSCC as nominee is not well defined under the PRC laws. There is a lack of a clear definition of, and distinction between, legal ownership and beneficial ownership under the PRC laws and there have been few cases involving a nominee account structure in the PRC courts. The exact nature and methods of enforcement of the rights and interests of a Fund under the PRC laws is also uncertain. In the unlikely event that HKSCC becomes subject to winding up proceedings in Hong Kong, there is a risk that the SSE Securities or SZSE Securities may not be regarded as held for the beneficial ownership of a Fund or as part of the general assets of HKSCC available for general distribution to its creditors. Notwithstanding the fact that HKSCC does not claim proprietary interests in the SSE Securities or SZSE Securities held in its omnibus stock account in the CSDCC, the CSDCC as the share registrar for SSE- or SZSE-listed companies will still treat HKSCC as one of the shareholders when it handles corporate actions in respect of such SSE Securities or SZSE Securities. HKSCC monitors the corporate actions affecting SSE Securities and SZSE Securities and keeps participants of Central Clearing and Settlement System (“CCASS”) informed of all such corporate actions that require CCASS participants to take steps in order to participate in them. Investors may only exercise their voting rights by providing their voting instructions to HKSCC through participants of CCASS. All voting instructions from CCASS participants will be consolidated by HKSCC, who will then submit a combined single voting instruction to the relevant SSE- or SZSE-listed company.

A Fund’s investments through a Stock Connect’s Northbound Trading Link are not covered by Hong Kong’s Investor Compensation Fund. Hong Kong’s Investor Compensation Fund is established to pay compensation to investors of any nationality who suffer pecuniary losses as a result of default of a licensed intermediary or authorized financial institution in relation to exchange-traded products in Hong Kong. In addition, since a Fund carries out Northbound Trading through securities brokers in Hong Kong but not PRC brokers, it is not protected by the China Securities Investor Protection Fund in the PRC.

Market participants are able to participate in Stock Connects subject to meeting certain information technology capability, risk management and other requirements as may be specified by the relevant exchange and/or clearing house. Further, the “connectivity” in Stock Connects requires routing of orders across the border of Hong Kong and the PRC. This requires the development of new information technology systems on the part of SEHK and exchange participants. There is no assurance that the systems of SEHK and market participants will function properly or will continue to be adapted to changes and developments in both markets. In the event that the relevant systems fail to function properly, trading in A-shares through Stock Connects could be disrupted.

The Shanghai-Hong Kong Stock Connect program launched in November 2014 and the Shenzhen-Hong Kong Stock Connect program launched in December 2016 are both in their initial stages. There is no certainty as to how the current regulations will be applied or interpreted going forward, and new or revised regulations may be issued from time to time by the regulators and stock exchanges in China and Hong Kong in connection with operations, legal enforcement and cross-border trades under Stock Connects. In addition, there can be no assurance that Stock Connect will not be discontinued. A Fund may be adversely affected as a result of such changes. Furthermore, the securities regimes and legal systems of China and Hong Kong differ significantly and issues may arise from the differences on an on-going basis. In the event that the relevant systems fail to function properly, trading in both markets through Stock Connects could be disrupted and a Fund’s ability to achieve its investment objective may be adversely affected. In addition, a Fund’s investments in A-shares through Stock Connects are generally subject to Chinese securities regulations and listing rules, among other restrictions. Further, different fees, costs and taxes are imposed on foreign investors acquiring A-shares through Stock Connects, and these fees, costs and taxes may be higher than comparable fees, costs and taxes imposed on owners of other securities providing similar investment exposure.

The Funds may also invest in Chinese companies listed on U.S. exchanges, such as ADRs or variable interest entities (“VIEs”), which are subject to the investment risks associated with the underlying Chinese issuer or operating company. Chinese operating companies listed on U.S. exchanges are often structured as VIEs. Instead of directly owning the equity securities of a Chinese

 

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company, a VIE enters into service contracts and other contracts with the Chinese company, which provide the VIE with exposure to the company. Although the VIE has no equity ownership of the Chinese operating company, the contractual arrangements permit the VIE to consolidate the Chinese operating company into its financial statements. Intervention by the Chinese government with respect to VIEs could significantly affect the Chinese operating company’s performance and the enforceability of the VIE’s contractual arrangements with the Chinese company.

A-Share Market Suspension Risk. A-shares may only be bought from, or sold to, a Fund at times when the relevant A-shares may be sold or purchased on the relevant Chinese stock exchange. The A-shares market has a higher propensity for trading suspensions than many other global equity markets. Trading suspensions in certain stocks could lead to greater market execution risk and costs for a Fund. The SSE and SZSE currently apply a daily price limit, generally set at 10%, of the amount of fluctuation permitted in the prices of A-shares during a single trading day. The daily price limit refers to price movements only and does not restrict trading within the relevant limit. There can be no assurance that a liquid market on an exchange will exist for any particular A-share or for any particular time.

Risk of Investing in the China Interbank Bond Market through Bond Connect. A Fund may invest directly in the domestic bond market in the PRC (the “China Interbank Bond Market”) through the northbound trading of Bond Connect (“Bond Connect”). Bond Connect is an initiative launched in July 2017 for mutual bond market access between the PRC and Hong Kong, established by the China Foreign Exchange Trade System & National Interbank Funding Centre (“CFETS”), China Central Depository & Clearing Co., Ltd (“CDCC”), Shanghai Clearing House (“SCH”), Hong Kong Exchanges and Clearing Limited (“HKEX”) and Central Moneymarkets Unit (“CMU”). Under the prevailing regulations in the PRC, eligible foreign investors are allowed to invest in the bonds circulated in the China Interbank Bond Market through Bond Connect. Eligible foreign investors may submit trade requests for bonds circulated in the China Interbank Bond Market through offshore electronic bond trading platforms (such as Tradeweb), which will in turn transmit their requests for quotation to CFETS. CFETS will send the requests for quotation to a number of approved onshore dealers (including market makers and others engaged in the market making business) in the PRC. The approved onshore dealer(s) will respond to the requests for quotation via CFETS and CFETS will send their responses to those eligible foreign investors through the same offshore electronic bond trading platforms. Once the eligible foreign investor accepts the quotation, the trade is concluded on CFETS.

The settlement and custody of bonds traded in the China Interbank Bond Market under Bond Connect will be effected through the settlement and custody link between CMU, as an offshore custody agent, and CDCC and SCH, as onshore custodians and clearing institutions in the PRC. Under the settlement link, CDCC or SCH will effect gross settlement of confirmed trades onshore and CMU will process bond settlement instructions from CMU members on behalf of eligible foreign investors in accordance with its relevant rules. Since the introduction in August 2018 of delivery versus payment (DVP) settlement in respect of Bond Connect, the movement of cash and securities is carried out simultaneously on a real-time basis. Pursuant to the prevailing regulations in the PRC, CMU, as the offshore custody agent recognized by the Hong Kong Monetary Authority, will open omnibus nominee accounts with the onshore custody agent recognized by the People’s Bank of China (i.e., CDCC and SCH). All bonds traded by eligible foreign investors through Bond Connect will be registered in the name of CMU, which will hold such bonds as a nominee owner. Therefore, a Fund will be exposed to custody risks with respect to CMU. In addition, as the relevant filings, registration with the People’s Bank of China, and account opening have to be carried out by third parties, including CMU, CDCC, SCH, and CFETS, a Fund is subject to the risks of default or errors on the part of such third parties.

The precise nature and rights of a Fund as the beneficial owner of the bonds traded in the China Interbank Bond Market through CMU as nominee is not well-defined under PRC law. There is a lack of a clear definition of, and distinction between, legal ownership and beneficial ownership under PRC law and there have been few cases involving a nominee account structure in the PRC courts. The exact nature and methods of enforcement of the rights and interests of a Fund under PRC law are also uncertain.

Market volatility and potential lack of liquidity due to low trading volume of certain bonds in the China Interbank Bond Market may result in prices of certain bonds traded on such market fluctuating significantly. A Fund investing in such market is therefore subject to liquidity and volatility risks. The bid-ask spreads of the prices of such securities may be large, and a Fund may therefore incur significant costs and may suffer losses when selling such investments. The bonds traded in the China Interbank Bond Market may be difficult or impossible to sell, which may impact a Fund’s ability to acquire or dispose of such securities at their expected prices.

Investing in the China Interbank Bond Market through Bond Connect is also subject to regulatory risks. The relevant rules and regulations are subject to change, which may have potential retrospective effect, and there can be no assurance that Bond Connect

 

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will not be discontinued or abolished. Furthermore, the securities regimes and legal systems of China and Hong Kong differ significantly and issues may arise based on these differences. In the event that the relevant authorities suspend account opening or trading on the China Interbank Bond Market, a Fund’s ability to invest in the China Interbank Bond Market will be adversely affected and limited. In such event, the Fund’s ability to achieve its investment objective will be negatively affected and, after exhausting other trading alternatives, the Fund may suffer substantial losses as a result. Further, if Bond Connect is not operating, a Fund may not be able to acquire or dispose of bonds through Bond Connect in a timely manner, which could adversely affect the Fund’s performance.

Trading through Bond Connect is performed through newly developed trading platforms and operational systems. There is no assurance that such systems will function properly or will continue to be adapted to changes and developments in the market. In the event that the relevant systems fail to function properly, trading through Bond Connect may be disrupted. A Fund’s ability to trade through Bond Connect (and hence to pursue its investment strategy) may therefore be adversely affected. In addition, where a Fund invests in the China Interbank Bond Market through Bond Connect, it may be subject to risks of delays inherent in the order placing and/or settlement systems.

Bond Connect trades are settled in Chinese currency, the RMB, which is currently restricted and not freely convertible. As a result, a Fund will be exposed to currency risk, and it cannot be guaranteed that investors will have timely access to a reliable supply of RMB.

Tax Risk. Under prevailing tax regulations, a 10% withholding tax is imposed on PRC-sourced dividends and interest from non-government bonds paid to a Fund unless the rate is reduced under an applicable tax treaty. From May 1, 2016, Value Added Tax (“VAT”) is levied on certain income derived by a Fund, including interest income from non-government bonds and trading gains, unless specifically exempted by the PRC tax authorities. VAT exemptions currently apply to debt securities traded in the China Interbank Bond Market.

On November 22, 2018, the PRC’s Ministry of Finance and State Administration of Taxation jointly issued Circular 108 providing foreign institutional investors with a temporary exemption from withholding income tax and VAT with respect to interest income derived from non-government bonds in the domestic bond market for the period from November 7, 2018 to November 6, 2021. Circular 108 is silent on the PRC tax treatment with respect to non-government bond interest derived prior to November 7, 2018.

There is a risk the PRC tax authorities may withdraw the temporary tax exemptions in the future and seek to collect withholding income tax and VAT on interest income from non-government bonds to a Fund without prior notice. If the tax exemptions are withdrawn, any taxes arising from or to a Fund may be directly borne by or indirectly passed on to the Fund and may result in a substantial impact to its NAV. As with any NAV adjustment, investors may be advantaged or disadvantaged depending on when the investors purchased or sold shares of the Fund.

Any changes in PRC tax law, future clarifications thereof, and/or subsequent retroactive enforcement by the PRC tax authorities may result in a loss which could be material to a Fund. BlackRock will keep the provisioning policy for tax liability under review and may, in its discretion from time to time, make a provision for potential tax liabilities if in its opinion such provision is warranted or as further publicly clarified by the PRC.

Investment in Other Investment Companies. Each Fund may, subject to applicable law, invest in other investment companies (including investment companies managed by BlackRock and its affiliates), including money market funds and exchange-traded funds (“ETFs”), which are typically open-end funds or unit investment trusts listed on a stock exchange. Under the Investment Company Act, however, a Fund may invest up to 10% of its total assets in securities of other investment companies (measured at the time of such investment). In addition, under the Investment Company Act a Fund may not acquire securities of an investment company if such acquisition would cause the Fund to own more than 3% of the total outstanding voting stock of such investment company and a Fund may not invest in another investment company if such investment would cause more than 5% of the value of the Fund’s total assets to be invested in securities of such investment company. (These limits do not restrict a Feeder Fund from investing all of its assets in shares of its Master Portfolio.) In addition to the restrictions on investing in other investment companies discussed above, a Fund may not invest in a registered closed-end investment company if such investment would cause the Fund and other BlackRock-advised investment companies to own more than 10% of the total outstanding voting stock of such closed-end investment company. Pursuant to the Investment Company Act (or alternatively, pursuant to exemptive orders received from the Commission) these percentage limitations do not apply to investments in affiliated money market funds, and under certain circumstances, do not apply to investments in affiliated investment companies, including ETFs. In addition, many

 

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third-party ETFs have obtained exemptive relief from the Commission to permit unaffiliated funds (such as the Funds) to invest in their shares beyond the statutory limits, subject to certain conditions and pursuant to contractual arrangements between the ETFs and the investing funds. A Fund may rely on these exemptive orders in investing in ETFs. Further, under certain circumstances a Fund may be able to rely on certain provisions of the Investment Company Act to invest in shares of unaffiliated investment companies beyond the statutory limits noted above, but subject to certain other statutory restrictions.

As with other investments, investments in other investment companies are subject to market and selection risk.

Shares of investment companies, such as closed-end fund investment companies, that trade on an exchange may at times be acquired at market prices representing premiums to their NAVs. In addition, investment companies held by a Fund that trade on an exchange could trade at a discount from NAV, and such discount could increase while the Fund holds the shares. If the market price of shares of an exchange-traded investment company decreases below the price that the Fund paid for the shares and the Fund were to sell its shares of such investment company at a time when the market price is lower than the price at which it purchased the shares, the Fund would experience a loss.

In addition, if a Fund acquires shares in investment companies, including affiliated investment companies, shareholders would bear both their proportionate share of expenses in the Fund and, indirectly, the expenses of such investment companies. Such expenses, both at the Fund level and acquired investment company level, would include management and advisory fees, unless such fees have been waived by BlackRock. Please see the relevant Fund’s Prospectus to determine whether any such management and advisory fees have been waived by BlackRock. Investments by a Fund in wholly owned investment entities created under the laws of certain countries will not be deemed an investment in other investment companies. Pursuant to guidance issued by the staff of the Commission, fees and expenses of money market funds used for the investment of cash collateral received in connection with loans of Fund securities are not treated as “acquired fund fees and expenses,” which are fees and expenses charged by other investment companies and pooled investment vehicles in which a Fund invests a portion of its assets.

To the extent shares of a Fund are held by an affiliated fund, the ability of the Fund itself to purchase other affiliated investment companies may be limited. In addition, a fund-of-funds (e.g., an investment company that seeks to meet its investment objective by investing significantly in other investment companies) may be limited in its ability to purchase affiliated underlying funds if such affiliated underlying funds themselves own shares of affiliated funds.

A number of publicly traded closed-end investment companies have been organized to facilitate indirect foreign investment in developing countries, and certain of such countries, such as Thailand, South Korea, Chile and Brazil, have specifically authorized such funds. There also are investment opportunities in certain of such countries in pooled vehicles that resemble open-end investment companies. The restrictions on investments in securities of investment companies set forth above may limit opportunities for a Fund to invest indirectly in certain developing countries.

Lease Obligations. A Fund may hold participation certificates in a lease, an installment purchase contract, or a conditional sales contract (“lease obligations”). The Manager will monitor the credit standing of each borrower and each entity providing credit support and/or a put option relating to lease obligations.

LIBOR Risk. A Fund may be exposed to financial instruments that are tied to the London Interbank Offered Rate (previously defined as “LIBOR”) to determine payment obligations, financing terms, hedging strategies or investment value. A Fund’s investments may pay interest at floating rates based on LIBOR or may be subject to interest caps or floors based on LIBOR. A Fund may also obtain financing at floating rates based on LIBOR. Derivative instruments utilized by a Fund may also reference LIBOR.

The United Kingdom’s Financial Conduct Authority announced a phase out of LIBOR such that after December 31, 2021, all sterling, euro, Swiss franc and Japanese yen LIBOR settings and the 1-week and 2-month U.S. dollar LIBOR settings will cease to be published or will no longer be representative, and after June 30, 2023, the overnight, 1-month, 3-month, 6-month and 12-month U.S. dollar LIBOR settings will cease to be published or will no longer be representative. A Fund may have investments linked to other interbank offered rates, such as the Euro Overnight Index Average (“EONIA”), which may also cease to be published. Various financial industry groups have begun planning for the transition away from LIBOR, but there are challenges to converting certain securities and transactions to a new reference rate (e.g., the Secured Overnight Financing Rate (“SOFR”), which is intended to replace the U.S. dollar LIBOR).

Neither the effect of the LIBOR transition process nor its ultimate success can yet be known. The transition process might lead to increased volatility and illiquidity in markets for, and reduce the effectiveness of new hedges placed against, instruments whose

 

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terms currently include LIBOR. While some existing LIBOR-based instruments may contemplate a scenario where LIBOR is no longer available by providing for an alternative rate-setting methodology, there may be significant uncertainty regarding the effectiveness of any such alternative methodologies to replicate LIBOR. Not all existing LIBOR-based instruments may have alternative rate-setting provisions and there remains uncertainty regarding the willingness and ability of issuers to add alternative rate-setting provisions in certain existing instruments. In addition, a liquid market for newly-issued instruments that use a reference rate other than LIBOR still may be developing. There may also be challenges for a Fund to enter into hedging transactions against such newly-issued instruments until a market for such hedging transactions develops. All of the aforementioned may adversely affect a Fund’s performance or NAV.

Life Settlement Investments. A Fund may invest in life settlements, which are sales to third parties, such as the Fund, of existing life insurance contracts for more than their cash surrender value but less than the net benefits to be paid under the policies. When a Fund acquires such a contract, it pays the policy premiums in return for the expected receipt of the net benefit as the beneficiary under the policy. Investments in these contracts involve certain risks, including liquidity risk, credit risk of the insurance company, and inaccurate estimations of life expectancy of the insured individuals (viators). These policies may be considered illiquid because they are bought and sold in a secondary market through life settlement agents. Also, in the event of a bankruptcy of the insurance carrier for a policy, the Fund may receive reduced or no benefits under the contract. A Fund seeks to minimize credit risk by investing in policies issued by a diverse range of highly-rated insurance carriers. Furthermore, a Fund may encounter losses on its investments if there is an inaccurate estimation of the life expectancies of viators. A Fund intends to reduce this life expectancy risk by investing only in contracts where the life expectancy was reviewed by an experienced actuary, as well as by diversifying its investments across viators of varying ages and medical profiles. In addition, it is unclear whether the income from life settlements is qualifying income for purposes of the Internal Revenue Service (the “IRS”) 90% gross income test a Fund must satisfy each year to qualify as a regulated investment company. A Fund intends to monitor its investments to ensure that the Fund remains qualified as a regulated investment company.

Liquidity Risk Management. Rule 22e-4 under the Investment Company Act (the “Liquidity Rule”) requires open-end funds, such as the Funds, to adopt a liquidity risk management program and enhance disclosures regarding fund liquidity. As required by the Liquidity Rule, the Funds have implemented a liquidity risk management program (the “Liquidity Program”), and the Boards of Directors of the Funds, including a majority of the independent Directors, have appointed the Manager as the liquidity risk program administrator of the Liquidity Program. Under the Liquidity Program, the Manager assesses, manages, and periodically reviews each Fund’s liquidity risk and classifies each investment held by a Fund as a “highly liquid investment,” “moderately liquid investment,” “less liquid investment” or “illiquid investment.” The Liquidity Rule defines “liquidity risk” as the risk that a Fund could not meet requests to redeem shares issued by the Fund without significant dilution of the remaining investors’ interests in the Fund. The liquidity of a Fund’s portfolio investments is determined based on relevant market, trading and investment-specific considerations under the Liquidity Program. To the extent that an investment is deemed to be an illiquid investment or a less liquid investment, a Fund can expect to be exposed to greater liquidity risk.

Master Limited Partnerships. Certain Funds may invest in publicly traded master limited partnerships (“MLPs”) which are limited partnerships or limited liability companies taxable as partnerships. MLPs may derive income and gains from the exploration, development, mining or production, processing, refining, transportation (including pipelines transporting gas, oil, or products thereof), or the marketing of any mineral or natural resources. MLPs generally have two classes of owners, the general partner and limited partners. When investing in an MLP, a Fund intends to purchase publicly traded common units issued to limited partners of the MLP. The general partner is typically owned by a major energy company, an investment fund, the direct management of the MLP or is an entity owned by one or more of such parties. The general partner may be structured as a private or publicly traded corporation or other entity. The general partner typically controls the operations and management of the MLP through an up to 2% equity interest in the MLP plus, in many cases, ownership of common units and subordinated units. Limited partners own the remainder of the partnership, through ownership of common units, and have a limited role in the partnership’s operations and management.

MLPs are typically structured such that common units and general partner interests have first priority to receive quarterly cash distributions up to an established minimum amount (“minimum quarterly distributions” or “MQD”). Common and general partner interests also accrue arrearages in distributions to the extent the MQD is not paid. Once common and general partner interests have been paid, subordinated units receive distributions of up to the MQD; however, subordinated units do not accrue arrearages. Distributable cash in excess of the MQD paid to both common and subordinated units is distributed to both common and subordinated units generally on a pro rata basis. The general partner is also eligible to receive incentive distributions if the

 

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general partner operates the business in a manner which results in distributions paid per common unit surpassing specified target levels. As the general partner increases cash distributions to the limited partners, the general partner receives an increasingly higher percentage of the incremental cash distributions. A common arrangement provides that the general partner can reach a tier where it receives 50% of every incremental dollar paid to common and subordinated unit holders. These incentive distributions encourage the general partner to streamline costs, increase capital expenditures and acquire assets in order to increase the partnership’s cash flow and raise the quarterly cash distribution in order to reach higher tiers. Such results benefit all security holders of the MLP.

MLP common units represent a limited partnership interest in the MLP. Common units are listed and traded on U.S. securities exchanges, with their value fluctuating predominantly based on prevailing market conditions and the success of the MLP. Certain Funds intend to purchase common units in market transactions. Unlike owners of common stock of a corporation, owners of common units have limited voting rights and have no ability to annually elect directors. In the event of liquidation, common units have preference over subordinated units, but not over debt or preferred units, to the remaining assets of the MLP.

Merger Transaction Risk. A Fund may buy stock of the target company in an announced merger transaction prior to the consummation of such transaction. In that circumstance, a Fund would expect to receive an amount (whether in cash, stock of the acquiring company or a combination of both) in excess of the purchase price paid by the Fund for the target company’s stock. However, a Fund is subject to the risk that the merger transaction may be canceled, delayed or restructured, in which case a Fund’s holding of the target company’s stock may not result in any profit for the Fund and may lose significant value.

Money Market Obligations of Domestic Banks, Foreign Banks and Foreign Branches of U.S. Banks. Certain Funds may purchase bank obligations, such as certificates of deposit, notes, bankers’ acceptances and time deposits, including instruments issued or supported by the credit of U.S. or foreign banks or savings institutions having total assets at the time of purchase in excess of $1 billion. These obligations may be general obligations of the parent bank or may be limited to the issuing branch or subsidiary by the terms of a specific obligation or by government regulation. The assets of a bank or savings institution will be deemed to include the assets of its domestic and foreign branches for purposes of a Fund’s investment policies. Investments in short-term bank obligations may include obligations of foreign banks and domestic branches of foreign banks, and also foreign branches of domestic banks.

To the extent consistent with their investment objectives, a Fund may invest in debt obligations of domestic or foreign corporations and banks, and may acquire commercial obligations issued by Canadian corporations and Canadian counterparts of U.S. corporations, as well as Europaper, which is U.S. dollar-denominated commercial paper of a foreign issuer.

Money Market Securities. Certain Funds may invest in a broad range of short-term, high quality, U.S. dollar-denominated instruments, such as government, bank, commercial and other obligations that are available in the money markets. In particular, the Funds may invest in:

 

  (a)

U.S. dollar-denominated obligations issued or supported by the credit of U.S. or foreign banks or savings institutions with total assets in excess of $1 billion (including obligations of foreign branches of such banks);

 

  (b)

high quality commercial paper and other obligations issued or guaranteed by U.S. and foreign corporations and other issuers rated (at the time of purchase) A-2 or higher by S&P, Prime-2 or higher by Moody’s or F-2 or higher by Fitch, as well as high quality corporate bonds rated (at the time of purchase) A or higher by those rating agencies;

 

  (c)

unrated notes, paper and other instruments that are of comparable quality to the instruments described in (b) above as determined by the Fund’s Manager;

 

  (d)

asset-backed securities (including interests in pools of assets such as mortgages, installment purchase obligations and credit card receivables);

 

  (e)

securities issued or guaranteed as to principal and interest by the U.S. Government or by its agencies or authorities and related custodial receipts;

 

  (f)

dollar-denominated securities issued or guaranteed by foreign governments or their political subdivisions, agencies or authorities;

 

  (g)

funding agreements issued by highly-rated U.S. insurance companies;

 

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  (h)

securities issued or guaranteed by state or local governmental bodies;

 

  (i)

repurchase agreements relating to the above instruments;

 

  (j)

municipal bonds and notes whose principal and interest payments are guaranteed by the U.S. Government or one of its agencies or authorities or which otherwise depend directly or indirectly on the credit of the United States;

 

  (k)

fixed and variable rate notes and similar debt instruments rated MIG-2, VMIG-2 or Prime-2 or higher by Moody’s, SP-2 or A-2 or higher by S&P, or F-2 or higher by Fitch;

 

  (l)

tax-exempt commercial paper and similar debt instruments rated Prime-2 or higher by Moody’s, A-2 or higher by S&P, or F-2 or higher by Fitch;

 

  (m)

municipal bonds rated A or higher by Moody’s, S&P or Fitch;

 

  (n)

unrated notes, paper or other instruments that are of comparable quality to the instruments described above, as determined by the Fund’s Manager under guidelines established by the Board; and

 

  (o)

municipal bonds and notes which are guaranteed as to principal and interest by the U.S. Government or an agency or instrumentality thereof or which otherwise depend directly or indirectly on the credit of the United States.

Mortgage-Related Securities.

Mortgage-Backed Securities. Mortgage-backed securities represent interests in pools of mortgages in which payments of both principal and interest on the securities are generally made monthly, in effect “passing through” monthly payments made by borrowers on the residential or commercial mortgage loans that underlie the securities (net of any fees paid to the issuer or guarantor of the securities). Mortgage-backed securities differ from other forms of debt securities, which normally provide for periodic payment of interest in fixed amounts with principal payments at maturity or specified call dates.

Mortgage-backed securities are subject to the general risks associated with investing in real estate securities; that is, they may lose value if the value of the underlying real estate to which a pool of mortgages relates declines. In addition, investments in mortgage-backed securities involve certain specific risks. These risks include the failure of a party to meet its commitments under the related operative documents, adverse interest rate changes and the effects of prepayments on mortgage cash flows. Mortgage-backed securities are “pass-through” securities, meaning that principal and interest payments made by the borrower on the underlying mortgages are passed through to a Fund. The value of mortgage-backed securities, like that of traditional fixed-income securities, typically increases when interest rates fall and decreases when interest rates rise. However, mortgage-backed securities differ from traditional fixed-income securities because of their potential for prepayment without penalty. The price paid by a Fund for its mortgage-backed securities, the yield the Fund expects to receive from such securities and the weighted average life of the securities are based on a number of factors, including the anticipated rate of prepayment of the underlying mortgages. In a period of declining interest rates, borrowers may prepay the underlying mortgages more quickly than anticipated, thereby reducing the yield to maturity and the average life of the mortgage-backed securities. Moreover, when a Fund reinvests the proceeds of a prepayment in these circumstances, it will likely receive a rate of interest that is lower than the rate on the security that was prepaid.

To the extent that a Fund purchases mortgage-backed securities at a premium, mortgage foreclosures and principal prepayments may result in a loss to the extent of the premium paid. If a Fund buys such securities at a discount, both scheduled payments of principal and unscheduled prepayments will increase current and total returns and will accelerate the recognition of income, which, when distributed to shareholders, will be taxable as ordinary income. In a period of rising interest rates, prepayments of the underlying mortgages may occur at a slower than expected rate, creating maturity extension risk. This particular risk may effectively change a security that was considered short- or intermediate-term at the time of purchase into a long-term security. Since the value of long-term securities generally fluctuates more widely in response to changes in interest rates than that of shorter-term securities, maturity extension risk could increase the inherent volatility of the Fund. Under certain interest rate and prepayment scenarios, a Fund may fail to recoup fully its investment in mortgage-backed securities notwithstanding any direct or indirect governmental or agency guarantee.

There are currently three types of mortgage pass-through securities: (1) those issued by the U.S. government or one of its agencies or instrumentalities, such as the Government National Mortgage Association (“Ginnie Mae”), the Federal National Mortgage Association (“Fannie Mae”) and the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (“Freddie Mac”); (2) those issued by private

 

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issuers that represent an interest in or are collateralized by pass-through securities issued or guaranteed by the U.S. government or one of its agencies or instrumentalities; and (3) those issued by private issuers that represent an interest in or are collateralized by whole mortgage loans or pass-through securities without a government guarantee but that usually have some form of private credit enhancement. All of these three types of securities are considered “mortgage-related securities” for purposes of BATS: Series A Portfolio’s fundamental investment restriction relating to concentration.

