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Form 485APOS Macquarie ETF Trust

February 23, 2024 3:55 PM EST

UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549

FORM N-1A

File No. 333-273398
File No. 811-23890

REGISTRATION STATEMENT UNDER THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 /X/
     
  Pre-Effective Amendment No.     / /
  Post-Effective Amendment No. 1   /X/
     
  and/or  
     
REGISTRATION STATEMENT UNDER THE INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 /X/
     
  Amendment No. 4   /X/
 
(Check appropriate box or boxes)
     
MACQUARIE ETF TRUST
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Charter)
 
100 Independence, 610 Market Street, Philadelphia, PA 19106-2354
(Address of Principal Executive Offices)
 
Registrant’s Telephone Number, including Area Code: (800) 523-1918
 
David F. Connor, Esq., 100 Independence, 610 Market Street, Philadelphia, PA 19106-2354
(Name and Address of Agent for Service)
     

Please send copies of all communications to:

Sean Graber, Esq.
Morgan, Lewis & Bockius LLP
2222 Market Street
Philadelphia, PA 19103-3007

 
It is proposed that this filing will become effective (check appropriate box):
 
/  / immediately upon filing pursuant to paragraph (b)
/  / on January 29, 2024 pursuant to paragraph (b)
/  / 60 days after filing pursuant to paragraph (a)(1)
/  / on (date) pursuant to paragraph (a)(1)
X 75 days after filing pursuant to paragraph (a)(2)
/  / on (date) pursuant to paragraph (a)(2) of Rule 485.
     
If appropriate, check the following box:
 
/  / this post-effective amendment designates a new effective date for a previously filed post-effective amendment.

 

Prospectus

 

The information in this Prospectus is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This Prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and is not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any state where the offer or sale is not permitted

Subject to Completion—Dated February 23, 2024

MACQUARIE ETF TRUST

[Macquarie Focused Large Growth ETF]              [TICKER]
   
Exchange: NYSE Arca, Inc.  
   
   
[   ], 2024  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The US Securities and Exchange Commission has not approved or disapproved these securities or passed upon the adequacy of this Prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

Get shareholder reports and prospectuses online instead of in the mail. Visit etf.macquarie.com.

 

Table of contents

 

Fund summary 1
[Macquarie Focused Large Growth ETF] 1
How we manage the Fund 5
Our principal investment strategies 5
Other investment strategies 6
The risks of investing in the Fund 7
Disclosure of portfolio holdings information 10
Who manages the Fund 11
Investment manager 11
Portfolio managers 11
Manager of managers structure 11
Who’s who 13
About your account 14
Investing in the Fund 14
Fair valuation 16
Retirement plans 17
Document delivery 17
Investor services 17
Dividends, distributions, and taxes 17
Tax considerations 18
Financial highlights 20
Related Account Performance 21
Additional information 24

 

Fund Summary

[Macquarie Focused Large Growth ETF]

What is the Fund’s investment objective?

[Macquarie Focused Large Growth ETF] seeks to provide growth of capital.

What are the Fund’s fees and expenses?

The following table describes the fees and expenses that you will incur if you buy, hold, and sell shares of the Fund. You may also incur other fees, such as usual and customary brokerage commissions and other fees to financial intermediaries, which are not reflected in the table and the Example below.

Annual Fund Operating Expenses (expenses that you pay each year as a percentage of the value of your investment)

Management fees [  ]%
Distribution and service (12b-1) fees None
Other expenses1  None
Total annual Fund operating expenses [  ]%

1 Other expenses are based on estimated amounts for the current fiscal year.

Example

This example is intended to help you compare the cost of investing in the Fund with the cost of investing in other funds. The example assumes that you invest $10,000 in the Fund for the time periods indicated and then sell all of your shares at the end of those periods. The example also assumes that your investment has a 5% return each year and that the Fund’s operating expenses remain the same. Although your actual costs may be higher or lower, based on these assumptions your costs would be:

1 Year 3 Years
$[  ] $[  ]

Portfolio turnover

The Fund pays transaction costs, such as commissions, when it buys and sells securities (or “turns over” its portfolio). A higher portfolio turnover rate may indicate higher transaction costs and may result in higher taxes when Fund shares are held in a taxable account. These costs, which are not reflected in the annual fund operating expenses or in the example, affect the Fund’s performance. As of the date of this Prospectus, the Fund has not yet commenced operations and portfolio turnover data therefore is not available.

What are the Fund’s principal investment strategies?

Under normal circumstances, the [Macquarie Focused Large Growth ETF] will invest at least 80% of its net assets, plus the amount of any borrowings for investment purposes, in securities of large capitalization, growth-oriented companies. The Fund is non-diversified, meaning that it may invest a significant portion of its assets in a limited number of issuers.

Large capitalization companies” are those that, at the time of investment, have market capitalizations within the range of market capitalizations of companies appearing in the Russell 1000® Growth Index. While the market capitalizations of companies in the Russell 1000® Growth Index ranged from approximately $0.5 billion to $3.1 trillion as of June 30, 2023, the Fund normally will invest in common stocks of companies with market capitalizations of at least $10 billion at the time of purchase.

“Growth-oriented companies” are those whose earnings the Manager believes are likely to grow faster than the economy.

The Fund may invest in foreign securities through the use of American depositary receipts (ADRs), which are receipts issued by a depositary (usually a US bank) and represent the bank’s holdings of a stated number of shares of a foreign corporation. Generally, an ADR entitles the holder to all payments of interest, dividends, and capital gains earned by the underlying foreign shares. ADRs are generally denominated in US dollars and are

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Fund Summary

bought and sold on a US stock exchange in the same manner as US securities.

The Fund’s securities will primarily include equity securities of growth-oriented companies selected by Delaware Management Company, the Fund’s investment adviser (“Manager”) that the Manager believes are high quality and have competitively advantaged business models and growth potential over the long term. The Manager constructs the Fund’s portfolio using a two-sided quality analysis process that includes a qualitative quality analysis and a quantitative quality analysis. As part of its qualitative analysis, the Manager uses a research-oriented, bottom-up (researching individual issuers) investment approach, assessing the current and forecasted investment opportunities and conditions, as well as diversification and risk considerations, to seek to identify companies that, in the Manager’s view, have durable competitive advantages. A competitively advantaged business model can be defined by such factors as brand loyalty, proprietary technology, cost structure, scale, exclusive access to data, or distribution advantages. Other factors considered include strength of management; level of competitive intensity; return of capital; strong balance sheets and cash flows; the threat of substitute products; and the interaction and bargaining power between a company, its customers, suppliers, and competitors. 

From a quantitative standpoint, the Manager concentrates on the level of profitability, capital intensity, cash flow and capital allocation measures, as well as earnings growth rates and valuations. The Manager’s fundamental research effort tries to identify those companies that it believes possess a sustainable competitive advantage, an important characteristic which typically enables a company to generate above-average levels of profitability and the ability to sustain growth over the long term.

Through the qualitative and quantitative framework described above, the Manager arrives at a narrowed universe referred to as the “Franchise Growth Universe” which typically consists of roughly 100 companies. Companies in the Franchise Growth Universe compete for inclusion in the Fund’s concentrated portfolio based on business durability, risk/reward and other portfolio construction considerations such as a proprietary 3-to-5-year IRR (internal rate of return) assessment. The Manager believes that portfolio concentration is paramount to capturing the benefits of successful quality-first stock selection, and accordingly the Fund will typically own a limited number of stocks (generally 15 to 25 companies).

Generally, the Fund's Manager employs a consistent, rigorous analysis for determining whether to sell a security as its uses when buying a security. This analysis centers on aligning each investment with the Fund's objectives and ensuring it remains an optimal choice for achieving the Fund's goals. The Manager may sell a security for various reasons, including: (i) industry deterioration: a weakening in industry structure, such as new competition or irrational competitors, will prompt us to exit an investment due to increased risk; (ii) loss of competitive edge: a change in a company’s competitive advantage can have negative ramifications on forward stability, profitability and growth and would be cause for an exit; (iii) ineffective management: if management performance falls short of expectations or harms the company's prospects, we may divest the holding; and/or (iv) limited upside potential: we may sell a security if its future appreciation potential appears limited, allowing us to allocate resources towards more promising opportunities. The Manager also may sell a security to reduce the Fund’s holding in that security, to take advantage of what it believes are more attractive investment opportunities or to raise cash.

The Manager may permit its affiliate, Macquarie Investment Management Global Limited (MIMGL), to execute Fund security trades on behalf of the Manager. The Manager may also seek quantitative support from MIMGL.

The Fund’s 80% policy is nonfundamental and may be changed without shareholder approval. However, Fund shareholders would be given at least 60 days’ notice prior to any such change.

What are the principal risks of investing in the Fund?

Investing in any exchange-traded fund involves the risk that you may lose part or all of the money you invest. Over time, the value of your investment in the Fund will increase and decrease according to changes in the value of the securities in the Fund’s portfolio. An investment in the Fund may not be appropriate for all investors. Unlike many ETFs, the Fund is actively managed and does not seek to replicate the performance of a specified index. The Fund’s principal risks include:

Market risk — The risk that all or a majority of the securities in a certain market - such as the stock or bond market - will decline in value because of factors such as adverse political or economic conditions, future expectations, investor confidence, or heavy institutional selling.

Growth stock risk — Growth stocks reflect projections of future earnings and revenue. These prices may rise or fall dramatically depending on whether those projections are met. These companies’ stock prices may be more volatile, particularly over the short term.

Large-capitalization company risk — Large-capitalization companies tend to be less volatile than companies with smaller market capitalizations. This potentially lower risk means that the Fund’s share price may not rise as much as the share prices of funds that focus on smaller-capitalization companies.

Limited number of securities risk — The possibility that a single security’s increase or decrease in value may have a greater impact on a fund’s value and total return because the fund may hold larger positions in fewer securities than other funds. In addition, a fund that holds a limited number of securities may be more volatile than those funds that hold a greater number of securities.

Nondiversification risk — A nondiversified fund has the flexibility to invest as much as 50% of its assets in as few as two issuers with no single issuer accounting for more than 25% of the fund. The remaining 50% of its assets must be diversified so that no more than 5% of its assets are

2

invested in the securities of a single issuer. Because a nondiversified fund may invest its assets in fewer issuers, the value of its shares may increase or decrease more rapidly than if it were fully diversified.

Active management and selection risk — The risk that the securities selected by a fund’s management will underperform the markets, the relevant indices, or the securities selected by other funds with similar investment objectives and investment strategies. The securities and sectors selected may vary from the securities and sectors included in the relevant index.

None of the entities noted in this document is an authorized deposit-taking institution for the purposes of the Banking Act 1959 (Commonwealth of Australia) and the obligations of these entities do not represent deposits or other liabilities of Macquarie Bank Limited ABN 46 008 583 542 (Macquarie Bank). Macquarie Bank does not guarantee or otherwise provide assurance in respect of the obligations of these entities. In addition, if this document relates to an investment (a) each investor is subject to investment risk including possible delays in repayment and loss of income and principal invested and (b) none of Macquarie Bank or any other Macquarie Group company guarantees any particular rate of return on or the performance of the investment, nor do they guarantee repayment of capital in respect of the investment.

Liquidity risk — The possibility that investments cannot be readily sold within seven calendar days at approximately the price at which a fund has valued them.

Information technology sector risk — The risk that investment risks associated with investing in the information technology sector, in addition to other risks, include the intense competition to which information technology companies may be subject; the dramatic and often unpredictable changes in growth rates and competition for qualified personnel among information technology companies; effects on profitability from being heavily dependent on patent and intellectual property rights and the loss or impairment of those rights; obsolescence of existing technology; general economic conditions; and government regulation.

Industry and sector risk — The risk that the value of securities in a particular industry or sector (such as the infrastructure industry) will decline because of changing expectations for the performance of that industry or sector.

Government and regulatory risk — The risk that governments or regulatory authorities may take actions that could adversely affect various sectors of the securities markets and affect fund performance.

Foreign risk — The risk that foreign securities (particularly in emerging markets) may be adversely affected by political instability, changes in currency exchange rates, inefficient markets and higher transaction costs, foreign economic or government conditions, the imposition of economic and/or trade sanctions, inadequate or different regulatory and accounting standards, and the possibility that significant events in foreign markets, including broad market moves, may affect the value of fund shares.

ETF risk — The Fund is an ETF, and, as a result of an ETF’s structure, it is exposed to the following risks: “Authorized participants, market makers and liquidity providers concentration risk,” “Secondary Market Trading Risk” and “Shares may trade at prices other than NAV risk.”

·Authorized participants, market makers and liquidity providers concentration risk — Only authorized participants (“APs”) may engage in creation or redemption transactions directly with the Fund. The Fund has a limited number of financial institutions that are institutional investors and may act as APs. In addition, there may be a limited number of market makers and/or liquidity providers in the marketplace, and they have no obligation to submit creation or redemption orders. To the extent either of the following events occur, the Fund’s shares may trade at a material discount to net asset value (“NAV”) and possibly face delisting: (i) APs exit the business or otherwise become unable to process creation and/or redemption orders and no other APs step forward to perform these services, or (ii) market makers and/or liquidity providers exit the business or significantly reduce their business activities and no other entities step forward to perform their functions. These events, among others, may lead to the Fund’s shares trading at a premium or discount to NAV. A diminished market for an ETF’s shares substantially increases the risk that a shareholder may pay considerably more or receive significantly less than the underlying value of the ETF shares bought or sold.
·Secondary market trading risk — Although the Fund’s shares are listed on a national securities exchange NYSE Arca, Inc. (“Exchange”) and may be traded on U.S. exchanges other than the Exchange, there can be no assurance that an active or liquid trading market for them will develop or be maintained. In addition, trading in the Fund’s shares on the Exchange may be halted. An exchange or market may also issue trading halts on specific securities or financial instruments. As a result, the ability to trade certain securities or financial instruments may be restricted, which may disrupt the Fund’s creation/redemption process or affect the price at which shares trade in the secondary market.
·Shares may trade at prices other than NAV risk — As with all ETFs, shares of the Fund may be bought and sold in the secondary market at market prices. The Fund’s NAV is calculated at the end of each business day and fluctuates with changes in the market value of the Fund’s holdings, while the trading price of the shares fluctuates continuously throughout trading hours on the Exchange, based on both the relative market supply of, and demand for, the shares and the underlying value of the Fund’s holdings. As a result, although it is expected that the market price of the Fund’s shares will approximate the Fund’s NAV, there may be times when the market price of the Fund’s shares is more than the NAV intra-day (premium) or less than the NAV intra-day (discount). This risk is heightened in times of market volatility or periods of steep market declines.

3

Fund Summary

New fund risk — The Fund is a newly organized, diversified management investment company with no operating history. In addition, there can be no assurance that the Fund will grow to, or maintain, an economically viable size, in which case the Board of Trustees of the Trust (the “Board) may determine to liquidate the Fund.