Ginnie Mae is a wholly owned U.S. government corporation within the Department of Housing and Urban Development. Ginnie Mae is authorized to guarantee, with the full faith and credit of the U.S. government, the timely payment of principal and interest on securities issued by the institutions approved by Ginnie Mae (such as savings and loan institutions, commercial banks and mortgage banks), and backed by pools of Federal Housing Administration (“FHA”)-insured or Veterans’ Administration (“VA”)-guaranteed mortgages. Pass-through certificates guaranteed by Ginnie Mae (such certificates are also known as “Ginnie Maes”) are guaranteed as to the timely payment of principal and interest by Ginnie Mae, whose guarantee is backed by the full faith and credit of the United States. Ginnie Mae certificates also are supported by the authority of Ginnie Mae to borrow funds from the U.S. Treasury Department to make payments under its guarantee. Mortgage-related securities issued by Fannie Mae include Fannie Mae guaranteed Mortgage Pass-Through Certificates (also known as “Fannie Maes”), which are guaranteed as to timely payment of principal and interest by Fannie Mae. They are not backed by or entitled to the full faith and credit of the United States, but are supported by the right of Fannie Mae to borrow from the U.S. Treasury Department. Fannie Mae was established as a federal agency in 1938 and in 1968 was chartered by Congress as a private shareholder-owned company. Mortgage-related securities issued by Freddie Mac include Freddie Mac Mortgage Participation Certificates (also known as “Freddie Macs” or “PCs”). Freddie Mac is a stockholder-owned corporation chartered by Congress in 1970. Freddie Macs are not guaranteed by the United States or by any Federal Home Loan Banks and do not constitute a debt or obligation of the United States or of any Federal Home Loan Bank. Freddie Macs entitle the holder to timely payment of interest, which is guaranteed by Freddie Mac. Freddie Mac guarantees either ultimate collection or timely payment of all principal payments on the underlying mortgage loans. While Freddie Mac generally does not guarantee timely payment of principal, Freddie Mac may remit the amount due on account of its guarantee of ultimate payment of principal at any time after default on an underlying mortgage, but in no event later than one year after it becomes payable. On September 6, 2008, Director James Lockhart of the Federal Housing Finance Agency (“FHFA”) appointed FHFA as conservator of both Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. In addition the U.S. Treasury Department agreed to provide Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac up to $100 billion of capital each on an as needed basis to insure that they continue to provide liquidity to the housing and mortgage markets.

Private mortgage pass-through securities are structured similarly to Ginnie Mae, Fannie Mae, and Freddie Mac mortgage pass-through securities and are issued by originators of and investors in mortgage loans, including depository institutions, mortgage banks, investment banks and special purpose subsidiaries of the foregoing.

Pools created by private mortgage pass-through issuers generally offer a higher rate of interest than government and government-related pools because there are no direct or indirect government or agency guarantees of payments in the private pools. However, timely payment of interest and principal of these pools may be supported by various forms of insurance or guarantees, including individual loan, title, pool and hazard insurance and letters of credit. The insurance and guarantees are issued by governmental entities, private insurers and the mortgage poolers. The insurance and guarantees and the creditworthiness of the issuers thereof will be considered in determining whether a mortgage-related security meets a Fund’s investment quality standards. There can be no assurance that the private insurers or guarantors can meet their obligations under the insurance policies or guarantee arrangements. Private mortgage pass-through securities may be bought without insurance or guarantees if, through an examination of the loan experience and practices of the originator/servicers and poolers, the Manager determines that the securities meet a Fund’s quality standards. Any mortgage-related securities that are issued by private issuers have some exposure to subprime loans as well as to the mortgage and credit markets generally.

In addition, mortgage-related securities that are issued by private issuers are not subject to the underwriting requirements for the underlying mortgages that are applicable to those mortgage-related securities that have a government or government-sponsored entity guarantee. As a result, the mortgage loans underlying private mortgage-related securities may, and frequently do, have less favorable collateral, credit risk or other underwriting characteristics than government or government-sponsored mortgage-related securities and have wider variances in a number of terms including interest rate, term, size, purpose and borrower characteristics. Privately issued pools more frequently include second mortgages, high loan-to-value mortgages and manufactured housing loans. The coupon rates and maturities of the underlying mortgage loans in a private-label mortgage-related securities pool may vary to a greater extent than those included in a government guaranteed pool, and the pool may include subprime mortgage loans.

 

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Subprime loans refer to loans made to borrowers with weakened credit histories or with a lower capacity to make timely payments on their loans. For these reasons, the loans underlying these securities have had in many cases higher default rates than those loans that meet government underwriting requirements.

The risk of non-payment is greater for mortgage-related securities that are backed by mortgage pools that contain subprime loans, but a level of risk exists for all loans. Market factors adversely affecting mortgage loan repayments may include a general economic turndown, high unemployment, a general slowdown in the real estate market, a drop in the market prices of real estate, or an increase in interest rates resulting in higher mortgage payments by holders of adjustable rate mortgages.

Privately issued mortgage-related securities are not traded on an exchange and there may be a limited market for the securities, especially when there is a perceived weakness in the mortgage and real estate market sectors. Without an active trading market, mortgage-related securities held in a fund’s portfolio may be particularly difficult to value because of the complexities involved in assessing the value of the underlying mortgage loans.

Collateralized Mortgage Obligations (“CMOs”). CMOs are debt obligations collateralized by residential or commercial mortgage loans or residential or commercial mortgage pass-through securities. Interest and prepaid principal are generally paid monthly. CMOs may be collateralized by whole mortgage loans or private mortgage pass-through securities but are more typically collateralized by portfolios of mortgage pass-through securities guaranteed by Ginnie Mae, Freddie Mac, or Fannie Mae. The issuer of a series of CMOs may elect to be treated as a Real Estate Mortgage Investment Conduit (“REMIC”). All future references to CMOs also include REMICs.

CMOs are structured into multiple classes, often referred to as a “tranche,” each issued at a specific adjustable or fixed interest rate, and bearing a different stated maturity date and each must be fully retired no later than its final distribution date. Actual maturity and average life will depend upon the prepayment experience of the collateral, which is ordinarily unrelated to the stated maturity date. CMOs often provide for a modified form of call protection through a de facto breakdown of the underlying pool of mortgages according to how quickly the loans are repaid. Monthly payment of principal received from the pool of underlying mortgages, including prepayments, is first returned to investors holding the shortest maturity class. Investors holding the longer maturity classes usually receive principal only after the first class has been retired. An investor may be partially protected against a sooner than desired return of principal because of the sequential payments.

Certain issuers of CMOs are not considered investment companies pursuant to a rule adopted by the Commission, and a Fund may invest in the securities of such issuers without the limitations imposed by the Investment Company Act on investments by a Fund in other investment companies. In addition, in reliance on an earlier Commission interpretation, a Fund’s investments in certain other qualifying CMOs, which cannot or do not rely on the rule, are also not subject to the limitation of the Investment Company Act on acquiring interests in other investment companies. In order to be able to rely on the Commission’s interpretation, these CMOs must be unmanaged, fixed asset issuers, that: (1) invest primarily in mortgage-backed securities; (2) do not issue redeemable securities; (3) operate under general exemptive orders exempting them from all provisions of the Investment Company Act; and (4) are not registered or regulated under the Investment Company Act as investment companies. To the extent that a Fund selects CMOs that cannot rely on the rule or do not meet the above requirements, the Fund may not invest more than 10% of its assets in all such entities and may not acquire more than 3% of the voting securities of any single such entity.

A Fund may also invest in, among other things, parallel pay CMOs, sequential pay CMOs, and floating rate CMOs. Parallel pay CMOs are structured to provide payments of principal on each payment date to more than one class, concurrently on a proportionate or disproportionate basis. These simultaneous payments are taken into account in calculating the final distribution date of each class. Sequential pay CMOs generally pay principal to only one class at a time while paying interest to several classes. A wide variety of REMIC Certificates may be issued in the parallel pay or sequential pay structures. These securities include accrual certificates (also known as “Z-Bonds”), which only accrue interest at a specified rate until all other certificates having an earlier final distribution date have been retired and are converted thereafter to an interest-paying security. Floating rate CMOs are securities whose coupon rate fluctuates according to some formula related to an existing market index or rate. Typical indices would include the eleventh district cost-of-funds index (“COFI”), LIBOR, one-year Treasury yields, and ten-year Treasury yields.

Classes of CMOs also include planned amortization classes (“PACs”) and targeted amortization classes (“TACs”). PAC bonds generally require payments of a specified amount of principal on each payment date. The scheduled principal payments for PAC Certificates generally have the highest priority on each payment date after interest due has been paid to all classes entitled to receive interest currently. Shortfalls, if any, are added to the amount payable on the next payment date. The PAC Certificate payment schedule is taken into account in calculating the final distribution date of each class of PAC. In order to create PAC

 

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tranches, one or more tranches generally must be created that absorb most of the volatility in the underlying mortgage assets. These tranches (often called “supports” or “companion” tranches) tend to have market prices and yields that are more volatile than the PAC classes.

TACs are similar to PACs in that they require that specified amounts of principal be applied on each payment date to one or more classes of REMIC Certificates. A PAC’s payment schedule, however, remains in effect as long as prepayment rates on the underlying mortgages do not exceed certain ranges. In contrast, a TAC provides investors with protection, to a certain level, against either faster than expected or slower than expected prepayment rates, but not both. TACs thus provide more cash flow stability than a regular sequential paying class, but less than a PAC. TACs also tend to have market prices and yields that are more volatile than PACs.

Adjustable Rate Mortgage Securities. Adjustable rate mortgage securities (“ARMs”) are pass-through securities collateralized by mortgages with adjustable rather than fixed rates. ARMs eligible for inclusion in a mortgage pool generally provide for a fixed initial mortgage interest rate for a set number of scheduled monthly payments. After that schedule of payments has been completed, the interest rates are subject to periodic adjustment based on changes to a designated benchmark index.

ARMs contain maximum and minimum rates beyond which the mortgage interest rate may not vary over the lifetime of the security. In addition, certain ARMs provide for additional limitations on the maximum amount by which the mortgage interest rate may adjust for any single adjustment period. In the event that market rates of interest rise more rapidly to levels above that of the ARM’s maximum rate, the ARM’s coupon may represent a below market rate of interest. In these circumstances, the market value of the ARM security will likely have fallen.

Certain ARMs contain limitations on changes in the required monthly payment. In the event that a monthly payment is not sufficient to pay the interest accruing on an ARM, any such excess interest is added to the principal balance of the mortgage loan, which is repaid through future monthly payments. If the monthly payment for such an instrument exceeds the sum of the interest accrued at the applicable mortgage interest rate and the principal payment required at such point to amortize the outstanding principal balance over the remaining term of the loan, the excess is then used to reduce the outstanding principal balance of the ARM.

CMO Residuals. CMO residuals are derivative mortgage securities issued by agencies or instrumentalities of the U.S. government or by private originators of, or investors in, mortgage loans, including savings and loan associations, homebuilders, mortgage banks, commercial banks, investment banks, and special purpose entities of the foregoing. The cash flow generated by the mortgage assets underlying a series of CMOs is applied first to make required payments of principal and interest on the CMOs and second to pay the related administrative expenses of the issuer. The residual in a CMO structure generally represents the interest in any excess cash flow remaining after making the foregoing payments. Each payment of such excess cash flow to a holder of the related CMO residual represents income and/or a return of capital. The amount of residual cash flow resulting from a CMO will depend on, among other things, the characteristics of the mortgage assets, the coupon rate of each class of CMO, prevailing interest rates, the amount of administrative expenses and the prepayment experience on the mortgage assets. In part, the yield to maturity on the CMO residuals is extremely sensitive to prepayments on the related underlying mortgage assets, in the same manner as an interest-only (“IO”) class of stripped mortgage-related securities. In addition, if a series of a CMO includes a class that bears interest at an adjustable rate, the yield to maturity on the related CMO residual will also be extremely sensitive to changes in the level of the index upon which interest rate adjustments are based. In certain circumstances, a Fund may fail to recoup fully its initial investment in a CMO residual.

CMO residuals are generally purchased and sold by institutional investors through one or more investment banking firms acting as brokers or dealers. The CMO residual market has developed relatively recently and CMO residuals may not have the liquidity of more established securities trading in other markets. Transactions in CMO residuals are generally completed only after careful review of the characteristics of the securities in question. In addition, CMO residuals may or, pursuant to an exemption therefrom, may not have been registered under the Securities Act. Residual interests generally are junior to, and may be significantly more volatile than, “regular” CMO and REMIC interests.

Stripped Mortgage-Backed Securities. A Fund may invest in stripped mortgage-backed securities (“SMBSs”) issued by agencies or instrumentalities of the United States. SMBSs are derivative multi-class mortgage-backed securities. SMBS arrangements commonly involve two classes of securities that receive different proportions of the interest and principal distributions on a pool of mortgage assets. A common variety of SMBS is where one class (the principal only or PO class) receives some of the interest and most of the principal from the underlying assets, while the other class (the interest only or IO class) receives most of the interest

 

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and the remainder of the principal. In the most extreme case, the IO class receives all of the interest, while the PO class receives all of the principal. While a Fund may purchase securities of a PO class, a Fund is more likely to purchase the securities of an IO class. The yield to maturity of an IO class is extremely sensitive to the rate of principal payments (including prepayments) on the related underlying assets, and a rapid rate of principal payments in excess of that considered in pricing the securities will have a material adverse effect on an IO security’s yield to maturity. If the underlying mortgage assets experience greater than anticipated payments of principal, a Fund may fail to recoup fully its initial investment in IOs. In addition, there are certain types of IOs that represent the interest portion of a particular class as opposed to the interest portion of the entire pool. The sensitivity of this type of IO to interest rate fluctuations may be increased because of the characteristics of the principal portion to which they relate. As a result of the above factors, a Fund generally will purchase IOs only as a component of so called “synthetic” securities. This means that purchases of IOs will be matched with certain purchases of other securities, such as POs, inverse floating rate CMOs or fixed rate securities; as interest rates fall, presenting a greater risk of unanticipated prepayments of principal, the negative effect on a Fund because of its holdings of IOs should be diminished somewhat because of the increased yield on the inverse floating rate CMOs or the increased appreciation on the POs or fixed rate securities.

Tiered Index Bonds. Tiered index bonds are relatively new forms of mortgage-related securities. The interest rate on a tiered index bond is tied to a specified index or market rate. So long as this index or market rate is below a predetermined “strike” rate, the interest rate on the tiered index bond remains fixed. If, however, the specified index or market rate rises above the “strike” rate, the interest rate of the tiered index bond will decrease. Thus, under these circumstances, the interest rate on a tiered index bond, like an inverse floater, will move in the opposite direction of prevailing interest rates, with the result that the price of the tiered index bond may be considerably more volatile than that of a fixed-rate bond.

TBA Commitments. Certain Funds may enter into “to be announced” or “TBA” commitments. TBA commitments are forward agreements for the purchase or sale of securities, including mortgage-backed securities for a fixed price, with payment and delivery on an agreed upon future settlement date. The specific securities to be delivered are not identified at the trade date. However, delivered securities must meet specified terms, including issuer, rate and mortgage terms. When the Fund enters into a TBA commitment for the sale of mortgage-backed securities for a fixed price, with payment and delivery on an agreed upon future settlement date (which may be referred to as having a short position in such TBA securities), the Fund may or may not hold the types of mortgage-backed securities required to be delivered. See “When-Issued Securities, Delayed Delivery Securities and Forward Commitments” below.

Mortgage Dollar Rolls. Certain Funds may invest in mortgage dollar rolls. In a mortgage dollar roll transaction, a Fund sells mortgage-backed securities for delivery in the current month and simultaneously contracts to repurchase substantially similar securities on a specified future date. The securities that are repurchased will bear the same interest rate and a similar maturity as those sold, but pools of mortgages collateralizing those securities may have different prepayment histories than those sold. During the period between the sale and repurchase, a Fund will not be entitled to receive interest and principal payments on the securities sold. Proceeds of the sale will be invested in additional instruments for the Fund, and the income from these investments will generate income for the Fund. If such income does not exceed the income, capital appreciation and gain or loss that would have been realized on the securities sold as part of the dollar roll, the use of this technique will diminish the investment performance of a Fund compared with what the performance would have been without the use of dollar rolls.

At the time a Fund enters into a dollar roll transaction, the Fund will segregate liquid assets on its books and records in an amount equal to the amount of the Fund’s commitments and will subsequently monitor the account to ensure that its value is maintained. Each mortgage dollar roll transaction is accounted for as a sale or purchase of a portfolio security and a subsequent purchase or sale of a substantially similar security in the forward market. Transactions in mortgage dollar rolls may increase trading costs and portfolio turnover.

In the event the buyer of the securities under a mortgage dollar roll files for bankruptcy or becomes insolvent, a Fund’s use of the proceeds of the current sale portion of the transaction may be restricted pending a determination by the other party, or its trustee or receiver, whether to enforce the Fund’s obligation to purchase the similar securities in the forward transaction.

A Fund may engage in dollar roll transactions to enhance return. Successful use of mortgage dollar rolls may depend upon the Manager’s ability to correctly predict interest rates and prepayments. Dollar rolls involve the risk that the market value of the securities subject to a Fund’s forward purchase commitment may decline below, or the market value of the securities subject to a Fund’s forward sale commitment may increase above, the exercise price of the forward commitment. Dollar rolls are speculative techniques that can be deemed to involve leverage. There is no assurance that dollar rolls can be successfully employed.

 

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Net Interest Margin (NIM) Securities. A Fund may invest in net interest margin (“NIM”) securities. These securities are derivative interest-only mortgage securities structured off home equity loan transactions. NIM securities receive any “excess” interest computed after paying coupon costs, servicing costs and fees and any credit losses associated with the underlying pool of home equity loans. Like traditional stripped mortgage-backed securities, the yield to maturity on a NIM security is sensitive not only to changes in prevailing interest rates but also to the rate of principal payments (including prepayments) on the underlying home equity loans. NIM securities are highly sensitive to credit losses on the underlying collateral and the timing in which those losses are taken.

Municipal Investments.

Certain Funds may invest in obligations issued by or on behalf of states, territories and possessions of the United States and the District of Columbia and their political subdivisions, agencies and instrumentalities, the payments from which, in the opinion of bond counsel to the issuer, are excludable from gross income for U.S. federal income tax purposes (“Municipal Bonds”). Certain of the Municipal Funds may also invest in Municipal Bonds that pay interest excludable from gross income for purposes of state and local income taxes of the designated state and/or allow the value of a Fund’s shares to be exempt from state and local taxes of the designated state (“State Municipal Bonds”). The Municipal Funds may also invest in securities not issued by or on behalf of a state or territory or by an agency or instrumentality thereof, if the Manager believes such securities to pay interest excludable from gross income for purposes of U.S. federal income tax and state and local income taxes of the designated state and/or state and local personal property taxes of the designated state (“Non-Municipal Tax-Exempt Securities”). Non-Municipal Tax-Exempt Securities could include trust certificates or other instruments evidencing interest in one or more long term municipal securities. Non-Municipal Tax-Exempt Securities also may include securities issued by other investment companies that invest in municipal bonds, to the extent such investments are permitted by applicable law. Non-Municipal Tax-Exempt Securities that pay interest excludable from gross income for U.S. federal income tax purposes will be considered “Municipal Bonds” for purposes of a Municipal Fund’s investment objective and policies. Non-Municipal Tax-Exempt Securities that pay interest excludable from gross income for purposes of U.S. federal income tax and state and local income taxes of a designated state and/or allow the value of a Fund’s shares to be exempt from state and local personal property taxes of that state will be considered “State Municipal Bonds” for purposes of the investment objective and policies of each of California Municipal Opportunities Fund, New Jersey Municipal Bond Fund, New York Municipal Opportunities Fund and Pennsylvania Municipal Bond Fund.

Risk Factors and Special Considerations Relating to Municipal Bonds. The risks and special considerations involved in investment in Municipal Bonds vary with the types of instruments being acquired. Investments in Non-Municipal Tax-Exempt Securities may present similar risks, depending on the particular product. Certain instruments in which a Fund may invest may be characterized as derivatives.

The value of Municipal Bonds generally may be affected by uncertainties in the municipal markets as a result of legislation or litigation, including legislation or litigation that changes the taxation of Municipal Bonds or the rights of Municipal Bond holders in the event of a bankruptcy. Municipal bankruptcies are rare and certain provisions of the U.S. Bankruptcy Code governing such bankruptcies are unclear. Further, the application of state law to Municipal Bond issuers could produce varying results among the states or among Municipal Bond issuers within a state. These uncertainties could have a significant impact on the prices of the Municipal Bonds in which a Fund invests.

Description of Municipal Bonds.

Municipal Bonds include debt obligations issued to obtain funds for various public purposes, including the construction of a wide range of public facilities, refunding of outstanding obligations and obtaining funds for general operating expenses and loans to other public institutions and facilities. In addition, certain types of bonds are issued by or on behalf of public authorities to finance various privately owned or operated facilities, including certain facilities for the local furnishing of electric energy or gas, sewage facilities, solid waste disposal facilities and other specialized facilities. Such obligations are included within the term Municipal Bonds if the interest paid thereon is excluded from gross income for U.S. federal income tax purposes and any applicable state and local taxes. Other types of private activity bonds, the proceeds of which are used for the construction, equipment or improvement of privately operated industrial or commercial facilities, may constitute Municipal Bonds, although the current U.S. federal tax laws place substantial limitations on the size of such issues. The interest on Municipal Bonds may bear a fixed rate or be payable at a variable or floating rate. The two principal classifications of Municipal Bonds are “general obligation” and “revenue” or “special obligation” bonds, which latter category includes private activity bonds (“PABs”) (or “industrial development bonds” under pre-1986 law).

 

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General Obligation Bonds. General obligation bonds are secured by the issuer’s pledge of its full faith, credit and taxing power for the payment of principal and interest. The taxing power of any governmental entity may be limited, however, by provisions of its state constitution or laws, and an entity’s creditworthiness will depend on many factors, including potential erosion of its tax base due to population declines, natural disasters, declines in the state’s industrial base or inability to attract new industries, economic limits on the ability to tax without eroding the tax base, state legislative proposals or voter initiatives to limit ad valorem real property taxes and the extent to which the entity relies on federal or state aid, access to capital markets or other factors beyond the state’s or entity’s control. Accordingly, the capacity of the issuer of a general obligation bond as to the timely payment of interest and the repayment of principal when due is affected by the issuer’s maintenance of its tax base.

Revenue Bonds. Revenue bonds are payable only from the revenues derived from a particular facility or class of facilities or, in some cases, from the proceeds of a special excise tax or other specific revenue source such as payments from the user of the facility being financed; accordingly, the timely payment of interest and the repayment of principal in accordance with the terms of the revenue or special obligation bond is a function of the economic viability of such facility or such revenue source.

Revenue bonds issued by state or local agencies to finance the development of low-income, multi-family housing involve special risks in addition to those associated with municipal bonds generally, including that the underlying properties may not generate sufficient income to pay expenses and interest costs. Such bonds are generally non-recourse against the property owner, may be junior to the rights of others with an interest in the properties, may pay interest that changes based in part on the financial performance of the property, may be prepayable without penalty and may be used to finance the construction of housing developments which, until completed and rented, do not generate income to pay interest. Increases in interest rates payable on senior obligations may make it more difficult for issuers to meet payment obligations on subordinated bonds.

PABs. PABs are, in most cases, tax-exempt securities issued by states, municipalities or public authorities to provide funds, usually through a loan or lease arrangement, to a private entity for the purpose of financing construction or improvement of a facility to be used by the entity. Such bonds are secured primarily by revenues derived from loan repayments or lease payments due from the entity, which may or may not be guaranteed by a parent company or otherwise secured. PABs generally are not secured by a pledge of the taxing power of the issuer of such bonds. Therefore, an investor should understand that repayment of such bonds generally depends on the revenues of a private entity and be aware of the risks that such an investment may entail. The continued ability of an entity to generate sufficient revenues for the payment of principal and interest on such bonds will be affected by many factors including the size of the entity, its capital structure, demand for its products or services, competition, general economic conditions, government regulation and the entity’s dependence on revenues for the operation of the particular facility being financed.

Moral Obligation Bonds. “Moral obligation” bonds are normally issued by special purpose public authorities. If an issuer of moral obligation bonds is unable to meet its obligations, the repayment of such bonds becomes a moral commitment but not a legal obligation of the state or municipality that created the special purpose public authority that issued the bonds.

Municipal Notes. Municipal notes are shorter term municipal debt obligations. They may provide interim financing in anticipation of tax collection, bond sales or revenue receipts. If there is a shortfall in the anticipated proceeds, repayment on the note may be delayed or the note may not be fully repaid, and a Fund may lose money.

Municipal Commercial Paper. Municipal commercial paper is generally unsecured and issued to meet short-term financing needs. The lack of security presents some risk of loss to a Fund since, in the event of an issuer’s bankruptcy, unsecured creditors are repaid only after the secured creditors out of the assets, if any, that remain.

Municipal Lease Obligations. Also included within the general category of Municipal Bonds are certificates of participation (“COPs”) issued by government authorities or entities to finance the acquisition or construction of equipment, land and/or facilities. The COPs represent participations in a lease, an installment purchase contract or a conditional sales contract (hereinafter collectively called “lease obligations”) relating to such equipment, land or facilities. Municipal leases, like other municipal debt obligations, are subject to the risk of non-payment. Although lease obligations do not constitute general obligations of the issuer for which the issuer’s unlimited taxing power is pledged, a lease obligation is frequently backed by the issuer’s covenant to budget for, appropriate and make the payments due under the lease obligation. However, certain lease obligations contain “non-appropriation” clauses, which provide that the issuer has no obligation to make lease or installment purchase payments in future years unless money is appropriated for such purpose on a yearly basis. Although “non-appropriation” lease obligations are secured by the leased property, disposition of the property in the event of foreclosure might prove difficult. These securities represent a type of financing that has not yet developed the depth of marketability associated with more conventional securities. Certain investments in lease obligations may be illiquid.

 

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The ability of issuers of municipal leases to make timely lease payments may be adversely impacted in general economic downturns and as relative governmental cost burdens are allocated and reallocated among federal, state and local governmental units. Such non-payment would result in a reduction of income to a Fund, and could result in a reduction in the value of the municipal lease experiencing non-payment and a potential decrease in the NAV of a Fund. Issuers of municipal securities might seek protection under the bankruptcy laws. In the event of bankruptcy of such an issuer, a Fund could experience delays and limitations with respect to the collection of principal and interest on such municipal leases and a Fund may not, in all circumstances, be able to collect all principal and interest to which it is entitled. To enforce its rights in the event of a default in lease payments, a Fund might take possession of and manage the assets securing the issuer’s obligations on such securities, which may increase a Fund’s operating expenses and adversely affect the NAV of a Fund. When the lease contains a non-appropriation clause, however, the failure to pay would not be a default and a Fund would not have the right to take possession of the assets. Any income derived from a Fund’s ownership or operation of such assets may not be tax-exempt. In addition, a Fund’s intention to qualify as a “regulated investment company” under the Code, may limit the extent to which a Fund may exercise its rights by taking possession of such assets, because as a regulated investment company a Fund is subject to certain limitations on its investments and on the nature of its income.

Tender Option Bonds. Certain Funds may invest in residual inverse floating rate interest tender option bonds (“TOB Residuals”), which are derivative interests in Municipal Bonds. The TOB Residuals in which the Funds will invest pay interest or income that, in the opinion of counsel to the issuer, is exempt from regular U.S. federal income tax. BlackRock will not conduct its own analysis of the tax status of the interest or income paid by TOB Residuals held by the Funds, but will rely on the opinion of counsel to the issuer. Although volatile, TOB Residuals typically offer the potential for yields exceeding the yields available on fixed rate Municipal Bonds with comparable credit quality. The Funds may invest in TOB Residuals for the purpose of using economic leverage.

TOB Residuals represent beneficial interests in a special purpose trust formed for the purpose of holding Municipal Bonds contributed by one or more funds (a “TOB Trust”). A TOB Trust typically issues two classes of beneficial interests: short-term floating rate interests (“TOB Floaters”), which are sold to third party investors, and TOB Residuals, which are generally issued to the fund(s) that transferred Municipal Bonds to the TOB Trust. The Funds may invest in both TOB Floaters and TOB Residuals. TOB Floaters may have first priority on the cash flow from the Municipal Bonds held by the TOB Trust and are enhanced with a liquidity support arrangement from a third party Liquidity Provider (defined below) which allows holders to tender their position at par (plus accrued interest). A Fund, as a holder of TOB Residuals, is paid the residual cash flow from the TOB Trust. A Fund that contributes the Municipal Bonds to the TOB Trust is paid the cash received by the TOB Trust from the sale of the TOB Floaters, less certain transaction costs, and typically will invest the cash to purchase additional Municipal Bonds or other investments permitted by its investment policies. If a Fund ever purchases all or a portion of the TOB Floaters sold by the TOB Trust, it may surrender those TOB Floaters together with a proportionate amount of TOB Residuals to the TOB Trust in exchange for a proportionate amount of the Municipal Bonds owned by the TOB Trust.

Other BlackRock-advised funds may contribute Municipal Bonds to a TOB Trust into which a Fund has contributed Municipal Bonds. If multiple BlackRock-advised funds participate in the same TOB Trust, the economic rights and obligations under the TOB Residual will generally be shared among the funds ratably in proportion to their participation in the TOB Trust.

The Municipal Bonds transferred to a TOB Trust typically are high grade Municipal Bonds. In certain cases, when Municipal Bonds transferred are lower grade Municipal Bonds, the TOB Trust transaction includes a credit enhancement feature that provides for the timely payment of principal and interest on the bonds to the TOB Trust by a credit enhancement provider. The TOB Trust would be responsible for the payment of the credit enhancement fee and a Fund, as a TOB Residual holder, would be responsible for reimbursement of any payments of principal and interest made by the credit enhancement provider.

The TOB Residuals held by a Fund generally provide the Fund with the right to cause the holders of a proportional share of the TOB Floaters to tender their notes to the TOB Trust at par plus accrued interest. Thereafter, the Fund may withdraw a corresponding share of the Municipal Bonds from the TOB Trust. This transaction, in effect, creates exposure for the Fund to the entire return of the Municipal Bonds in the TOB Trust, with a net cash investment by the Fund that is less than the value of the Municipal Bonds in the TOB Trust. This multiplies the positive or negative impact of the Municipal Bonds’ return within the Fund (thereby creating leverage). The leverage within a TOB Trust depends on the value of the Municipal Bonds deposited in the TOB Trust relative to the value of the TOB Floaters it issues.

 

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A Fund may invest in highly leveraged TOB Residuals. A TOB Residual generally is considered highly leveraged if the principal amount of the TOB Floaters issued by the related TOB Trust exceeds 75% of the principal amount of the Municipal Bonds owned by the TOB Trust.

The TOB Trust may be collapsed without the consent of a Fund upon the occurrence of tender option termination events (“TOTEs”) and mandatory termination events (“MTEs”), as defined in the TOB Trust agreements. TOTEs include the bankruptcy or default of the issuer of the Municipal Bonds held in the TOB Trust, a substantial downgrade in the credit quality of the issuer of the Municipal Bonds held in the TOB Trust, failure of any scheduled payment of principal or interest on the Municipal Bonds, and a judgment or ruling that interest on the Municipal Bonds is subject to U.S. federal income taxation. MTEs may include, among other things, a failed remarketing of the TOB Floaters, the inability of the TOB Trust to obtain renewal of the liquidity support agreement, and a substantial decline in the market value of the Municipal Bonds held in the TOB Trust. Upon the occurrence of a TOTE or an MTE, a TOB Trust would be liquidated with the proceeds applied first to any accrued fees owed to the trustee of the TOB Trust, the remarketing agent of the TOB Floaters and the Liquidity Provider (defined below). In the case of an MTE, after the payment of fees, the holders of the TOB Floaters would be paid senior to the TOB Residual holders (i.e., the Fund). In contrast, in the case of a TOTE, after payment of fees, the holders of TOB Floaters and the TOB Residual holders would be paid pro rata in proportion to the respective face values of their certificates.

A Fund may invest in a TOB Trust on either a non-recourse and recourse basis. TOB Trusts are typically supported by a liquidity facility provided by a third-party bank or other financial institution (the “Liquidity Provider”) that allows the holders of the TOB Floaters to tender their TOB Floaters in exchange for payment of par plus accrued interest on any business day (subject to the non-occurrence of a TOTE described above). Depending on the structure of the TOB Trust, the Liquidity Provider may purchase the tendered TOB Floaters, or the TOB Trust may draw upon a loan from the Liquidity Provider to purchase the tendered TOB Floaters.

When a Fund invests in TOB Trusts on a non-recourse basis, and the Liquidity Provider is required to make a payment under the liquidity facility, the Liquidity Provider will typically liquidate all or a portion of the Municipal Bonds held in the TOB Trust and then fund the balance, if any, of the amount owed under the liquidity facility over the liquidation proceeds (the “Liquidation Shortfall”). If a Fund invests in a TOB Trust on a recourse basis, it will typically enter into a reimbursement agreement with the Liquidity Provider pursuant to which the Fund is required to reimburse the Liquidity Provider the amount of any Liquidation Shortfall. As a result, if the Fund invests in a recourse TOB Trust, the Fund will bear the risk of loss with respect to any Liquidation Shortfall. If multiple BlackRock-advised funds participate in any such TOB Trust, these losses will be shared ratably, in proportion to their participation in the TOB Trust.

Under accounting rules, Municipal Bonds of a Fund that are deposited into a TOB Trust are investments of the Fund and are presented on the Fund’s Schedule of Investments and outstanding TOB Floaters issued by a TOB Trust are presented as liabilities in the Fund’s Statement of Assets and Liabilities. Interest income from the underlying Municipal Bonds is recorded by a Fund on an accrual basis. Interest expense incurred on the TOB Floaters and other expenses related to remarketing, administration, trustee and other services to a TOB Trust are reported as expenses of a Fund. In addition, under accounting rules, loans made to a TOB Trust sponsored by a Fund may be presented as loans of the Fund in the Fund’s financial statements even if there is no recourse to the Fund’s assets.

For TOB Floaters, generally, the interest rate earned will be based upon the market rates for Municipal Bonds with maturities or remarketing provisions that are comparable in duration to the periodic interval of the tender option. Since the tender option feature has a shorter term than the final maturity or first call date of the underlying Municipal Bonds deposited in the TOB Trust, the holder of the TOB Floaters relies upon the terms of the agreement with the financial institution furnishing the liquidity facility as well as the credit strength of that institution. The risk associated with TOB Floaters, however, may be increased in the current market environment as a result of recent downgrades to the credit ratings, and thus the perceived reliability and creditworthiness, of many major financial institutions, some of which sponsor and/or provide liquidity support to TOB Trusts. This in turn may reduce the desirability of TOB Floaters as investments, which could impair the viability or availability of TOB Trusts.

The use of TOB Residuals will require the Fund to earmark or segregate liquid assets in an amount equal to any TOB Floaters, plus any accrued but unpaid interest due on the TOB Floaters, issued by TOB Trusts sponsored by, or on behalf of, the Fund that are not owned by the Fund. The use of TOB Residuals may also require the Fund to earmark or segregate liquid assets in an amount equal to loans provided by the Liquidity Provider to the TOB Trust to purchase tendered TOB Floaters. The Fund reserves the right to modify its asset segregation policies in the future to the extent that such changes are in accordance with

 

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applicable regulations or interpretations. Future regulatory requirements or SEC guidance may necessitate more onerous contractual or regulatory requirements, which may increase the costs or reduce the degree of potential economic benefits of TOB Trust transactions or limit the Fund’s ability to enter into or manage TOB Trust transactions.

Recent Developments in the TOB Trust Market. On December 10, 2013, regulators published final rules implementing section 619 of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (the “Volcker Rule”), which prohibit banking entities from engaging in proprietary trading of certain instruments and limit such entities’ investments in, and relationships with, “covered funds”, as defined in the Volcker Rule. The Volcker Rule precludes banking entities and their affiliates from sponsoring TOB Trusts as such Trusts have been structured prior to the effective date of the Volcker Rule. Banking entities subject to the Volcker Rule were required to fully comply by July 21, 2015, with respect to investments in and relationships with TOB Trusts that were not in place prior to December 31, 2013, and by July 21, 2017, with respect to investments in and relationships with TOB Trusts that were in place prior to December 31, 2013. As a result, TOB Trusts may need to be restructured or unwound.

In response to the restrictions imposed by the Volcker Rule, market participants have developed a new structure for TOB Trusts designed to ensure that no banking entity is sponsoring the TOB Trust for purposes of the Volcker Rule. Specifically, a Fund will establish, structure and “sponsor” the TOB Trusts in which it holds TOB Residuals. In such a structure, certain responsibilities that previously belonged to the sponsor bank will be performed by, or on behalf of, a Fund. A Fund may utilize service providers in meeting these responsibilities. This structure remains untested. It is possible that regulators could take positions that could limit the market for such newly structured TOB Trust transactions or a Fund’s ability to hold TOB Residuals. Under the new TOB Trust structure, a Fund will have certain additional duties and responsibilities, which may give rise to certain additional risks including, but not limited to, compliance, securities law and operational risks.

Service providers to a TOB Trust, such as administrators, liquidity providers, trustees, and remarketing agents, would be acting at the direction of, and as agent of, the Fund as the TOB Residual holder. Similar to the current tender option bond structure, a Fund would deposit Municipal Bonds into the TOB Trust in exchange for TOB Residuals, the TOB Trust would then issue and sell TOB Floaters to third party investors, and the proceeds of the sale of the TOB Floaters would be distributed to such TOB Residual holders (i.e., the Fund). Tendered TOB Floaters would continue to be supported by a remarketing agent and a liquidity facility. However, the remarketing agent is not anticipated to purchase tendered TOB Floaters for its own account in the event of a failed remarketing, which may increase the likelihood that a TOB Trust will need to be collapsed and liquidated in order to purchase the tendered TOB Floaters. In the event of a failed remarketing of TOB Floaters, the Liquidity Provider, at its option, may advance a loan to the TOB Trust the proceeds of which would be used by the TOB Trust to purchase the tendered TOB Floaters. The Liquidity Provider is not obligated to advance such a loan. The TOB Trust would be the borrower with respect to any such loan. Any loans made by a Liquidity Provider will be secured by the purchased TOB Floaters held by the TOB Trust.

Similar to the current structure for TOB Trusts, a Fund may hold either non-recourse TOB Residuals or recourse TOB Residuals under the new structure. In the event of a Liquidation Shortfall, there would generally be no contractual recourse to the Fund’s assets if the Fund holds a non-recourse TOB Residual. However, as described above, a Fund would bear the risk of loss with respect to any Liquidation Shortfall if it holds a recourse TOB Residual.

The SEC and various federal banking and housing agencies adopted credit risk retention rules for securitizations (the “Risk Retention Rules”), which took effect in December 2016. The Risk Retention Rules require the sponsor of a TOB Trust to retain at least 5% of the credit risk of the underlying assets supporting the TOB Trust’s Municipal Bonds. The Risk Retention Rules may adversely affect the Fund’s ability to engage in TOB Trust transactions or increase the costs of such transactions in certain circumstances.

There can be no assurance that a Fund can successfully enter into restructured TOB Trust transactions in order to refinance its existing TOB Residual holdings prior to the compliance date for the Volcker Rule, which may require that the Fund unwinds existing TOB Trusts.

TOB Trust transactions constitute an important component of the municipal bond market. Accordingly, implementation of the Volcker Rule may adversely impact the municipal market, including through reduced demand for and liquidity of municipal bonds and increased financing costs for municipal issuers. Any such developments could adversely affect the Funds. The ultimate impact of these rules on the TOB market and the overall municipal market is not yet certain.

Yields. Yields on Municipal Bonds are dependent on a variety of factors, including the general condition of the money market and of the municipal bond market, the size of a particular offering, the financial condition of the issuer, the maturity of the obligation

 

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and the rating of the issue. The ability of a Fund to achieve its investment objective is also dependent on the continuing ability of the issuers of the securities in which the Fund invests to meet their obligations for the payment of interest and principal when due. There are variations in the risks involved in holding Municipal Bonds, both within a particular classification and between classifications, depending on numerous factors. Furthermore, the rights of owners of Municipal Bonds and the obligations of the issuer of such Municipal Bonds may be subject to applicable bankruptcy, insolvency and similar laws and court decisions affecting the rights of creditors generally and to general equitable principles, which may limit the enforcement of certain remedies.

Variable Rate Demand Obligations (“VRDOs”). VRDOs are tax-exempt obligations that contain a floating or variable interest rate adjustment formula and a right of demand on the part of the holder thereof to receive payment of the unpaid principal balance plus accrued interest upon a short notice period not to exceed seven days.

There is the possibility that because of default or insolvency the demand feature of VRDOs may not be honored. The interest rates are adjustable at intervals (ranging from daily to up to one year) to some prevailing market rate for similar investments, such adjustment formula being calculated to maintain the market rate of the VRDOs at approximately the par value of the VRDOs on the adjustment date. The adjustments typically are based upon the SIFMA Index.

Because of the interest rate adjustment formula on VRDOs, VRDOs are not comparable to fixed rate securities. During periods of declining interest rates, a Fund’s yield on a VRDO will decrease and its shareholders will forego the opportunity for capital appreciation. During periods of rising interest rates, however, a Fund’s yield on a VRDO will increase and the Fund’s shareholders will have a reduced risk of capital depreciation.

Transactions in Financial Futures Contracts on Municipal Indexes. The Municipal Funds and certain other funds deal in financial futures contracts based on a long-term municipal bond index developed by the Chicago Board of Trade (“CBT”) and The Bond Buyer (the “Municipal Bond Index”). The Municipal Bond Index is comprised of 40 tax-exempt municipal revenue and general obligation bonds. Each bond included in the Municipal Bond Index must be rated A or higher by Moody’s or S&P and must have a remaining maturity of 19 years or more. Twice a month new issues satisfying the eligibility requirements are added to, and an equal number of old issues are deleted from, the Municipal Bond Index. The value of the Municipal Bond Index is computed daily according to a formula based on the price of each bond in the Municipal Bond Index, as evaluated by six dealer-to-dealer brokers.

The Municipal Bond Index futures contract is traded only on the CBT. Like other contract markets, the CBT assures performance under futures contracts through a clearing corporation, a nonprofit organization managed by the exchange membership that is also responsible for handling daily accounting of deposits or withdrawals of margin.

The particular municipal bonds comprising the index underlying the Municipal Bond Index financial futures contract may vary from the bonds held by a Municipal Fund. As a result, a Municipal Fund’s ability to hedge effectively all or a portion of the value of its Municipal Bonds through the use of such financial futures contracts will depend in part on the degree to which price movements in the index underlying the financial futures contract correlate with the price movements of the Municipal Bonds held by the Fund. The correlation may be affected by disparities in the average maturity, ratings, geographical mix or structure of a Municipal Fund’s investments as compared to those comprising the Municipal Bond Index and general economic or political factors. In addition, the correlation between movements in the value of the Municipal Bond Index may be subject to change over time as additions to and deletions from the Municipal Bond Index alter its structure. The correlation between futures contracts on U.S. Government Securities and the Municipal Bonds held by a Municipal Fund may be adversely affected by similar factors and the risk of imperfect correlation between movements in the prices of such futures contracts and the prices of Municipal Bonds held by a Municipal Fund may be greater. Municipal Bond Index futures contracts were approved for trading in 1986. Trading in such futures contracts may tend to be less liquid than trading in other futures contracts. The trading of futures contracts also is subject to certain market risks, such as inadequate trading activity, which could at times make it difficult or impossible to liquidate existing positions.

Call Rights. A Fund may purchase a Municipal Bond issuer’s right to call all or a portion of such Municipal Bond for mandatory tender for purchase (a “Call Right”). A holder of a Call Right may exercise such right to require a mandatory tender for the purchase of related Municipal Bonds, subject to certain conditions. A Call Right that is not exercised prior to maturity of the related Municipal Bond will expire without value. The economic effect of holding both the Call Right and the related Municipal Bond is identical to holding a Municipal Bond as a non-callable security. Certain investments in such obligations may be illiquid.

Municipal Interest Rate Swap Transactions. In order to hedge the value of a Fund against interest rate fluctuations or to enhance a Fund’s income, a Fund may enter into interest rate swap transactions such as Municipal Market Data AAA Cash Curve swaps

 

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(“MMD Swaps”) or Securities Industry and Financial Markets Association Municipal Swap Index swaps (“SIFMA Swaps”). To the extent that a Fund enters into these transactions, the Fund expects to do so primarily to preserve a return or spread on a particular investment or portion of its portfolio or to protect against any increase in the price of securities the Fund anticipates purchasing at a later date. A Fund intends to use these transactions primarily as a hedge rather than as a speculative investment. However, a Fund also may invest in MMD Swaps and SIFMA Swaps to enhance income or gain or to increase the Fund’s yield, for example, during periods of steep interest rate yield curves (i.e., wide differences between short term and long term interest rates).

A Fund may purchase and sell SIFMA Swaps in the SIFMA swap market. In a SIFMA Swap, a Fund exchanges with another party their respective commitments to pay or receive interest (e.g., an exchange of fixed rate payments for floating rate payments linked to the SIFMA Municipal Swap Index). Because the underlying index is a tax-exempt index, SIFMA Swaps may reduce cross-market risks incurred by a Fund and increase a Fund’s ability to hedge effectively. SIFMA Swaps are typically quoted for the entire yield curve, beginning with a seven day floating rate index out to 30 years. The duration of a SIFMA Swap is approximately equal to the duration of a fixed-rate Municipal Bond with the same attributes as the swap (e.g., coupon, maturity, call feature).

A Fund may also purchase and sell MMD Swaps, also known as MMD rate locks. An MMD Swap permits a Fund to lock in a specified municipal interest rate for a portion of its portfolio to preserve a return on a particular investment or a portion of its portfolio as a duration management technique or to protect against any increase in the price of securities to be purchased at a later date. By using an MMD Swap, a Fund can create a synthetic long or short position, allowing the Fund to select the most attractive part of the yield curve. An MMD Swap is a contract between a Fund and an MMD Swap provider pursuant to which the parties agree to make payments to each other on a notional amount, contingent upon whether the Municipal Market Data AAA General Obligation Scale is above or below a specified level on the expiration date of the contract. For example, if a Fund buys an MMD Swap and the Municipal Market Data AAA General Obligation Scale is below the specified level on the expiration date, the counterparty to the contract will make a payment to the Fund equal to the specified level minus the actual level, multiplied by the notional amount of the contract. If the Municipal Market Data AAA General Obligation Scale is above the specified level on the expiration date, a Fund will make a payment to the counterparty equal to the actual level minus the specified level, multiplied by the notional amount of the contract.

In connection with investments in SIFMA and MMD Swaps, there is a risk that municipal yields will move in the opposite direction than anticipated by a Fund, which would cause the Fund to make payments to its counterparty in the transaction that could adversely affect the Fund’s performance. A Fund has no obligation to enter into SIFMA or MMD Swaps and may not do so. The net amount of the excess, if any, of a Fund’s obligations over its entitlements with respect to each interest rate swap will be accrued on a daily basis and an amount of liquid assets that have an aggregate NAV at least equal to the accrued excess will be maintained in a segregated account by the Fund.

Insured Municipal Bonds. Bonds purchased by a Fund may be covered by insurance that guarantees that interest payments on the bond will be made on time and the principal will be repaid when the bond matures. Either the issuer of the bond or the Fund purchases the insurance. Insurance is expected to protect the Fund against losses caused by a bond issuer’s failure to make interest or principal payments. However, insurance does not protect the Fund or its shareholders against losses caused by declines in a bond’s market value. Also, the Fund cannot be certain that any insurance company does not make these payments. In addition, if the Fund purchases the insurance, it may pay the premiums, which will reduce the Fund’s yield. The Fund seeks to use only insurance companies with claims paying ability, financial strength, or equivalent ratings of at least investment grade. However, if insurance from insurers with these ratings is not available, the Fund may use insurance companies with lower ratings or stop purchasing insurance or insured bonds. If a bond’s insurer fails to fulfill its obligations or loses its credit rating, the value of the bond could drop.

Build America Bonds. If a Fund holds Build America Bonds, the Fund may be eligible to receive a U.S. federal income tax credit; however, the issuer of a Build America Bond may instead elect to receive a cash payment directly from the federal government in lieu of holders such as the fund receiving a tax credit. The interest on Build America Bonds is taxable for U.S. federal income tax purposes. If the Fund does receive tax credits from Build America Bonds or other tax credit bonds on one or more specified dates during the fund’s taxable year, and the Fund satisfies the minimum distribution requirement, the Fund may elect for U.S. federal income tax purposes to pass through to shareholders tax credits otherwise allowable to the Fund for that year with respect to such bonds. A tax credit bond is defined in the Code as a “qualified tax credit bond” (which includes a qualified forestry conservation bond, a new clean renewable energy bond, a qualified energy conservation bond, or a qualified zone academy bond, each of which must meet certain requirements specified in the Code), a “Build America Bond” (which includes certain qualified bonds issued

 

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before January 1, 2011) or certain other specified bonds. If the Fund were to so elect, a shareholder would be required to include in income and would be entitled to claim as a tax credit an amount equal to a proportionate share of such credits, and such amount would be subject to withholding provisions of the Code. Certain limitations may apply on the extent to which the credit may be claimed.

Tax-Exempt Municipal Investments. Certain Funds may hold tax-exempt municipal investments which may be in the form of tender option bonds, variable rate demand obligations, participations, beneficial interests in a trust, partnership interests or other forms. These investments are described in greater detail above in this section. Some of the structures used by certain Funds include interests in long-term fixed-rate municipal debt obligations, held by a trustee or custodian, that are coupled with tender option, demand and other features when the tax-exempt municipal investments are created. Together, these features entitle the holder of the interest to tender (or put) the underlying municipal debt obligation to a third party at periodic intervals and to receive the principal amount thereof.

In some cases, municipal debt obligations are represented by custodial receipts evidencing rights to receive specific future interest payments, principal payments, or both, on the underlying securities held by the custodian. Under such arrangements, the holder of the custodial receipt has the option to tender the underlying securities at their face value to the sponsor (e.g., a Fund, or a bank or broker-dealer or other financial institution), which is paid periodic fees equal to the difference between the securities’ fixed coupon rate and the rate that would cause the securities, coupled with the tender option, to trade at par on the date of a rate adjustment.

A participation interest gives the Fund an undivided interest in a Municipal Bond in the proportion the Fund’s participation bears to the total principal amount of the Municipal Bond, and typically provides for a repurchase feature for all or any part of the full principal amount of the participation interest, plus accrued interest. Trusts and partnerships are typically used to convert long-term fixed rate high quality bonds of a single state or municipal issuer into variable or floating rate demand instruments.

The Municipal Bond Funds may hold participation interests and custodial receipts for municipal debt obligations which give the holder the right to receive payment of principal subject to the conditions described above. The IRS has not ruled on whether the interest received on tax-exempt municipal investments in the form of participation interests or custodial receipts is tax-exempt, and accordingly, purchases of any such interests or receipts are based on the opinions of counsel to the sponsors of such derivative securities. Neither a Fund nor its investment adviser or sub-advisers will review the proceedings related to the creation of any tax-exempt municipal investments or the basis for such opinions.

Participation Notes. A Fund may buy participation notes from a bank or broker-dealer (“issuer”) that entitle the Fund to a return measured by the change in value of an identified underlying security or basket of securities (collectively, the “underlying security”). Participation notes are typically used when a direct investment in the underlying security is restricted due to country-specific regulations.

The Fund is subject to counterparty risk associated with each issuer. Investment in a participation note is not the same as investment in the constituent shares of the company. A participation note represents only an obligation of the issuer to provide the Fund the economic performance equivalent to holding shares of an underlying security. A participation note does not provide any beneficial or equitable entitlement or interest in the relevant underlying security. In other words, shares of the underlying security are not in any way owned by the Fund. However each participation note synthetically replicates the economic benefit of holding shares in the underlying security. Because a participation note is an obligation of the issuer, rather than a direct investment in shares of the underlying security, the Fund may suffer losses potentially equal to the full value of the participation note if the issuer fails to perform its obligations. A Fund attempts to mitigate that risk by purchasing only from issuers which BlackRock deems to be creditworthy.

The counterparty may, but is not required to, purchase the shares of the underlying security to hedge its obligation. The fund may, but is not required to, purchase credit protection against the default of the issuer. When the participation note expires or a Fund exercises the participation note and closes its position, that Fund receives a payment that is based upon the then-current value of the underlying security converted into U.S. dollars (less transaction costs). The price, performance and liquidity of the participation note are all linked directly to the underlying security. A Fund’s ability to redeem or exercise a participation note generally is dependent on the liquidity in the local trading market for the security underlying the participation note.

Portfolio Turnover Rates. A Fund’s annual portfolio turnover rate will not be a factor preventing a sale or purchase when the Manager believes investment considerations warrant such sale or purchase. Although certain Funds will use an approach to investing that is largely a passive, indexing approach, such Funds may engage in a substantial number of portfolio transactions.

 

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With respect to these Funds, the rate of portfolio turnover will be a limiting factor when the Manager considers whether to purchase or sell securities for a Fund only to the extent that the Manager will consider the impact of transaction costs on a Fund’s tracking error. Portfolio turnover may vary greatly from year to year as well as within a particular year. High portfolio turnover (i.e., 100% or more) may result in increased transaction costs to a Fund, including brokerage commissions, dealer mark-ups and other transaction costs on the sale of the securities and reinvestment in other securities. The sale of a Fund’s securities may result in the recognition of capital gain or loss. Given the frequency of sales, such gain or loss will likely be short-term capital gain or loss. These effects of higher than normal portfolio turnover may adversely affect a Fund’s performance.

Preferred Stock. Certain of the Funds may invest in preferred stocks. Preferred stock has a preference over common stock in liquidation (and generally dividends as well) but is subordinated to the liabilities of the issuer in all respects. As a general rule, the market value of preferred stock with a fixed dividend rate and no conversion element varies inversely with interest rates and perceived credit risk, while the market price of convertible preferred stock generally also reflects some element of conversion value. Because preferred stock is junior to debt securities and other obligations of the issuer, deterioration in the credit quality of the issuer will cause greater changes in the value of a preferred stock than in a more senior debt security with similar stated yield characteristics. Unlike interest payments on debt securities, preferred stock dividends are payable only if declared by the issuer’s board of directors. Preferred stock also may be subject to optional or mandatory redemption provisions.

Tax-Exempt Preferred Shares. Certain Funds may invest in preferred interests of other investment funds that pay dividends that are exempt from regular U.S. federal income tax. Such funds in turn invest in municipal bonds and other assets that pay interest or make distributions that are exempt from regular U.S. federal income tax, such as revenue bonds issued by state or local agencies to fund the development of low-income, multi-family housing.

Investment in such tax-exempt preferred shares involves many of the same issues as investing in other investment companies. These investments also have additional risks, including illiquid investments risk, the absence of regulation governing investment practices, capital structure and leverage, affiliated transactions and other matters, and concentration of investments in particular issuers or industries. The Municipal Bond Funds will treat investments in tax-exempt preferred shares as investments in municipal bonds.

Trust Preferred Securities. Certain of the Funds may invest in trust preferred securities. Trust preferred securities are typically issued by corporations, generally in the form of interest bearing notes with preferred securities characteristics, or by an affiliated business trust of a corporation, generally in the form of beneficial interests in subordinated debentures or similarly structured securities. The trust preferred securities market consists of both fixed and adjustable coupon rate securities that are either perpetual in nature or have stated maturity dates.

Trust preferred securities are typically junior and fully subordinated liabilities of an issuer and benefit from a guarantee that is junior and fully subordinated to the other liabilities of the guarantor. In addition, trust preferred securities typically permit an issuer to defer the payment of income for five years or more without triggering an event of default. Because of their subordinated position in the capital structure of an issuer, the ability to defer payments for extended periods of time without default consequences to the issuer, and certain other features (such as restrictions on common dividend payments by the issuer or ultimate guarantor when full cumulative payments on the trust preferred securities have not been made), these trust preferred securities are often treated as close substitutes for traditional preferred securities, both by issuers and investors.

Trust preferred securities include but are not limited to trust originated preferred securities (“TOPRS®”); monthly income preferred securities (“MIPS®”); quarterly income bond securities (“QUIBS®” ); quarterly income debt securities (“QUIDS®”); quarterly income preferred securities (“QUIPSSM”); corporate trust securities (“CORTS®”); public income notes (“PINES®”); and other trust preferred securities.

Trust preferred securities are typically issued with a final maturity date, although some are perpetual in nature. In certain instances, a final maturity date may be extended and/or the final payment of principal may be deferred at the issuer’s option for a specified time without default. No redemption can typically take place unless all cumulative payment obligations have been met, although issuers may be able to engage in open-market repurchases without regard to whether all payments have been paid.

Many trust preferred securities are issued by trusts or other special purpose entities established by operating companies and are not a direct obligation of an operating company. At the time the trust or special purpose entity sells such preferred securities to investors, it purchases debt of the operating company (with terms comparable to those of the trust or special purpose entity securities), which enables the operating company to deduct for tax purposes the interest paid on the debt held by the trust or

 

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special purpose entity. The trust or special purpose entity is generally required to be treated as transparent for U.S. federal income tax purposes such that the holders of the trust preferred securities are treated as owning beneficial interests in the underlying debt of the operating company. Accordingly, payments on the trust preferred securities are treated as interest rather than dividends for U.S. federal income tax purposes. The trust or special purpose entity in turn would be a holder of the operating company’s debt and would have priority with respect to the operating company’s earnings and profits over the operating company’s common shareholders, but would typically be subordinated to other classes of the operating company’s debt. Typically a preferred share has a rating that is slightly below that of its corresponding operating company’s senior debt securities.

Real Estate Investment Trusts (“REITs”). In pursuing its investment strategy, a Fund may invest in shares of REITs. REITs possess certain risks which differ from an investment in common stocks. REITs are financial vehicles that pool investor’s capital to purchase or finance real estate. REITs may concentrate their investments in specific geographic areas or in specific property types, i.e., hotels, shopping malls, residential complexes and office buildings.

REITs are subject to management fees and other expenses, and so a Fund that invests in REITs will bear its proportionate share of the costs of the REITs’ operations. There are three general categories of REITs: Equity REITs, Mortgage REITs and Hybrid REITs. Equity REITs invest primarily in direct fee ownership or leasehold ownership of real property; they derive most of their income from rents. Mortgage REITs invest mostly in mortgages on real estate, which may secure construction, development or long-term loans; the main source of their income is mortgage interest payments. Hybrid REITs hold both ownership and mortgage interests in real estate.