How has [Macquarie Focused Large Growth ETF] performed?

Because the Fund is new, it has no performance history. Once the Fund has commenced operations, you can obtain updated performance information at etf.macquarie.com or by calling 844-469-9911. The Fund’s past performance (before and after taxes) is not necessarily an indication of how the Fund will perform in the future.

Who manages the Fund?

Investment manager

Delaware Management Company, a series of Macquarie Investment Management Business Trust (a Delaware statutory trust)

Portfolio managers Title with Delaware Management Company Start date on the Fund
Bradley M. Klapmeyer Managing Director, Senior Portfolio Manager Since inception ([  ], 2024)
Bradley D. Angermeier Managing Director, Senior Portfolio Manager Since inception ([  ], 2024)

Sub-Advisor

Macquarie Investment Management Global Limited (MIMGL)

Purchase and redemption of Fund shares

The Fund is an ETF. As an ETF, only APs may engage in creation or redemption transactions directly with the Fund. The Fund issues or redeems shares that have been aggregated into blocks of [25,000] shares or multiples thereof (Creation Units) to APs who have entered into agreements with the Fund’s distributor, Foreside Financial Services, LLC. The Fund will generally issue or redeem Creation Units in exchange for a basket of securities (and/or an amount of cash) that the Fund specifies each day. Individual shares of the Fund may only be purchased and sold on a national securities exchange through a broker-dealer. The price of Fund shares is based on market price, and because ETF shares trade at market prices rather than NAV, shares may trade at a price greater than NAV (a premium) or less than NAV (a discount).

An investor may incur costs attributable to the difference between the highest price a buyer is willing to pay to purchase shares of the Fund (bid) and the lowest price a seller is willing to accept for shares of the Fund (ask) when buying or selling shares in the secondary market (the “bid-ask spread”). Recent information, including information on the Fund’s NAV, market price, premiums and discounts, and bid-ask spreads is available on the Fund’s website at etf.macquarie.com.

Tax information

The Fund’s distributions generally are taxable to you as ordinary income, capital gains, or some combination of both, unless you are investing through a tax-advantaged arrangement, such as a 401(k) plan or an individual retirement account, in which case your distributions may be taxed as ordinary income when withdrawn from the tax-advantaged account.

Payments to broker/dealers and other financial intermediaries

If you purchase shares of the Fund through a broker/dealer or other financial intermediary (such as a bank), the Fund and its related companies may pay the intermediary for certain Fund-related activities, including those that are designed to make the intermediary more knowledgeable about exchange traded products, such as the Fund, as well as for marketing, education or other initiatives related to the sale or promotion of Fund shares. These payments may create a conflict of interest by influencing the broker-dealer or other intermediary and your salesperson to recommend the Fund over another investment. Ask your salesperson or visit your financial intermediary’s website for more information.

4

How we manage the Fund

Our principal investment strategies

[Macquarie Focused Large Growth ETF]


Under normal circumstances, the [Macquarie Focused Large Growth ETF] will invest at least 80% of its net assets, plus the amount of any borrowings for investment purposes, in securities of large capitalization, growth-oriented companies. The Fund is non-diversified, meaning that it may invest a significant portion of its assets in a limited number of issuers.

Large capitalization companies” are those that, at the time of investment, have market capitalizations within the range of market capitalizations of companies appearing in the Russell 1000® Growth Index. While the market capitalizations of companies in the Russell 1000® Growth Index ranged from approximately $0.5 billion to $3.1 trillion as of June 30, 2023, the Fund normally will invest in common stocks of companies with market capitalizations of at least $10 billion at the time of purchase.

“Growth-oriented companies” are those whose earnings the Manager believes are likely to grow faster than the economy.

The Fund may invest in foreign securities through the use of American depositary receipts (ADRs), which are receipts issued by a depositary (usually a US bank) and represent the bank’s holdings of a stated number of shares of a foreign corporation. Generally, an ADR entitles the holder to all payments of interest, dividends, and capital gains earned by the underlying foreign shares. ADRs are generally denominated in US dollars and are bought and sold on a US stock exchange in the same manner as US securities.

The Fund’s securities will primarily include equity securities of growth-oriented companies selected by Delaware Management Company, the Fund’s investment adviser (“Manager”) that the Manager believes are high quality and have competitively advantaged business models and growth potential over the long term. The Manager constructs the Fund’s portfolio using a two-sided quality analysis process that includes a qualitative quality analysis and a quantitative quality analysis. As part of its qualitative analysis, the Manager uses a research-oriented, bottom-up (researching individual issuers) investment approach, assessing the current and forecasted investment opportunities and conditions, as well as diversification and risk considerations, to seek to identify companies that, in the Manager’s view, have durable competitive advantages. A competitively advantaged business model can be defined by such factors as brand loyalty, proprietary technology, cost structure, scale, exclusive access to data, or distribution advantages. Other factors considered include strength of management; level of competitive intensity; return of capital; strong balance sheets and cash flows; the threat of substitute products; and the interaction and bargaining power between a company, its customers, suppliers, and competitors. 

From a quantitative standpoint, the Manager concentrates on the level of profitability, capital intensity, cash flow and capital allocation measures, as well as earnings growth rates and valuations. The Manager’s fundamental research effort tries to identify those companies that it believes possess a sustainable competitive advantage, an important characteristic which typically enables a company to generate above-average levels of profitability and the ability to sustain growth over the long term.

Through the qualitative and quantitative framework described above, the Manager arrives at a narrowed universe referred to as the “Franchise Growth Universe” which typically consists of roughly 100 companies. Companies in the Franchise Growth Universe compete for inclusion in the Fund’s concentrated portfolio based on business durability, risk/reward and other portfolio construction considerations such as a proprietary 3-to-5-year IRR (internal rate of return) assessment. The Manager believes that portfolio concentration is paramount to capturing the benefits of successful quality-first stock selection, and accordingly the Fund will typically own a limited number of stocks (generally 15 to 25 companies).

Generally, the Fund's Manager employs a consistent, rigorous analysis for determining whether to sell a security as its uses when buying a security. This analysis centers on aligning each investment with the Fund's objectives and ensuring it remains an optimal choice for achieving the Fund's goals. The Manager may sell a security for various reasons, including: (i) industry deterioration: a weakening in industry structure, such as new competition or irrational competitors, will prompt us to exit an investment due to increased risk; (ii) loss of competitive edge: a change in a company’s competitive advantage can have negative ramifications on forward stability, profitability and growth and would be cause for an exit; (iii) ineffective management: if management performance falls short of expectations or harms the company's prospects, we may divest the holding; and/or (iv) limited upside potential: we may sell a security if its future appreciation potential appears limited, allowing us to allocate resources towards more promising opportunities. The Manager also may sell a security to reduce the Fund’s holding in that security, to take advantage of what it believes are more attractive investment opportunities or to raise cash.

The Manager may permit its affiliate, Macquarie Investment Management Global Limited (MIMGL), to execute Fund security trades on behalf of the Manager. The Manager may also seek quantitative support from MIMGL.

The Fund’s 80% policy is nonfundamental and may be changed without shareholder approval. However, Fund shareholders would be given at least 60

5

How we manage the Fund

days’ notice prior to any such change.

Additional Investment Considerations

The objective and investment policies of the Fund may be changed by the Board without a vote of the Fund’s shareholders, unless a policy or restriction is otherwise described as a fundamental policy in this prospectus or in the Fund’s Statement of Additional Information (SAI). Shareholders, however, will be given prior written notice, typically at least 60 days in advance, of any material change in the Fund’s objective.

Because the Fund owns different types of investments, its performance will be affected by a variety of factors. The value of the Fund’s investments and the income it generates will vary from day to day, generally reflecting changes in interest rates, market conditions, and other company and economic news. From time to time, based on market or economic conditions, the Fund may have significant positions in one or more sectors of the market and may be overweight or underweight sectors as compared to its benchmark index.

To the extent the Fund invests more heavily in particular sectors, its performance will be sensitive to developments that significantly affect those sectors. Alternatively, the lack of exposure to one or more sectors may adversely affect performance. Performance also will depend on the Manager’s skill in selecting investments. As with any investment fund, you could lose money on your investment. There is no guarantee that the Fund will achieve its objective.

The Fund also may invest in and use certain other types of securities and instruments in seeking to achieve its objective(s). For example, certain types of the Fund’s authorized investments and strategies, such as foreign securities and junk bonds, involve special risks. Depending on how much the Fund invests or uses these strategies, these special risks may become significant and thus affect the performance of the Fund.

The Fund may actively trade securities in seeking to achieve its objective. Factors that can lead to active trading include market volatility, a significant positive or negative development concerning a security, an attempt to maintain the Fund’s market capitalization target of the securities in the Fund’s holdings and the need to sell a security to meet redemption activity. Actively trading securities may increase transaction costs (which may reduce performance) and increase net realized gains that the Fund must distribute for federal tax purposes, the distribution of which would increase your taxable income.

The Fund generally seeks to be fully invested, except to the extent that it takes a temporary defensive position. In addition, at times, the Manager may invest a portion of the Fund’s assets in cash or cash equivalents if the Manager is unable to identify and acquire a sufficient number of securities that meet its selection criteria for implementing the Fund’s investment objective(s), strategies and policies, or for other reasons.

Please see the Fund’s SAI for additional information about certain of the securities described below as well as other securities in which the Fund may invest.

Other investment strategies

 Lending Securities

The Fund may lend up to 25% of its assets to qualified broker/dealers or institutional investors for their use in securities transactions. Borrowers of the Fund’s securities must provide collateral to the Fund and adjust the amount of collateral each day to reflect changes in the value of the loaned securities. These transactions, if any, may generate additional income for the Fund.

6

 Borrowing from banks

The Fund may borrow money from banks as a temporary measure for extraordinary or emergency purposes or to facilitate redemptions. The Fund will be required to pay interest to the lending banks on the amount borrowed. As a result, borrowing money could result in the Fund being unable to meet its investment objective. The Fund will not borrow money in excess of one-third of the value of its total assets.

 Purchasing securities on a when-issued or delayed-delivery basis

The Fund may buy or sell securities on a when-issued or delayed-delivery basis (i.e., paying for securities before delivery or taking delivery at a later date).

 Temporary defensive positions

In response to unfavorable market conditions, the Fund may make temporary investments in cash or cash equivalents or other high-quality, short-term instruments. These investments may not be consistent with the Fund’s investment objective. To the extent that the Fund holds such instruments, it may be unable to achieve its investment objective(s).

The risks of investing in the Fund

Investing in any exchange-traded fund involves risk, including the risk that you may receive little or no return on your investment, and the risk that you may lose part or all of the money you invest. Before you invest in the Fund, you should carefully evaluate the risks. Because of the nature of the Fund, you should consider your investment to be a long-term investment that typically provides the best results when held for a number of years. Unlike many ETFs, the Fund is actively managed, rather than index-based ETFs, which means that they do not seek to replicate the performance of a specified index. The information below describes the principal and non-principal risks you assume when investing in the Fund. Please see the SAI for a further discussion of these risks and other risks not discussed here.

[Macquarie Focused Large Growth ETF]

Principal Risks. An investment in [Macquarie Focused Large Growth ETF] is subject to various risks, including the following:

 Market risk

Market risk is the risk that all or a majority of the securities in a certain market - such as the stock or bond market - will decline in value because of factors such as adverse political or economic conditions, future expectations, investor confidence, or heavy institutional selling.

 Growth stock risk

Growth stocks are stocks of companies believed to have above-average potential for growth in revenue and earnings. Prices of growth stocks may be more sensitive to changes in current or expected earnings than the prices of other stocks. Growth stocks may be more volatile or not perform as well as value stocks or the stock market in general.

 Large capitalization company risk

Large-capitalization companies may go in and out of favor based on market and economic conditions. Large-capitalization companies may be unable to respond quickly to new competitive challenges, such as changes in technology, and also may not be able to attain the high growth rate of successful smaller companies, especially during extended periods of economic expansion. Although the securities of larger companies may be less volatile than those of companies with smaller market capitalizations, returns on investments in securities of large-capitalization companies could trail the returns on investments in securities of smaller companies.

 Limited number of securities risk

If a Fund typically holds a small number of stocks, or if the Manager tends to invest a significant portion of a Fund’s total assets in a limited number of stocks, the appreciation or depreciation of any one security held by the Fund may have a greater impact on the Fund’s NAV than it would if the Fund invested in a larger number of securities or if the Manager invested a greater portion of the Fund’s total assets in a larger number of stocks. Although that strategy has the potential to generate attractive returns over time, it also may increase a Fund’s volatility.

 Nondiversification risk

The Fund is a “nondiversified” mutual fund and, as such, its investments are not required to meet certain diversification requirements under federal law. Compared with “diversified” funds, the Fund may invest a greater percentage of its assets in the securities of an issuer. Thus, the Fund may hold

7

How we manage the Fund

fewer securities than other funds. A decline in the value of those investments would cause the Fund’s overall value to decline to a greater degree than if the Fund held a more diversified portfolio.

 Active management and selection risk

The Manager applies the Fund’s investment strategies and selects securities for the Fund in seeking to achieve the Fund’s investment objective(s). There can be no guarantee that its decisions will produce the desired results, and securities selected by the Fund may not perform as well as the securities held by other exchange-traded funds with investment objectives that are similar to the investment objective(s) of the Fund. In general, investment decisions made by the Manager may not produce the anticipated returns, may cause the Fund’s shares to lose value or may cause the Fund to perform less favorably than other funds with similar investment objectives.

 Foreign risk

Foreign risk is the risk that foreign securities (particularly in emerging markets and frontier countries) may be adversely affected by political instability, changes in currency exchange rates, inefficient markets and higher transaction costs, foreign economic or government conditions, the imposition of economic and/or trade sanctions, inadequate or different regulatory and accounting standards, and the possibility that significant events in foreign markets, including broad market moves, may affect the value of fund shares.

As a result of the military action by Russia in Ukraine, the US and many other countries have imposed sanctions on Russia and certain Russian individuals, banks and corporations. The ongoing hostilities and resulting sanctions are expected to have a severe adverse effect on the region’s economies and more globally, including significant negative impact on markets for certain securities and commodities, such as oil and natural gas. Any cessation of trading on the Russian securities markets will impact the value and liquidity of certain portfolio holdings. The extent and duration of military action, sanctions, and resulting market disruptions are impossible to predict, but could be substantial and prolonged and impact your Fund’s performance.

 Liquidity risk

Liquidity risk is the possibility that investments cannot be sold or disposed of in current market conditions in seven calendar days or less without the sale or disposition significantly changing the market value of the investment. Illiquid investments may trade at a discount from comparable, more liquid investments, and may be subject to wide fluctuations in market value. A fund also may not be able to dispose of illiquid investments at a favorable time or price during periods of infrequent trading of an illiquid investment.