Investing in REITs involves certain unique risks in addition to those risks associated with investing in the real estate industry in general. The market value of REIT shares and the ability of the REITs to distribute income may be adversely affected by several factors, including rising interest rates, changes in the national, state and local economic climate and real estate conditions, perceptions of prospective tenants of the safety, convenience and attractiveness of the properties, the ability of the owners to provide adequate management, maintenance and insurance, the cost of complying with the Americans with Disabilities Act, increased competition from new properties, the impact of present or future environmental legislation and compliance with environmental laws, failing to maintain their exemptions from registration under the Investment Company Act, changes in real estate taxes and other operating expenses, adverse changes in governmental rules and fiscal policies, adverse changes in zoning laws and other factors beyond the control of the issuers of the REITs. In addition, distributions received by a Fund from REITs may consist of dividends, capital gains and/or return of capital. As REITs generally pay a higher rate of dividends (on a pre-tax basis) than operating companies, to the extent application of the Fund’s investment strategy results in the Fund investing in REIT shares, the percentage of the Fund’s dividend income received from REIT shares will likely exceed the percentage of the Fund’s portfolio which is comprised of REIT shares. Ordinary REIT dividends received by the Fund and distributed to the Fund’s shareholders will generally be taxable as ordinary income and will not constitute “qualified dividend income.” However, for tax years beginning after December 31, 2017 and before January 1, 2026, a non-corporate taxpayer who is a direct REIT shareholder may claim a 20% “qualified business income” deduction for ordinary REIT dividends, and a regulated investment company may report dividends as eligible for this deduction to the extent the regulated investment company’s income is derived from ordinary REIT dividends (reduced by allocable regulated investment company expenses). A shareholder may treat the dividends as such provided the regulated investment company and the shareholder satisfy applicable holding period requirements.

REITs (especially mortgage REITs) are also subject to interest rate risk. Rising interest rates may cause REIT investors to demand a higher annual yield, which may, in turn, cause a decline in the market price of the equity securities issued by a REIT. Rising interest rates also generally increase the costs of obtaining financing, which could cause the value of a Fund’s REIT investments to decline. During periods when interest rates are declining, mortgages are often refinanced. Refinancing may reduce the yield on investments in mortgage REITs. In addition, since REITs depend on payment under their mortgage loans and leases to generate cash to make distributions to their shareholders, investments in REITs may be adversely affected by defaults on such mortgage loans or leases.

Investing in certain REITs, which often have small market capitalizations, may also involve the same risks as investing in other small capitalization companies. REITs may have limited financial resources and their securities may trade less frequently and in limited volume and may be subject to more abrupt or erratic price movements than larger company securities. Historically, small capitalization stocks, such as REITs, have been more volatile in price than the larger capitalization stocks such as those included in the S&P 500 Index. The management of a REIT may be subject to conflicts of interest with respect to the operation of the business of the REIT and may be involved in real estate activities competitive with the REIT. REITs may own properties through joint ventures or in other circumstances in which the REIT may not have control over its investments. REITs may incur significant amounts of leverage.

 

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Recent Market Events. Stresses associated with the 2008 financial crisis in the United States and global economies peaked approximately a decade ago, but periods of unusually high volatility in the financial markets and restrictive credit conditions, sometimes limited to a particular sector or a geography, continue to recur. Some countries, including the United States, have adopted and/or are considering the adoption of more protectionist trade policies, a move away from the tighter financial industry regulations that followed the financial crisis, and/or substantially reducing corporate taxes. The exact shape of these policies is still being considered, but the equity and debt markets may react strongly to expectations of change, which could increase volatility, especially if the market’s expectations are not borne out. A rise in protectionist trade policies, and the possibility of changes to some international trade agreements, could affect the economies of many nations in ways that cannot necessarily be foreseen at the present time. In addition, geopolitical and other risks, including environmental and public health, may add to instability in world economies and markets generally. Economies and financial markets throughout the world are becoming increasingly interconnected. As a result, whether or not a Fund invests in securities of issuers located in or with significant exposure to countries experiencing economic, political and/or financial difficulties, the value and liquidity of the Fund’s investments may be negatively affected by such events.

An outbreak of respiratory disease caused by a novel coronavirus was first detected in China in December 2019 and has now developed into a global pandemic. This pandemic has resulted in closing borders, enhanced health screenings, healthcare service preparation and delivery, quarantines, cancellations, disruptions to supply chains and customer activity, as well as general concern and uncertainty. Disruptions in markets can adversely impact a Fund and its investments. Further, certain local markets have been or may be subject to closures, and there can be no certainty regarding whether trading will continue in any local markets in which a Fund may invest, when any resumption of trading will occur or, once such markets resume trading, whether they will face further closures. Any suspension of trading in markets in which a Fund invests will have an impact on the Fund and its investments and will impact the Fund’s ability to purchase or sell securities in such market. The outbreak could also impair the information technology and other operational systems upon which a Fund’s service providers, including BlackRock, rely, and could otherwise disrupt the ability of employees of a Fund’s service providers to perform critical tasks relating to the Fund. The impact of this outbreak has adversely affected the economies of many nations and the entire global economy and may impact individual issuers and capital markets in ways that cannot be foreseen. In the past, governmental and quasi-governmental authorities and regulators through the world have at times responded to major economic disruptions with a variety of fiscal and monetary policy changes, including direct capital infusions into companies and other issuers, new monetary policy tools, and lower interest rates. An unexpected or sudden reversal of these policies, or the ineffectiveness of such policies, is likely to increase market volatility, which could adversely affect a Fund’s investments. Public health crises caused by the outbreak may exacerbate other preexisting political, social and economic risks in certain countries or globally. Other infectious illness outbreaks that may arise in the future could have similar or other unforeseen effects. The duration of this outbreak or others and their effects cannot be determined with certainty.

Repurchase Agreements and Purchase and Sale Contracts. Under repurchase agreements and purchase and sale contracts, the other party agrees, upon entering into the contract with a Fund, to repurchase a security sold to the Fund at a mutually agreed-upon time and price in a specified currency, thereby determining the yield during the term of the agreement.

A purchase and sale contract differs from a repurchase agreement in that the contract arrangements stipulate that securities are owned by the Fund and the purchaser receives any interest on the security paid during the period. In the case of repurchase agreements, the prices at which the trades are conducted do not reflect accrued interest on the underlying obligation; whereas, in the case of purchase and sale contracts, the prices take into account accrued interest. A Fund may enter into “tri-party” repurchase agreements. In “tri-party” repurchase agreements, an unaffiliated third-party custodian maintains accounts to hold collateral for the Fund and its counterparties and, therefore, the Fund may be subject to the credit risk of those custodians.

Some repurchase agreements and purchase and sale contracts are structured to result in a fixed rate of return insulated from market fluctuations during the term of the agreement, although such return may be affected by currency fluctuations. However, in the event of a default under a repurchase agreement or under a purchase and sale contract, instead of the contractual fixed rate, the rate of return to the Fund would be dependent upon intervening fluctuations of the market values of the securities underlying the contract and the accrued interest on those securities. In such event, the Fund would have rights against the seller for breach of contract with respect to any losses arising from market fluctuations following the default.

Both types of agreement usually cover short periods, such as less than one week, although they may have longer terms, and may be construed to be collateralized loans by the purchaser to the seller secured by the securities transferred to the purchaser. In the case of a repurchase agreement, as a purchaser, a Fund’s Manager or sub-adviser will monitor the creditworthiness of the seller, and a

 

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Fund will require the seller to provide additional collateral if the market value of the securities falls below the repurchase price at any time during the term of the repurchase agreement. The Fund does not have this right to seek additional collateral as a purchaser in the case of purchase and sale contracts. The Fund’s Manager or sub-adviser will mark-to-market daily the value of the securities. Securities subject to repurchase agreements (other than tri-party repurchase agreements) and purchase and sale contracts will be held by the Fund’s custodian (or sub-custodian) in the Federal Reserve/Treasury book-entry system or by another authorized securities depository.

In the event of default by the seller under a repurchase agreement construed to be a collateralized loan, the underlying securities are not owned by the Fund but only constitute collateral for the seller’s obligation to pay the repurchase price. Therefore, the Fund may suffer time delays and incur costs or possible losses in connection with disposition of the collateral. If the seller becomes insolvent and subject to liquidation or reorganization under applicable bankruptcy or other laws, a Fund’s ability to dispose of the underlying securities may be restricted. Finally, it is possible that a Fund may not be able to substantiate its interest in the underlying securities. To minimize this risk, the securities underlying the repurchase agreement will be held by the applicable custodian at all times in an amount at least equal to the repurchase price, including accrued interest. If the seller fails to repurchase the securities, a Fund may suffer a loss to the extent proceeds from the sale of the underlying securities are less than the repurchase price.

In any repurchase transaction to which a Fund is a party, collateral for a repurchase agreement may include cash items and obligations issued by the U.S. Government or its agencies or instrumentalities. For certain Funds, however, collateral may include instruments other than cash items and obligations issued by the U.S. Government or its agencies or instrumentalities, including securities that the Fund could not hold directly under its investment strategies without the repurchase obligation.

The type of collateral underlying repurchase agreements may also pose certain risks for a Fund. Lower quality collateral and collateral with longer maturities may be subject to greater price fluctuations than higher quality collateral and collateral with shorter maturities. If the repurchase agreement counterparty were to default, lower quality collateral may be more difficult to liquidate than higher quality collateral. Should the counterparty default and the amount of collateral not be sufficient to cover the counterparty’s repurchase obligation, a Fund would retain the status of an unsecured creditor of the counterparty (i.e., the position the Fund would normally be in if it were to hold, pursuant to its investment policies, other unsecured debt securities of the defaulting counterparty) with respect to the amount of the shortfall. As an unsecured creditor, a Fund would be at risk of losing some or all of the principal and income involved in the transaction.

Repurchase agreements and purchase and sale contracts may be entered into only with financial institutions that have capital of at least $50 million or whose obligations are guaranteed by an entity that has capital of at least $50 million.

Regulations adopted by global prudential regulators that are now in effect require certain bank-regulated counterparties and certain of their affiliates to include in certain financial contracts, including many repurchase agreements and purchase and sale contracts, terms that delay or restrict the rights of counterparties, such as a Fund, to terminate such agreements, take foreclosure action, exercise other default rights or restrict transfers of credit support in the event that the counterparty and/or its affiliates are subject to certain types of resolution or insolvency proceedings. It is possible that these new requirements, as well as potential additional government regulation and other developments in the market, could adversely affect a Fund’s ability to terminate existing repurchase agreements and purchase and sale contracts or to realize amounts to be received under such agreements.

Restricted Securities. A Fund may invest in securities that are not registered under the Securities Act (e.g., Rule 144A Securities) (“restricted securities”). Restricted securities may be sold in private placement transactions between issuers and their purchasers and may be neither listed on an exchange nor traded in other established markets. In many cases, privately placed securities may not be freely transferable under the laws of the applicable jurisdiction or due to contractual restrictions on resale. Some of these securities are new and complex, and trade only among institutions; the markets for these securities are still developing, and may not function as efficiently as established markets. As a result of the absence of a public trading market, privately placed securities may be deemed to be illiquid investments or less liquid investments and may be more difficult to value than publicly traded securities. To the extent that privately placed securities may be resold in privately negotiated transactions, the prices realized from the sales, due to lack of liquidity, could be less than those originally paid by the Fund or less than their fair market value. In addition, issuers whose securities are not publicly traded may not be subject to the disclosure and other investor protection requirements that may be applicable if their securities were publicly traded. If any privately placed securities held by a Fund are required to be registered under the securities laws of one or more jurisdictions before being resold, the Fund may be required to bear the expenses of registration. Where registration is required for restricted securities, a considerable time period may elapse

 

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between the time the Fund decides to sell the security and the time it is actually permitted to sell the security under an effective registration statement. If during such period, adverse market conditions were to develop, the Fund might obtain less favorable pricing terms than when it decided to sell the security. Transactions in restricted securities may entail other transaction costs that are higher than those for transactions in unrestricted securities. Certain of the Fund’s investments in private placements may consist of direct investments and may include investments in smaller, less seasoned issuers, which may involve greater risks. These issuers may have limited product lines, markets or financial resources, or they may be dependent on a limited management group. In making investments in such securities, a Fund may obtain access to material nonpublic information, which may restrict the Fund’s ability to conduct portfolio transactions in such securities.

Reverse Repurchase Agreements. A Fund may enter into reverse repurchase agreements with the same parties with whom it may enter into repurchase agreements. Under a reverse repurchase agreement, a Fund sells securities to another party and agrees to repurchase them at a particular date and price. A Fund may enter into a reverse repurchase agreement when it is anticipated that the interest income to be earned from the investment of the proceeds of the transaction is greater than the interest expense of the transaction.

At the time a Fund enters into a reverse repurchase agreement, it will segregate liquid assets with a value not less than the repurchase price (including accrued interest). The use of reverse repurchase agreements may be regarded as leveraging and, therefore, speculative. Furthermore, reverse repurchase agreements involve the risks that (i) the interest income earned in the investment of the proceeds will be less than the interest expense, (ii) the market value of the securities retained in lieu of sale by a Fund may decline below the price of the securities the Fund has sold but is obligated to repurchase, (iii) the market value of the securities sold will decline below the price at which the Fund is required to repurchase them and (iv) the securities will not be returned to the Fund.

In addition, if the buyer of securities under a reverse repurchase agreement files for bankruptcy or becomes insolvent, such buyer or its trustee or receiver may receive an extension of time to determine whether to enforce a Fund’s obligations to repurchase the securities and the Fund’s use of the proceeds of the reverse repurchase agreement may effectively be restricted pending such decision.

Additionally, regulations adopted by global prudential regulators that are now in effect require certain bank-regulated counterparties and certain of their affiliates to include in certain financial contracts, including many reverse repurchase agreements, terms that delay or restrict the rights of counterparties, such as a Fund, to terminate such agreements, take foreclosure action, exercise other default rights or restrict transfers of credit support in the event that the counterparty and/or its affiliates are subject to certain types of resolution or insolvency proceedings. It is possible that these new requirements, as well as potential additional government regulation and other developments in the market, could adversely affect a Fund’s ability to terminate existing reverse repurchase agreements or to realize amounts to be received under such agreements.

Rights Offerings and Warrants to Purchase. Certain Funds may participate in rights offerings and may purchase warrants, which are privileges issued by corporations enabling the owners to subscribe to and purchase a specified number of shares of the corporation at a specified price during a specified period of time. Subscription rights normally have a short life span to expiration. The purchase of rights or warrants involves the risk that a Fund could lose the purchase value of a right or warrant if the right to subscribe to additional shares is not exercised prior to the rights’ and warrants’ expiration. Also, the purchase of rights and/or warrants involves the risk that the effective price paid for the right and/or warrant added to the subscription price of the related security may exceed the value of the subscribed security’s market price such as when there is no movement in the level of the underlying security. Buying a warrant does not make the Fund a shareholder of the underlying stock. The warrant holder has no voting or dividend rights with respect to the underlying stock. A warrant does not carry any right to assets of the issuer, and for this reason investments in warrants may be more speculative than other equity-based investments.

Securities Lending. Each Fund may lend portfolio securities to certain borrowers determined to be creditworthy by BlackRock, including to borrowers affiliated with BlackRock. The borrowers provide collateral that is maintained in an amount at least equal to the current market value of the securities loaned. No securities loan shall be made on behalf of a Fund if, as a result, the aggregate value of all securities loans of the particular Fund exceeds one-third of the value of such Fund’s total assets (including the value of the collateral received). A Fund may terminate a loan at any time and obtain the return of the securities loaned. Each Fund is paid the value of any interest or cash or non-cash distributions paid on the loaned securities that it would have otherwise received if the securities were not on loan.

 

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With respect to loans that are collateralized by cash, the borrower may be entitled to receive a fee based on the amount of cash collateral. The Funds are compensated for any positive difference between the amount earned on the reinvestment of cash collateral and the fee paid to the borrower. In the case of collateral other than cash, a Fund is compensated by a fee paid by the borrower equal to a percentage of the market value of the loaned securities. Any cash collateral received by the Fund for such loans, and uninvested cash, may be invested, among other things, in a private money market fund managed by an affiliate of the Manager or in registered money market funds advised by the Manager or its affiliates; such investments are subject to investment risk.

Securities lending involves exposure to certain risks, including operational risk (i.e., the risk of losses resulting from problems in the settlement and accounting process), “gap” risk (i.e., the risk of a mismatch between the return on cash collateral reinvestments and the fees each Fund has agreed to pay a borrower), and credit, legal, counterparty and market risk (including the risk that market events could lead a Fund to recall loaned securities or to lend less or not at all, which could lead to reduced securities lending revenue). If a securities lending counterparty were to default, a Fund would be subject to the risk of a possible delay in receiving collateral or in recovering the loaned securities, or to a possible loss of rights in the collateral. In the event a borrower does not return a Fund’s securities as agreed, the Fund’s ability to participate in a corporate action event may be impacted, or the Fund may experience losses if the proceeds received from liquidating the collateral do not at least equal the value of the loaned security at the time the collateral is liquidated, plus the transaction costs incurred in purchasing replacement securities. This latter event could trigger adverse tax consequences for a Fund. A Fund could lose money if its short-term investment of the collateral declines in value over the period of the loan. Substitute payments for dividends received by a Fund for securities loaned out by the Fund will not be considered qualified dividend income. The securities lending agent will take the tax effects on shareholders of this difference into account in connection with the Fund’s securities lending program. Substitute payments received on tax-exempt securities loaned out will not be tax-exempt income. There could also be changes in the status of issuers under applicable laws and regulations, including tax regulations, that may impact the regulatory or tax treatment of loaned securities and could, for example, result in a delay in the payment of dividend equivalent payments owed to a Fund (as permitted by applicable law).

Regulations adopted by global prudential regulators that are now in effect require certain bank-regulated counterparties and certain of their affiliates to include in certain financial contracts, including many securities lending agreements, terms that delay or restrict the rights of counterparties, such as a Fund, to terminate such agreements, foreclose upon collateral, exercise other default rights or restrict transfers of credit support in the event that the counterparty and/or its affiliates are subject to certain types of resolution or insolvency proceedings. It is possible that these new requirements, as well as potential additional government regulation and other developments in the market, could adversely affect a Fund’s ability to terminate existing securities lending agreements or to realize amounts to be received under such agreements.

Short Sales. Certain Funds may make short sales of securities, either as a hedge against potential declines in value of a portfolio security or to realize appreciation when a security that the Fund does not own declines in value. Certain Funds have a fundamental investment restriction prohibiting short sales of securities unless they are “against-the-box.” In a short sale “against-the-box,” at the time of the sale, the Fund owns or has the immediate and unconditional right to acquire the identical security at no additional cost. When a Fund makes a short sale, it borrows the security sold short and delivers it to the broker-dealer through which it made the short sale. A Fund may have to pay a fee to borrow particular securities and is often obligated to turn over any payments received on such borrowed securities to the lender of the securities.

A Fund secures its obligation to replace the borrowed security by depositing collateral with the broker-dealer, usually in cash, U.S. Government Securities or other liquid securities similar to those borrowed. With respect to uncovered short positions, a Fund is required to deposit similar collateral with its custodian, if necessary, to the extent that the value of both collateral deposits in the aggregate is at all times equal to at least 100% of the current market value of the security sold short. Depending on arrangements made with the broker-dealer from which the Fund borrowed the security, regarding payment received by the Fund on such security, a Fund may not receive any payments (including interest) on its collateral deposited with such broker-dealer.

Because making short sales in securities that it does not own exposes a Fund to the risks associated with those securities, such short sales involve speculative exposure risk. A Fund will incur a loss as a result of a short sale if the price of the security increases between the date of the short sale and the date on which the Fund replaces the borrowed security. As a result, if a Fund makes short sales in securities that increase in value, it will likely underperform similar mutual funds that do not make short sales in securities. A Fund will realize a gain on a short sale if the security declines in price between those dates. There can be no assurance that a Fund will be able to close out a short sale position at any particular time or at an acceptable price. Although a Fund’s gain is limited to the price at which it sold the security short, its potential loss is limited only by the maximum attainable price of the security, less the price at which the security was sold and may, theoretically, be unlimited.

 

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A Fund may also make short sales “against the box” without being subject to such limitations.

Special Purpose Acquisition Companies. A Fund may invest in stock, warrants, rights and other interests issued by special purpose acquisition companies (“SPACs”) or similar special purpose entities that pool funds to seek potential acquisition opportunities, including the “founder’s” shares and warrants described below. A SPAC is a publicly traded company that raises investment capital via an IPO for the purpose of identifying and acquiring one or more operating businesses or assets. In connection with forming a SPAC, the SPAC’s sponsors acquire “founder’s” shares, generally for nominal consideration, and warrants that will result in the sponsors owning a specified percentage (typically 20%) of the SPAC’s outstanding common stock upon completion of the IPO. At the time a SPAC conducts an IPO, it has selected a management team but has not yet identified a specific acquisition opportunity. Unless and until an acquisition is completed, a SPAC generally invests its assets in U.S. government securities, money market securities and cash. If an acquisition that meets the requirements for the SPAC is not completed within a pre-established period of time, the invested funds are returned to the SPAC’s public shareholders, the warrants expire, and the “founder’s” shares and such warrants become worthless. Because SPACs and similar entities are in essence “blank check” companies without operating histories or ongoing business operations (other than identifying and pursuing acquisitions), the potential for the long term capital appreciation of their securities is particularly dependent on the ability of the SPAC’s management to identify and complete a profitable acquisition. There is no guarantee that the SPACs in which the Fund invests will complete an acquisition or that any acquisitions completed by the SPACs in which the Fund invests will be profitable. Some SPACs may pursue acquisitions only within certain industries or regions, which may ultimately lead to an increase in the volatility of their prices following the acquisition. In addition, some of these securities may be considered illiquid and/or subject to restrictions on resale.

Standby Commitment Agreements. Standby commitment agreements commit a Fund, for a stated period of time, to purchase a stated amount of securities that may be issued and sold to that Fund at the option of the issuer. The price of the security is fixed at the time of the commitment. At the time of entering into the agreement, the Fund is paid a commitment fee, regardless of whether or not the security is ultimately issued. A Fund will enter into such agreements for the purpose of investing in the security underlying the commitment at a price that is considered advantageous to the Fund.

There can be no assurance that the securities subject to a standby commitment will be issued, and the value of the security, if issued, on the delivery date may be more or less than its purchase price. Since the issuance of the security underlying the commitment is at the option of the issuer, the Fund may bear the risk of a decline in the value of such security and may not benefit from an appreciation in the value of the security during the commitment period.

The purchase of a security pursuant to a standby commitment agreement and the related commitment fee will be recorded on the date on which the security can reasonably be expected to be issued, and the value of the security thereafter will be reflected in the calculation of a Fund’s NAV. The cost basis of the security will be adjusted by the amount of the commitment fee. In the event the security is not issued, the commitment fee will be recorded as income on the expiration date of the standby commitment.

Stand-by commitments will only be entered into with dealers, banks and broker-dealers which, in the Manager’s or sub-adviser’s opinion, present minimal credit risks. A Fund will acquire stand-by commitments solely to facilitate portfolio liquidity and not to exercise its rights thereunder for trading purposes. Stand-by commitments will be valued at zero in determining NAV. Accordingly, where a Fund pays directly or indirectly for a stand-by commitment, its cost will be reflected as an unrealized loss for the period during which the commitment is held by such Fund and will be reflected as a realized gain or loss when the commitment is exercised or expires.

Stripped Securities. Stripped securities are created when the issuer separates the interest and principal components of an instrument and sells them as separate securities. In general, one security is entitled to receive the interest payments on the underlying assets (the interest only or “IO” security) and the other to receive the principal payments (the principal only or “PO” security). Some stripped securities may receive a combination of interest and principal payments. The yields to maturity on IOs and POs are sensitive to the expected or anticipated rate of principal payments (including prepayments) on the related underlying assets, and principal payments may have a material effect on yield to maturity. If the underlying assets experience greater than anticipated prepayments of principal, a Fund may not fully recoup its initial investment in IOs. Conversely, if the underlying assets experience less than anticipated prepayments of principal, the yield on POs could be adversely affected. Stripped securities may be highly sensitive to changes in interest rates and rates of prepayment.

Structured Notes. Structured notes and other related instruments purchased by a Fund are generally privately negotiated debt obligations where the principal and/or interest is determined by reference to the performance of a specific asset, benchmark asset,

 

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market or interest rate (“reference measure”). Issuers of structured notes include corporations and banks. The interest rate or the principal amount payable upon maturity or redemption may increase or decrease, depending upon changes in the value of the reference measure. The terms of a structured note may provide that, in certain circumstances, no principal is due at maturity and, therefore, may result in a loss of invested capital by a Fund. The interest and/or principal payments that may be made on a structured product may vary widely, depending on a variety of factors, including the volatility of the reference measure.

Structured notes may be positively or negatively indexed, so the appreciation of the reference measure may produce an increase or a decrease in the interest rate or the value of the principal at maturity. The rate of return on structured notes may be determined by applying a multiplier to the performance or differential performance of reference measures. Application of a multiplier involves leverage that will serve to magnify the potential for gain and the risk of loss.

The purchase of structured notes exposes a Fund to the credit risk of the issuer of the structured product. Structured notes may also be more volatile, less liquid, and more difficult to price accurately than less complex securities and instruments or more traditional debt securities. The secondary market for structured notes could be illiquid making them difficult to sell when the Fund determines to sell them. The possible lack of a liquid secondary market for structured notes and the resulting inability of the Fund to sell a structured note could expose the Fund to losses and could make structured notes more difficult for the Fund to value accurately.

Taxability Risk. Certain of the Funds intend to minimize the payment of taxable income to shareholders by investing in tax-exempt or municipal securities in reliance at the time of purchase on an opinion of bond counsel to the issuer that the interest paid on those securities will be excludable from gross income for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Such securities, however, may be determined to pay, or have paid, taxable income subsequent to the Fund’s acquisition of the securities. In that event, the IRS may demand that the Fund pay U.S. federal income taxes on the affected interest income, and, if the Fund agrees to do so, the Fund’s yield could be adversely affected. In addition, the treatment of dividends previously paid or to be paid by the Fund as “exempt interest dividends” could be adversely affected, subjecting the Fund’s shareholders to increased U.S. federal income tax liabilities. If the interest paid on any tax-exempt or municipal security held by the Fund is subsequently determined to be taxable, the Fund will dispose of that security as soon as reasonably practicable. In addition, future laws, regulations, rulings or court decisions may cause interest on municipal securities to be subject, directly or indirectly, to U.S. federal income taxation or interest on state municipal securities to be subject to state or local income taxation, or the value of state municipal securities to be subject to state or local intangible personal property tax, or may otherwise prevent the Fund from realizing the full current benefit of the tax-exempt status of such securities. Any such change could also affect the market price of such securities, and thus the value of an investment in the Fund.

Temporary Defensive Measures. As a temporary defensive measure, if its Manager determines that market conditions warrant, a Fund may invest without limitation in high quality money market instruments. Certain Funds may also invest in high quality money market instruments pending investment or to meet anticipated redemption requests. High quality money market instruments include U.S. government obligations, U.S. government agency obligations, dollar denominated obligations of foreign issuers, bank obligations, including U.S. subsidiaries and branches of foreign banks, corporate obligations, commercial paper, repurchase agreements and obligations of supranational organizations. Generally, such obligations will mature within one year from the date of settlement, but may mature within two years from the date of settlement. Temporary defensive measures may affect a Fund’s ability to achieve its investment objective.

U.S. Government Obligations. A Fund may purchase obligations issued or guaranteed by the U.S. Government and U.S. Government agencies and instrumentalities. Obligations of certain agencies and instrumentalities of the U.S. Government are supported by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Treasury. Others are supported by the right of the issuer to borrow from the U.S. Treasury; and still others are supported only by the credit of the agency or instrumentality issuing the obligation. No assurance can be given that the U.S. Government will provide financial support to U.S. Government-sponsored instrumentalities if it is not obligated to do so by law. Certain U.S. Treasury and agency securities may be held by trusts that issue participation certificates (such as Treasury income growth receipts and certificates of accrual on Treasury certificates). These certificates, as well as Treasury receipts and other stripped securities, represent beneficial ownership interests in either future interest payments or the future principal payments on U.S. Government obligations. These instruments are issued at a discount to their “face value” and may (particularly in the case of stripped mortgage-backed securities) exhibit greater price volatility than ordinary debt securities because of the manner in which their principal and interest are returned to investors.

Examples of the types of U.S. Government obligations that may be held by the Funds include U.S. Treasury Bills, Treasury Notes and Treasury Bonds and the obligations of the Federal Housing Administration, Farmers Home Administration, Export-Import

 

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Bank of the United States, Small Business Administration, Ginnie Mae, Fannie Mae, Federal Financing Bank, General Services Administration, Student Loan Marketing Association, Central Bank for Cooperatives, Federal Home Loan Banks, Freddie Mac, Federal Intermediate Credit Banks, Federal Land Banks, Farm Credit Banks System, Maritime Administration, Tennessee Valley Authority and Washington D.C. Armory Board. The Funds may also invest in mortgage-related securities issued or guaranteed by U.S. Government agencies and instrumentalities, including such instruments as obligations of Ginnie Mae, Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac.

U.S. Treasury Obligations. Treasury obligations may differ in their interest rates, maturities, times of issuance and other characteristics. Obligations of U.S. Government agencies and authorities are supported by varying degrees of credit but generally are not backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Government. No assurance can be given that the U.S. Government will provide financial support to its agencies and authorities if it is not obligated by law to do so.

U.S. Treasury Rolls. Certain Funds may invest in U.S. Treasury rolls. In a U.S. Treasury roll transaction, the Fund sells a treasury security to a counterparty with a simultaneous agreement to repurchase the same security at an agreed upon price and future settlement date. U.S. Treasury roll transactions may incrementally adjust the average maturity of a Fund’s portfolio and increase the interest yield on the Fund’s portfolio by extending the average maturity of the portfolio in a normal yield curve environment. During the period before the settlement date of a U.S. Treasury roll, a Fund continues to earn interest on the securities it is selling; however, it does not earn interest on the securities it is purchasing until after the settlement date. A Fund could suffer an opportunity loss if the counterparty to the U.S. Treasury roll transaction failed to perform its obligations on the settlement date.