 Industry and sector risk

At times, the Fund may have a significant portion of its assets invested in securities of companies conducting business in a broadly related group of industries within an economic sector. Individual sectors may be more volatile, and may perform differently, than the broader market. Companies in the same economic sector may be similarly affected by economic or market events, making the Fund more vulnerable to unfavorable developments in that economic sector than funds that invest more broadly.

 Information technology sector risk

Investment risks associated with investing in the information technology sector, in addition to other risks, include the intense competition to which information technology companies may be subject; the dramatic and often unpredictable changes in growth rates and competition for qualified personnel among information technology companies; effects on profitability from being heavily dependent on patent and intellectual property rights and the loss or impairment of those rights; obsolescence of existing technology; general economic conditions; and government regulation.

 Government and regulatory risk

Governments or regulatory authorities may take actions that could adversely affect various sectors of the securities markets and affect fund performance. Government involvement in the private sector may, in some cases, include government investment in, or ownership of, companies in certain commercial business sectors; wage and price controls; or imposition of trade barriers and other protectionist measures. For example, an economic or political crisis may lead to price controls, forced mergers of companies, expropriation, the creation of government monopolies, foreign exchange controls, the introduction of new currencies (and the redenomination of financial obligations into those currencies), or other measures that could be detrimental to the investments of a fund.

 ETF risk
Authorized Participants, Market Makers and Liquidity Providers Concentration Risk. Only authorized participants (“APs”) may engage in creation or redemption transactions directly with the Fund. The Fund has a limited number of financial institutions that are institutional investors and may act as APs. In addition, there may be a limited number of market makers and/or liquidity providers in the marketplace, and they have no obligation to submit creation or redemption orders. To the extent either of the following events occur, the Fund’s shares may trade at a material discount to net asset value (“NAV”) and possibly face delisting: (i) APs exit the business or otherwise become unable to process creation and/or redemption orders and no other APs step forward to perform these services, or (ii) market makers and/or liquidity providers exit the business or significantly reduce their business activities and no other entities step forward to perform their functions. These events, among others, may lead to the Fund’s shares trading at a premium

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or discount to NAV. A diminished market for an ETF’s shares substantially increases the risk that a shareholder may pay considerably more or receive significantly less than the underlying value of the ETF shares bought or sold.
Secondary Market Trading Risk. Although the Fund’s shares are listed for trading on the Exchange and may be listed or traded on U.S. and non-U.S. stock exchanges other than the Exchange, there can be no assurance that an active trading market for the Fund’s shares will develop or be maintained. Trading in the Fund’s shares may be halted due to market conditions or for reasons that, in the view of the Exchange, make trading in the Fund’s shares inadvisable. In addition, trading in shares on the Exchange is subject to trading halts caused by extraordinary market volatility pursuant to Exchange “circuit breaker” rules, which temporarily halt trading on the Exchange. Additional rules applicable to the Exchange may halt trading in shares when extraordinary volatility causes sudden, significant swings in the market price of shares. There can be no assurance that Fund shares will trade with any volume, or at all, on any stock exchange. Moreover, the Fund is required to comply with listing requirements adopted by the Exchange. Non-compliance with such requirements may result in the Fund’s shares being delisted by the Exchange. Additionally, in stressed market conditions, the liquidity of the Fund’s shares may begin to mirror the liquidity of the Fund’s underlying holdings, which can be significantly less liquid than the Fund’s shares.
Shares May Trade at Prices Other Than NAV. As with all ETFs, shares of the Fund may be bought and sold in the secondary market at market prices. Although it is expected that the market price of the Fund’s shares will approximate the Fund’s NAV, there may be times when the market price of the Fund’s shares is more than the NAV intra-day (premium) or less than the NAV intra-day (discount) due to supply and demand of Fund shares or during periods of market volatility. This risk is heightened in times of market volatility or periods of steep market declines. The market price of the Fund’s shares during the trading day, like the price of any exchange-traded security, includes a “bid/ask” spread charged by the exchange specialist, market makers or other participants that trade the Fund’s shares. In times of severe market disruption, the bid/ask spread can increase significantly. At those times, the Fund’s shares are most likely to be traded at a discount to NAV, and the discount is likely to be greatest when the price of the Fund’s shares is falling fastest, which may be the time that you most want to sell your Fund shares. The Manager believes that, under normal market conditions, large market price discounts or premiums to NAV will not be sustained because of arbitrage opportunities.
 New fund risk

The Fund is a newly organized, diversified management investment company with no operating history. In addition, there can be no assurance that the Fund will grow to, or maintain, an economically viable size, in which case the Board may determine to liquidate the Fund.

Non-Principal Risks. In addition to the Principal Risks identified above, an investment in the [Macquarie Focused Large Growth ETF] may be subject to other, non-principal risks, including the following:

 Natural disaster and epidemic risk

Natural disaster and epidemic risk is the risk that the value of a fund’s investments may be negatively affected by natural disasters, epidemics, or similar events. Natural or environmental disasters, such as earthquakes, fires, floods, hurricanes, tsunamis, and other severe weather-related phenomena generally, and widespread disease, including pandemics and epidemics, have been and can be highly disruptive to economies and markets, adversely impacting individual companies, sectors, industries, markets, currencies, interest and inflation rates, credit ratings, investor sentiment, and other factors affecting the value of a fund’s investments. Given the increasing interdependence among global economies and markets, conditions in one country, market, or region are increasingly likely to adversely affect markets, issuers, and/or foreign exchange rates in other countries. These disruptions could prevent a fund from executing advantageous investment decisions in a timely manner and could negatively impact the fund’s ability to achieve its investment objective.

 Redemption risk

A fund may experience periods of heavy redemptions that could cause a fund to sell assets at inopportune times or at a loss or depressed value. Redemption risk is heightened during periods of declining or illiquid markets. Heavy redemptions could hurt a fund’s performance.

9

How we manage the Fund

Securities lending involves a risk of loss because the borrower may fail to return the securities in a timely manner or at all. If the Fund that lent its securities were unable to recover the securities loaned, it may sell the collateral and purchase a replacement security in the market. Lending securities entails a risk of loss to the Fund if and to the extent that the market value of the loaned securities increases and the collateral is not increased accordingly. Cash received as collateral for loaned securities may be invested, and such investment is subject to market appreciation or depreciation, with the Fund bearing any loss.

Disclosure of portfolio holdings information

A description of the Fund’s policies and procedures with respect to the disclosure of their portfolio securities is available in the Fund’s SAI. The Fund discloses its portfolio holdings daily at etf.macquarie.com.

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Who manages the Fund

Investment manager

The Manager, located at 100 Independence, 610 Market Street, Philadelphia, PA 19106-2354, is the Fund’s investment manager. Together, the Manager and the other subsidiaries of Macquarie Management Holdings, Inc. (MMHI) manage, as of September 30, 2023, approximately $173.7 billion in assets, including mutual funds, separate accounts, and other investment vehicles. The Manager and its predecessors have a history of managing Delaware Funds, which are open-end registered mutual funds, since 1938. The Manager is a series of Macquarie Investment Management Business Trust (a Delaware statutory trust), which is a subsidiary of MMHI. MMHI is a wholly owned subsidiary of Macquarie Group Limited. The Manager makes investment decisions for the Fund, manages the Fund’s business affairs, and provides daily administrative services. For its services to the Fund, the Manager will be paid an aggregate fee, net of fee waivers (if applicable) as follows:

  As a percentage of
average daily net
  assets
[Macquarie Focused Large Growth ETF] [  ]%

A discussion of the basis for the Board’s approval of the Fund’s investment advisory agreements will be available in the Fund’s first annual or semi-annual report to shareholders.

Portfolio managers

[Macquarie Focused Large Growth ETF]

Bradley M. Klapmeyer and Bradley D. Angermeier have day-to-day responsibilities for making investment decisions for the [Macquarie Focused Large Growth ETF].

Bradley M. Klapmeyer, CFA
Managing Director, Senior Portfolio Manager

Joined Ivy Investments in 2007, acquired by Macquarie in 2021

Based in Kansas City

Brad is a Senior Portfolio Manager and Team Lead for Macquarie Asset Management’s (MAM’s) Ivy Large Cap Growth Team, where he is responsible for making day-to-day investment decisions for the team’s strategy.

Brad joined Ivy Investments as an Investment Analyst. He was appointed Assistant Portfolio Manager in 2011 and Portfolio Manager in 2016.

Brad received a Bachelor of Science in finance and a minor in economics from Truman State University. He holds the Chartered Financial Analyst® designation.

Bradley D. Angermeier, CFA
Managing Director, Senior Portfolio Manager

Joined Ivy Investments in 2017, acquired by Macquarie in 2021

Based in Kansas City

Brad is a Senior Portfolio Manager for Macquarie Asset Management’s (MAM’s) Ivy Large Cap Growth Team, where he is responsible for making day-to-day investment decisions for the team’s strategy.

Brad joined Ivy Investments as an Equity Investment Analyst and assumed portfolio management responsibilities in 2021. Prior to that, he was an Equity Research Analyst at Kornitzer Capital Management and an Analyst and Co-Portfolio Manager at Columbia Threadneedle Investments.

Brad received a Bachelor of Science with a double major in finance and accounting from Indiana University, Kelley School of Business. He earned a Master of Business Administration from the University of Wisconsin, Wisconsin School of Business. He holds the Chartered Financial Analyst® designation.

Manager of managers structure

The Fund and the Manager have received an exemptive order from the US Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) to operate under a manager of managers structure that permits the Manager, with the approval of the Fund’s Board, to appoint and replace both affiliated and unaffiliated sub-advisors, and to enter into and make material amendments to the related sub-advisory contracts on behalf of the Fund without shareholder approval (Manager of Managers Structure). Under the Manager of Managers Structure, the Manager has ultimate responsibility, subject to oversight by the Board, for overseeing the Fund’s sub-advisors and recommending to the Board their hiring, termination, or replacement.

The Manager of Managers Structure enables the Fund to operate with greater efficiency and without incurring the expense and delays associated with

11

Who manages the Fund

obtaining shareholder approvals for matters relating to sub-advisors or sub-advisory agreements. The Manager of Managers Structure does not permit an increase in the overall management and advisory fees payable by the Fund without shareholder approval. Shareholders will be notified of the hiring of any new sub-advisor within 90 days of the hiring.

The Fund and the Manager also have an exemptive order from the SEC that allows the approval of a new sub-advisor to be taken at a Board of Trustees meeting held via any means of communication that allows the Trustees to hear each other simultaneously during the meeting. If a new unaffiliated sub-adviser is hired for the Fund, shareholders will receive information about the new sub-advisor within 90 days of the change.

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Who’s who

Board of trustees: Exchange-traded funds are governed by a board of trustees, which has oversight responsibility for the management of the fund’s business affairs. Trustees establish procedures and oversee and review the performance of the Fund’s service providers.

Investment manager: An investment manager is a company responsible for selecting portfolio investments consistent with the objective and policies stated in the fund’s prospectus. A written contract between a fund and its investment manager specifies the services the investment manager performs and the fee the manager is entitled to receive.

Portfolio managers: Portfolio managers make investment decisions for individual portfolios.

Distributor: Exchange-traded fund distributors interact with authorized participants during the creation and redemption process of the Fund’s creation units and approve orders for creation units bought by Fund shareholders. Distributors are regulated as broker/dealers and are subject to the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (FINRA) rules governing fund sales practices.

Authorized Participant: Exchange-traded funds interact directly with certain broker-dealers, also called authorized participants, to sell and redeem shares of the Fund. The Fund’s authorized participants then sell the Fund’s shares to investors on the secondary market.

Service agent: Registered fund companies employ service agents (sometimes called transfer agents) to maintain records of shareholder accounts, calculate and disburse dividends and capital gains, and prepare and mail shareholder statements and tax information, among other functions. Many service agents also provide administrative services to a fund and oversight of other fund service providers. Accounting services agents provide services such as calculating a fund’s net asset value (NAV) and providing financial reporting information for the Fund.

Custodian: Registered funds are legally required to protect their portfolio securities, and most funds place them with a qualified bank custodian that segregates fund securities from other bank assets.

Financial intermediary: Financial professionals provide advice to their clients. They are associated with securities broker/dealers who have entered into selling and/or service arrangements with the distributor. Selling broker/dealers and financial professionals are compensated for their services generally through sales commissions, and through 12b-1 fees and/or service fees deducted from a fund’s assets.

Shareholders: Fund shareholders have specific voting rights on matters such as material changes in the terms of a fund’s management contract and changes to fundamental investment policies.

13

About your account

Investing in the Fund

Buying and Selling Shares

Shares of the Fund may be acquired or redeemed directly from the Fund only in Creation Units or multiples thereof, as discussed in the Creations and Redemptions section of this prospectus. Only an Authorized Participant may engage in creation or redemption transactions directly with the Fund. Once created, shares of the Fund generally trade in the secondary market in amounts less than a Creation Unit.

Shares of the Fund are listed on NYSE Arca, Inc., a national securities exchange for trading during the trading day. Shares can be bought and sold throughout the trading day like shares of other publicly traded companies. The Trust does not impose any minimum investment for shares of the Fund purchased on an exchange. Shares of the Fund trade under the ticker [ ].

Buying or selling Fund shares on an exchange involves two types of costs that may apply to all securities transactions. When buying or selling shares of the Fund through a broker, you will likely incur a brokerage commission or other charges determined by your broker. The commission is frequently a fixed amount and may be a significant proportional cost for investors seeking to buy or sell small amounts of shares. In addition, you may incur the cost of the “spread,” that is, any difference between the bid price and the ask price. The spread varies over time for shares of the Fund based on the Fund’s trading volume and market liquidity, and is generally lower if the Fund has a lot of trading volume and market liquidity, and higher if the Fund has little trading volume and market liquidity.

The Board has not adopted a policy of monitoring for frequent purchases and redemptions of Fund shares (frequent trading) that appear to attempt to take advantage of a potential arbitrage opportunity presented by a lag between a change in the value of the Fund’s portfolio securities after the close of the primary markets for the Fund’s portfolio securities and the reflection of that change in the Fund’s NAV (market timing), because the Fund generally sells and redeems its shares directly through transactions that are in-kind and/or for cash, subject to the conditions described below under Creations and Redemptions. The Board has not adopted a policy of monitoring for frequent trading activity because shares of the Fund are listed for trading on a national securities exchange.

The Fund’s primary listing exchange is NYSE Arca, Inc., which is open for trading Monday through Friday and is closed on weekends and the following holidays: New Year’s Day, Martin Luther King, Jr. Day, Presidents’ Day, Good Friday, Memorial Day, Juneteenth National Independence Day, Independence Day, Labor Day, Thanksgiving Day and Christmas Day.

Section 12(d)(1) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 (1940 Act) restricts investments by investment companies in the securities of other investment companies. Registered investment companies are permitted to invest in the Fund beyond the limits set forth in Section 12(d)(1), subject to certain terms and conditions set forth in SEC rules or in other exemptive relief as applicable. In order for a registered investment company to invest in shares of the Fund beyond the limitations of Section 12(d)(1), the registered investment company must generally enter into an agreement with the Fund.