The market value of the securities that a Fund is required to purchase may decline below the agreed upon purchase price of those securities. U.S. Treasury rolls are speculative techniques that can be deemed to involve leverage. There is no assurance that U.S. Treasury rolls can be successfully employed.

Utility Industries. Risks that are intrinsic to the utility industries include difficulty in obtaining an adequate return on invested capital, difficulty in financing large construction programs during an inflationary period, restrictions on operations and increased cost and delays attributable to environmental considerations and regulation, difficulty in raising capital in adequate amounts on reasonable terms in periods of high inflation and unsettled capital markets, technological innovations that may render existing plants, equipment or products obsolete, the potential impact of natural or man-made disasters, increased costs and reduced availability of certain types of fuel, occasional reduced availability and high costs of natural gas for resale, the effects of energy conservation, the effects of a national energy policy and lengthy delays and greatly increased costs and other problems associated with the design, construction, licensing, regulation and operation of nuclear facilities for electric generation, including, among other considerations, the problems associated with the use of radioactive materials and the disposal of radioactive wastes. There are substantial differences among the regulatory practices and policies of various jurisdictions, and any given regulatory agency may make major shifts in policy from time to time. There is no assurance that regulatory authorities will, in the future, grant rate increases or that such increases will be adequate to permit the payment of dividends on common stocks issued by a utility company. Additionally, existing and possible future regulatory legislation may make it even more difficult for utilities to obtain adequate relief. Certain of the issuers of securities held in the Fund’s portfolio may own or operate nuclear generating facilities. Governmental authorities may from time to time review existing policies and impose additional requirements governing the licensing, construction and operation of nuclear power plants. Prolonged changes in climatic conditions can also have a significant impact on both the revenues of an electric and gas utility as well as the expenses of a utility, particularly a hydro-based electric utility.

Utility companies in the United States and in foreign countries are generally subject to regulation. In the United States, most utility companies are regulated by state and/or federal authorities. Such regulation is intended to ensure appropriate standards of service and adequate capacity to meet public demand. Generally, prices are also regulated in the United States and in foreign countries with the intention of protecting the public while ensuring that the rate of return earned by utility companies is sufficient to allow them to attract capital in order to grow and continue to provide appropriate services. There can be no assurance that such pricing policies or rates of return will continue in the future.

The nature of regulation of the utility industries continues to evolve both in the United States and in foreign countries. In recent years, changes in regulation in the United States increasingly have allowed utility companies to provide services and products outside their traditional geographic areas and lines of business, creating new areas of competition within the industries. In some instances, utility companies are operating on an unregulated basis. Because of trends toward deregulation and the evolution of independent power producers as well as new entrants to the field of telecommunications, non-regulated providers of utility

 

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services have become a significant part of their respective industries. The Manager believes that the emergence of competition and deregulation will result in certain utility companies being able to earn more than their traditional regulated rates of return, while others may be forced to defend their core business from increased competition and may be less profitable. Reduced profitability, as well as new uses of funds (such as for expansion, operations or stock buybacks) could result in cuts in dividend payout rates. The Manager seeks to take advantage of favorable investment opportunities that may arise from these structural changes. Of course, there can be no assurance that favorable developments will occur in the future.

Foreign utility companies are also subject to regulation, although such regulations may or may not be comparable to those in the United States. Foreign utility companies may be more heavily regulated by their respective governments than utilities in the United States and, as in the United States, generally are required to seek government approval for rate increases. In addition, many foreign utilities use fuels that may cause more pollution than those used in the United States, which may require such utilities to invest in pollution control equipment to meet any proposed pollution restrictions. Foreign regulatory systems vary from country to country and may evolve in ways different from regulation in the United States.

A Fund’s investment policies are designed to enable it to capitalize on evolving investment opportunities throughout the world. For example, the rapid growth of certain foreign economies will necessitate expansion of capacity in the utility industries in those countries. Although many foreign utility companies currently are government-owned, thereby limiting current investment opportunities for a Fund, the Manager believes that, in order to attract significant capital for growth, foreign governments are likely to seek global investors through the privatization of their utility industries. Privatization, which refers to the trend toward investor ownership of assets rather than government ownership, is expected to occur in newer, faster-growing economies and in mature economies. Of course, there is no assurance that such favorable developments will occur or that investment opportunities in foreign markets will increase.

The revenues of domestic and foreign utility companies generally reflect the economic growth and development in the geographic areas in which they do business. The Manager will take into account anticipated economic growth rates and other economic developments when selecting securities of utility companies.

Electric. The electric utility industry consists of companies that are engaged principally in the generation, transmission and sale of electric energy, although many also provide other energy-related services. In the past, electric utility companies, in general, have been favorably affected by lower fuel and financing costs and the full or near completion of major construction programs. In addition, many of these companies have generated cash flows in excess of current operating expenses and construction expenditures, permitting some degree of diversification into unregulated businesses. Some electric utilities have also taken advantage of the right to sell power outside of their traditional geographic areas. Electric utility companies have historically been subject to the risks associated with increases in fuel and other operating costs, high interest costs on borrowings needed for capital construction programs, costs associated with compliance with environmental and safety regulations and changes in the regulatory climate. As interest rates declined, many utilities refinanced high cost debt and in doing so improved their fixed charges coverage. Regulators, however, lowered allowed rates of return as interest rates declined and thereby caused the benefits of the rate declines to be shared wholly or in part with customers. In a period of rising interest rates, the allowed rates of return may not keep pace with the utilities’ increased costs. The construction and operation of nuclear power facilities are subject to strict scrutiny by, and evolving regulations of, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and state agencies which have comparable jurisdiction. Strict scrutiny might result in higher operating costs and higher capital expenditures, with the risk that the regulators may disallow inclusion of these costs in rate authorizations or the risk that a company may not be permitted to operate or complete construction of a facility. In addition, operators of nuclear power plants may be subject to significant costs for disposal of nuclear fuel and for decommissioning such plants.

The rating agencies look closely at the business profile of utilities. Ratings for companies are expected to be impacted to a greater extent in the future by the division of their asset base. Electric utility companies that focus more on the generation of electricity may be assigned less favorable ratings as this business is expected to be competitive and the least regulated. On the other hand, companies that focus on transmission and distribution, which is expected to be the least competitive and the more regulated part of the business, may see higher ratings given the greater predictability of cash flow.

A number of states are considering or have enacted deregulation proposals. The introduction of competition into the industry as a result of such deregulation has at times resulted in lower revenue, lower credit ratings, increased default risk, and lower electric utility security prices. Such increased competition may also cause long-term contracts, which electric utilities previously entered into to buy power, to become “stranded assets” which have no economic value. Any loss associated with such contracts must be

 

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absorbed by ratepayers and investors. In addition, some electric utilities have acquired electric utilities overseas to diversify, enhance earnings and gain experience in operating in a deregulated environment. In some instances, such acquisitions have involved significant borrowings, which have burdened the acquirer’s balance sheet. There is no assurance that current deregulation proposals will be adopted. However, deregulation in any form could significantly impact the electric utilities industry.

Telecommunications. The telecommunications industry today includes both traditional telephone companies, with a history of broad market coverage and highly regulated businesses, and cable companies, which began as small, lightly regulated businesses focused on limited markets. Today these two historically different businesses are converging in an industry that is trending toward larger, competitive national and international markets with an emphasis on deregulation. Companies that distribute telephone services and provide access to the telephone networks still comprise the greatest portion of this segment, but non-regulated activities such as wireless telephone services, paging, data transmission and processing, equipment retailing, computer software and hardware and internet services are becoming increasingly significant components as well. In particular, wireless and internet telephone services continue to gain market share at the expense of traditional telephone companies. The presence of unregulated companies in this industry and the entry of traditional telephone companies into unregulated or less regulated businesses provide significant investment opportunities with companies that may increase their earnings at faster rates than had been allowed in traditional regulated businesses. Still, increasing competition, technological innovations and other structural changes could adversely affect the profitability of such utilities and the growth rate of their dividends. Given mergers and proposed legislation and enforcement changes, it is likely that both traditional telephone companies and cable companies will continue to provide an expanding range of utility services to both residential, corporate and governmental customers.

Gas. Gas transmission companies and gas distribution companies are undergoing significant changes. In the United States, interstate transmission companies are regulated by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, which is reducing its regulation of the industry. Many companies have diversified into oil and gas exploration and development, making returns more sensitive to energy prices. In the recent decade, gas utility companies have been adversely affected by disruptions in the oil industry and have also been affected by increased concentration and competition. In the opinion of the Manager, however, environmental considerations could improve the gas industry outlook in the future. For example, natural gas is the cleanest of the hydrocarbon fuels, and this may result in incremental shifts in fuel consumption toward natural gas and away from oil and coal, even for electricity generation. However, technological or regulatory changes within the industry may delay or prevent this result.

Water. Water supply utilities are companies that collect, purify, distribute and sell water. In the United States and around the world the industry is highly fragmented because most of the supplies are owned by local authorities. Companies in this industry are generally mature and are experiencing little or no per capita volume growth. In the opinion of the Manager, there may be opportunities for certain companies to acquire other water utility companies and for foreign acquisition of domestic companies. The Manager believes that favorable investment opportunities may result from consolidation of this segment. As with other utilities, however, increased regulation, increased costs and potential disruptions in supply may adversely affect investments in water supply utilities.

Utility Industries Generally. There can be no assurance that the positive developments noted above, including those relating to privatization and changing regulation, will occur or that risk factors other than those noted above will not develop in the future.

When-Issued Securities, Delayed Delivery Securities and Forward Commitments. A Fund may purchase or sell securities that it is entitled to receive on a when-issued basis. A Fund may also purchase or sell securities on a delayed delivery basis or through a forward commitment (including on a “TBA” (to be announced) basis). These transactions involve the purchase or sale of securities by a Fund at an established price with payment and delivery taking place in the future. The Fund enters into these transactions to obtain what is considered an advantageous price to the Fund at the time of entering into the transaction. When a Fund purchases securities in these transactions, the Fund segregates liquid assets in an amount equal to the amount of its purchase commitments.

Pursuant to recommendations of the Treasury Market Practices Group, which is sponsored by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, a Fund or its counterparty generally will be required to post collateral when entering into certain forward-settling transactions, including without limitation TBA transactions.

There can be no assurance that a security purchased on a when-issued basis will be issued or that a security purchased or sold on a delayed delivery basis or through a forward commitment will be delivered. Also, the value of securities in these transactions on the delivery date may be more or less than the price paid by the Fund to purchase the securities. The Fund will lose money if the value of the security in such a transaction declines below the purchase price and will not benefit if the value of the security appreciates above the sale price during the commitment period.

 

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If deemed advisable as a matter of investment strategy, a Fund may dispose of or renegotiate a commitment after it has been entered into, and may sell securities it has committed to purchase before those securities are delivered to the Fund on the settlement date. In these cases the Fund may realize a taxable capital gain or loss.

When a Fund engages in when-issued, TBA or forward commitment transactions, it relies on the other party to consummate the trade. Failure of such party to do so may result in the Fund’s incurring a loss or missing an opportunity to obtain a price considered to be advantageous.

The market value of the securities underlying a commitment to purchase securities, and any subsequent fluctuations in their market value, is taken into account when determining the market value of a Fund starting on the day the Fund agrees to purchase the securities. The Fund does not earn interest on the securities it has committed to purchase until they are paid for and delivered on the settlement date.

Regulations adopted by global prudential regulators that are now in effect require certain bank-regulated counterparties and certain of their affiliates to include in certain financial contracts, including many agreements with respect to when issued, TBA and forward commitment transactions, terms that delay or restrict the rights of counterparties, such as a Fund, to terminate such agreements, foreclose upon collateral, exercise other default rights or restrict transfers of credit support in the event that the counterparty and/or its affiliates are subject to certain types of resolution or insolvency proceedings. It is possible that these new requirements, as well as potential additional government regulation and other developments in the market, could adversely affect a Fund’s ability to terminate existing agreements with respect to these transactions or to realize amounts to be received under such agreements.

Yields and Ratings. The yields on certain obligations are dependent on a variety of factors, including general market conditions, conditions in the particular market for the obligation, the financial condition of the issuer, the size of the offering, the maturity of the obligation and the ratings of the issue. The ratings of Moody’s, Fitch and S&P represent their respective opinions as to the quality of the obligations they undertake to rate. Ratings, however, are general and are not absolute standards of quality. Consequently, obligations with the same rating, maturity and interest rate may have different market prices. Subsequent to its purchase by a Fund, a rated security may cease to be rated. A Fund’s Manager or sub-adviser will consider such an event in determining whether the Fund should continue to hold the security.

Zero Coupon Securities. Zero coupon securities are securities that are sold at a discount to par value and do not pay interest during the life of the security. The discount approximates the total amount of interest the security will accrue and compound over the period until maturity at a rate of interest reflecting the market rate of the security at the time of issuance. Upon maturity, the holder of a zero coupon security is entitled to receive the par value of the security.

While interest payments are not made on such securities, holders of such securities are deemed to have received income (“phantom income”) annually, notwithstanding that cash may not be received currently. The effect of owning instruments that do not make current interest payments is that a fixed yield is earned not only on the original investment but also, in effect, on all discount accretion during the life of the obligations. This implicit reinvestment of earnings at a fixed rate eliminates the risk of being unable to invest distributions at a rate as high as the implicit yield on the zero coupon bond, but at the same time eliminates the holder’s ability to reinvest at higher rates in the future. For this reason, some of these securities may be subject to substantially greater price fluctuations during periods of changing market interest rates than are comparable securities that pay interest currently. Longer term zero coupon bonds are more exposed to interest rate risk than shorter term zero coupon bonds. These investments benefit the issuer by mitigating its need for cash to meet debt service, but also require a higher rate of return to attract investors who are willing to defer receipt of cash.

A Fund accrues income with respect to these securities for U.S. federal income tax and accounting purposes prior to the receipt of cash payments. Zero coupon securities may be subject to greater fluctuation in value and less liquidity in the event of adverse market conditions than comparably rated securities that pay cash interest at regular intervals.

Further, to maintain its qualification for pass-through treatment under the U.S. federal tax laws, a Fund is required to distribute income to its shareholders and, consequently, may have to dispose of other, more liquid portfolio securities under disadvantageous circumstances or may have to leverage itself by borrowing in order to generate the cash to satisfy these distributions. The required distributions may result in an increase in a Fund’s exposure to zero coupon securities.

In addition to the above-described risks, there are certain other risks related to investing in zero coupon securities. During a period of severe market conditions, the market for such securities may become even less liquid. In addition, as these securities do not pay

 

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cash interest, a Fund’s investment exposure to these securities and their risks, including credit risk, will increase during the time these securities are held in the Fund’s portfolio.

Suitability (All Funds)

The economic benefit of an investment in any Fund depends upon many factors beyond the control of the Fund, the Manager and its affiliates. Each Fund should be considered a vehicle for diversification and not as a balanced investment program. The suitability for any particular investor of a purchase of shares in a Fund will depend upon, among other things, such investor’s investment objectives and such investor’s ability to accept the risks associated with investing in securities, including the risk of loss of principal.

Investment Restrictions (All Funds)

See “Investment Restrictions” in Part I of each Fund’s SAI for the specific fundamental and non-fundamental investment restrictions adopted by each Fund. In addition to those investment restrictions, each Fund is also subject to the restrictions discussed below.

Section 12(d)(1) of the Investment Company Act restricts investments by investment companies, including foreign investment companies, in the securities of other investment companies. Registered investment companies are permitted to invest in the Fund beyond the limits set forth in Section 12(d)(1), subject to certain terms and conditions set forth in SEC rules or pursuant to an SEC exemptive order. In order for a registered investment company to invest in shares of the Fund beyond the limitations of Section 12(d)(1) pursuant to SEC exemptive relief obtained by such registered investment company, such registered investment company must enter into an agreement with the Fund. Registered investment companies must adhere to the limits set forth in Section 12(d)(1) of the Investment Company Act when investing in Funds that are structured as fund-of-funds. Foreign investment companies are permitted to invest in the Fund only up to the limits set forth in Section 12(d)(1), subject to any applicable SEC no-action relief.

Each Fund’s investments will be limited in order to allow the Fund to qualify as a “regulated investment company” for purposes of the Code. See “Dividends and Taxes — Taxes.” To qualify, among other requirements, each Fund will limit its investments so that, at the close of each quarter of the taxable year, (i) at least 50% of the market value of each Fund’s assets is represented by cash, securities of other regulated investment companies, U.S. Government Securities and other securities, with such other securities limited, in respect of any one issuer, to an amount not greater in value than 5% of the Fund’s assets and not greater than 10% of the outstanding voting securities of such issuer and (ii) not more than 25% of the value of its assets is invested in the securities (other than U.S. Government Securities or securities of other regulated investment companies) of any one issuer, any two or more issuers that the Fund controls and that are determined to be engaged in the same or similar trades or businesses or related trades or businesses or in the securities of one or more qualified publicly traded partnerships (i.e., partnerships that are traded on an established securities market or tradable on a secondary market, other than partnerships that derive 90% of their income from interest, dividends, capital gains and other traditionally permitted mutual fund income). For purposes of this restriction, the Municipal Funds generally will regard each state and each of its political subdivisions, agencies or instrumentalities and each multi-state agency of which the state is a member as a separate issuer. Each public authority that issues securities on behalf of a private entity generally will also be regarded as a separate issuer, except that if the security is backed only by the assets and revenues of a non-government entity, then the entity with the ultimate responsibility for the payment of interest and principal may be regarded as the sole issuer.

Foreign government securities (unlike U.S. Government Securities) are not exempt from the 5%, 10% and 25% diversification requirements of the Code discussed above and the securities of each foreign government issuer are considered to be obligations of a single issuer. These tax-related limitations may be changed by the Directors of a Fund to the extent necessary to comply with changes to the U.S. federal tax requirements. A Fund that is “diversified” under the Investment Company Act must satisfy the foregoing 5% and 10% requirements with respect to 75% of its total assets.

MANAGEMENT AND OTHER SERVICE ARRANGEMENTS

Directors and Officers

See “Information on Directors and Officers, ‘— Biographical Information,’ ‘— Share Ownership’ and ‘— Compensation of Directors’” or “Information on Trustees and Officers, ‘— Biographical Information,’ ‘— Share Ownership’ and ‘— Compensation

 

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of Trustees’,” as applicable, in Part I of each Fund’s SAI for biographical and certain other information relating to the Directors and officers of your Fund, including Directors’ compensation.

Management Arrangements

Management Services. The Manager provides each Fund with investment advisory and management services. Subject to the oversight of the Board of Directors, the Manager is responsible for the actual management of a Fund’s portfolio and reviews the Fund’s holdings in light of its own research analysis and that from other relevant sources. The responsibility for making decisions to buy, sell or hold a particular security rests with the Manager. The Manager performs certain of the other administrative services and provides all the office space, facilities, equipment and necessary personnel for management of each Fund.

Each Feeder Fund invests all or a portion of its assets in shares of a Master Portfolio. To the extent a Feeder Fund invests all of its assets in a Master Portfolio, it does not invest directly in portfolio securities and does not require management services. For such Feeder Funds, portfolio management occurs at the Master Portfolio level.

Management Fee. Each Fund has entered into a Management Agreement with the Manager pursuant to which the Manager receives for its services to the Fund monthly compensation at an annual rate based on the average daily net assets of the Fund. For information regarding specific fee rates for your Fund and the fees paid by your Fund to the Manager for the Fund’s last three fiscal years or other applicable periods, see “Management, Advisory and Other Service Arrangements” or “Management and Advisory Arrangements,” as applicable, in Part I of each Fund’s SAI.

For Funds that do not have an administrator, each Management Agreement obligates the Manager to provide management services and to pay all compensation of and furnish office space for officers and employees of a Fund in connection with investment and economic research, trading and investment management of the Fund, as well as the fees of all Directors of the Fund who are interested persons of the Fund. Each Fund pays all other expenses incurred in the operation of that Fund, including among other things: taxes; expenses for legal and auditing services; costs of preparing, printing and mailing proxies, shareholder reports, prospectuses and statements of additional information, except to the extent paid by BlackRock Investments, LLC (“BRIL” or the “Distributor”); charges of the custodian and sub-custodian, and the transfer agent; expenses of redemption of shares; Commission fees; expenses of registering the shares under Federal, state or foreign laws; fees and expenses of Directors who are not interested persons of a Fund as defined in the Investment Company Act; accounting and pricing costs (including the daily calculations of NAV); insurance; interest; brokerage costs; litigation and other extraordinary or non-recurring expenses; and other expenses properly payable by the Fund. Certain accounting services are provided to each Fund by State Street Bank and Trust Company (“State Street”), BNY Mellon Investment Servicing (US) Inc. (“BNY Mellon”) or JPMorgan Chase Bank, N.A. (“JPM”) pursuant to an agreement between State Street, BNY Mellon or JPM, as applicable, and each Fund. Each Fund pays a fee for these services. In addition, the Manager provides certain accounting services to each Fund and the Fund pays the Manager a fee for such services. The Distributor pays certain promotional expenses of the Funds incurred in connection with the offering of shares of the Funds. Certain expenses are financed by each Fund pursuant to distribution plans in compliance with Rule 12b-1 under the Investment Company Act. See “Purchase of Shares — Distribution and/or Shareholder Servicing Plans.”

Sub-Advisory Fee. The Manager of certain Funds has entered into one or more sub-advisory agreements (the “Sub-Advisory Agreements”) with the sub-adviser or sub-advisers identified in each such Fund’s Prospectus (the “Sub-Adviser”) pursuant to which the Sub-Adviser provides sub-advisory services to the Manager with respect to the Fund. For information relating to the fees, if any, paid by the Manager to the Sub-Adviser pursuant to the Sub-Advisory Agreement for the Fund’s last three fiscal years or other applicable periods, see “Management, Advisory and Other Service Arrangements” or “Management and Advisory Arrangements,” as applicable, in Part I of each Fund’s SAI.

Organization of the Manager. BlackRock Advisors, LLC is a Delaware limited liability company and BlackRock Fund Advisors is a California corporation. Each Manager is an indirect, wholly owned subsidiary of BlackRock, Inc. BlackRock, Inc., through its subsidiaries and divisions, provides (i) investment management services to individuals and institutional investors through separate account management, non-discretionary advisory programs and commingled investment vehicles; (ii) risk management services, investment accounting and trade processing tools; (iii) transition management services, and (iv) securities lending services.

Duration and Termination. Unless earlier terminated as described below, each Management Agreement and each Sub-Advisory Agreement will remain in effect for an initial two year period and from year to year thereafter if approved annually (a) by the Board of Directors or by a vote of a majority of the outstanding voting securities of a Fund and (b) by a majority of the Directors

 

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of the Fund who are not parties to such agreement or interested persons (as defined in the Investment Company Act) of any such party. Each Management Agreement automatically terminates on assignment and may be terminated without penalty on 60 days’ written notice at the option of either party thereto or by the vote of the shareholders of the applicable Fund.

Other Service Arrangements

Administrative Services and Administrative Fee. Certain Funds have entered into an administration agreement (the “Administration Agreement”) with an administrator identified in the Fund’s Prospectus and Part I of the Fund’s SAI (each an “Administrator”). For its services to a Fund, the Administrator receives monthly compensation at the annual rate set forth in each applicable Fund’s Prospectus. For information regarding any administrative fees paid by your Fund to the Administrator for the periods indicated, see “Management, Advisory and Other Service Arrangements” or “Management and Advisory Arrangements,” as applicable, in Part I of that Fund’s SAI.

For Funds that have an Administrator, the Administration Agreement obligates the Administrator to provide certain administrative services to the Fund and to pay, or cause its affiliates to pay, for maintaining its staff and personnel and to provide office space, facilities and necessary personnel for the Fund. Each Administrator is also obligated to pay, or cause its affiliates to pay, the fees of those officers and Directors of the Fund who are affiliated persons of the Administrator or any of its affiliates.

Duration and Termination of Administration Agreement. Unless earlier terminated as described below, each Administration Agreement will continue for an initial two year period and from year to year if approved annually (a) by the Board of Directors of each applicable Fund or by a vote of a majority of the outstanding voting securities of such Fund and (b) by a majority of the Directors of the Fund who are not parties to such contract or interested persons (as defined in the Investment Company Act) of any such party. Such contract is not assignable and may be terminated without penalty on written notice at the option of either party thereto or by the vote of the shareholders of the Fund.

Transfer Agency Services. BNY Mellon Investment Servicing (US) Inc. (in this capacity, the “Transfer Agent”), a subsidiary of The Bank of New York Mellon Corporation, acts as each Fund’s Transfer Agent pursuant to a Transfer Agency, Dividend Disbursing Agency and Shareholder Servicing Agency Agreement (the “Transfer Agency Agreement”) with the Funds. Pursuant to the Transfer Agency Agreement, the Transfer Agent is responsible for the issuance, transfer and redemption of shares and the opening and maintenance of shareholder accounts. Each Fund pays the Transfer Agent a fee for the services it receives based on the type of account and the level of services required. Each Fund reimburses the Transfer Agent’s reasonable out-of-pocket expenses and pays a fee of 0.10% of account assets for certain accounts that participate in certain fee-based programs sponsored by the Manager or its affiliates. For purposes of each Transfer Agency Agreement, the term “account” includes a shareholder account maintained directly by the Transfer Agent and any other account representing the beneficial interest of a person in the relevant share class on a recordkeeping system.

Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm. The Audit Committee of each Fund, the members of which are non-interested Directors of the Fund, has selected an independent registered public accounting firm for that Fund that audits the Fund’s financial statements. Please see the inside back cover page of your Fund’s Prospectus and Part I of this SAI for information on your Fund’s independent registered public accounting firm.

Custodian Services. The name and address of the custodian (the “Custodian”) of each Fund are provided on the inside back cover page of the Fund’s Prospectus. The Custodian is responsible for safeguarding and controlling the Fund’s cash and securities, handling the receipt and delivery of securities and collecting interest and dividends on the Fund’s investments. The Custodian is authorized to establish separate accounts in foreign currencies and to cause foreign securities owned by the Fund to be held in its offices outside the United States and with certain foreign banks and securities depositories.

For certain Feeder Funds, the Custodian also acts as the custodian of the Master Portfolio’s assets.

With respect to certain Funds, on a monthly basis the Custodian nets the Fund’s daily positive and negative cash balances and calculates a credit (“custody credit”) or a charge based on that net amount. The custodian fees, including the amount of any overdraft charges, may be reduced by the amount of such custody credits, and any unused credits at the end of a given month may be carried forward to a subsequent month. Any such credits unused by the end of a Fund’s fiscal year will not expire. Net debits at the end of a given month are added to the Fund’s custody bill and paid by the Fund.

Accounting Services. Each Fund has entered into an agreement with State Street, BNY Mellon or JPM, pursuant to which State Street, BNY Mellon or JPM provides certain accounting and administrative services to the Fund. Each Fund pays a fee for these

 

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services. State Street, BNY Mellon or JPM provides similar accounting services to the Master LLCs. The Manager or the Administrator also provides certain accounting services to each Fund and each Fund reimburses the Manager or the Administrator for these services.

See “Management, Advisory and Other Service Arrangements — Accounting Services” or “Management and Advisory Arrangements — Accounting Services,” as applicable, in Part I of each Fund’s SAI for information on the amounts paid by your Fund and, if applicable, Master LLC to State Street, BNY Mellon or JPM and the Manager or, if applicable, the Administrator for the periods indicated.

Distribution Expenses. Each Fund has entered into a distribution agreement with the Distributor in connection with the continuous offering of each class of shares of the Fund (the “Distribution Agreements”). The Distribution Agreements obligate the Distributor to pay certain expenses in connection with the offering of each class of shares of the Funds. After the prospectuses, statements of additional information and periodic reports have been prepared, set in type and mailed to shareholders, the Distributor pays for the printing and distribution of these documents used in connection with the offering to dealers and investors. The Distributor also pays for other supplementary sales literature and advertising costs. Each Distribution Agreement is subject to the same renewal requirements and termination provisions as the Management Agreement described above.

Code of Ethics

Each Fund, the Manager, each Sub-Adviser and the Distributor has adopted a Code of Ethics pursuant to Rule 17j-1 under the Investment Company Act. The Code of Ethics establishes procedures for personal investing and restricts certain transactions. Employees subject to the Code of Ethics may invest in securities for their personal investment accounts, including securities that may be purchased or held by a Fund.

SELECTIVE DISCLOSURE OF PORTFOLIO HOLDINGS

The Board of Directors of each Fund and the Board of Directors of the Manager have each approved Portfolio Information Distribution Guidelines (the “Policy”) regarding the disclosure of each Fund’s portfolio securities, as applicable, and other portfolio information. The purpose of the Policy is to ensure that (i) shareholders and prospective shareholders of the Funds have equal access to portfolio holdings and characteristics and (ii) third parties (such as consultants, intermediaries and third-party data providers) have access to such information no earlier or more frequently than shareholders and prospective shareholders.

Pursuant to the Policy, each Fund and the Manager may, under certain circumstances as set forth below, make selective disclosure with respect to a Fund’s Portfolio Characteristics (as defined below) and Portfolio Holdings (as defined below). The Board of Directors of each Fund and the Board of Directors of the Manager have each approved the adoption by the Fund of the Policy, and employees of the Manager are responsible for adherence to the Policy. The Board of Directors provides ongoing oversight of the Fund’s and Manager’s compliance with the Policy.

Disclosure of material non-public information (“Confidential Information”) about a Fund’s Portfolio Holdings and/or Portfolio Characteristics is prohibited, except as provided in the Policy.

Confidential Information relating to a Fund may not be distributed to persons not employed by BlackRock unless the Fund has a legitimate business purpose for doing so and appropriate confidentiality obligations are in effect.

 

   

Portfolio Holdings: “Portfolio Holdings” are a Fund’s portfolio securities and other instruments, and include, but are not limited to:

 

   

for equity securities, information such as issuer name, CUSIP, ticker symbol, total shares and market value;

 

   

for fixed income securities, information such as issuer name, CUSIP, ticker symbol, coupon, maturity, current face value and market value;

 

   

for all securities, information such as quantity, SEDOL, market price, yield, WAL, duration and convexity as of a specific date;

 

   

for derivatives, indicative data including, but not limited to, pay leg, receive leg, notional amount, reset frequency and trade counterparty; and

 

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for trading strategies, specific portfolio holdings, including the number of shares held, weightings of particular holdings, trading details, pending or recent transactions and portfolio management plans to purchase or sell particular securities or allocation within particular sectors.

 

   

Portfolio Characteristics (excluding Liquidity Metrics): “Portfolio Characteristics” include, but are not limited to, sector allocation, credit quality breakdown, maturity distribution, duration and convexity measures, average credit quality, average maturity, average coupon, top 10 holdings with percent of the fund held, average market capitalization, capitalization range, risk related information (e.g., value at risk, standard deviation), ROE, P/E, P/B, P/CF, P/S and EPS.

 

   

Additional characteristics specific to money market funds include, but are not limited to, historical daily and weekly liquid assets (as defined under Rule 2a-7) and historical fund net inflows and outflows.

 

   

Portfolio Characteristics — Liquidity Metrics:

 

   

“Liquidity Metrics” which seek to ascertain a Fund’s liquidity profile under BlackRock’s global liquidity risk methodology which include but are not limited to: (a) disclosure regarding the number of days needed to liquidate a portfolio or the portfolio’s underlying investments; and (b) the percentage of a Fund’s NAV invested in a particular liquidity tier under BlackRock’s global liquidity risk methodology.

 

   

The dissemination of position-level liquidity metrics data and any non-public regulatory data pursuant to SEC Rule 22e-4 (including SEC liquidity tiering) is not permitted unless pre-approved.

 

   

Disclosure of Liquidity Metrics pursuant to Section 3 of the Policy should be reviewed by BlackRock’s Risk and Quantitative Analysis Group and the relevant portfolio management team prior to dissemination.

Information that is non-material or that may be obtained from public sources (i.e., information that has been publicly disclosed via a filing with the SEC (e.g., a fund’s annual report), through a press release or placement on a publicly-available internet website), or information derived or calculated from such public sources shall not be deemed Confidential Information.

Portfolio Holdings and Portfolio Characteristics may be disclosed in accordance with the below schedule.

 

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Open-End Mutual Funds (Excluding Money Market Funds)

 

     Time Periods for Portfolio Holdings
    

Prior to 20 Calendar Days

After Month-End

  20 Calendar Days After
Month-End To Public Filing
Portfolio
Holdings
  Cannot disclose without non-disclosure or confidentiality agreement and Chief Compliance Officer (“CCO”) approval.   May disclose to shareholders, prospective shareholders, intermediaries, consultants and third-party data providers (e.g., Lipper, Morningstar and Bloomberg), except with respect to Global Allocation funds* (whose portfolio holdings may be disclosed 40 calendar days after quarter-end based on the applicable fund’s fiscal year end) and BlackRock Core Bond Portfolio and BlackRock Strategic Income Opportunities Portfolio of BlackRock Funds V, BlackRock Strategic Global Bond Fund, Inc., Master Total Return Portfolio of Master Bond LLC and BlackRock Total Return V.I. Fund of BlackRock Variable Series Funds II, Inc. (each of whose portfolio holdings may be disclosed 60 calendar days after month-end). If Portfolio Holdings are disclosed to one party, they must also be disclosed to all other parties requesting the same information.
     Time Periods for Portfolio Characteristics
Portfolio
Characteristics 
(Excluding
Liquidity
Metrics)
 

Prior to 5 Calendar Days

After Month-End

 

5 Calendar Days

After Month-End

  Cannot disclose without non-disclosure or confidentiality agreement and CCO approval.*, **   May disclose to shareholders, prospective shareholders, intermediaries, consultants and third-party data providers (e.g., Lipper, Morningstar and Bloomberg). If Portfolio Characteristics are disclosed to one party, they must also be disclosed to all other parties requesting the same information.
Portfolio
Characteristics 
— Liquidity
Metrics
 

Prior to 60 Calendar Days

After Calendar Quarter-End

 

60 Calendar Days

After Calendar Quarter- End

  Cannot disclose without non-disclosure or confidentiality agreement and CCO approval.   May disclose to shareholders, prospective shareholders, intermediaries and consultants; provided portfolio management has approved. If Liquidity Metrics are disclosed to one party, they must also be disclosed to all other parties requesting the same information.

* Global Allocation Exception: For purposes of portfolio holdings, Global Allocation funds include BlackRock Global Allocation Fund, Inc., BlackRock Global Allocation Portfolio of BlackRock Series Fund, Inc. and BlackRock Global Allocation V.I. Fund of BlackRock Variable Series Funds, Inc. Information on certain Portfolio Characteristics of BlackRock Global Allocation Portfolio and BlackRock Global Allocation V.I. Fund is available, upon request, to insurance companies that use these funds as underlying investments (and to advisers and sub-advisers of funds invested in BlackRock Global Allocation Portfolio and BlackRock Global Allocation V.I. Fund) in their variable annuity contracts and variable life insurance policies on a weekly basis (or such other period as may be determined to be appropriate). Disclosure of such characteristics of these two funds constitutes a disclosure of Confidential Information and is being made for reasons deemed appropriate by BlackRock and in accordance with the requirements set forth in these guidelines. If Portfolio Characteristics are disclosed to one party, they must also be disclosed to all other parties requesting the same information.

 

**Strategic Income Opportunities Exception: Information on certain Portfolio Characteristics of BlackRock Strategic Income Opportunities Portfolio of BlackRock Funds V may be made available to shareholders, prospective shareholders, intermediaries, consultants and third party data providers, upon request on a more frequent basis as may be deemed appropriate by BlackRock from time-to-time. If Portfolio Characteristics are disclosed to one party, they must also be disclosed to all other parties requesting the same information.

 

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Money Market Funds

 

     Time Periods
     Prior to 5 Calendar Days
After Month-End
  5 Calendar Days After
Month-End to Date of Public Filing
Portfolio
Holdings
 

Cannot disclose without non-disclosure or confidentiality agreement and CCO approval except the following portfolio holdings information may be released as follows:

 

• Weekly portfolio holdings information released on the website at least one business day after week-end.

 

• Other information as may be required under Rule 2a-7 (e.g., name of issuer, category of investment, principal amount, maturity dates, yields).

  May disclose to shareholders, prospective shareholders, intermediaries, consultants and third-party data providers. If portfolio holdings are disclosed to one party, they must also be disclosed to all other parties requesting the same information.
Portfolio
Characteristics 
 

Cannot disclose without non-disclosure or confidentiality agreement and CCO approval except the following information may be released on the Fund’s website daily:

 

• Historical NAVs calculated based on market factors (e.g., marked-to-market)

 

• Percentage of fund assets invested in daily and weekly liquid assets (as defined under Rule 2a-7)

 

• Daily net inflows and outflows

 

• Yields, SEC yields, WAM, WAL, current assets

 

• Other information as may be required by Rule 2a-7

  May disclose to shareholders, prospective shareholders, intermediaries, consultants and third-party data providers. If Portfolio Characteristics are disclosed to one party, they must also be disclosed to all other parties requesting the same information.

Guidelines for Confidential and Non-Material Information. Confidential Information may be disclosed to the Fund’s Board of Directors and its counsel, outside counsel for the Fund, the Fund’s auditors and to certain third-party service providers (i.e., fund administrator, custodian, proxy voting service) for which a non-disclosure or confidentiality agreement is in place with such service providers. With respect to Confidential Information, the Fund’s CCO or his or her designee may authorize the following, subject in the case of (ii) and (iii) to a confidentiality or non-disclosure arrangement:

(i) the preparation and posting of the Fund’s Portfolio Holdings and/or Portfolio Characteristics to its website on a more frequent basis than authorized above;

(ii) the disclosure of the Fund’s Portfolio Holdings to third-party service providers not noted above; and

(iii) the disclosure of the Fund’s Portfolio Holdings and/or Portfolio Characteristics to other parties for legitimate business purposes.

Fact Sheets and Reports

 

   

Fund Fact Sheets are available to shareholders, prospective shareholders, intermediaries and consultants on a monthly or quarterly basis no earlier than the fifth calendar day after the end of a month or quarter.

 

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Money Market Performance Reports are typically available to shareholders, prospective shareholders, intermediaries and consultants by the tenth calendar day of the month (and on a one day lag for certain institutional funds). They contain monthly money market Fund performance, rolling 12-month average and benchmark performance.

Other Information. The Policy shall also apply to other Confidential Information of a Fund such as performance attribution analyses or security-specific information (e.g., information about Fund holdings where an issuer has been downgraded, been acquired or declared bankruptcy).

Data on NAVs, asset levels (by total Fund and share class), accruals, yields, capital gains, dividends and fund returns (net of fees by share class) are generally available to shareholders, prospective shareholders, consultants, and third-party data providers upon request, as soon as such data is available.

Contact Information. For information about portfolio holdings and characteristics, BlackRock fund shareholders and prospective investors should call the number set out on the back cover of the Prospectus.

Compensation. Neither a Fund, a service provider nor any of their affiliated persons (as that term is defined in the Investment Company Act) shall receive compensation in any form in connection with the disclosure of information about such Fund’s Portfolio Holdings or Portfolio Characteristics.

Ongoing Arrangements. The Manager has entered into ongoing agreements to provide selective disclosure of Fund Portfolio Holdings to the following persons or entities:

 

    1.

Fund’s Board of Directors and, if necessary, independent Directors’ counsel and Fund counsel.

 

    2.

Fund’s Transfer Agent.

 

    3.

Fund’s Custodian.

 

    4.

Fund’s Administrator, if applicable.

 

    5.

Fund’s independent registered public accounting firm.

 

    6.

Fund’s accounting services provider.

 

    7.

Independent rating agencies — Morningstar, Inc., Lipper Inc., S&P, Moody’s, Fitch.

 

    8.

Information aggregators — Markit on Demand, Thomson Financial and Bloomberg, eVestments Alliance, Informa/PSN Investment Solutions, Crane Data and iMoneyNet.

 

    9.

Pricing Vendors — Refinitiv, ICE Data Services, Bloomberg, IHS Markit, JP Morgan Pricing-Direct, Loan Pricing Corporation, Valuation Research Corporation, Murray, Devine & Co., Inc. and WM Company PLC.

 

  10.

Portfolio Compliance Consultants — Oracle Financial Services.

 

  11.

Third-party feeder funds — Stock Index Fund, a series of Homestead Funds, Inc.; Transamerica Stock Index, a series of Transamerica Funds; and Alight Money Market Fund, a series of Alight Series Trust and their respective boards, sponsors, administrators and other service providers.

 

  12.

Affiliated feeder funds — Treasury Money Market Fund (Cayman) and its board, sponsor, administrator and other service providers.

 

  13.

Other — Investment Company Institute, Goldman Sachs Asset Management, L.P., Mizuho Asset Management Co., Ltd., Nationwide Fund Advisors, State Street Bank and Trust Company, Donnelley Financial Solutions, Inc., Silicon Valley Bank and BNY Mellon Markets.

With respect to each such arrangement, a Fund has a legitimate business purpose for the release of information. The release of the information is subject to confidential treatment to prohibit the entity from sharing with an unauthorized source or trading upon the information provided. The Funds, BlackRock and their affiliates do not receive any compensation or other consideration in connection with such arrangements.

 

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The Funds and the Manager monitor, to the extent possible, the use of Confidential Information by the individuals or firms to which it has been disclosed. To do so, in addition to the requirements of any applicable confidentiality agreement and/or the terms and conditions of the Fund’s and Manager’s Codes of Ethics — all of which require persons or entities in possession of Confidential Information to keep such information confidential and not to trade on such information for their own benefit — the Manager’s compliance personnel under the supervision of the Fund’s CCO, monitor the Manager’s securities trading desks to determine whether individuals or firms who have received Confidential Information have made any trades on the basis of that information. In addition, the Manager maintains an internal restricted list to prevent trading by the personnel of the Manager or its affiliates in securities — including securities held by a Fund — about which the Manager has Confidential Information. There can be no assurance, however, that the Fund’s policies and procedures with respect to the selective disclosure of Portfolio Holdings will prevent the misuse of such information by individuals or firms that receive such information.

Potential Conflicts of Interest

Certain activities of BlackRock, Inc., BlackRock Advisors, LLC, BlackRock Fund Advisors and the other subsidiaries of BlackRock, Inc. (collectively referred to in this section as “BlackRock”) and their respective directors, officers or employees, with respect to the Funds and/or other accounts managed by BlackRock, may give rise to actual or perceived conflicts of interest such as those described below.

BlackRock is one of the world’s largest asset management firms. BlackRock, its subsidiaries and their respective directors, officers and employees, including the business units or entities and personnel who may be involved in the investment activities and business operations of a Fund, are engaged worldwide in businesses, including managing equities, fixed income securities, cash and alternative investments, and other financial services, and have interests other than that of managing the Funds. These are considerations of which investors in a Fund should be aware, and which may cause conflicts of interest that could disadvantage a Fund and its shareholders. These businesses and interests include potential multiple advisory, transactional, financial and other relationships with, or interests in companies and interests in securities or other instruments that may be purchased or sold by a Fund.

BlackRock has proprietary interests in, and may manage or advise with respect to, accounts or funds (including separate accounts and other funds and collective investment vehicles) that have investment objectives similar to those of a Fund and/or that engage in transactions in the same types of securities, currencies and instruments as the Fund. BlackRock is also a major participant in the global currency, equities, swap and fixed income markets, in each case, for the accounts of clients and, in some cases, on a proprietary basis. As such, BlackRock is or may be actively engaged in transactions in the same securities, currencies, and instruments in which a Fund invests. Such activities could affect the prices and availability of the securities, currencies, and instruments in which a Fund invests, which could have an adverse impact on a Fund’s performance. Such transactions, particularly in respect of most proprietary accounts or client accounts, will be executed independently of a Fund’s transactions and thus at prices or rates that may be more or less favorable than those obtained by the Fund.

When BlackRock seeks to purchase or sell the same assets for client accounts, including a Fund, the assets actually purchased or sold may be allocated among the accounts on a basis determined in its good faith discretion to be equitable. In some cases, this system may adversely affect the size or price of the assets purchased or sold for a Fund. In addition, transactions in investments by one or more other accounts managed by BlackRock may have the effect of diluting or otherwise disadvantaging the values, prices or investment strategies of a Fund, particularly, but not limited to, with respect to small capitalization, emerging market or less liquid strategies. This may occur with respect to BlackRock-advised accounts when investment decisions regarding a Fund are based on research or other information that is also used to support decisions for other accounts. When BlackRock implements a portfolio decision or strategy on behalf of another account ahead of, or contemporaneously with, similar decisions or strategies for a Fund, market impact, liquidity constraints, or other factors could result in the Fund receiving less favorable trading results and the costs of implementing such decisions or strategies could be increased or the Fund could otherwise be disadvantaged. BlackRock may, in certain cases, elect to implement internal policies and procedures designed to limit such consequences, which may cause a Fund to be unable to engage in certain activities, including purchasing or disposing of securities, when it might otherwise be desirable for it to do so. Conflicts may also arise because portfolio decisions regarding a Fund may benefit other accounts managed by BlackRock. For example, the sale of a long position or establishment of a short position by a Fund may impair the price of the same security sold short by (and therefore benefit) BlackRock or its other accounts or funds, and the purchase of a security or covering of a short position in a security by a Fund may increase the price of the same security held by (and therefore benefit) BlackRock or its other accounts or funds.

 

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BlackRock, on behalf of other client accounts, on the one hand, and a Fund, on the other hand, may invest in or extend credit to different parts of the capital structure of a single issuer. BlackRock may pursue rights, provide advice or engage in other activities, or refrain from pursuing rights, providing advice or engaging in other activities, on behalf of other clients with respect to an issuer in which a Fund has invested, and such actions (or refraining from action) may have a material adverse effect on the Fund. In situations in which clients of BlackRock (including the Funds) hold positions in multiple parts of the capital structure of an issuer, BlackRock may not pursue certain actions or remedies that may be available to a Fund, as a result of legal and regulatory requirements or otherwise. BlackRock addresses these and other potential conflicts of interest based on the facts and circumstances of particular situations. For example, BlackRock may determine to rely on information barriers between different business units or portfolio management teams. BlackRock may also determine to rely on the actions of similarly situated holders of loans or securities rather than, or in connection with, taking such actions itself on behalf of the Funds.

In addition, to the extent permitted by applicable law, certain Funds may invest their assets in other funds advised by BlackRock, including funds that are managed by one or more of the same portfolio managers, which could result in conflicts of interest relating to asset allocation, timing of Fund purchases and redemptions, and increased remuneration and profitability for BlackRock and/or its personnel, including portfolio managers.

In certain circumstances, BlackRock, on behalf of the Funds, may seek to buy from or sell securities to another fund or account advised by BlackRock. BlackRock may (but is not required to) effect purchases and sales between BlackRock clients (“cross trades”), including the Funds, if BlackRock believes such transactions are appropriate based on each party’s investment objectives and guidelines, subject to applicable law and regulation. There may be potential conflicts of interest or regulatory issues relating to these transactions which could limit BlackRock’s decision to engage in these transactions for the Funds. BlackRock may have a potentially conflicting division of loyalties and responsibilities to the parties in such transactions.

BlackRock and its clients may pursue or enforce rights with respect to an issuer in which a Fund has invested, and those activities may have an adverse effect on the Fund. As a result, prices, availability, liquidity and terms of the Fund’s investments may be negatively impacted by the activities of BlackRock or its clients, and transactions for the Fund may be impaired or effected at prices or terms that may be less favorable than would otherwise have been the case.

The results of a Fund’s investment activities may differ significantly from the results achieved by BlackRock for its proprietary accounts or other accounts (including investment companies or collective investment vehicles) that it manages or advises. It is possible that one or more accounts managed or advised by BlackRock and such other accounts will achieve investment results that are substantially more or less favorable than the results achieved by a Fund. Moreover, it is possible that a Fund will sustain losses during periods in which one or more proprietary or other accounts managed or advised by BlackRock achieve significant profits. The opposite result is also possible.

From time to time, a Fund may be restricted from purchasing or selling securities, or from engaging in other investment activities because of regulatory, legal or contractual requirements applicable to BlackRock or other accounts managed or advised by BlackRock, and/or the internal policies of BlackRock designed to comply with such requirements. As a result, there may be periods, for example, when BlackRock will not initiate or recommend certain types of transactions in certain securities or instruments with respect to which BlackRock is performing services or when position limits have been reached. For example, the investment activities of BlackRock for its proprietary accounts and accounts under its management may limit the investment opportunities for a Fund in certain emerging and other markets in which limitations are imposed upon the amount of investment, in the aggregate or in individual issuers, by affiliated foreign investors.

In connection with its management of a Fund, BlackRock may have access to certain fundamental analysis and proprietary technical models developed by BlackRock. BlackRock will not be under any obligation, however, to effect transactions on behalf of a Fund in accordance with such analysis and models. In addition, BlackRock will not have any obligation to make available any information regarding its proprietary activities or strategies, or the activities or strategies used for other accounts managed by them, for the benefit of the management of a Fund and it is not anticipated that BlackRock will have access to such information for the purpose of managing the Fund. The proprietary activities or portfolio strategies of BlackRock, or the activities or strategies used for accounts managed by BlackRock or other client accounts could conflict with the transactions and strategies employed by BlackRock in managing a Fund.

The Funds may be included in investment models developed by BlackRock for use by clients and financial advisors. To the extent clients invest in these investment models and increase the assets under management of the Funds, the investment management fee amounts paid by the Funds to BlackRock may also increase. The liquidity of a Fund may be impacted by redemptions of the Fund by model-driven investment portfolios.

 

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In addition, certain principals and certain employees of a Fund’s investment adviser are also principals or employees of other business units or entities within BlackRock. As a result, these principals and employees may have obligations to such other business units or entities or their clients and such obligations to other business units or entities or their clients may be a consideration of which investors in a Fund should be aware.

BlackRock may enter into transactions and invest in securities, instruments and currencies on behalf of a Fund in which clients of BlackRock, or, to the extent permitted by the Commission and applicable law, BlackRock, serves as the counterparty, principal or issuer. In such cases, such party’s interests in the transaction will be adverse to the interests of the Fund, and such party may have no incentive to assure that the Fund obtains the best possible prices or terms in connection with the transactions. In addition, the purchase, holding and sale of such investments by a Fund may enhance the profitability of BlackRock.

BlackRock may also create, write or issue derivatives for clients, the underlying securities, currencies or instruments of which may be those in which a Fund invests or which may be based on the performance of the Fund. BlackRock has entered into an arrangement with Markit Indices Limited, the index provider for underlying fixed-income indexes used by certain iShares ETFs, related to derivative fixed-income products that are based on such iShares ETFs. BlackRock will receive certain payments for licensing intellectual property belonging to BlackRock and for facilitating provision of data in connection with such derivative products, which may include payments based on the trading volumes of, or revenues generated by, the derivative products. The Funds and other accounts managed by BlackRock may from time to time transact in such derivative products where permitted by the Fund’s investment strategy, which could contribute to the viability of such derivative products by making them more appealing to funds and accounts managed by third parties, and in turn lead to increased payments to BlackRock. Trading activity in these derivative products could also potentially lead to greater liquidity for such products, increased purchase activity with respect to these iShares ETFs and increased assets under management for BlackRock.

A Fund may, subject to applicable law, purchase investments that are the subject of an underwriting or other distribution by BlackRock and may also enter into transactions with other clients of BlackRock where such other clients have interests adverse to those of the Fund. At times, these activities may cause business units or entities within BlackRock to give advice to clients that may cause these clients to take actions adverse to the interests of the Fund. To the extent such transactions are permitted, a Fund will deal with BlackRock on an arms-length basis.

To the extent authorized by applicable law, BlackRock may act as broker, dealer, agent, lender or adviser or in other commercial capacities for a Fund. It is anticipated that the commissions, mark-ups, mark-downs, financial advisory fees, underwriting and placement fees, sales fees, financing and commitment fees, brokerage fees, other fees, compensation or profits, rates, terms and conditions charged by BlackRock will be in its view commercially reasonable, although BlackRock, including its sales personnel, will have an interest in obtaining fees and other amounts that are favorable to BlackRock and such sales personnel, which may have an adverse effect on the Funds. Index based funds may use an index provider that is affiliated with another service provider of the Fund or BlackRock that acts as a broker, dealer, agent, lender or in other commercial capacities for a Fund or BlackRock.

Subject to applicable law, BlackRock (and its personnel and other distributors) will be entitled to retain fees and other amounts that they receive in connection with their service to the Funds as broker, dealer, agent, lender, adviser or in other commercial capacities. No accounting to the Funds or their shareholders will be required, and no fees or other compensation payable by the Funds or their shareholders will be reduced by reason of receipt by BlackRock of any such fees or other amounts.

When BlackRock acts as broker, dealer, agent, adviser or in other commercial capacities in relation to the Funds, BlackRock may take commercial steps in its own interests, which may have an adverse effect on the Funds.

A Fund will be required to establish business relationships with its counterparties based on the Fund’s own credit standing. BlackRock will not have any obligation to allow its credit to be used in connection with a Fund’s establishment of its business relationships, nor is it expected that the Fund’s counterparties will rely on the credit of BlackRock in evaluating the Fund’s creditworthiness.

BlackRock Investment Management, LLC (“BIM”) or BlackRock Institutional Trust Company, N.A. (“BTC”), as applicable, each an affiliate of BlackRock, pursuant to SEC exemptive relief, acts as securities lending agent to, and receives a share of securities lending revenues from, the Funds. BlackRock may receive compensation for managing the reinvestment of the cash collateral from securities lending. There are potential conflicts of interests in managing a securities lending program, including but not limited to: (i) BlackRock as securities lending agent may have an incentive to increase or decrease the amount of securities on loan or to lend particular securities in order to generate additional risk-adjusted revenue for BlackRock and its affiliates; and (ii) BlackRock as

 

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securities lending agent may have an incentive to allocate loans to clients that would provide more revenue to BlackRock. As described further below, BlackRock seeks to mitigate this conflict by providing its securities lending clients with equal lending opportunities over time in order to approximate pro rata allocation.

As part of its securities lending program, BlackRock indemnifies certain clients and/or funds against a shortfall in collateral in the event of borrower default. BlackRock calculates, on a regular basis, its potential dollar exposure to the risk of collateral shortfall upon counterparty default (“shortfall risk”) under the securities lending program for both indemnified and non-indemnified clients. On a periodic basis, BlackRock also determines the maximum amount of potential indemnified shortfall risk arising from securities lending activities (“indemnification exposure limit”) and the maximum amount of counterparty-specific credit exposure (“credit limits”) BlackRock is willing to assume as well as the program’s operational complexity. BlackRock oversees the risk model that calculates projected shortfall values using loan-level factors such as loan and collateral type and market value as well as specific borrower counterparty credit characteristics. When necessary, BlackRock may further adjust other securities lending program attributes by restricting eligible collateral or reducing counterparty credit limits. As a result, the management of the indemnification exposure limit may affect the amount of securities lending activity BlackRock may conduct at any given point in time and impact indemnified and non-indemnified clients by reducing the volume of lending opportunities for certain loans (including by asset type, collateral type and/or revenue profile).

BlackRock uses a predetermined systematic process in order to approximate pro rata allocation over time. In order to allocate a loan to a portfolio: (i) BlackRock as a whole must have sufficient lending capacity pursuant to the various program limits (i.e. indemnification exposure limit and counterparty credit limits); (ii) the lending portfolio must hold the asset at the time a loan opportunity arrives; and (iii) the lending portfolio must also have enough inventory, either on its own or when aggregated with other portfolios into one single market delivery, to satisfy the loan request. In doing so, BlackRock seeks to provide equal lending opportunities for all portfolios, independent of whether BlackRock indemnifies the portfolio. Equal opportunities for lending portfolios does not guarantee equal outcomes. Specifically, short and long-term outcomes for individual clients may vary due to asset mix, asset/liability spreads on different securities, and the overall limits imposed by the firm.

Purchases and sales of securities and other assets for a Fund may be bunched or aggregated with orders for other BlackRock client accounts, including with accounts that pay different transaction costs solely due to the fact that they have different research payment arrangements. BlackRock, however, is not required to bunch or aggregate orders if portfolio management decisions for different accounts are made separately, or if they determine that bunching or aggregating is not practicable or required, or in cases involving client direction.

Prevailing trading activity frequently may make impossible the receipt of the same price or execution on the entire volume of securities purchased or sold. When this occurs, the various prices may be averaged, and the Funds will be charged or credited with the average price. Thus, the effect of the aggregation may operate on some occasions to the disadvantage of the Funds. In addition, under certain circumstances, the Funds will not be charged the same commission or commission equivalent rates in connection with a bunched or aggregated order.

As discussed in the section below entitled “Portfolio Transactions and Brokerage—Transactions in Portfolio Securities,” BlackRock, unless prohibited by applicable law, may cause a Fund or account to pay a broker or dealer a commission for effecting a transaction that exceeds the amount another broker or dealer would have charged for effecting the same transaction in recognition of the value of brokerage and research services provided by that broker or dealer. Under MiFID II, EU investment managers, including BlackRock International Limited (“BIL”) which acts as a sub-adviser to certain Funds, pay for research from brokers and dealers directly out of their own resources, rather than through client commissions.

Subject to applicable law, BlackRock may select brokers that furnish BlackRock, the Funds, other BlackRock client accounts or personnel, directly or through correspondent relationships, with research or other appropriate services which provide, in BlackRock’s view, appropriate assistance to BlackRock in the investment decision-making process (including with respect to futures, fixed-price offerings and OTC transactions). Such research or other services may include, to the extent permitted by law, research reports on companies, industries and securities; economic and financial data; financial publications; proxy analysis; trade industry seminars; computer data bases; research-oriented software and other services and products.

Research or other services obtained in this manner may be used in servicing any or all of the Funds and other BlackRock client accounts, including in connection with BlackRock client accounts other than those that pay commissions to the broker relating to the research or other service arrangements. Such products and services may disproportionately benefit other BlackRock client accounts relative to the Funds based on the amount of brokerage commissions paid by the Funds and such other BlackRock client

 

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accounts. For example, research or other services that are paid for through one client’s commissions may not be used in managing that client’s account. In addition, other BlackRock client accounts may receive the benefit, including disproportionate benefits, of economies of scale or price discounts in connection with products and services that may be provided to the Funds and to such other BlackRock client accounts. To the extent that BlackRock uses soft dollars, it will not have to pay for those products and services itself.

BlackRock, unless prohibited by applicable law, may endeavor to execute trades through brokers who, pursuant to such arrangements, provide research or other services in order to ensure the continued receipt of research or other services BlackRock believes are useful in its investment decision-making process. BlackRock may from time to time choose not to engage in the above described arrangements to varying degrees. BlackRock, unless prohibited by applicable law, may also enter into commission sharing arrangements under which BlackRock may execute transactions through a broker-dealer and request that the broker-dealer allocate a portion of the commissions or commission credits to another firm that provides research to BlackRock. To the extent that BlackRock engages in commission sharing arrangements, many of the same conflicts related to traditional soft dollars may exist.