Book Entry

Shares of the Fund are held in book-entry form, which means that no share certificates are issued. The Depository Trust Company (DTC) or its nominee is the record owner of all outstanding shares of the Fund and is recognized as the owner of all shares for all purposes.

Investors owning shares of the Fund are beneficial owners as shown on the records of DTC or its participants. DTC serves as the securities depository for shares of the Fund. DTC participants include securities brokers and dealers, banks, trust companies, clearing corporations and other institutions that directly or indirectly maintain a custodial relationship with DTC. As a beneficial owner of shares, you are not entitled to receive physical delivery of stock certificates or to have shares registered in your name, and you are not considered a registered owner of shares. Therefore, to exercise any right as an owner of shares, you must rely upon the procedures of DTC and its participants. These procedures are the same as those that apply to any other securities that you hold in book-entry or “street name” form.

Share Prices

The trading prices of the Fund’s shares in the secondary market generally differ from the Fund’s daily NAV and are affected by market forces such as supply and demand, economic conditions and other factors.

We generally price securities and other assets for which market quotations are readily available at their market value. The value of foreign securities may change on days when a shareholder will not be able to purchase or redeem fund shares because foreign markets are open at times and on days when US markets are not. We price fixed income securities on the basis of valuations provided to us by an independent pricing service that uses methods approved by the Board. For all other securities, we use methods approved by the Board that are designed to price securities at their fair market values.

The NAV of the Fund is determined by deducting the Fund’s liabilities from the total assets of the portfolio. The NAV per share is determined by dividing the total NAV of the Fund by the number of shares outstanding.

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The Fund calculates the NAV per share as of the scheduled close of regular trading on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE). The Fund does not calculate the NAV on days the NYSE is closed for trading, which include New Year’s Day, Martin Luther King Jr. Day, President’s Day, Good Friday, Memorial Day, Juneteenth National Independence Day, Independence Day, Labor Day, Thanksgiving Day and Christmas Day. If the NYSE has an unscheduled early close, the Fund’s closing share price would still be determined as of that day’s regularly scheduled close of the NYSE. The Fund’s NAV per share is readily available online at etf.macquarie.com.

In calculating its NAV, the Fund generally values its assets on the basis of market quotations, last sale prices, or estimates of value furnished by a pricing service or brokers who make markets in such instruments. The value of foreign securities may change on days when a shareholder will not be able to purchase or redeem fund shares because foreign markets are open at times and on days when US markets are not. The Fund prices fixed income securities on the basis of valuations provided by an independent pricing service that uses methods approved by the Board. If such information is not available for a security held by the Fund or is determined to be unreliable, the security will be valued at fair value estimates under guidelines established by the Board.

Creations and Redemptions

Prior to trading in the secondary market, shares of the Fund are “created” at NAV by market makers, large investors and institutions only in block-size Creation Units of [25,000] shares or multiples thereof. An “Authorized Participant” or “AP” is a member or participant of a clearing agency registered with the SEC, which has a written agreement with the Fund or one of its service providers (AP Agreement) that allows such member or participant to place orders for the purchase and redemption of Creation Units. All orders for the creation or redemption of Creation Units for the Fund must be placed by or through an Authorized Participant that has entered into an AP Agreement with the Distributor.

A creation transaction, which is subject to acceptance by the Distributor, generally takes place when an Authorized Participant deposits into the Fund a designated portfolio of securities, assets or other positions and/or an amount of cash (which may include cash in lieu of certain securities, assets or other positions) in exchange for a specified number of Creation Units.

Similarly, shares can be redeemed only in Creation Units by APs, generally for a designated portfolio of securities, assets or other positions and/or cash (which may include cash in lieu of certain securities, assets or other positions).

The prices at which creations and redemptions occur are based on the next calculation of NAV after a creation or redemption order is received in an acceptable form under the AP Agreement.

Creation and redemption baskets may differ and the Fund will accept “custom baskets.” More information regarding custom baskets is contained in the Fund’s SAI. As a result of any system failure or other interruption, creation or redemption orders either may not be executed according to the Fund’s instructions or may not be executed at all, or the Fund may not be able to place or change such orders. Information about the procedures regarding creations and redemptions of Creation Units (including the cut-off times for receipt of creation and redemption orders) is included in the Fund’s SAI.

Premium/Discount Information

Information regarding how often the shares of the Fund are traded on the Exchange at a price above (at a premium) or below (at a discount) the NAV of the Fund for the most recently completed calendar year, and the most recently completed calendar quarters since that year, can be found at etf.macquarie.com.

Distribution

The Distributor, Foreside Financial Services, LLC, is a broker-dealer registered with the SEC. The Distributor distributes Creation Units for the Fund on an agency basis and does not maintain a secondary market in Fund shares. The Distributor has no role in determining the policies of the Fund or the securities that are purchased or sold by the Fund. The Distributor’s principal address is Three Canal Plaza, Suite 100, Portland, Maine 04101.

Distribution and service (12b-1) fees

The Board has adopted a distribution plan, sometimes known as a Rule 12b-1 plan, that allows the Fund to pay distribution fees of up to 0.25% per year, to those who sell and distribute Fund shares and provide other services to shareholders. However, the Board has determined not to authorize payment of a Rule 12b-1 plan fee at this time.

Because these fees are paid out of the Fund’s assets on an ongoing basis, to the extent that a fee is authorized, over time these fees will increase the cost of your investment and may cost you more than paying other types of sales charges.

15

About your account

Payments to intermediaries

The Manager and its affiliates may pay additional compensation at their own expense and not as an expense of the Fund to certain affiliated or unaffiliated brokers, dealers, or other financial intermediaries (Financial Intermediaries) in connection with the sale or retention of Fund shares and/or shareholder servicing, including providing the Fund with “shelf space” or a higher profile with the Financial Intermediaries’ consultants, salespersons, and customers (distribution assistance). For example, the Manager or its affiliates may pay additional compensation to Financial Intermediaries for various purposes, including, but not limited to, promoting the sale of Fund shares, maintaining share balances and/or for subaccounting, administrative, or shareholder processing services, marketing, educational support, data, and ticket charges. Such payments are in addition to any distribution fees, service fees, subaccounting fees, and/or transfer agency fees that may be payable by the Fund. The additional payments may be based on factors, including level of sales (based on gross or net sales or some specified minimum sales or some other similar criteria related to sales of the Fund and/or some or all other funds advised by the Manager), amount of assets invested by the Financial Intermediary’s customers (which could include current or aged assets of the Fund and/or some or all other funds advised by the Manager), the Fund’s advisory fees, some other agreed-upon amount, or other measures as determined from time to time by the Manager. The level of payments made to a qualifying Financial Intermediary in any given year may vary. To the extent permitted by SEC and FINRA rules and other applicable laws and regulations, the Manager may pay, or allow its affiliates to pay, other promotional incentives or payments to Financial Intermediaries.

Sub-transfer agent/recordkeeping payments may be made to third parties (including affiliates of the Manager) that provide sub-transfer agent, recordkeeping, and/or shareholder services with respect to certain shareholder accounts (including omnibus accounts), or to the shareholder account directly to offset the costs of these services, in lieu of the transfer agent providing such services.

If a fund sponsor or distributor makes greater payments for distribution assistance to your Financial Intermediary with respect to distribution of shares of that particular fund than sponsors or distributors of other funds make to your Financial Intermediary with respect to the distribution of the shares of their funds, your Financial Intermediary and its salespersons may have a financial incentive to favor sales of shares of the fund making the higher payments over shares of other funds or over other investment options. You should consult with your Financial Intermediary and review carefully any disclosure provided by such Financial Intermediary as to compensation it receives in connection with investment products it recommends or sells to you. A significant purpose of these payments is to increase sales of the Fund’s shares. The Manager or its affiliates may benefit from the Distributor’s payment of compensation to Financial Intermediaries through increased fees resulting from additional assets acquired through the sale of Fund shares through Financial Intermediaries. In certain instances, the payments could be significant and may cause a conflict of interest for your Financial Intermediary. Any such payments will not change the NAV or the price of the Fund’s shares.

Fair valuation

When the Fund use fair value pricing, it may take into account any factors they deem appropriate. The Fund may determine fair value based upon developments related to a specific security, current valuations of foreign stock indices (as reflected in US futures markets), and/or US sector or broad stock market indices. In determining whether market quotations are readily available or fair valuation will be used, various factors will be taken into consideration, such as market closures or suspension of trading in a security. The prices of securities used by the Fund to calculate their NAVs may differ from quoted or published prices for the same securities. Fair value pricing may involve subjective judgments and it is possible that the fair value determined for a security could be materially different than the value that could be realized upon the sale of that security.

The Fund anticipates using fair value pricing for securities primarily traded on US exchanges only under very limited circumstances, such as the early closing of the exchange on which a security is traded or suspension of trading in the security. The Fund may use fair value pricing more frequently for securities traded primarily in non-US markets because, among other things, most foreign markets close well before the Fund values its securities, normally at 4:00 pm ET or the close of the NYSE. The earlier close of these foreign markets gives rise to the possibility that significant events, including broad market moves, may have occurred in the interim. To account for this, the Fund may frequently value many foreign equity securities using fair value prices based on third-party vendor modeling tools to the extent available.

The Board has designated the Manager as the valuation designee, and delegated responsibility for valuing the Fund’s assets to the Manager and its Pricing Committee, which operates under the policies and procedures approved by the Board and is subject to the Board’s oversight. The Manager, as the valuation designee, is responsible for periodically assessing any material risks associated with the determination of the fair value of the Fund’s investments; establishing and applying fair value methodologies; testing the appropriateness of fair value methodologies; and overseeing and evaluating third-party pricing vendors and services. The Manager has a Pricing Committee to assist with its designated responsibilities as valuation designee.

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Retirement plans

In addition to being an appropriate investment for your IRA, Roth IRA, and Coverdell Education Savings Account, the Fund may be suitable for group retirement plans. You may establish your IRA account even if you are already a participant in an employer-sponsored retirement plan. For more information on how the Fund can play an important role in your retirement planning or for details about group plans, please consult your financial intermediary, or call 844-469-9911.

Document delivery

You will receive the Fund’s financial reports every six months as well as an annual updated prospectus. Householding for the Fund is available through certain broker-dealers. Householding is a process in which related shareholders in a household will be sent only one copy of the financial reports and prospectus. You may contact your broker-dealer to enroll in householding. Once enrolled, this process will continue indefinitely unless you instruct your broker-dealer otherwise. If you prefer not to have these documents householded, please contact your broker-dealer. At any time you may view current prospectuses and financial reports on our website.

Investor services

To help make investing with us as easy as possible, and to help you build your investments, we offer the investor services described below. Information about the investor services we offer is available free of charge on the Fund’s website at etf.macquarie.com, including hyperlinks to relevant information in fund offering documents. Availability of these services may be limited by the way your account is registered with the Fund.

 Electronic delivery

With eDelivery, you can receive your fund documents electronically instead of via US mail. When you sign up for eDelivery, you can access your account statements, shareholder reports, and other fund materials online, in a secure Internet environment at any time.

 Dividend reinvestment services

The Fund will not make the DTC book-entry dividend reinvestment service available for use by beneficial owners for reinvestment of their cash proceeds, but certain individual broker-dealers may make available the DTC book-entry Dividend Reinvestment Service for use by beneficial owners of the Fund through DTC Participants for reinvestment of their dividend distributions. Investors should contact their brokers to ascertain the availability and description of these services. Beneficial owners should be aware that each broker may require investors to adhere to specific procedures and timetables in order to participate in the dividend reinvestment service and investors should ascertain from their brokers such necessary details. If this service is available and used, dividend distributions of both income and realized gains will be automatically reinvested in additional whole shares of the Fund purchased in the secondary market. Distributions reinvested in additional shares of the Fund will nevertheless be taxable to beneficial owners acquiring such additional shares to the same extent as if such distributions had been received in cash.

Dividends, distributions, and taxes

The Fund intends to qualify as a regulated investment company under the Internal Revenue Code. As a regulated investment company, the Fund generally pays no federal income tax on the income and gains it distributes to you. The Fund intends to pay income dividends [quarterly] from the Fund’s net investment income. Capital gains, if any, may be paid at least annually. The Fund may distribute income dividends and capital gains more frequently, if necessary, in order to reduce or eliminate federal excise or income taxes on the Fund. The amount of any distribution will vary, and there is no guarantee the Fund will pay either income dividends or capital gain distributions. Distributions in cash may be reinvested automatically in additional whole Fund shares only if the broker through whom you purchased the shares makes such option available.

Annual statements. After the close of each calendar year, you will receive tax information from the broker with respect to the federal income tax treatment of the Fund’s distributions and any taxable sales of Fund shares occurring during the prior calendar year. You may receive revised tax information if the Fund must reclassify its distributions or the broker must adjust the cost basis of any covered shares sold after you receive your tax information. Your statement will show the exempt-interest dividends you received and the separately-identified portion that constitutes an item of tax preference for purposes of the alternative minimum tax (tax-exempt AMT interest). Distributions declared in October, November or December to shareholders of record in such month and paid in January are taxable as if they were paid in December. Additional tax information about the Fund’s distributions is available at etf.macquarie.com.

17

About your account

Avoid “buying a dividend.” At the time you purchase your Fund shares, the price of the Fund’s shares may reflect undistributed income, undistributed capital gains, or net unrealized appreciation in the value of the portfolio securities held by the Fund. For taxable investors, a subsequent distribution to you of such amounts, although constituting a return of your investment, would be taxable. Buying shares in the Fund just before it declares an income dividend or capital gain distribution is sometimes known as “buying a dividend.”

Tax Considerations

If you are a taxable investor, Fund distributions are generally taxable to you as ordinary income, capital gains or some combination of both. This is the case whether you reinvest your distributions in additional Fund shares or receive them in cash.

Dividend income. Income dividends are generally subject to tax at ordinary rates. Income dividends reported by the Fund as qualified dividend income may be subject to tax by individuals at reduced long-term capital gains tax rates provided certain holding period requirements are met. A return-of-capital distribution is generally not taxable but will reduce the cost basis of your shares and will result in a higher capital gain or a lower capital loss when you later sell your shares.

Capital gains. Fund distributions of short-term capital gains are also subject to tax at ordinary rates. Fund distributions of long-term capital gains are taxable at the reduced long-term capital gains rates no matter how long you have owned your Fund shares. For single individuals with taxable income not in excess of $44,625 in 2023 ($89,250 for married individuals filing jointly), the long-term capital gains tax rate is 0%. For single individuals and joint filers with taxable income in excess of these amounts but not more than $492,300 or $553,850, respectively, the long-term capital gains tax rate is 15%. The rate is 20% for single individuals with taxable income in excess of $492,300 and married individuals filing jointly with taxable income in excess of $553,850. An additional 3.8% Medicare tax may also be imposed as discussed below.

Sales of exchange-listed shares. Currently, any capital gain or loss realized on the sale of Fund shares generally is treated as long-term capital gain or loss if the shares have been held for more than one year and as short-term capital gain or loss if the shares have been held for one year or less.

Cost basis reporting. Contact the broker through whom you purchased your Fund shares to obtain information with respect to the available cost basis reporting methods and elections for your account.

Taxes on creation and redemption of creation units. An AP that exchanges securities for Creation Units generally will recognize a gain or loss. The gain or loss will be equal to the difference between the market value of the Creation Units at the time of purchase and the exchanging AP’s aggregate basis in the securities surrendered plus any cash paid for the Creation Units. An AP that exchanges Creation Units for securities will generally recognize a gain or loss equal to the difference between the exchanging AP’s basis in the Creation Units and the aggregate market value of the securities and the amount of cash received. The Internal Revenue Service, however, may assert that a loss realized upon an exchange of securities for Creation Units cannot be deducted currently under the rules governing “wash sales,” or on the basis that there has been no significant change in economic position. APs exchanging securities should consult their own tax advisor(s) with respect to whether wash sale rules apply and when a loss might be deductible.

APs that create or redeem Creation Units will be sent a confirmation statement showing how many shares they purchased or sold and at what price.

Under current federal tax laws, any capital gain or loss realized upon a redemption of Creation Units is generally treated as long-term capital gain or loss if the shares have been held for more than one year and as a short-term capital gain or loss if the shares have been held for one year or less.

If the Fund redeems Creation Units in part or entirely in cash, it may recognize more capital gains than it will if it redeems Creation Units in-kind.

Medicare tax. An additional 3.8% Medicare tax is imposed on certain net investment income (including ordinary dividends and capital gain distributions received from the Fund and net gains from the sales of Fund shares) of U.S. individuals, estates and trusts to the extent that such person’s “modified adjusted gross income” (in the case of an individual) or “adjusted gross income” (in the case of an estate or trust) exceeds a threshold amount. Any liability for this additional Medicare tax is reported on, and paid with, your federal income tax return.

Backup withholding. A shareholder may be subject to backup withholding on any distributions of income capital gains or proceeds from the sale of Fund shares if the shareholder has provided either an incorrect tax identification number or no number at all, is subject to backup withholding by the IRS for failure to properly report payments of interest or dividends, has failed to certify that the shareholder is not subject to backup withholding, or has not certified that the shareholder is a U.S. person (including a U.S. resident alien). The backup withholding rate is currently 24%. State backup withholding may also apply.

State, local and foreign taxes. Distributions of ordinary income and capital gains, and gains from the sale of your Fund shares, are generally subject to state and local taxes. If the Fund qualifies, it may elect to pass through to you as a foreign tax credit or deduction any foreign taxes that it pays on its investments.

18

Non-U.S. investors. Non-U.S. investors may be subject to U.S. withholding tax at 30% or a lower treaty rate on Fund dividends of ordinary income. Non-U.S. investors may be subject to U.S. estate tax on the value of their shares. They are subject to special U.S. tax certification requirements to avoid backup withholding, claim any exemptions from withholding and claim any treaty benefits. Exemptions from U.S. withholding tax are generally provided for capital gains realized on the sale of Fund shares, capital gain dividends paid by the Fund from net long-term capital gains, short-term capital gain dividends paid by the Fund from net short-term capital gains and interest-related dividends paid by the Fund from its qualified net interest income from U.S. sources. However, notwithstanding such exemptions from U.S. withholding tax at source, any such dividends and distributions of income and capital gains will be subject to backup withholding at a rate of 24% if you fail to properly certify that you are not a U.S. person.

Other reporting and withholding requirements. Payments to a shareholder that is either a foreign financial institution or a non-financial foreign entity within the meaning of the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act (FATCA) may be subject to a 30% withholding tax on income dividends paid by the Fund. The FATCA withholding tax generally can be avoided by such foreign entity if it provides the broker, and in some cases, the IRS, information concerning the ownership of certain foreign financial accounts or other appropriate certifications or documentation concerning its status under FATCA. The Fund may be required to report certain shareholder account information to the IRS, non-U.S. taxing authorities or other parties to comply with FATCA.

Other tax information. This discussion of “Distributions and Taxes” is for general information only and is not tax advice. You should consult your own tax advisor regarding your particular circumstances, and about any federal, state, local and foreign tax consequences before making an investment in the Fund. Additional information about the tax consequences of investing in the Fund may be found in the SAI.

This discussion of “Dividends, distributions, and taxes” is not intended or written to be used as tax advice. Because everyone’s tax situation is unique, you should consult your tax professional about federal, state, local, or foreign tax consequences before making an investment in the Fund.

Continuous Offering

The method by which Creation Units are purchased and traded may raise certain issues under applicable securities laws. Because new Creation Units are issued and sold by the Fund on an ongoing basis, at any point a “distribution,” as such term is used in the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), may occur. Broker-dealers and other persons are cautioned that some activities on their part may, depending on the circumstances, result in their being deemed participants in a distribution in a manner which could render them statutory underwriters and subject them to the Prospectus delivery and liability provisions of the Securities Act.

For example, a broker-dealer firm or its client may be deemed a statutory underwriter if it takes Creation Units after placing an order with the Distributor, breaks them down into individual Fund shares, and sells such shares directly to customers, or if it chooses to couple the creation of a supply of new Fund shares with an active selling effort involving solicitation of secondary market demand for the Fund’s shares. A determination of whether one is an underwriter for purposes of the Securities Act must take into account all the facts and circumstances pertaining to the activities of the broker-dealer or its client in the particular case, and the examples mentioned above should not be considered a complete description of all the activities that could lead to categorization as an underwriter.

Broker-dealer firms should also note that dealers who are not “underwriters” but are effecting transactions in the Fund’s shares, whether or not participating in the distribution of the Fund’s shares, are generally required to deliver a prospectus. This is because the prospectus delivery exemption in Section 4(a)(3) of the Securities Act is not available with respect to such transactions as a result of Section 24(d) of the 1940 Act. As a result, broker dealer-firms should note that dealers who are not underwriters but are participating in a distribution (as contrasted with ordinary secondary market transactions) and thus dealing with the Fund’s shares that are part of an over-allotment within the meaning of Section 4(a)(3)(a) of the Securities Act would be unable to take advantage of the prospectus delivery exemption provided by Section 4(a)(3) of the Securities Act. Firms that incur a prospectus delivery obligation with respect to shares of the Fund are reminded that under Rule 153 of the Securities Act, a prospectus delivery obligation under Section 5(b)(2) of the Securities Act owed to an exchange member in connection with a sale on the Exchange is satisfied by the fact that the Fund’s Prospectus is available on the SEC’s electronic filing system. The prospectus delivery mechanism provided in Rule 153 of the Securities Act is only available with respect to transactions on an exchange.

Additional Information

The Fund enters into contractual arrangements with various parties, including among others the Fund’s investment adviser, who provide services to the Fund. Shareholders are not parties to, or intended (or “third party”) beneficiaries of, those contractual arrangements.

The Prospectus and the SAI provide information concerning the Fund that you should consider in determining whether to purchase shares of the Fund. The Fund may make changes to this information from time to time. Neither this Prospectus nor the SAI is intended to give rise to any contract rights or other rights in any shareholder, other than any rights conferred explicitly by federal or state securities laws that may not be waived.

19

Financial highlights

There is no financial highlights information for the Fund because it is a new fund and has no performance history as of the date of this prospectus.

20

 

Related Account Performance

 

The following tables show the performance of accounts (each, an “Account”), referred to as a “Composite,” managed by the Manager that have investment objectives, policies and strategies substantially similar to those of the Fund. All Accounts managed by the Manager that it has determined are substantially similar to the Fund have been included in the Composite.

 

Performance shown prior to April 30, 2021 represents results achieved by the Accounts’ portfolio management team while it was a part of Ivy Investment Management Company (“IIMC”). The Accounts’ portfolio management team joined the Manager on April 30, 2021 in connection with the acquisition of IIMC’s parent company by an affiliate of the Manager. The Composite was created May 1, 2018 and the inception date is May 1, 2018. Due to new regulatory requirements for predecessor performance, the track record for this strategy has been revised to a new composite inception date. The members of the portfolio management team who are primarily responsible for achieving the performance results at the Manager became primarily responsible for achieving the performance results at IIMC on May 1, 2018. Therefore, the Composite’s performance results are provided for periods since May 1, 2018.

 

The manner in which the performance was calculated for the Composite differs from that of registered mutual funds such as the Fund. If the performance was calculated in accordance with SEC standardized performance methodology, the performance results may have been different. The Manager has prepared and presented the following in compliance with the Global Investment Performance Standards (GIPS®). The Manager’s policies on valuing portfolios, calculating performance and preparing GIPS® compliant performance presentations are available upon request.

 

Performance results are shown as total returns, net of dividend withholding taxes, assume reinvestment of dividends and capital gains, are presented before and after the deduction of model investment advisory fees, and are calculated in US dollars. The Composite fee schedule is as follows: first $50 million, 0.50%; next $50 million, 0.40%; amounts over $100 million, 0.35%. Net-of-fees returns are calculated by deducting the highest applicable advisory fee from the monthly gross return since inception.

 

The Accounts are not subject to the diversification requirements, specific tax restrictions, and investment limitations imposed on the Fund by the federal securities and tax laws. Consequently, the performance results for the Composite could have been adversely affected if the Accounts were subject to the same federal securities and tax laws as the Fund.

 

The investment results presented below for the Composite do not represent the historical performance of the Fund, are not intended to predict or suggest the future returns of the Fund, and should not be considered a substitute for the Fund’s own performance information.

 

  Calendar Year Total Pre-Tax Returns

Year

Total Pre-Tax Return

(Net of Fees)

Total Pre-Tax Return (Gross of Fees) Russell 1000 Growth Index1 Number of Portfolios

Total Assets at End of Period

($ millions)

2023 37.73% 38.42% 42.68% <5 $1.65
2022 -25.76% -25.38% -29.14% <5 $1.20
2021 29.98% 30.63% 27.60% <5 $1.60
2020 34.92% 35.60% 38.49% <5 $1.23
2019 38.02% 38.72% 36.39% <5 $0.90
20182 -1.13% -0.80% -3.23% <5 $11.87

21

Average Annual Total Pre-Tax Returns (as of 12/31/2023)
Time Period Net of Fees Gross of Fees Russell 1000 Growth Index1
1 Year 37.73% 38.42% 42.68%
5 Years 19.87% 20.47% 19.50%
Since Inception3 17.11% 17.69% 16.35%
1The Russell 1000® Growth Index measures the performance of the large-cap growth segment of the US equity universe. It includes those Russell 1000 companies with higher price-to-book ratios and higher forecasted growth values. For comparison purposes, the index is fully invested and includes the reinvestment of income. Index returns do not reflect management fees, transaction costs, or expenses. Indices are unmanaged, and one cannot invest directly in an index. Benchmark returns are not covered by the report of independent verifiers. Benchmark information contained herein has been obtained from third-party sources believed to be reliable, but the Manager cannot guarantee its accuracy or completeness. All third-party marks cited are the property of their respective owners.
22018 Performance is shown for the period from inception (May 1, 2018) through December 31, 2018.
3Inception date is May 1, 2018.

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Additional information

Contact information

·Website: etf.macquarie.com
·Service Center information: 844-469-9911 (representatives are normally available weekdays from 8:30 am to 6:00 pm ET)
·Written correspondence: Macquarie ETF Trust, c/o Foreside Financial Services, Three Canal Plaza, Suite 100, Portland, ME 04101.

24

Additional information about the Fund’s investments will be available in its annual and semiannual shareholder reports. In the Fund’s annual shareholder report, you will find a discussion of the market conditions and investment strategies that significantly affected the Fund’s performance during the period covered by the report. You can find more information about the Fund in its current SAI, which is filed electronically with the SEC, and which is legally a part of this Prospectus (it is incorporated by reference). To receive a free copy of the SAI, or the annual or semiannual reports, or if you have any questions about investing in the Fund, write to us at Macquarie ETF Trust, c/o Foreside Financial Services, LLC, Three Canal Plaza, Suite 100, Portland, ME 04101, or call toll-free 844-469-9911. The SAI and shareholder reports are available, free of charge, through the Fund’s website at etf.macquarie.com. You may also obtain additional information about the Fund from your financial advisor.

You can find reports and other information about the Fund on the EDGAR database on the SEC website at sec.gov. You may obtain copies of this information, after paying a duplication fee, by emailing the SEC at [email protected].

Investment Company Act number: 811-23890

 

PR-ETF-TRST

 

 

The information in this Statement of Additional Information is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This Statement of Additional Information is not an offer to sell these securities and is not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any state where the offer or sale is not permitted.

Subject to Completion- Dated February 23, 2024

Statement of Additional Information

MACQUARIE ETF TRUST

[Macquarie Focused Large Growth ETF] [TICKER]  
     
Exchange: NYSE Arca, Inc.    

[ ], 2024

Three Canal Plaza, Suite 100, Portland, ME 04101 (regular mail)

For a Prospectus, Performance, and Information on Existing Accounts: 844-469-9911

This Statement of Additional Information (“SAI”) supplements the information contained in the current prospectus (the “Prospectus”) for the [Macquarie Focused Large Growth ETF], dated [ ], 2024, as it may be amended from time to time.

This SAI should be read in conjunction with the Prospectus. This SAI is not itself a prospectus but is, in its entirety, incorporated by reference into the Prospectus.

The Prospectus may be obtained through our website at etf.macquarie.com; by writing or calling your financial advisor; or by contacting the Fund’s distributor, Foreside Financial Services, LLC (“Foreside”) (the “Distributor”), at the above address, or by calling the above phone numbers. An Annual Report, when available, can be obtained, without charge, by calling 844-469-9911. Copies of the Annual and/or Semiannual Reports (when available) also are available at etf.macquarie.com.

 

Table of contents

  Page
General Description of the Trust and its Funds 3
Exchange Listing and Trading 3
Investment Objectives, Restrictions, and Policies 3
Investment Strategies and Risks 5
Disclosure of Portfolio Holdings 38
Management of the Trust 39
Code of Ethics 42
Proxy Voting Policy 42
Investment Manager and Other Service Providers 43
Portfolio Managers 45
Trading Practices and Brokerage 46
Capital Structure 47
Creation and Redemption of Creation Units 47
Distributions and Taxes 53
Performance Information 60
Principal Holders 60
Financial Statements 60
Appendix A - Description of Ratings 61

2

General Description of the Trust and its Funds

Macquarie ETF Trust (the “Trust”) is an open-end management investment company currently consisting of [four] separate portfolios. The Trust was organized as a Delaware statutory trust effective February 22, 2023 and is registered with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). This SAI pertains to shares of the [Macquarie Focused Large Growth ETF] (the “Fund”).