BlackRock may utilize certain electronic crossing networks (“ECNs”) (including, without limitation, ECNs in which BlackRock has an investment or other interest, to the extent permitted by applicable law) in executing client securities transactions for certain types of securities. These ECNs may charge fees for their services, including access fees and transaction fees. The transaction fees, which are similar to commissions or markups/markdowns, will generally be charged to clients and, like commissions and markups/markdowns, would generally be included in the cost of the securities purchased. Access fees may be paid by BlackRock even though incurred in connection with executing transactions on behalf of clients, including the Funds. In certain circumstances, ECNs may offer volume discounts that will reduce the access fees typically paid by BlackRock. BlackRock will only utilize ECNs consistent with its obligation to seek to obtain best execution in client transactions.

BlackRock owns a minority interest in, and is a member of, Members Exchange (“MEMX”), a newly created U.S. stock exchange. Transactions for a Fund may be executed on MEMX if third party brokers select MEMX as the appropriate venue for execution of orders placed by BlackRock traders on behalf of client portfolios.

BlackRock has adopted policies and procedures designed to prevent conflicts of interest from influencing proxy voting decisions that it makes on behalf of advisory clients, including the Funds, and to help ensure that such decisions are made in accordance with BlackRock’s fiduciary obligations to its clients. Nevertheless, notwithstanding such proxy voting policies and procedures, actual proxy voting decisions of BlackRock may have the effect of favoring the interests of other clients or businesses of other divisions or units of BlackRock, provided that BlackRock believes such voting decisions to be in accordance with its fiduciary obligations. For a more detailed discussion of these policies and procedures, see “Proxy Voting Policies and Procedures.”

It is also possible that, from time to time, BlackRock may, subject to compliance with applicable law, purchase and hold shares of a Fund. Increasing a Fund’s assets may enhance investment flexibility and diversification and may contribute to economies of scale that tend to reduce the Fund’s expense ratio. BlackRock reserves the right, subject to compliance with applicable law, to redeem at any time some or all of the shares of a Fund acquired for its own accounts. A large redemption of shares of a Fund by BlackRock could significantly reduce the asset size of the Fund, which might have an adverse effect on the Fund’s investment flexibility, portfolio diversification and expense ratio. BlackRock seeks to consider the effect of redemptions on a Fund and other shareholders in deciding whether to redeem its shares but is not obligated to do so and may elect not to do so.

It is possible that a Fund may invest in securities of, or engage in transactions with, companies in which BlackRock has significant debt or equity investments or other interests. A Fund may also invest in issuances (such as structured notes) by entities for which BlackRock provides and is compensated for cash management services relating to the proceeds from the sale of such issuances. In making investment decisions for a Fund, BlackRock is not permitted to obtain or use material non-public information acquired by any unit of BlackRock, in the course of these activities. In addition, from time to time, the activities of BlackRock may limit a Fund’s flexibility in purchases and sales of securities. As indicated below, BlackRock may engage in transactions with companies in which BlackRock-advised funds or other clients of BlackRock have an investment.

BlackRock and its personnel and other financial service providers may have interests in promoting sales of the Funds. With respect to BlackRock and its personnel, the remuneration and profitability relating to services to and sales of the Funds or other products may be greater than remuneration and profitability relating to services to and sales of certain funds or other products that might be provided or offered. BlackRock and its sales personnel may directly or indirectly receive a portion of the fees and commissions charged to the Funds or their shareholders. BlackRock and its advisory or other personnel may also benefit from increased

 

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amounts of assets under management. Fees and commissions may also be higher than for other products or services, and the remuneration and profitability to BlackRock and such personnel resulting from transactions on behalf of or management of the Funds may be greater than the remuneration and profitability resulting from other funds or products.

BlackRock may provide valuation assistance to certain clients with respect to certain securities or other investments and the valuation recommendations made for such clients’ accounts may differ from the valuations for the same securities or investments assigned by a Fund’s pricing vendors, especially if such valuations are based on broker-dealer quotes or other data sources unavailable to the Fund’s pricing vendors. While BlackRock will generally communicate its valuation information or determinations to a Fund’s pricing vendors and/or fund accountants, there may be instances where the Fund’s pricing vendors or fund accountants assign a different valuation to a security or other investment than the valuation for such security or investment determined or recommended by BlackRock.

As disclosed in more detail in “Pricing of Shares — Determination of Net Asset Value” in this SAI, when market quotations are not readily available or are believed by BlackRock to be unreliable, a Fund’s investments are valued at fair value by BlackRock’s Valuation Committee (the “Valuation Committee”), in accordance with policies and procedures approved by the Funds’ Board of Directors (the “Valuation Procedures”). When determining a “fair value price,” the Valuation Committee seeks to determine the price that a Fund might reasonably expect to receive from the current sale of that asset or liability in an arm’s-length transaction. The price generally may not be determined based on what a Fund might reasonably expect to receive for selling an asset or liability at a later time or if it holds the asset or liability to maturity. While fair value determinations will be based upon all available factors that BlackRock deems relevant at the time of the determination, and may be based on analytical values determined by BlackRock using proprietary or third party valuation models, fair value represents only a good faith approximation of the value of an asset or liability. The fair value of one or more assets or liabilities may not, in retrospect, be the price at which those assets or liabilities could have been sold during the period in which the particular fair values were used in determining a Fund’s NAV. As a result, a Fund’s sale or redemption of its shares at NAV, at a time when a holding or holdings are valued by the Valuation Committee at fair value, may have the effect of diluting or increasing the economic interest of existing shareholders and may affect the amount of revenue received by BlackRock with respect to services for which it receives an asset-based fee.

To the extent permitted by applicable law, a Fund may invest all or some of its short term cash investments in any money market fund or similarly-managed private fund advised or managed by BlackRock. In connection with any such investments, a Fund, to the extent permitted by the Investment Company Act, may pay its share of expenses of a money market fund or other similarly-managed private fund in which it invests, which may result in a Fund bearing some additional expenses.

BlackRock and its directors, officers and employees, may buy and sell securities or other investments for their own accounts and may have conflicts of interest with respect to investments made on behalf of a Fund. As a result of differing trading and investment strategies or constraints, positions may be taken by directors, officers and employees of BlackRock that are the same, different from or made at different times than positions taken for the Fund. To lessen the possibility that a Fund will be adversely affected by this personal trading, the Fund, BRIL and BlackRock each have adopted a Code of Ethics in compliance with Section 17(j) of the Investment Company Act that restricts securities trading in the personal accounts of investment professionals and others who normally come into possession of information regarding the Fund’s portfolio transactions. Each Code of Ethics is also available on the EDGAR Database on the Commission’s Internet site at http://www.sec.gov, and copies may be obtained, after paying a duplicating fee, by e-mail at [email protected]

BlackRock will not purchase securities or other property from, or sell securities or other property to, a Fund, except that the Fund may in accordance with rules or guidance adopted under the Investment Company Act engage in transactions with another Fund or accounts that are affiliated with the Fund as a result of common officers, directors, or investment advisers or pursuant to exemptive orders granted to the Funds and/or BlackRock by the Commission. These transactions would be effected in circumstances in which BlackRock determined that it would be appropriate for the Fund to purchase and another client of BlackRock to sell, or the Fund to sell and another client of BlackRock to purchase, the same security or instrument on the same day. From time to time, the activities of a Fund may be restricted because of regulatory requirements applicable to BlackRock and/or BlackRock’s internal policies designed to comply with, limit the applicability of, or otherwise relate to such requirements. A client not advised by BlackRock would not be subject to some of those considerations. There may be periods when BlackRock may not initiate or recommend certain types of transactions, or may otherwise restrict or limit its advice in certain securities or instruments issued by or related to companies for which BlackRock is performing advisory or other services or has proprietary positions. For example, when BlackRock is engaged to provide advisory or risk management services for a company, BlackRock may be prohibited from or limited in purchasing or selling securities of that company on behalf of a Fund, particularly where such

 

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services result in BlackRock obtaining material non-public information about the company (e.g., in connection with participation in a creditors’ committee). Similar situations could arise if personnel of BlackRock serve as directors of companies the securities of which the Funds wish to purchase or sell. However, if permitted by applicable law, and where consistent with BlackRock’s policies and procedures (including the necessary implementation of appropriate information barriers), the Funds may purchase securities or instruments that are issued by such companies, are the subject of an advisory or risk management assignment by BlackRock, or where personnel of BlackRock are directors or officers of the issuer.

The investment activities of BlackRock for its proprietary accounts and for client accounts may also limit the investment strategies and rights of the Funds. For example, in certain circumstances where the Funds invest in securities issued by companies that operate in certain regulated industries, in certain emerging or international markets, or are subject to corporate or regulatory ownership restrictions, or invest in certain futures and derivative transactions, there may be limits on the aggregate amount invested by BlackRock for its proprietary accounts and for client accounts (including the Funds) that may not be exceeded without the grant of a license or other regulatory or corporate consent, or, if exceeded, may cause BlackRock, the Funds or other client accounts to suffer disadvantages or business restrictions. If certain aggregate ownership thresholds are reached or certain transactions undertaken, the ability of BlackRock on behalf of clients (including the Funds) to purchase or dispose of investments, or exercise rights or undertake business transactions, may be restricted by regulation or otherwise impaired. As a result, BlackRock on behalf of its clients (including the Funds) may limit purchases, sell existing investments, or otherwise restrict, forgo or limit the exercise of rights (including transferring, outsourcing or limiting voting rights or forgoing the right to receive dividends) when BlackRock, in its sole discretion, deems it appropriate in light of potential regulatory or other restrictions on ownership or other consequences resulting from reaching investment thresholds.

In those circumstances where ownership thresholds or limitations must be observed, BlackRock seeks to allocate limited investment opportunities equitably among clients (including the Funds), taking into consideration benchmark weight and investment strategy. When ownership in certain securities nears an applicable threshold, BlackRock may limit purchases in such securities to the issuer’s weighting in the applicable benchmark used by BlackRock to manage the Fund. If client (including Fund) holdings of an issuer exceed an applicable threshold and BlackRock is unable to obtain relief to enable the continued holding of such investments, it may be necessary to sell down these positions to meet the applicable limitations. In these cases, benchmark overweight positions will be sold prior to benchmark positions being reduced to meet applicable limitations.

In addition to the foregoing, other ownership thresholds may trigger reporting requirements to governmental and regulatory authorities, and such reports may entail the disclosure of the identity of a client or BlackRock’s intended strategy with respect to such security or asset.

BlackRock may maintain securities indices. To the extent permitted by applicable laws, the Funds may seek to license and use such indices as part of their investment strategy. Index based funds that seek to track the performance of securities indices also may use the name of the index or index provider in the fund name. Index providers, including BlackRock (to the extent permitted by applicable law), may be paid licensing fees for use of their index or index name. BlackRock is not obligated to license its indices to any Fund and the Funds are under no obligation to use BlackRock indices. Any Fund that enters into a license for a BlackRock index cannot be assured that the terms of any index licensing agreement with BlackRock will be as favorable as those terms offered to other licensees.

BlackRock may not serve as an Authorized Participant in the creation and redemption of BlackRock-advised ETFs.

The custody arrangement described in “Management and Other Service Arrangements” may lead to potential conflicts of interest with BlackRock where BlackRock has agreed to waive fees and/or reimburse ordinary operating expenses in order to cap expenses of the Funds or where BlackRock charges a unitary management fee. This is because the custody arrangements with certain Funds’ custodian may have the effect of reducing custody fees when the Funds leave cash balances uninvested. When a Fund’s actual operating expense ratio exceeds a stated cap, a reduction in custody fees reduces the amount of waivers and/or reimbursements BlackRock would be required to make to the Fund. This could be viewed as having the potential to provide BlackRock an incentive to keep high positive cash balances for Funds in order to offset fund custody fees that BlackRock might otherwise reimburse or pay. However, BlackRock’s portfolio managers do not intentionally keep uninvested balances high, but rather make investment decisions that they anticipate will be beneficial to fund performance.

BlackRock may enter into contractual arrangements with third-party service providers to the Fund (e.g., custodians, administrators and index providers) pursuant to which BlackRock receives fee discounts or concessions in recognition of

 

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BlackRock’s overall relationship with such service providers. To the extent that BlackRock is responsible for paying these service providers out of its management fee, the benefits of any such fee discounts or concessions may accrue, in whole or in part, to BlackRock.

BlackRock owns or has an ownership interest in certain trading, portfolio management, operations and/or information systems used by Fund service providers. These systems are, or will be, used by a Fund service provider in connection with the provision of services to accounts managed by BlackRock and funds managed and sponsored by BlackRock, including the Funds, that engage the service provider (typically the custodian). A Fund’s service provider remunerates BlackRock for the use of the systems. A Fund service provider’s payments to BlackRock for the use of these systems may enhance the profitability of BlackRock.

BlackRock’s receipt of fees from a service provider in connection with the use of systems provided by BlackRock may create an incentive for BlackRock to recommend that a Fund enter into or renew an arrangement with the service provider.

In recognition of a BlackRock client’s overall relationship with BlackRock, BlackRock may offer special pricing arrangements for certain services provided by BlackRock. Any such special pricing arrangements will not affect Fund fees and expenses applicable to such client’s investment in a Fund.

Present and future activities of BlackRock and its directors, officers and employees, in addition to those described in this section, may give rise to additional conflicts of interest.

PURCHASE OF SHARES

Most BlackRock-advised open-end funds offer multiple classes of shares under a plan adopted under Rule 18f-3 under the Investment Company Act. Investor A Shares are sold to investors choosing the initial sales charge alternative, except that Investor A Shares of Index Funds (defined below) and BlackRock Short Obligations Fund are generally not subject to an initial sales charge, and Investor C Shares are sold to investors choosing the deferred sales charge alternative. Investor P Shares are available only to certain investors purchasing shares of Funds through registered representatives of an insurance company’s broker-dealer that has entered into an agreement with the Distributor to offer such shares. Institutional Shares are sold to certain eligible investors without a sales charge. Certain Funds offer Class R Shares, which are available only to certain employer-sponsored retirement plans and are sold without a sales charge. Certain Funds offer Class G Shares, which are available only to investors on eligible platforms, which are platforms where clients invest in the Fund through a single omnibus account in the name of a financial intermediary that meets an initial investment minimum of $2.5 billion. In addition, certain Funds offer Service Shares, BlackRock Shares and/or Class K Shares that are available only to certain eligible investors. Please see the appropriate Prospectus for your Fund to determine which classes are offered by your Fund and under what circumstances. Each class has different exchange privileges. See “Shareholder Services — Exchange Privilege.”

The applicable offering price for purchase orders is based on the NAV of a Fund next determined after receipt of the purchase order by a dealer or other financial intermediary (“Selling Dealer”) that has been authorized by the Distributor by contract to accept such orders. In addition, with respect to the affiliated underlying funds in which target date funds advised by BlackRock or its affiliates (“BlackRock Target Date Funds”) invest, the applicable offering price of each affiliated underlying fund is based on the NAV of such affiliated underlying fund next determined after a purchase order is received, or deemed to be received upon receipt by a Selling Dealer, by the BlackRock Target Date Funds that allocate a portion of such purchase order to such affiliated underlying fund. As to purchase orders received by Selling Dealers or BlackRock Target Date Funds prior to the close of business on the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”) (generally, the NYSE closes at 4:00 p.m. Eastern time), on the day the order is placed, including orders received after the close of business on the previous day, the applicable offering price is based on the NAV determined as of the close of business on the NYSE on that day. If the purchase orders are not received by the Selling Dealer or a BlackRock Target Date Fund before the close of business on the NYSE, such orders are deemed received on the next business day. It is the responsibility of brokers to transmit purchase orders and payment on a timely basis. Generally, if payment is not received within the period described in the Prospectuses, the order will be canceled, notice thereof will be given, and the broker and its customers will be responsible for any loss to the Fund or its shareholders. Orders of less than $500 may be mailed by a broker to the Transfer Agent.

The minimum investment for the initial purchase of shares is set forth in the Prospectus for each Fund. The minimum initial investment for employees of a Fund, a Fund’s Manager, Sub-Advisers or BRIL or employees of their affiliates is $100, unless payment is made through a payroll deduction program in which case the minimum investment is $25.

 

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Each Fund has lower investment minimums for other categories of shareholders eligible to purchase Institutional Shares, including selected fee-based programs. Each Fund may permit a lower initial investment for certain investors if their purchase, combined with purchases by other investors received together by the Fund, meets the minimum investment requirement. Each Fund may reject any purchase order, modify or waive the minimum initial or subsequent investment requirements and suspend and resume the sale of any share class of any Fund at any time.

Financial intermediaries may, in connection with a change in account type or otherwise in accordance with a financial intermediary’s policies and procedures, exchange shares of a Fund from one class of shares to another class of shares of the same Fund, provided that the exchanged shares are not subject to a contingent deferred sales charge (“CDSC”) and that shareholders meet eligibility requirements of the new share class. Please speak to your financial intermediary for information about specific policies and procedures applicable to your account.

Each Fund or the Distributor may suspend the continuous offering of the Fund’s shares of any class at any time in response to conditions in the securities markets or otherwise and may resume offering the shares from time to time. Any order may be rejected by a Fund or the Distributor. Neither the Distributor, the securities dealers nor other financial intermediaries are permitted to withhold placing orders to benefit themselves by a price change.

The term “purchase,” as used in the Prospectus and this SAI, refers to (i) a single purchase by an individual, (ii) concurrent purchases by an individual, his or her spouse and their children purchasing shares for his, her or their own account, and (iii) single purchases by a trustee or other fiduciary purchasing shares for a single trust estate or single fiduciary account although more than one beneficiary may be involved. The term “purchase” also includes purchases by any “company,” as that term is defined in the Investment Company Act, but does not include purchases by (i) any company that has not been in existence for at least six months, (ii) a company that has no purpose other than the purchase of shares of a Fund or shares of other registered investment companies at a discount, or (iii) any group of individuals whose sole organizational nexus is that its participants are credit cardholders of a company, policyholders of an insurance company, customers of either a bank or broker-dealer or clients of an investment adviser.

With certain limited exceptions, the Funds are generally available only to investors residing in the United States and may not be distributed by a foreign financial intermediary. Under this policy, in order to accept new accounts or additional investments (including by way of exchange from another Fund) into existing accounts, a Fund generally requires that (i) a shareholder that is a natural person be a U.S. citizen or resident alien, in each case residing within the United States or a U.S. territory (including APO/FPO/DPO addresses), and have a valid U.S. taxpayer identification number, and (ii) a financial intermediary or a shareholder that is an entity be domiciled in the United States and have a valid U.S. taxpayer identification number or be domiciled in a U.S. territory and have a valid U.S. taxpayer identification number or IRS Form W-8. Any existing account that is updated to reflect a non-U.S. address will also be restricted from making additional investments.

In-Kind Purchases. Payment for shares of a Fund may, at the discretion of BlackRock, be made in the form of securities that are permissible investments for the Fund and that meet the investment objective, policies and limitations of the Fund as described herein. In connection with an in-kind securities payment, the Fund may require, among other things, that the securities: (i) be valued on the day of purchase in accordance with the pricing methods used by the Fund; (ii) be accompanied by satisfactory assurance that the Fund will have good and marketable title to such securities; (iii) not be subject to any restrictions upon resale by the Fund; (iv) be in proper form for transfer to the Fund; and (v) be accompanied by adequate information concerning the basis and other tax matters relating to the securities. All dividends, interest, subscription or other rights pertaining to such securities shall become the property of the Fund engaged in the in-kind purchase transaction and must be delivered to the Fund by the investor upon receipt from the issuer. Shares purchased in exchange for securities generally cannot be redeemed until the transfer has settled.

Institutional Shares

Institutional Shares may be purchased at NAV without a sales charge. Only certain investors are eligible to purchase Institutional Shares. Investors who are eligible to purchase Institutional Shares should purchase Institutional Shares because they are not subject to any sales charge and have lower ongoing expenses than Investor A, Investor A1, Investor C, Investor P, Class R or Service Shares. A Fund may in its discretion waive or modify any minimum investment amount, may reject any order for any class of shares and may suspend and resume the sale of shares of any Fund at any time.

 

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Eligible Institutional Share Investors. Institutional Shares of the Funds may be purchased by customers of broker-dealers and agents that have established a servicing relationship with the Fund on behalf of their customers. These broker-dealers and agents may impose additional or different conditions on the purchase or redemption of Fund shares by their customers and may charge their customers transaction, account or other fees on the purchase and redemption of Fund shares. Each broker-dealer or agent is responsible for transmitting to its customers a schedule of any such fees and information regarding any additional or different conditions regarding purchases and redemptions. Shareholders who are customers of such broker-dealers or agents should consult them for information regarding these fees and conditions.

Payment for Institutional Shares must normally be made in Federal funds or other funds immediately available by 4 p.m. (Eastern time) on the first business day following receipt of the order. Payment may also, in the discretion of certain Funds, be made in the form of securities that are permissible investments for such Funds. If payment for a purchase order is not received by the prescribed time, an investor may be liable for any resulting losses or expenses incurred by the Fund.

Certain of the Funds offer Institutional Shares as described in each such Fund’s Prospectus. In addition, the following investors may purchase Institutional Shares: employees, officers and directors/trustees of BlackRock, Inc., BlackRock Funds, Bank of America Corporation (“BofA Corp.”), Barclays PLC or their respective affiliates and immediate family members of such persons, if they open an account directly with BlackRock; individuals and “Institutional Investors” with a minimum initial investment of $2 million who may purchase shares of a Fund through a financial intermediary that has entered into an agreement with the Distributor to purchase such shares (“Institutional Investors” include, but are not limited to, endowments, foundations, family offices, local, city, and state governmental institutions, corporations, and insurance company separate accounts); employer-sponsored retirement plans (which, for this purpose, do not include SEP IRAs, SIMPLE IRAs or SARSEPs), state sponsored 529 college savings plans, collective trust funds, investment companies or other pooled investment vehicles, unaffiliated thrifts and unaffiliated banks and trust companies, each of which may purchase shares of the Fund through a financial intermediary that has entered into an agreement with the Distributor to purchase such shares; clients investing through a self-directed IRA brokerage account program sponsored by a retirement plan record-keeper, provided that such program offers only mutual fund options and that the program maintains an account with the Fund on an omnibus basis; clients of financial intermediaries that: (i) charge such clients a fee for advisory, investment consulting, or similar services or (ii) have entered into an agreement with the Distributor to offer Institutional Shares through a no-load program or investment platform, in each case, with no minimum initial investment; clients investing through financial intermediaries that have entered into an agreement with the Distributor to offer such shares on a platform that charges a transaction based sales commission outside of the Fund, with a minimum initial investment of $1,000; tax-qualified accounts for insurance agents that are registered representatives of an insurance company’s broker-dealer that has entered into an agreement with the Distributor to offer Institutional Shares, and the family members of such persons, with a minimum initial investment of $1,000; trust department clients of Bank of America, N.A. and its affiliates for whom they (i) act in a fiduciary capacity (excluding participant directed employee benefit plans), (ii) otherwise have investment discretion, or (iii) act as custodian for at least $2 million in assets; and holders of certain BofA Corp. sponsored unit investment trusts (UITs) who reinvest dividends received from such UITs in shares of a Fund.

Purchase Privileges of Certain Persons. Employees, officers, directors/trustees of BlackRock, Inc., BlackRock Funds, BofA Corp. or their respective affiliates; and any trust, pension, profit-sharing or other benefit plan for such persons may purchase Institutional Shares at lower investment minimums than stated in each Fund’s Prospectus. A Fund realizes economies of scale and reduction of sales-related expenses by virtue of the familiarity of these persons with the Fund. Employees, directors, and board members of other funds wishing to purchase shares of a Fund must satisfy the Fund’s suitability standards.

Initial Sales Charge Alternative — Investor A Shares

Investors who prefer an initial sales charge alternative may elect to purchase Investor A Shares. Investor A1 Shares are offered only (i) for purchase by certain employer-sponsored retirement plans and fee-based programs that have been previously approved by certain Funds, and (ii) to certain investors who currently hold Investor A1 Shares for dividend and capital gain reinvestment only. The Investor A1 initial sales charge does not apply to the transactions described in (i) and (ii). For ease of reference, Investor A, Investor A1 and Investor P (discussed below) Shares are sometimes referred to herein as “front-end load shares.” Investor A Shares of Index Funds (defined below) and BlackRock Short Obligations Fund generally are not subject to an initial sales charge or front-end load.

Investors qualifying for significantly reduced initial sales charges may find the initial sales charge alternative particularly attractive because similar sales charge reductions are not available with respect to the deferred sales charges imposed in connection with

 

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investments in Investor C Shares (sometimes referred to herein as “CDSC shares”). Investors who do not qualify for reduced initial sales charges and who expect to maintain their investment for an extended period of time also may elect to purchase Investor A Shares, because over time the accumulated ongoing service and distribution fees on CDSC shares may exceed the front-end load shares’ initial sales charge and service fee. Although some investors who previously purchased Institutional Shares may no longer be eligible to purchase Institutional Shares of other Funds, those previously purchased Institutional Shares, together with all BlackRock front-end load and CDSC share holdings, will count toward a right of accumulation that may qualify the investor for a reduced initial sales charge on new initial sales charge purchases. In addition, the ongoing CDSC shares service and distribution fees will cause CDSC shares to have higher expense ratios, pay lower dividends and have lower total returns than the initial sales charge shares. The ongoing front-end load shares’ service fees will cause Investor A, Investor A1, Investor P and Service Shares to have a higher expense ratio, pay lower dividends and have a lower total return than Institutional Shares.

See “Information on Sales Charges and Distribution Related Expenses” in Part I of each Fund’s SAI for information about amounts paid to the Distributor in connection with Investor A and Investor A1 Shares for the periods indicated.

The Distributor may reallow discounts to selected securities dealers and other financial intermediaries and retain the balance over such discounts. At times the Distributor may reallow the entire sales charge to such dealers. Since securities dealers and other financial intermediaries selling front-end load shares of a Fund will receive a concession equal to most of the sales charge, they may be deemed to be underwriters under the Securities Act.

Initial Sales Charge — Investor P Shares

Certain Funds offer Investor P Shares as described in each such Fund’s Prospectus, Investor P Shares are available for purchase only through registered representatives of an insurance company’s broker-dealer that has entered into an agreement with the Distributor to offer such shares and are subject to an initial sales charge. The ongoing front-end load shares’ service fees will cause Investor P Shares to have a higher expense ratio, pay lower dividends and have a lower total return than Investor A Shares of the same Fund.

See “Information on Sales Charges and Distribution Related Expenses” in Part I of each Fund’s SAI for information about amounts paid to the Distributor in connection with Investor P Shares for the periods indicated.

The Distributor may reallow discounts to selected securities dealers and other financial intermediaries and retain the balance over such discounts. At times the Distributor may reallow the entire sales charge to such dealers. Since securities dealers and other financial intermediaries selling front-end load shares of a Fund will receive a concession equal to most of the sales charge, they may be deemed to be underwriters under the Securities Act.

Reduced Initial Sales Charges

Certain investors may be eligible for a reduction in or waiver of a sales load due to the nature of the investors and/or the reduced sales efforts necessary to obtain their investments. Financial intermediaries may, in connection with a change in account type or otherwise in accordance with a financial intermediary’s policies and procedures, exchange shares of a Fund from one class of shares to another class of shares of the same Fund provided that the exchanged shares are not subject to a contingent deferred sales charge and that shareholders meet the eligibility requirements of the new share class. Certain sales load reductions and waivers may be available to customers of certain financial intermediaries, as described under “Intermediary-Defined Sales Charge Waiver Policies” in the Fund’s Prospectus. Please speak to your financial intermediary for more information.

Reinvested Dividends. No sales charges are imposed upon shares issued as a result of the automatic reinvestment of dividends.

Right of Accumulation. Investors have a “right of accumulation” under which any of the following may be combined with the amount of the current purchase in determining whether an investor qualifies for a breakpoint and a reduced front-end sales charge: (i) the current value of an investor’s existing Investor A, Investor A1, Investor C, Investor P, Institutional, Class K and Premier Shares in most BlackRock Funds, (ii) the current value of an investor’s existing shares of certain unlisted closed-end management investment companies sponsored and advised by BlackRock or its affiliates (“Eligible Unlisted BlackRock Closed-End Funds”) and (iii) the investment in the BlackRock CollegeAdvantage 529 Program by the investor or by or on behalf of the investor’s spouse and children. Financial intermediaries may value current holdings of their customers differently for purposes of determining whether an investor qualifies for a breakpoint and a reduced front-end sales charge, although customers of the same financial intermediary will be treated similarly. In order to use this right, the investor must alert BlackRock to the existence of any

 

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previously purchased shares. Certain funds employ a “passive” management approach and attempt to match the performance of a target index as closely as possible before the deduction of Fund expenses (“Index Funds”). Although Investor A Shares of Index Funds and BlackRock Short Obligations Fund generally are not subject to a sales charge, an investor’s existing Investor A, Investor A1, Investor C, Investor P, Institutional, Class K and Premier Shares in the Index Funds and BlackRock Short Obligations Fund may be combined with the amount of an investor’s current purchase in determining whether an investor qualifies for a breakpoint and a reduced front-end sales charge.