The Fund is “non-diversified” as defined in the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “1940 Act”). This means that the Fund may invest a greater portion of its assets in obligations of a single issuer or in several issuers.

The Fund’s investment manager is Delaware Management Company (“DMC” or the “Manager”). Macquarie Investment Management Global Limited (“MIMGL”) serves as a sub-advisor to the Fund as described under “Investment Manager and Other Service Providers.” For purposes of the “Investment Strategies and Risks” section, a reference to the Manager may also include MIMGL.

The Fund issues and redeems its shares at their net asset value per share (NAV) only in aggregations of a specified number of shares (Creation Unit), generally in exchange for a designated portfolio of securities, assets or other positions (including any or all portions of such securities, assets or other positions for which cash may be substituted) (Deposit Securities), together with the deposit of a specified cash payment (Cash Component). Shares of the Fund are listed for trading on NYSE Arca, Inc. (the “Listing Exchange”), a national securities exchange.

Shares of the Fund are traded in the secondary market and elsewhere at market prices that may be at, above or below the Fund’s NAV. Shares of the Fund are redeemable only in Creation Units and generally in exchange for portfolio securities, assets or other positions and a Cash Component, although they may also, at times, be redeemed for cash. The Fund’s Creation Units typically are a specified number of shares, generally [25,000] shares or multiples thereof.

The Trust reserves the right to permit or require that creations and redemptions of shares are effected fully or partially in cash. Shares may be issued in advance of receipt of Deposit Securities, subject to various conditions, including a requirement to maintain with the Trust a cash deposit equal to at least 105% and up to 115%, which percentage the Trust may change from time to time, of the market value of the omitted Deposit Securities. See the “Creation and Redemption of Creation Units” section of this SAI. Transaction fees and other costs associated with creations or redemptions that include a cash portion may be higher than the transaction fees and other costs associated with in-kind creations or redemptions. In all cases, transaction fees will be limited in accordance with the requirements of SEC rules and regulations applicable to management investment companies offering redeemable securities.

Exchange Listing and Trading

A discussion of exchange listing and trading matters associated with an investment in the Fund is contained in the “Shareholder Information” section of the Fund’s prospectus. The discussion below supplements, and should be read in conjunction with, that section of the prospectus.

Shares of the Fund are listed for trading, and trade throughout the day, on the Listing Exchange and in other secondary markets. Shares of the Fund may also be listed on certain non-U.S. exchanges. There can be no assurance that the requirements of the Listing Exchange necessary to maintain the listing of shares of the Fund will continue to be met. The Listing Exchange may, but is not required to, remove the shares of the Fund from listing if (i) following the initial twelve-month period beginning upon the commencement of trading of Fund shares, there are fewer than 50 beneficial owners of shares of the Fund, (ii) the Fund is no longer eligible to operate in reliance on Rule 6c-11 under the Investment Company Act of 1940 (1940 Act), (iii) the Fund fails to meet certain continued listing standards of the Listing Exchange, or (iv) any other event shall occur or condition shall exist that, in the opinion of the Listing Exchange, makes further dealings on the Listing Exchange inadvisable. The Listing Exchange will also remove shares of the Fund from listing and trading upon termination of the Fund.

As in the case of other publicly traded securities, when you buy or sell shares through a broker, you will incur a brokerage commission determined by that broker.

The Trust reserves the right to adjust the share prices of the Fund in the future to maintain convenient trading ranges for investors. Any adjustments would be accomplished through stock splits or reverse stock splits, which would have no effect on the net assets of the Fund or an investor’s equity interest in the Fund.

Investment Objectives, Restrictions, and Policies

Investment Objectives

The Fund’s investment objective is described in the Prospectus. The Fund’s investment objective is nonfundamental, and may be changed without shareholder approval. However, the Trust’s Board of Trustees (“Board”) must approve any changes to nonfundamental investment objectives, and the Fund will notify shareholders at least 60 days prior to a material change in the Fund’s investment objective.

3

Investment Objectives, Restrictions, and Policies

Fundamental Investment Restrictions

The following, set forth in their entirety, are the Fund’s fundamental investment restrictions, which cannot be changed without shareholder approval for the affected Fund. For this purpose, shareholder approval for the Fund means the approval, at a meeting of Fund shareholders, by the lesser of (1) 67% or more of the Fund’s voting securities present at the meeting, if more than 50% of the Fund’s outstanding voting securities are present in person or by proxy or (2) more than 50% of the Fund’s outstanding voting securities. If a percentage restriction is adhered to at the time of an investment or transaction, later changes in the percentage resulting from a change in value of portfolio securities or amount of total assets will not be considered a violation of the restriction.

1. The Fund may not borrow money except as permitted by (i) the 1940 Act, or interpretations or modifications by the SEC, SEC staff or other authority of competent jurisdiction, or (ii) exemptive or other relief or permission from the SEC, SEC staff or other authority of competent jurisdiction.

2. The Fund may not engage in the business of underwriting the securities of other issuers, except as permitted by (i) the 1940 Act, or interpretations or modifications by the SEC, SEC staff or other authority of competent jurisdiction, or (ii) exemptive or other relief or permission from the SEC, SEC staff or other authority of competent jurisdiction.

3. The Fund may lend money or other assets to the extent permitted by (i) the 1940 Act, or interpretations or modifications by the SEC, SEC staff or other authority of competent jurisdiction, or (ii) exemptive or other relief or permission from the SEC, SEC staff or other authority of competent jurisdiction.

4. The Fund may not issue senior securities except as permitted by (i) the 1940 Act, or interpretations or modifications by the SEC, SEC staff or other authority of competent jurisdiction, or (ii) exemptive or other relief or permission from the SEC, SEC staff or other authority of competent jurisdiction.

5. The Fund may not purchase or sell real estate except as permitted by (i) the 1940 Act, or interpretations or modifications by the SEC, SEC staff or other authority of competent jurisdiction, or (ii) exemptive or other relief or permission from the SEC, SEC staff or other authority of competent jurisdiction.

6. The Fund may not purchase or sell commodities or contracts related to commodities except to the extent permitted by (i) the 1940 Act, or interpretations or modifications by the SEC, SEC staff or other authority of competent jurisdiction, or (ii) exemptive or other relief or permission from the SEC, SEC staff or other authority of competent jurisdiction.

7. The Fund may not purchase the securities of any issuer (other than securities issued or guaranteed by the U.S. government or any of its agencies or instrumentalities and “tax-exempt securities” (i.e., securities the interest on which is not subject to federal income tax) or such other securities as may be excluded for this purpose under the 1940 Act, the rules and regulations thereunder and any applicable exemptive relief) if, as a result, such purchase would result in the concentration (as that term may be defined in the 1940 Act, the rules and regulations thereunder and any applicable exemptive relief) of its investments in securities of issuers in any one industry.

Nonfundamental Investment Restrictions

In addition to the fundamental investment policies and investment restrictions described above, and the various general investment policies described in the Prospectus, the Fund will be subject to the following investment restrictions, which are considered nonfundamental and may be changed by the Board without shareholder approval:

1. Investment in other investment companies:

The Fund may buy shares of other investment companies only to the extent permitted under the 1940 Act, the rules and regulations thereunder and any applicable exemptive relief. Any Fund whose shares are acquired by another Fund in accordance with Section 12(d)(1)(G) of the 1940 Act shall not purchase securities of a registered open-end investment company or registered unit investment trust in reliance on either Section 12(d)(1)(F) or Section 12(d)(1)(G) of the 1940 Act.

2. Investment in illiquid securities:

The Fund may not purchase a security if, as a result, more than 15% of its net assets would consist of illiquid investments.

3. Investment in foreign securities:

The Fund may not invest more than 25% of its total assets in foreign securities.

4. Investment in Financial Instruments:

The Fund may invest in Financial Instruments (as defined herein) if it is permitted to invest in the type of asset by which the return on, or value of, the Financial Instrument primarily is measured.

5. Restrictions on selling short:

The Fund may engage in short sales to the extent permitted by the 1940 Act, the rules and regulations thereunder and any applicable exemptive relief.

An investment policy or restriction that states a maximum percentage of the Fund’s assets that may be so invested or prescribes quality standards typically is applied immediately after, and based on, the Fund’s acquisition of an asset. Accordingly, a subsequent change in the asset’s value, net assets, or other circumstances will not be considered when determining whether the investment complies with the Fund’s investment policies and restrictions.

4

Portfolio Turnover

Portfolio trading will be undertaken principally to accomplish the Fund’s investment objective. The Fund is free to dispose of portfolio securities at any time, subject to complying with the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Internal Revenue Code”), and the 1940 Act, when changes in circumstances or conditions make such a move desirable in light of the Fund’s respective investment objective. The Fund will not attempt to achieve or be limited to a predetermined rate of portfolio turnover. Such turnover always will be incidental to transactions undertaken with a view to achieving the Fund’s respective investment objective.

The portfolio turnover rate tells you the amount of trading activity in the Fund’s portfolio. A turnover rate of 100% would occur, for example, if all of the Fund’s investments held at the beginning of a year were replaced by the end of the year, or if a single investment was frequently traded. The turnover rate also may be affected by cash requirements from redemptions and repurchases of the Fund’s shares. A high rate of portfolio turnover in any year may increase brokerage commissions paid and could generate taxes for shareholders on realized investment gains. In investing to achieve its investment objective, the Fund may hold securities for any period of time.

The Fund has not commenced operations as of the date of this SAI, and therefore portfolio turnover rate information is not yet available.

Investment Strategies and Risks

The Fund’s investment objective, strategies, and risks are described in the Prospectus. Certain additional information is provided below. The following discussion supplements the description of the Fund’s investment strategies and risks that are included in the Prospectus. The Fund is an actively managed exchange-traded fund (ETF) that does not seek to replicate the performance of a specified index. The Fund’s investment strategies are nonfundamental and may be changed without shareholder approval.

Securities – General

The main types of securities in which the Fund may invest, subject to its investment policies and restrictions, include debt securities, common stocks, preferred stocks and convertible securities. Although common stocks and other equity securities have a history of long-term growth in value, their prices tend to fluctuate in the short term, particularly those of smaller companies. The equity securities in which the Fund invests may include preferred stock that converts into common stock. The Fund also may invest in preferred stocks rated in any rating category of the nationally recognized statistical rating organizations (NRSROs) or unrated preferred stocks, subject to the investment policies and restrictions of the Fund. Debt securities have varying levels of sensitivity to changes in interest rates and varying degrees of quality. As a general matter, however, when interest rates rise, the values of fixed-rate debt securities fall and, conversely, when interest rates fall, the values of fixed-rate debt securities rise. Similarly, debt securities with longer maturities generally are more sensitive to interest rate changes than debt securities with shorter maturities.

Subject to its investment policies and restrictions, the Fund may invest in debt securities rated in any rating category of the NRSROs, including securities rated in the lowest category (securities rated D by S&P Global Ratings, a division of S&P Global, Inc. (S&P) or comparably rated by another NRSRO). Debt securities rated D by S&P or comparably rated by another NRSRO are in payment default or are regarded as having extremely poor prospects of ever attaining any real investment standing. Debt securities rated at least BBB- by S&P or comparably rated by another NRSRO are considered to be investment grade debt securities; however, securities rated BBB- or comparably rated by another NRSRO may have speculative characteristics and involve greater risk of default or price changes. In addition, the Fund will treat unrated securities determined by the Manager to be of comparable quality to a rated security as having that rating. In the case of a “split-rated” security, which results when NRSROs rate the security at different rating levels (e.g., BBB by S&P and a higher or lower rating by another NRSRO), it is the general policy of the Fund to classify such security at the lower rating level if only two ratings are available.

While credit ratings are only one factor the Manager relies on in evaluating high-yield (low-rated) debt securities, certain risks are associated with credit ratings. Credit ratings evaluate the safety of principal and interest payments, not market value risk. Credit ratings for individual securities may change from time to time, and the Fund may retain a portfolio security whose rating has been changed. In addition, a credit rating may become stale in that it fails to reflect changes in an issuer’s financial condition. Credit ratings represent the NRSRO’s opinion regarding the quality of the security and are not a guarantee of quality. See Appendix A to this SAI for a description of these ratings.

Subject to its investment policies and restrictions, the Fund may purchase debt securities whose principal amount at maturity is dependent upon the performance of a specified equity security (commonly called “equity-linked debt securities”). The issuer of such debt securities is unaffiliated with the issuer of the equity security to whose performance the debt security is linked. Equity-linked debt securities differ from ordinary debt securities in that the principal amount received at maturity is not fixed, but is based on the price of the linked equity security at the time the debt security matures. The performance of equity-linked debt securities depends primarily on the performance of the linked equity security and also may be influenced by interest rate changes. In addition, although equity-linked debt securities typically are adjusted for diluting events such as stock splits, stock dividends and certain other events affecting the market value of the linked equity security, the debt securities are not adjusted for subsequent issuances of the linked equity security for cash. Such an issuance could adversely affect the price of the debt security. In addition to the equity risk relating to the linked equity security, such debt securities also are subject to credit risk with regard to the issuer of the debt security. In general, however, such debt securities are less volatile than the equity securities to which they are linked.

Debt securities may be unsecured and structurally or contractually subordinated to substantial amounts of senior indebtedness, all or a significant portion of which may be secured. Moreover, such debt investments may not be protected by financial covenants or limitations upon additional indebtedness. Other factors may materially and adversely affect the market price and yield of such debt investments, including investor demand, changes in the financial

5

Investment Strategies and Risks

condition of the applicable issuer, government fiscal policy and domestic or worldwide economic conditions. Subject to its investment policies and restrictions, certain of the debt instruments in which the Fund may invest may have speculative characteristics. Debt securities may be subject to credit risk, duration risk, extension risk, income risk, interest rate risk, liquidity risk and reinvestment risk, among other risks.

Subject to its investment policies and restrictions, the Fund may invest in convertible securities. A convertible security is a bond, debenture, note, preferred stock or other security that may be converted into or exchanged for a prescribed amount of common stock of the same or different issuer within a particular period of time at a specified price or formula. Convertible securities generally have higher yields than common stocks of the same or similar issuers, but lower yields than comparable nonconvertible securities, are less subject to fluctuation in value than the underlying stock because they have fixed-income characteristics, and provide the potential for capital appreciation if the market price of the underlying common stock increases.

The value of a convertible security is influenced by changes in interest rates, with investment value declining as interest rates increase and increasing as interest rates decline. The credit standing of the issuer and other factors also may have an effect on the convertible security’s investment value. A convertible security may be subject to redemption at the option of the issuer at a price established in the security’s offering document. If a convertible security held by the Fund is called for redemption, the Fund will be required to convert it into the underlying stock, sell it to a third party or permit the issuer to redeem the security. Convertible securities typically are issued by smaller capitalized companies whose stock prices may be volatile. Thus, any of these actions could have an adverse effect on the ability of the Fund to achieve its investment objective(s).

Subject to its investment policies and restrictions, the Fund also may invest in contingent convertible securities (CoCos). CoCos are a form of hybrid debt security that are intended to either convert into equity or have their principal written down upon the occurrence of certain “triggers.” The triggers generally are linked to regulatory capital thresholds or regulatory actions calling into question the issuing banking institution’s continued viability as a going concern. CoCos’ unique equity conversion or principal write-down features are tailored to the issuing banking institution and its regulatory requirements. Some additional risks associated with CoCos include, but are not limited to:

Loss absorption risk. CoCos have fully discretionary coupons. This means coupons can potentially be cancelled at the banking institution’s discretion or at the request of the relevant regulatory authority in order to help the bank absorb losses.
Subordinated instruments. CoCos, in the majority of circumstances, will be issued in the form of subordinated debt instruments in order to provide the appropriate regulatory capital treatment prior to a conversion. Accordingly, in the event of liquidation, dissolution or winding-up of an issuer prior to a conversion having occurred, the rights and claims of the holders of the CoCos, such as the Fund, against the issuer in respect of or arising under the terms of the CoCos generally shall rank junior to the claims of all holders of unsubordinated obligations of the issuer. In addition, if the CoCos are converted into the issuer’s underlying equity securities following a conversion event (i.e., a “trigger”), each holder will be subordinated due to their conversion from being the holder of a debt instrument to being the holder of an equity instrument.
Market value will fluctuate based on unpredictable factors. The value of CoCos is unpredictable and will be influenced by many factors including, without limitation: (i) the creditworthiness of the issuer and/or fluctuations in such issuer’s applicable capital ratios; (ii) supply and demand for the CoCos; (iii) general market conditions and available liquidity; and (iv) economic, financial and political events that affect the issuer, its particular market or the financial markets in general.

Subject to its investment policies and restrictions, the Fund also may invest in a type of convertible preferred stock that pays a cumulative, fixed dividend that is senior to, and expected to be in excess of, the dividends paid on the common stock of the issuer. At the mandatory conversion date, the preferred stock is converted into not more than one share of the issuer’s common stock at the call price that was established at the time the preferred stock was issued. If the price per share of the related common stock on the mandatory conversion date is less than the call price, the holder of the preferred stock will nonetheless receive only one share of common stock for each share of preferred stock (plus cash in the amount of any accrued but unpaid dividends). At any time prior to the mandatory conversion date, the issuer may redeem the preferred stock upon issuing to the holder a number of shares of common stock equal to the call price of the preferred stock in effect on the date of redemption divided by the market value of the common stock, with such market value typically determined 1 or 2 trading days prior to the date notice of redemption is given. The issuer also must pay the holder of the preferred stock cash in an amount equal to any accrued but unpaid dividends on the preferred stock. This convertible preferred stock is subject to the same market risk as the common stock of the issuer, except to the extent that such risk is mitigated by the higher dividend paid on the preferred stock. The opportunity for equity appreciation afforded by an investment in such convertible preferred stock, however, is limited, because in the event the market value of the issuer’s common stock increases to or above the call price of the preferred stock, the issuer may (and would be expected to) call the preferred stock for redemption at the call price. This convertible preferred stock also is subject to credit risk with regard to the ability of the issuer to pay the dividend established upon issuance of the preferred stock. Generally, however, the market value of the convertible preferred stock is less volatile than the related common stock of the issuer.

Certain unanticipated events, such as natural disasters, terrorist attacks, war, and other geopolitical events, can have a dramatic adverse effect on securities held by the Fund.

Specific Securities and Investment Practices

Banking Industry and Savings and Loan Obligations

Certificates of deposit are certificates issued against funds deposited in a commercial bank for a definite period of time and earning a specified return. Bankers’ acceptances are negotiable drafts or bills of exchange, normally drawn by an importer or exporter to pay for specific merchandise, which are “accepted” by a bank (meaning, in effect, that the bank unconditionally agrees to pay the face value of the instrument at maturity). In addition to investing in certificates of deposit and bankers’ acceptances, the Fund may invest in time deposits in banks or savings and loan associations. Time deposits generally

6

are similar to certificates of deposit, but are uncertificated. The Fund’s investments in certificates of deposit, time deposits, and bankers’ acceptances are limited to obligations of (i) US banks having total assets in excess of $500,000,000 (as of the date of their most recent financial statements at the time of investment), (ii) US banks which do not meet the $500,000,000 asset requirement, if the principal amount of such obligation is fully insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC), (iii) savings and loan associations which have total assets in excess of $500,000,000 and which are members of the FDIC, and (iv) foreign banks if the obligation is, in the opinion of the Manager, of an investment quality comparable to other debt securities which may be purchased by the Fund. The Fund’s investments in certificates of deposit of savings associations are limited to obligations of federal or state-chartered institutions whose total assets exceed $500,000,000 and whose deposits are insured by the FDIC. Bank deposits are not marketable, and the Fund may invest in them subject to its investment restrictions regarding illiquid investments, unless such obligations are payable at principal amount plus accrued interest on demand or within 7 days after demand.

Borrowing

The Fund may borrow money only as permitted under the 1940 Act, the rules and regulations thereunder and any applicable exemptive relief. Proceeds from borrowings will be used for temporary, extraordinary or emergency purposes. Interest on money borrowed is an expense the Fund would not otherwise incur, and as a result, it may have reduced net investment income during periods of outstanding borrowings. If the Fund does borrow money, its share price may be subject to greater fluctuation until the borrowing is paid off.

Credit-Linked Notes

Subject to its investment policies and restrictions, the Fund may invest in credit-linked notes. A credit-linked note is a structured note whose value is linked to an underlying reference asset. Credit-linked notes typically provide periodic payments of interest, as well as payment of principal upon maturity. The value of the periodic payments and the principal amount payable upon maturity are tied (positively or negatively) to a reference asset, such as an index, government bond, interest rate or currency exchange rate. The ongoing payments and principal upon maturity typically will increase or decrease depending on increases or decreases in the value of the reference asset. A credit-linked note typically is issued by a limited purpose trust or other vehicle and is a direct obligation of the issuing entity. The limited purpose trust or other vehicle, in turn, invests in bonds or a derivative or basket of derivative instruments, such as credit default swaps, interest rate swaps and/or other securities, to provide the exposure set forth in the credit-linked note. The periodic interest payments and principal obligations payable under the terms of the note typically are conditioned upon the entity’s receipt of payments on its underlying investment. If the underlying investment defaults, the periodic payments and principal received by the Fund will be reduced or eliminated. The buyer of a credit-linked note assumes the risk of default by the issuer and the underlying reference asset or entity. Generally, investors in credit-linked notes assume the risk of default by the issuer and the reference entity in return for a potentially higher yield on their investment or access to an investment that they could not otherwise obtain. In the event the issuer defaults or there is a credit event that relates to the reference asset, the recovery rate generally is less than the Fund’s initial investment, and the Fund may lose money.

Foreign Securities and Currencies

Foreign Securities. Subject to its investment policies and restrictions, the Fund may invest in the securities of foreign issuers, including depositary receipts. In general, depositary receipts are securities convertible into and evidencing ownership of securities of foreign corporate issuers, although depositary receipts may not necessarily be denominated in the same currency as the securities into which they may be converted. American depositary receipts (ADRs), in registered form, are US dollar-denominated receipts typically issued by a US bank representing ownership of a specific number of shares in a non-US corporation. ADRs are quoted and traded in US dollars in the US securities market. An ADR is sponsored if the original issuing company has selected a single US bank to serve as its US depositary and transfer agent. This relationship requires a deposit agreement which defines the rights and duties of both the issuer and depositary. Companies that sponsor ADRs also must provide their ADR investors with English translations of company information made public in their own country of domicile. Sponsored ADR investors also generally have the same voting rights as ordinary shareholders, barring any unusual circumstances. ADRs which meet these requirements can be listed on US stock exchanges. Unsponsored ADRs typically are created at the initiative of a broker or bank reacting to demand for a specific foreign stock. The broker or bank purchases the underlying shares and deposits them in a depositary. Unsponsored shares issued after 1983 are not eligible for US stock exchange listings, and they generally do not include voting rights.

Global depositary receipts and European depositary receipts, in bearer form, are foreign receipts evidencing a similar arrangement and are designed for use by non-US investors and traders in non-US markets. Global depositary receipts are designed to facilitate the trading of securities of foreign issuers by US and non-US investors and traders.

The Manager believes that investing in foreign securities involves investment opportunities as well as risks. Individual foreign economies may differ favorably or unfavorably from the US economy or each other in such matters as gross national product, rate of inflation, capital reinvestment, resource self-sufficiency and balance of payments position. Individual foreign companies also may differ favorably or unfavorably from US companies in the same industry. Foreign currencies may be stronger or weaker than the US dollar or than each other. Thus, the value of securities denominated in or indexed to foreign currencies, and the value of dividends and interest from such securities, can change significantly when foreign currencies strengthen or weaken relative to the US dollar.

The Manager believes that the Fund’s ability to invest its assets abroad might enable it to take advantage of these differences and strengths.

However, foreign securities and foreign currencies involve additional significant risks, apart from the risks inherent in US investments. Foreign securities markets generally have less trading volume and less liquidity than US markets, and prices on some foreign markets can be highly volatile. Many foreign countries lack uniform accounting and disclosure standards comparable to those applicable to US companies, and it may be more difficult to obtain reliable information regarding an issuer’s financial conditions and operations. In addition, the costs of foreign investing, including withholding taxes, brokerage commissions and custodial costs, generally are higher than for US investments.

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Investment Strategies and Risks

Foreign markets may offer less protection to investors than US markets. Foreign issuers, brokers and securities markets may be subject to less government supervision. Foreign securities trading practices, including those involving the release of assets in advance of payment, may involve increased risks in the event of a failed trade or the insolvency of a broker-dealer, and may involve substantial delays. It also may be difficult to enforce legal rights in foreign countries.

Securities of issuers traded on exchanges may be suspended, either by the issuers themselves, by an exchange or by governmental authorities. Trading suspensions may be applied from time to time to the securities of individual issuers for reasons specific to that issuer, or may be applied broadly by exchanges or governmental authorities in response to market events. In the event that the Fund holds material positions in such suspended securities, the Fund’s ability to liquidate its positions or provide liquidity to investors may be compromised and the Fund could incur significant losses.

Investing abroad also involves different political and economic risks. Foreign investments may be affected by actions of foreign governments adverse to the interests of US investors, including: the possibility of expropriation or nationalization of assets; confiscatory taxation; restrictions on US investment or on the ability to repatriate assets or convert currency into US dollars (which also may affect the liquidity of such investments), such as those applicable to certain investments in China; or other government intervention. There may be greater possibility of default by foreign governments or government-sponsored enterprises. Investments in foreign countries also involve a risk of local political, economic, or social instability, military action or unrest, or adverse diplomatic developments. There is no assurance that the Manager will be able to anticipate these potential events or counter their effects.

Certain foreign securities impose restrictions on transfer within the United States or to US persons. Although securities subject to transfer restrictions may be marketable abroad, they may be less liquid than foreign securities of the same class that are not subject to such restrictions.

As a general rule, the country designation for a security for purposes of the Fund’s investment policies and restrictions regarding foreign securities is the issuer’s country of domicile, as indicated by a third-party source (e.g., Bloomberg L.P.). However, in certain identified circumstances, a different country designation may be warranted. For example, an issuer’s country designation could be changed if (i) the issuer derived at least 50% of its revenues or profits in a country other than the country of domicile; (ii)the issuer has at least 50% of its assets in a country other than the country of domicile; or (iii)the issuer’s stock (security) principally is traded (based on total volume traded) in a country other than the country of domicile, provided the issuer does not have more than 50% of its revenues/profits or assets sourced in a single country.

Investments in obligations of US branches of foreign banks will be considered US securities if the Manager has determined that the nature and extent of federal and state regulation and supervision of the branch in question are substantially equivalent to federal or state-chartered US banks doing business in the same jurisdiction.

Foreign Currencies. Subject to its investment policies and restrictions, the Fund may purchase and sell foreign currency and invest in foreign currency deposits and may enter into forward currency contracts. The Fund may incur a transaction charge in connection with the exchange of currency. Currency conversion involves dealer spreads and other costs, although commissions usually are not charged.

Investment in foreign securities usually will involve currencies of foreign countries. Moreover, subject to its investment policies and restrictions, the Fund may hold funds temporarily in bank deposits in foreign currencies during the completion of investment programs and may purchase and sell forward foreign currency contracts. Because of these factors, the value of the assets of the Fund as measured in US dollars may be affected favorably or unfavorably by changes in foreign currency exchange rates and exchange control regulations, and the Fund may incur costs in connection with conversions between various currencies. Although the Fund’s custodian values the Fund’s assets daily in terms of US dollars, the Fund does not intend to convert its holdings of foreign currencies into US dollars on a daily basis, and for certain investments, there may be restrictions imposed by a foreign government on the conversion of its currency to US dollars (or other currencies). Generally, however, the Fund will convert its holdings of foreign currencies into US dollars, and investors should be aware of the costs of currency conversion. Although foreign exchange dealers do not charge a fee for conversion, they do realize a profit based on the difference (the “spread”) between the prices at which they are buying and selling various currencies, which can include other transaction costs. Thus, a dealer may offer to sell a foreign currency to the Fund at one rate, while offering a lesser rate of exchange should the Fund desire to resell that currency to the dealer. The Fund will conduct its foreign currency exchange transactions either on a spot (that is, cash) basis at the spot rate prevailing in the foreign currency exchange market, or through entering into forward contracts to purchase or sell foreign currencies. For more information regarding the Fund’s use of forward contracts to purchase or sell foreign currencies, see Options, Futures and Other Derivatives Strategies - Forward Currency Contracts.

Because the Fund may invest in both US and foreign securities markets, subject to its investment policies and restrictions, changes in the Fund’s share price may have a low correlation with movements in US markets. The Fund’s share price will reflect the movements of the different markets in which it invests (both US and foreign), and of the currencies in which the investments are denominated. Thus, the strength or weakness of the US dollar against foreign

8

currencies may account for part of the Fund’s investment performance. US and foreign securities markets do not always move in step with each other, and the total returns from different markets may vary significantly. Currencies in which the Fund’s assets are denominated may be devalued against the US dollar, resulting in a loss to the Fund.

The Fund usually effects currency exchange transactions on a spot (that is, cash) basis at the spot rate prevailing in the foreign exchange market. However, some price spread on currency exchange will be incurred when the Fund converts assets from one currency to another. Further, the Fund may be affected either unfavorably or favorably by fluctuations in the relative rates of exchange between the currencies of different nations. For example, in order to realize the value of a foreign investment, the Fund must convert that value, as denominated in its foreign currency, into US dollars using the applicable currency exchange rate. The exchange rate represents the current price of a US dollar relative to that foreign currency; that is, the amount of such foreign currency required to buy one US dollar. If the Fund holds a foreign security which has appreciated in value as measured in the foreign currency, the level of appreciation actually realized by the Fund may be reduced or even eliminated if the foreign currency has decreased in value relative to the US dollar subsequent to the date of purchase. In such a circumstance, the cost of a US dollar purchased with that foreign currency has gone up and the same amount of foreign currency purchases fewer dollars than at an earlier date.