Letter of Intent. An investor may qualify for a reduced front-end sales charge immediately by signing a “Letter of Intent” stating the investor’s intention to make one or more of the following investments within the next 13 months which would, if bought all at once, qualify the investor for a reduced sales charge: (i) buy a specified amount of Investor A, Investor C, Investor P, Institutional, Class K and/or Premier Shares, (ii) make an investment in one or more Eligible Unlisted BlackRock Closed-End Funds and/or (iii) make an investment through the BlackRock CollegeAdvantage 529 Program in one or more BlackRock Funds. The initial investment must meet the minimum initial purchase requirement. The 13-month Letter of Intent period commences on the day that the Letter of Intent is received by the Fund. The market value of current holdings in the BlackRock Funds (including Investor A, Investor C, Investor P, Institutional, Class K and Premier Shares, Eligible Unlisted BlackRock Closed-End Funds and the BlackRock CollegeAdvantage 529 Program Class A and Class C Units) as of the date of commencement that are eligible under the Right of Accumulation may be counted towards the sales charge reduction. The investor must notify the Fund of (i) any current holdings in the BlackRock Funds, Eligible Unlisted BlackRock Closed-End Funds and/or the BlackRock CollegeAdvantage 529 Program that should be counted towards the sales charge reduction and (ii) any subsequent purchases that should be counted towards the Letter of Intent. During the term of the Letter of Intent, the Fund will hold Investor A Shares and/or Investor P Shares, as applicable, representing up to 5% of the indicated amount in an escrow account for payment of a higher sales load if the full amount indicated in the Letter of Intent is not purchased. If the full amount indicated is not purchased within the 13-month period, and the investor does not pay the higher sales load within 20 days, the Fund will redeem enough of the Investor A Shares and/or Investor P Shares, as applicable, held in escrow to pay the difference.

Placement Fees.

BlackRock may pay placement fees to dealers on purchases of Investor A and Investor P Shares of all Funds, which may depend on the policies, procedures and trading platforms of your financial intermediary.

Except as noted below, these placement fees may be up to the following amounts for Investor A Shares:

 

$1 million but less than $3 million      1.00%
$3 million but less than $15 million      0.50%
$15 million and above      0.25%

With respect to Investor A Shares of BlackRock Global Allocation Fund, Inc., BlackRock Dynamic High Income Portfolio (for shares purchased prior to July 1, 2020) and BlackRock Multi-Asset Income Portfolio (for shares purchased prior to July 1, 2020) of BlackRock Funds II, BlackRock Global Long/Short Credit Fund of BlackRock Funds IV and BlackRock Event Driven Equity Fund, the placement fees may be up to the following amounts:

 

$250,000 but less than $3 million      1.00%
$3 million but less than $15 million      0.50%
$15 million and above      0.25%

With respect to Investor A Shares of BlackRock Systematic Multi-Strategy Fund of BlackRock Funds IV, BlackRock Advantage CoreAlpha Bond Fund of BlackRock Funds VI, BlackRock Tactical Opportunities Fund of BlackRock FundsSM, BlackRock High Yield Bond Portfolio, BlackRock Core Bond Portfolio and BlackRock Sustainable High Yield Bond Fund of BlackRock Funds V, BlackRock U.S. Mortgage Portfolio of Managed Account Series II and BlackRock Strategic Global Bond Fund, Inc., the placement fees may be up to the following amounts:

 

$1 million but less than $3 million      0.75%
$3 million but less than $15 million      0.50%
$15 million and above      0.25%

 

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With respect to Investor A Shares of BlackRock Sustainable Advantage CoreAlpha Bond Fund of BlackRock Funds IV and BlackRock GNMA Portfolio and BlackRock U.S. Government Bond Portfolio of BlackRock Funds V, the placement fees may be up to the following amounts:

 

$1 million but less than $3 million      0.50%
$3 million but less than $15 million      0.25%
$15 million and above      0.15%

With respect to Investor A Shares of BlackRock Managed Income Fund of BlackRock Funds II, the placement fees may be up to the following amounts:

 

$250,000 but less than $3 million      0.50%
$3 million but less than $15 million      0.25%
$15 million and above      0.15%

With respect to Investor A Shares of BlackRock Inflation Protected Bond Portfolio of BlackRock Funds V, the placement fees may be up to the following amounts:

 

$1 million but less than $3 million      0.15%
$3 million but less than $15 million      0.10%
$15 million and above      0.05%

With respect to Investor A Shares of BlackRock Low Duration Bond Portfolio, BlackRock Floating Rate Income Portfolio, BlackRock Income Fund and BlackRock Strategic Income Opportunities Portfolio of BlackRock Funds V, the placement fees may be up to the following amounts:

 

$500,000 but less than $3 million      0.75%
$3 million but less than $15 million      0.50%
$15 million and above      0.25%

With respect to Investor A Shares of BlackRock Short-Term Municipal Fund of BlackRock Municipal Bond Fund, Inc. (for shares purchased prior to March 18, 2019), the placement fees may be up to the following amounts:

 

$250,000 and above      0.50%

With respect to Investor A Shares of BlackRock Short-Term Municipal Fund of BlackRock Municipal Bond Fund, Inc. (for shares purchased on or after March 18, 2019 and prior to July 1, 2020), the placement fees may be up to the following amounts:

 

$100,000 and above      0.25%

With respect to Investor A Shares of BlackRock Short-Term Municipal Fund of BlackRock Municipal Bond Fund, Inc. (for shares purchased on or after July 1, 2020), the placement fees may be up to the following amounts:

 

$250,000 and above      0.25%

With respect to Investor A Shares of BlackRock Strategic Municipal Opportunities Fund of BlackRock Municipal Series Trust, BlackRock California Municipal Opportunities Fund of BlackRock California Municipal Series Trust, BlackRock New York Municipal Opportunities Fund, BlackRock New Jersey Municipal Bond Fund and BlackRock Pennsylvania Municipal Bond Fund of BlackRock Multi-State Municipal Series Trust and BlackRock High Yield Municipal Fund and BlackRock National Municipal Fund of BlackRock Municipal Bond Fund, Inc., the placement fees may be up to the following amounts:

 

$250,000 but less than $4 million      1.00%
$4 million but less than $10 million      0.50%
$10 million and above      0.25%

With respect to Investor A Shares of BlackRock Dynamic High Income Portfolio (for shares purchased on or after July 1, 2020) and BlackRock Multi-Asset Income Portfolio (for shares purchased on or after July 1, 2020) of BlackRock Funds II, BlackRock

 

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Total Return Fund of BlackRock Bond Fund, Inc. and BlackRock Balanced Capital Fund, Inc., the placement fees may be up to the following amounts:

 

$250,000 but less than $3 million      0.75%
$3 million but less than $15 million      0.50%
$15 million and above      0.25%

With respect to Investor P Shares of BlackRock LifePath® Index 2025 Fund, BlackRock LifePath® Index 2030 Fund, BlackRock LifePath® Index 2035 Fund, BlackRock LifePath® Index 2040 Fund, BlackRock LifePath® Index 2045 Fund, BlackRock LifePath® Index 2050 Fund, BlackRock LifePath® Index 2055 Fund, BlackRock LifePath® Index 2060 Fund, BlackRock LifePath® Index 2065 Fund and BlackRock LifePath® Index Retirement Fund of BlackRock Funds III, the placement fees may be up to the following amounts:

 

$1,000,000 and above      0.10%

With respect to Investor P Shares of iShares Municipal Bond Index Fund of BlackRock FundsSM, the placement fees may be up to the following amounts:

 

$1,000,000 and above      0.15%

There are no placement fees for Investor P Shares of iShares MSCI EAFE International Index Fund and iShares Russell 2000 Small-Cap Index Fund of BlackRock Index Funds, Inc. and iShares S&P 500 Index Fund and iShares U.S. Aggregate Bond Index Fund of BlackRock Funds III.

For the tables above, the placement fees indicated will apply up to the indicated breakpoint (so that, for example, a sale of $4 million worth of Investor A Shares of BlackRock Sustainable Advantage CoreAlpha Bond Fund of BlackRock Funds IV will result in a placement fee of up to 0.50% on the first $3 million and a placement fee of 0.25% on the final $1 million).

Other. The following persons may also buy Investor A or Investor P Shares without paying a sales charge: (a) certain employer-sponsored retirement plans (for purposes of this waiver, employer-sponsored retirement plans do not include SEP IRAs, SIMPLE IRAs or SARSEPs); (b) rollovers of current investments through certain employer-sponsored retirement plans provided the shares are transferred to the same BlackRock Fund as either a direct rollover, or subsequent to distribution, the rolled-over proceeds are contributed to a BlackRock IRA through an account directly with the Fund; or purchases by IRA programs that are sponsored by financial intermediary firms provided the financial intermediary firm has entered into a Class A or Investor P NAV agreement, as applicable, with respect to such program with the Distributor; (c) insurance company separate accounts; (d) registered investment advisers, trust companies and bank trust departments exercising discretionary investment authority with respect to amounts to be invested in a Fund; (e) persons participating in a fee-based program (such as a wrap account) under which they pay advisory fees to a broker-dealer or other financial institution; (f) financial intermediaries who have entered into an agreement with the Distributor and have been approved by the Distributor to offer Fund shares to self-directed investment brokerage accounts that may or may not charge a transaction fee; (g) state sponsored 529 college savings plans; (h) with respect to Investor A Shares only, accounts opened directly with a Fund that do not have a financial intermediary associated with the account; and (i) persons involuntarily liquidated from a Fund, who within 60 days of liquidation buy new shares of another BlackRock Fund (but only up to the amount that was liquidated). The following persons associated with the Funds, the Fund’s Manager, Sub-Advisers, Transfer Agent, Distributor, fund accounting agents, Barclays PLC and their affiliates may buy Investor A or Investor P Shares of each of the Funds without paying a sales charge to the extent permitted by these firms including: (a) officers, directors and partners; (b) employees and retirees; (c) employees or registered representatives of firms who have entered into selling agreements to distribute shares of BlackRock-advised funds; (d) immediate family members of such persons (“immediate family members” shall be defined as the investor, the investor’s spouse or domestic partner, children, parents and siblings); and (e) any trust, pension, profit-sharing or other benefit plan for any of the persons set forth in (a) through (d). Investors who qualify for any of these exemptions from the sales charge should purchase Investor A or Investor P Shares. In addition, a sales charge waiver may be available for investors exchanging Investor A Shares of one BlackRock Fund for Investor P Shares of another BlackRock Fund, or exchanging Investor P Shares of one BlackRock Fund for Investor A Shares of another BlackRock Fund, through an intermediary-processed exchange, provided that the investor had previously paid a sales charge with respect to such shares. The availability of Investor A or Investor P Shares sales charge waivers may depend upon the policies, procedures and trading platforms of your financial intermediary; consult your financial adviser.

 

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If you invest $1,000,000 ($100,000 for BlackRock Short-Term Municipal Fund of BlackRock Municipal Bond Fund, Inc. (for purchases on or after March 18, 2019 and prior to July 1, 2020), $250,000 for BlackRock Dynamic High Income Portfolio, BlackRock Multi-Asset Income Portfolio and BlackRock Managed Income Fund of BlackRock Funds II, BlackRock Global Long/Short Credit Fund of BlackRock Funds IV, BlackRock Total Return Fund of BlackRock Bond Fund, Inc., BlackRock Global Allocation Fund, Inc., BlackRock High Yield Municipal Fund and BlackRock National Municipal Fund of BlackRock Municipal Bond Fund, Inc., BlackRock Short-Term Municipal Fund (for purchases on or after July 1, 2020 and prior to March 18, 2019) of BlackRock Municipal Bond Fund, Inc., BlackRock Strategic Municipal Opportunities Fund of BlackRock Municipal Series Trust, BlackRock California Municipal Opportunities Fund of BlackRock California Municipal Series Trust, BlackRock New York Municipal Opportunities Fund, BlackRock New Jersey Municipal Bond Fund and BlackRock Pennsylvania Municipal Bond Fund of BlackRock Multi-State Municipal Series Trust, BlackRock Event Driven Equity Fund and BlackRock Balanced Capital Fund, Inc., and $500,000 for BlackRock Low Duration Bond Portfolio, BlackRock Floating Rate Income Portfolio, BlackRock Income Fund and BlackRock Strategic Income Opportunities Portfolio of BlackRock Funds V) or more in Investor A or Investor P Shares, as applicable, you may not pay an initial sales charge. However, if you redeem your Investor A or Investor P Shares, as applicable, within 18 months after purchase (a shorter holding period may apply depending on the Fund), you may be charged a deferred sales charge.

A deferred sales charge of up to 1.00% may apply to certain redemptions of Investor A Shares of the Index Funds and BlackRock Short Obligations Fund purchased in an exchange transaction for Investor A Shares of a portfolio advised by BlackRock or its affiliates where no initial sales charge was paid at the time of purchase of such fund (an “Investor A Load-Waived BlackRock Portfolio”) as part of an investment of $1,000,000 (lesser amounts may apply depending on the Investor A Load-Waived BlackRock Portfolio) or more. The Investor A Shares deferred sales charge is only charged upon redemptions of Investor A Shares within 18 months after you originally acquired such Investor A Shares of the Investor A Load-Waived BlackRock Portfolio (a shorter holding period may apply depending on the Investor A Load-Waived BlackRock Portfolio), unless you qualify for a waiver. There is no deferred sales charge charged on redemptions if you have owned your Investor A Shares for more than 18 months (or for a shorter holding period, as applicable) (as measured from your original purchase of Investor A Shares that you exchanged into Investor A Shares of the Index Fund or BlackRock Short Obligations Fund).

The deferred sales charge on Investor A or Investor P Shares, as applicable, is not charged in connection with: (a) redemptions of Investor A or Investor P Shares purchased through certain employer-sponsored retirement plans and rollovers of current investments in a Fund through such plans; (b) exchanges described in “Exchange Privilege” below; (c) redemptions made in connection with minimum required distributions due to the shareholder reaching age 72 from IRA and 403(b)(7) accounts; (d) certain post-retirement withdrawals from an IRA or other retirement plan if you are over 59 12 years old and you purchased your shares prior to October 2, 2006; (e) redemptions made with respect to certain retirement plans sponsored by a Fund, BlackRock or its affiliates; (f) redemptions (i) within one year of a shareholder’s death or, if later, the receipt of a certified probate settlement (including in connection with the distribution of account assets to a beneficiary of the decedent) or (ii) in connection with a shareholder’s disability (as defined in the Code) subsequent to the purchase of Investor A or Investor P Shares; (g) involuntary redemptions of Investor A or Investor P Shares in accounts with low balances; (h) certain redemptions made pursuant to the Systematic Withdrawal Plan (described below); (i) redemptions related to the payment of BNY Mellon Investment Servicing Trust Company custodial IRA fees; and (j) redemptions when a shareholder can demonstrate hardship, in the absolute discretion of a Fund.

With respect to certain employer-sponsored retirement plans, if a dealer waives its right to receive a placement fee, the Fund may, at its own discretion, waive the CDSC related to purchases of $1,000,000 ($100,000 for BlackRock Short-Term Municipal Fund of BlackRock Municipal Bond Fund, Inc. (for purchases on or after March 18, 2019 and prior to July 1, 2020), $250,000 for BlackRock Dynamic High Income Portfolio, BlackRock Multi-Asset Income Portfolio and BlackRock Managed Income Fund of BlackRock Funds II, BlackRock Global Long/Short Credit Fund of BlackRock Funds IV, BlackRock Total Return Fund of BlackRock Bond Fund, Inc., BlackRock Global Allocation Fund, Inc., BlackRock High Yield Municipal Fund and BlackRock National Municipal Fund of BlackRock Municipal Bond Fund, Inc., BlackRock Short-Term Municipal Fund (for purchases on or after July 1, 2020 and prior to March 18, 2019) of BlackRock Municipal Bond Fund, Inc., BlackRock Strategic Municipal Opportunities Fund of BlackRock Municipal Series Trust, BlackRock California Municipal Opportunities Fund of BlackRock California Municipal Series Trust, BlackRock New York Municipal Opportunities Fund, BlackRock New Jersey Municipal Bond Fund and BlackRock Pennsylvania Municipal Bond Fund of BlackRock Multi-State Municipal Series Trust, BlackRock Event Driven Equity Fund and BlackRock Balanced Capital Fund, Inc., and $500,000 for BlackRock Low Duration Bond Portfolio, BlackRock Floating Rate Income Portfolio, BlackRock Income Fund and BlackRock Strategic Income Opportunities Portfolio of

 

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BlackRock Funds V) or more of Investor A or Investor P Shares. This may depend upon the policies, procedures and trading platforms of your financial intermediary; consult your financial adviser.

Investor A and Investor P Shares are also available at NAV to investors that, for regulatory reasons, are required to transfer investment positions from a foreign registered investment company advised by BlackRock or its affiliates to a U.S. registered BlackRock-advised fund.

Acquisition of Certain Investment Companies. Investor A and Investor P Shares may be offered at NAV in connection with the acquisition of the assets of, or merger or consolidation with, a personal holding company or a public or private investment company.

Purchases Through Certain Financial Intermediaries. Reduced sales charges may be applicable for purchases of Investor A, Investor A1 or Investor P Shares of a Fund through certain financial advisers, selected securities dealers and other financial intermediaries that meet and adhere to standards established by the Manager from time to time.

Deferred Sales Charge Alternative — Investor C Shares

Investors choosing the deferred sales charge alternative should consider Investor C Shares if they are uncertain as to the length of time they intend to hold their assets in a Fund. If you select Investor C Shares, you do not pay an initial sales charge at the time of purchase. A Fund will not accept a purchase order of $500,000 or more for Investor C Shares (may be lower on funds that have set a lower breakpoint for NAV). Your financial intermediary may set a lower maximum for Investor C Shares.

Investor C Shares are not available in accounts opened or held directly with a Fund that do not have a financial intermediary associated with the account.

If you select Investor C Shares, you do not pay an initial sales charge at the time of purchase.

The deferred sales charge alternatives may be particularly appealing to investors who do not qualify for the reduction in initial sales charges. CDSC shares are subject to ongoing service fees and distribution fees; however, these fees potentially may be offset to the extent any return is realized on the additional funds initially invested in CDSC shares.

BlackRock compensates financial advisers and other financial intermediaries for selling CDSC shares at the time of purchase from its own funds. Proceeds from the CDSC and the distribution fee are paid to the Distributor and are used by the Distributor to defray the expenses of securities dealers or other financial intermediaries related to providing distribution-related services to each Fund in connection with the sale of the CDSC shares. The combination of the CDSC and the ongoing distribution fee facilitates the ability of each Fund to sell the CDSC shares without a sales charge being deducted at the time of purchase. See “Distribution and/or Shareholder Servicing Plans” below. Imposition of the CDSC and the distribution fee on CDSC shares is limited by FINRA (as defined below) asset-based sales charge rule. See “Limitations on the Payment of Deferred Sales Charges” below.

Dealers will generally immediately receive commissions equal to 1.00% of the Investor C Shares sold by them plus ongoing fees under the Fund’s Distribution and Service Plan. Dealers may not receive a commission in connection with sales of Investor C Shares to certain employer-sponsored retirement plans sponsored by the Fund, BlackRock or its affiliates, but may receive fees under the Distribution and Service Plan. These commissions and payments may be different than the reallowances, placement fees and commissions paid to dealers in connection with sales of Investor A, Investor A1 and Investor P Shares. These may depend upon the policies, procedures and trading platforms of your financial intermediary; consult your financial adviser.

Each Fund has adopted an automatic conversion feature for Investor C Shares. Effective November 23, 2020, Investor C Shares held for approximately eight years will be converted into Investor A Shares, as set forth in each Fund’s Prospectus. In addition, accounts that do not have a financial intermediary associated with them are not eligible to hold Investor C Shares, and any Investor C Shares held in such accounts will be automatically converted to Investor A Shares.

Conversion of Investor C Shares to Investor A Shares

Effective November 23, 2020 (the “Effective Date”), approximately eight years after purchase, Investor C Shares of each Fund will convert automatically into Investor A Shares of that Fund (the “Investor C 8-Year Conversion”). Certain funds (the “Predecessor Funds”) were reorganized into new Funds (the “Successor Funds”) pursuant to reorganizations which occurred in September 2018. The holding period for Investor C Shares of Successor Funds includes the period such shares were held in the respective

 

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Predecessor Fund. It is the financial intermediary’s responsibility to ensure that the shareholder is credited with the proper holding period. As of the Effective Date, certain financial intermediaries, including group retirement recordkeeping platforms, may not have been tracking such holding periods and therefore may not be able to process such conversions. In such instances, Investor C Shares held as of the Effective Date will automatically convert to Investor A Shares approximately eight years after the Effective Date. If, as of November 23, 2028 (eight years after the Effective Date), a financial intermediary has not implemented systems or procedures to track holding periods commencing from the Effective Date, shareholders holding Investor C Shares through such financial intermediary will no longer be eligible to hold Investor C Shares and any such shares will convert to Investor A Shares as soon as reasonably practicable after such date.

In addition, accounts that do not have a financial intermediary associated with them are not eligible to hold Investor C Shares, and any Investor C Shares held in such accounts will be automatically converted into Investor A Shares (the “Investor C Direct Accounts Conversion” and together with the Investor C 8-Year Conversion, the “Investor C Conversions”).

The Investor C Conversions will occur at least once each month (on the “Investor C Conversion Date”) on the basis of the relative NAV of the shares of the two applicable classes on the Investor C Conversion Date, without the imposition of any sales load, fee or other charge. The Investor C Conversions will not be deemed a purchase or sale of the shares for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Shares acquired through reinvestment of dividends on Investor C Shares will also convert automatically to Investor A Shares, as set forth in each Fund’s Prospectus. The Investor C Conversion Date for dividend reinvestment shares will be calculated taking into account the length of time the shares underlying the dividend reinvestment shares were outstanding.

Contingent Deferred Sales Charge — Investor C Shares

Investor C Shares that are redeemed within one year of purchase may be subject to a 1.00% CDSC charged as a percentage of the dollar amount subject thereto. In determining whether an Investor C Shares CDSC is applicable to a redemption, the calculation will be determined in the manner that results in the lowest possible rate being charged. The charge will be assessed on an amount equal to the lesser of the proceeds of redemption or the cost of the shares being redeemed. Accordingly, no CDSC will be imposed on increases in NAV above the initial purchase price of Investor C Shares. In addition, no CDSC will be assessed on Investor C Shares acquired through reinvestment of dividends. It will be assumed that the redemption is first of shares held for over one year or shares acquired pursuant to reinvestment of dividends and then of shares held longest during the one-year period. A transfer of shares from a shareholder’s account to another account will be assumed to be made in the same order as a redemption.

See “Information on Sales Charges and Distribution Related Expenses” in Part I of each Fund’s SAI for information about amounts paid to the Distributor in connection with CDSC shares for the periods indicated.

Investor C Shares — Contingent Deferred Sales Charge Waivers and Reductions

The CDSC on Investor C Shares is not charged in connection with: (1) redemptions of Investor C Shares purchased through certain employer-sponsored retirement plans and fee-based programs previously approved by certain Funds and rollovers of current investments in the Fund through such plans; (2) exchanges described in “Exchange Privilege” below; (3) redemptions made in connection with minimum required distributions due to the shareholder reaching age 72 from IRA and 403(b)(7) accounts; (4) certain post-retirement withdrawals from an IRA or other retirement plan if you are over 59 12 years old and you purchased your shares prior to October 2, 2006; (5) redemptions made with respect to certain retirement plans sponsored by the Fund, BlackRock or its affiliates; (6) redemptions in connection with a shareholder’s death as long as the waiver request is made within one year of death or, if later, reasonably promptly following completion of probate (including in connection with the distribution of account assets to a beneficiary of the decedent) or disability (as defined in the Code) subsequent to the purchase of Investor C Shares; (7) withdrawals resulting from shareholder disability (as defined in the Code) as long as the disability arose subsequent to the purchase of the shares; (8) involuntary redemptions of Investor C Shares in accounts with low balances as described in “Redemption of Shares” below; (9) redemptions made pursuant to a systematic withdrawal plan, subject to the limitations set forth under “Systematic Withdrawal Plan” below; (10) redemptions related to the payment of BNY Mellon Investment Servicing Trust Company custodial IRA fees; and (11) redemptions when a shareholder can demonstrate hardship, in the absolute discretion of the Fund. In addition, no CDSC is charged on Investor C Shares acquired through the reinvestment of dividends or distributions.

Certain CDSC waivers and reductions on Investor C Shares may be available to customers of certain financial intermediaries, as described under “Intermediary-Defined Sales Charge Waiver Policies” in the Fund’s Prospectus. Please speak to your financial intermediary for more information.

 

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Class R Shares

Certain of the Funds offer Class R Shares as described in each such Fund’s Prospectus. Class R Shares are available only to certain employer-sponsored retirement plans. Class R Shares are not subject to an initial sales charge or a CDSC but are subject to an ongoing distribution fee of 0.25% per year and an ongoing service fee of 0.25% per year. Distribution fees are used to support the Fund’s marketing and distribution efforts, such as compensating financial advisers and other financial intermediaries, advertising and promotion. Service fees are used to compensate securities dealers and other financial intermediaries for service activities.

If Class R Shares are held over time, these fees may exceed the maximum sales charge that an investor would have paid as a shareholder of one of the other share classes.

Class K Shares

Certain Funds offer Class K Shares as described in each such Fund’s Prospectus. Class K Shares are available only to (i) certain employee benefit plans, such as health savings accounts, and certain employer-sponsored retirement plans (not including SEP IRAs, SIMPLE IRAs and SARSEPs) (collectively, “Employer-Sponsored Retirement Plans”), (ii) collective trust funds, investment companies and other pooled investment vehicles, each of which may purchase shares of the Fund through a financial intermediary that has entered into an agreement with the Distributor to purchase such shares, (iii) “Institutional Investors,” which include but are not limited to, endowments, foundations, family offices, banks and bank trusts, local, city, and state governmental institutions, corporations and insurance company separate accounts, each of which may purchase shares of the Fund through a financial intermediary that has entered into an agreement with the Distributor to purchase such shares, (iv) clients of private banks that purchase shares of the Fund through a financial intermediary that has entered into an agreement with the Distributor to sell such shares; (v) fee-based advisory platforms of a financial intermediary that (a) has specifically acknowledged in a written agreement with the Distributor and/or its affiliate(s) that the financial intermediary shall offer such shares to fee-based advisory clients through an omnibus account held at the Fund or (b) transacts in the Fund’s shares through another intermediary that has executed such an agreement and (vi) any other investors who met the eligibility criteria for BlackRock Shares or Class K Shares prior to August 15, 2016 and have continually held Class K Shares of the Fund or the respective Predecessor Fund in the same account since August 15, 2016. The agreement referenced in (iv) above shall appear in a supplemental agreement to any selling, sub-transfer agent, or distribution and marketing agreement.

Class K Shares are also available to employees, officers and directors/trustees of BlackRock, Inc. and BlackRock Funds and immediate family members of such persons, if they open an account directly with BlackRock. Eligible individuals who would like to convert existing holdings to Class K Shares must contact BlackRock.

Class G Shares

Certain Funds offer Class G Shares, which are available only to investors on eligible platforms. Eligible platforms are those where clients invest in the Fund through a single omnibus account in the name of a financial intermediary that meets an initial investment minimum of $2.5 billion. For clients investing through such eligible platforms, the Fund does not impose investment minimums on any individual investor. Financial intermediaries may impose separate eligibility requirements.

Service Shares

Certain Funds offer Service Shares, which are available only to certain investors, including: (i) certain financial institutions, such as banks and brokerage firms, acting on behalf of their customers; (ii) certain persons who were shareholders of the Compass Capital Group of Funds at the time of its combination with The PNC® Fund in 1996; and (iii) participants in the Capital DirectionsSM asset allocation program. Service Shares are not subject to an initial sales charge or a CDSC but are subject to an ongoing service fee as set forth in the applicable Fund’s Prospectus.

BlackRock Shares

Certain Funds offer BlackRock Shares, which are available only to certain investors. BlackRock Shares are offered without a sales charge to institutional and individual investors, registered investment advisers and certain fee-based programs.

 

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Distribution and/or Shareholder Servicing Plans

Each Fund has adopted a plan (each, a “Plan”) pursuant to Rule 12b-1 under the Investment Company Act with respect to certain share classes that allows the Fund to pay distribution fees for the sale of its shares and shareholder servicing fees for certain services provided to its shareholders.

Pursuant to the Plans, a Fund may pay BRIL and/or BlackRock, or any other affiliate or significant shareholder of BlackRock, fees for distribution and sales support services with respect to Investor A, Investor A1, Investor C, Investor P, Service and Class R Shares. Currently, as described further below, only Investor C and Class R Shares bear the expense of distribution fees under a Plan.

Each Fund has entered into a distribution agreement with BRIL under which BRIL, as agent, offers shares of each Fund on a continuous basis. BRIL has agreed to use appropriate efforts to effect sales of the shares, but it is not obligated to sell any particular amount of shares. BRIL’s principal business address is 40 East 52nd Street, New York, NY 10022. BRIL is an affiliate of BlackRock.

Pursuant to the Plans, each Fund may also pay shareholder servicing fees (also referred to as general shareholder liaison services fees) to affiliated and unaffiliated brokers, dealers, financial institutions, insurance companies, retirement plan record-keepers and other financial intermediaries (including BlackRock, BRIL and their affiliates) (collectively, “Service Organizations”) for certain support services rendered by Service Organizations to their customers (“Customers”) who are the beneficial owners of Investor A, Investor A1, Investor C, Investor P, Service and Class R Shares of a Fund. Such services are intended to supplement the services provided by the Fund’s Administrators and Transfer Agent to the Fund’s shareholders of record.

The support services provided by Service Organizations are general shareholder liaison services, which include, but are not limited to: (i) answering Customer inquiries regarding account status and history, the manner in which purchases, exchanges and redemptions or repurchases of shares may be effected and certain other matters pertaining to the Customers’ investments; and (ii) assisting Customers in designating and changing dividend options, account designations and addresses. The shareholder servicing fees payable pursuant to the Plans are paid to compensate Service Organizations for the administration and servicing of shareholder accounts and are not costs which are primarily intended to result in the sale of the Fund’s shares.

Payments under the Plans are based on a