Emerging Market Securities. The risks of investing in foreign countries are intensified in developing countries, or emerging markets. A developing or emerging country is a nation that, in the Manager’s opinion, is likely to experience long-term gross domestic product growth above that expected to occur in the United States, the UK, France, Germany, Italy, Japan and Canada. Developing and emerging countries may have relatively unstable governments, economies based on only a few industries and securities markets that trade a small number of securities.

Unless the Fund contains an alternative definition of an emerging market country in its prospectus, the Manager considers countries having developing or emerging markets to be all countries that generally are considered to be developing or emerging countries by the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (more commonly referred to as the World Bank) and the International Finance Corporation, as well as countries that are classified by the United Nations or otherwise regarded by their authorities as developing or emerging.

As noted above, the country designation for a security for purposes of the Fund’s investment policies and restrictions regarding foreign securities is the issuer’s country of domicile, as indicated by a third-party source (e.g., Bloomberg L.P.). Accordingly, a security would be considered issued by a developing or emerging market country if the issuer’s country of domicile is a developing or emerging market country. However, in certain identified circumstances, a different country designation may be warranted under the following circumstances: (i) the issuer derived at least 50% of its revenues or profits in a country other than the country of domicile; (ii) the issuer has at least 50% of its assets in a country other than the country of domicile; or (iii) the issuer’s stock (security) principally is traded (based on total volume traded) in a country other than the country of domicile, provided the issuer does not have more than 50% of its revenues/profits or assets sourced in a single country.

Some of the risks to which the Fund may be exposed by investing in securities of developing or emerging markets are: restrictions placed by the government of a developing or emerging country related to investment, currency exchange controls, and repatriation of the proceeds of investment in that country; fluctuation of a developing or emerging country’s currency against the US dollar; unusual price volatility in a developing or emerging country’s securities markets; government involvement in the private sector, including government ownership of companies in which the Fund may invest; limited information about a developing or emerging market; high levels of tax levied by developing or emerging countries on dividends, interest and realized capital gains; the greater likelihood that developing or emerging markets will experience more volatility in inflation rates than developed markets; the greater potential that securities purchased by the Fund in developing or emerging markets may be fraudulent or counterfeit due to differences in the level of regulation, disclosure requirements and recordkeeping practices in those markets; risks related to the liquidity and transferability of investments in certain instruments, such as loan participations, that may not be considered “securities” under local law; settlement risks, including potential requirements for the Fund to render payment prior to taking possession of portfolio securities in which it invests; the possibility of nationalization, expropriation or confiscatory taxation; favorable or unfavorable differences between individual foreign economies and the US economy, such as growth of gross domestic product, rate of inflation, capital reinvestment, resources, self-sufficiency, and balance of payments position; additional costs associated with any investment in non-US securities, including higher custodial fees than typical US custodial arrangements, transaction costs of foreign currency conversions and generally higher commission rates on portfolio transactions than prevail in US markets; relatively unstable governments, economies based on only a few industries and securities markets that trade a small number of securities; greater social, economic and political instability, including the risk of war; lack of availability of currency hedging or other risk management techniques in certain developing or emerging countries; the fact that companies in developing or emerging countries may be newly organized and may be smaller and less seasoned; differences in accounting, auditing and financial reporting standards; the heightened risks associated specifically with establishing record ownership and custody of securities; and limitations on obtaining and enforcing judgments against non-US residents.

Sukuk. Foreign securities and emerging market securities include sukuk. Sukuk are certificates, similar to bonds, issued by the issuer to obtain an upfront payment in exchange for an income stream to be generated by certain assets of the issuer. Generally, the issuer sells the investor a certificate, which the investor then rents back to the issuer for a predetermined rental fee. The issuer also makes a contractual promise to buy back the certificate at a future date at par value. While the certificate is linked to the returns generated by certain assets of the issuer, the underlying assets are not pledged as security for the certificates, and the Fund (as the investor) is relying on the creditworthiness of the issuer for all payments required by the sukuk. Issuers of sukuk may include international financial institutions, foreign governments and agencies of foreign governments. Underlying assets may include, without limitation, real estate (developed and undeveloped), lease contracts and machinery and equipment.

Foreign Sovereign Debt Obligations. Investment in sovereign debt can involve a high degree of risk. The governmental entity that controls the repayment of sovereign debt may not be able or willing to repay the principal and/or interest when due in accordance with the terms of such debt. A governmental entity’s

9

Investment Strategies and Risks

willingness or ability to repay principal and interest due in a timely manner may be affected by, among other factors, its cash flow situation, the extent of its foreign reserves, the availability of sufficient foreign exchange on the date a payment is due, the relative size of the debt service burden to the economy as a whole, the governmental entity’s policy towards the International Monetary Fund, and the political constraints to which a governmental entity may be subject. Governmental entities also may be dependent on expected disbursements from foreign governments, multilateral agencies and others abroad to reduce principal and interest arrearages on their debt. The commitment on the part of these governments, agencies and others to make such disbursements may be conditioned on a governmental entity’s implementation of economic reforms and/or economic performance and the timely service of such debtor’s obligations. Failure to implement such reforms, achieve such levels of economic performance or repay principal or interest when due may result in the cancellation of such third parties’ commitments to lend funds to the governmental entity, which may further impair such debtor’s ability or willingness to service its debts in a timely manner. Consequently, governmental entities may default on their sovereign debt. Holders of sovereign debt may be requested to participate in the rescheduling of such debt and to extend further loans to governmental entities. There is no bankruptcy proceeding by which sovereign debt on which governmental entities have defaulted may be collected in whole or in part.

Illiquid Investments

Rule 22e-4 under the 1940 Act provides that the Fund may not acquire an “illiquid investment” if, immediately after the acquisition, the Fund would have invested more than 15% of its net assets in illiquid investments that are assets. Rule 22e-4 defines an illiquid investment as an investment that cannot reasonably be sold or disposed of under current market conditions in 7 calendar days or less without the sale or disposition significantly changing the market value of the investment. The Board has adopted a liquidity risk management program on behalf of the Fund that is designed to comply with Rule 22e-4’s requirements. The Board has delegated to an administrator the responsibility to oversee the program, whose duties include periodically reviewing the liquidity risk of the Fund and categorizing the Fund’s investments into one of four liquidity classifications (as defined in Rule 22e-4) based on prescribed criteria, including the number of days in which the administrator reasonably expects the investment would be convertible to cash under current market conditions without significantly changing the market value of the investment. This classification process takes into account relevant market, trading and investment-specific considerations (the analysis upon which a security is convertible to cash and placed into a classification will not take into account days when exchanges in foreign markets are closed for scheduled holidays).

The Manager believes that, at times, it is in the best interest of the Fund to be able to invest in illiquid securities up to the maximum amount allowable under the Fund’s investment restriction on illiquid investments. See Investment Objectives, Restrictions, and Policies - Nonfundamental Investment Restrictions. The Manager believes that the risk of investing in illiquid securities is manageable, considering the availability of certain securities that are currently considered illiquid but have widely established trading markets. For example, there has been significant growth in the types and availability of bank loans and structured products, including: asset backed securities (which also includes many mortgage-backed securities), collateralized bond obligations, collateralized mortgage obligations, collateralized debt obligations and commercial mortgage-backed securities. Since many of these securities are initially offered as individual issues, they often are deemed illiquid. See Mortgage-Backed and Asset-Backed Securities for more information on these types of securities.

Indexed Securities and Structured Notes

The Fund may invest in structured notes or other indexed securities, subject to its operating policy regarding Financial Instruments and other applicable restrictions. An example of a “structured note” is a note that is tied to a basket of multiple indices in which an investor receives twice the gains of each index that rises, subject to a cap on the returns with proportionate losses if the index falls. An example of an “indexed security” is a security that guarantees a return higher than the rate of inflation if it is held to maturity (called inflation indexed security). Structured notes or other indexed securities are derivative debt instruments, the interest rate or principal of which is linked to securities, currencies, interest rates, commodities, indices or other financial indicators (reference instruments). Most structured notes or other indexed securities are fixed-income securities that have maturities of three years or fewer. The interest rate or the principal amount payable at maturity of an indexed security may vary based on changes in one or more specified reference instruments, such as a floating interest rate compared with a fixed interest rate. The reference instrument need not be related to the terms of the structured note or indexed security.

Structured notes and indexed securities may be positively or negatively indexed (i.e., their principal value or interest rates may increase or decrease if the underlying reference instrument appreciates), and may have return characteristics similar to direct investments in the underlying reference instrument or to one or more options on the underlying reference instrument.

Structured notes and indexed securities may entail a greater degree of market risk than other types of debt securities because the investor bears the risk of the reference instrument. Structured notes and indexed securities also may be more volatile, less liquid, and more difficult to accurately price than less complex securities and instruments or more traditional debt securities. In addition to the credit risk of the structured note and indexed security’s issuer and the normal risks of price changes in response to changes in interest rates, the principal amount of structured notes and indexed securities may decrease as a result of changes in the value of the underlying reference instruments. Further, in the case of certain structured notes and indexed securities, the interest rate may be increased or decreased or the terms may provide that, under certain circumstances, the principal amount payable on maturity may be reduced to zero resulting in a loss to the Fund.

The performance of structured notes and indexed securities depends to a great extent on the performance of the reference instrument to which they are indexed and also may be influenced by interest rate changes in the US and abroad. At the same time, structured notes and indexed securities are subject to the credit risks associated with the issuer of the security and their values may decline substantially if the issuer’s creditworthiness deteriorates. Structured notes and indexed securities may be more volatile than the reference instrument. Gold-indexed securities, for example, typically provide for a maturity value

10

that depends on the price of gold, resulting in a security whose price tends to rise and fall together with gold prices. Currency-indexed securities typically are short-term to intermediate-term debt securities whose maturity values or interest rates are determined by reference to the values of one or more specified foreign currencies, and may offer higher yields than US dollar-denominated securities of equivalent issuers. Currency-indexed securities may be positively or negatively indexed; that is, their maturity value may increase when the specified currency value increases, resulting in a security that performs similarly to a foreign-denominated instrument, or their maturity value may decline when foreign currencies increase, resulting in a security whose price characteristics are similar to a put on the underlying currency. Currency-indexed securities also may have prices that depend on the values of a number of different foreign currencies relative to each other.

The Manager will use its judgment in determining whether structured notes or indexed securities should be treated as short-term instruments, bonds, stocks, or as a separate asset class for purposes of the Fund’s investment allocations, depending on the individual characteristics of the securities. Certain structured notes and indexed securities that are not traded on an established market may be deemed illiquid.

Initial Public Offerings (IPOs)

Securities issued through an IPO can experience an immediate drop in value if the demand for the securities does not continue to support the offering price. Information about the issuers of IPO securities also is difficult to acquire since they are new to the market and may not have lengthy operating histories. The Fund may engage in short-term trading in connection with its IPO investments, which could produce higher trading costs. The number of securities issued in an IPO is limited, so it is likely that IPO securities will represent a smaller component of the Fund’s portfolio as the Fund’s assets increase (and thus have a more limited effect on the Fund’s performance).

Investment Company Securities

The Fund may purchase shares of other investment companies only to the extent permitted under the 1940 Act, the rules and regulations thereunder, and any applicable exemptive relief and subject to its other investment policies and restrictions. As a shareholder in an investment company, the Fund would bear its pro rata share of that investment company’s expenses, which could result in duplication of certain fees, including management and administrative fees; therefore, if the Fund acquires shares of an investment company, the Fund’s shareholders would bear both their proportionate share of expenses of the Fund (including management and advisory fees) and, indirectly, the expenses of such investment company.

Closed-end Investment Companies. Shares of certain closed-end investment companies may at times be acquired only at market prices representing premiums to their NAVs. Shares of closed-end investment companies also may trade at a discount to NAV, which means the Fund may have to sell shares at a price lower than their NAV per share. Additionally, closed-end investment company shares may be halted or delisted by the listing exchange. Some countries, such as South Korea, Chile and India, have authorized the formation of closed-end investment companies to facilitate indirect foreign investment in their capital markets. The 1940 Act restrictions on investments in securities of other investment companies may limit opportunities that the Fund otherwise permitted to invest in foreign securities otherwise would have to invest indirectly in certain developing markets. The Fund will incur brokerage costs when purchasing and selling shares of closed-end investment companies.

Business Development Companies (BDCs). Subject to its investment policies and restrictions, the Fund may invest in shares of BDCs. BDCs are a type of closed-end investment company regulated by the 1940 Act and typically invest in and lend to small and medium-sized private companies that may not have access to public equity markets for raising capital. BDCs invest in such diverse industries as healthcare, chemical, manufacturing, technology and service companies. A BDC must invest at least 70% of the value of its total assets in certain asset types, which typically are the securities of private US businesses, and must make available significant managerial assistance to the issuers of such securities. BDCs often offer a yield advantage over other types of securities. Managers of BDCs may be entitled to compensation based on the BDC’s performance, which may result in a manager of a BDC making riskier or more speculative investments in an effort to maximize incentive compensation and higher fees.

Because BDCs typically invest in small and medium-sized companies, a BDC’s portfolio is subject to the risks inherent in investing in smaller companies, including that portfolio companies may be dependent on a small number of products or services and may be more adversely affected by poor economic or market conditions. Some BDCs invest substantially, or even exclusively, in one sector or industry group. Accordingly, the BDC may be susceptible to adverse conditions and economic or regulatory occurrences affecting the sector or industry group, which tends to increase the BDC’s volatility and risk. Investments made by BDCs generally are subject to legal and other restrictions on resale and are otherwise less liquid than publicly traded securities. The

11

Investment Strategies and Risks

illiquidity of these investments may make it difficult to sell such investments if the need arises, and if there is a need for a BDC in which the Fund invests to liquidate its portfolio quickly, it may realize a loss on its investments. BDCs also may have relatively concentrated investment portfolios, consisting of a relatively small number of holdings. A consequence of this limited number of investments is that the aggregate returns realized may be disproportionately impacted by the poor performance of a small number of investments, or even a single investment, particularly if a BDC experiences the need to write down the value of an investment, which tends to increase the BDC’s volatility and risk.

Investments in BDCs are subject to management risk, including the ability of the BDC’s management to meet the BDC’s investment objective and to manage the BDC’s portfolio when the underlying securities are redeemed or sold, during periods of market turmoil and as investors’ perceptions regarding a BDC or its underlying investments change. BDC shares are not redeemable at the option of the BDC shareholder and, as with shares of other closed-end funds, they may trade in the secondary market at a discount to their NAV. Like an investment in other investment companies, the Fund will indirectly bear its proportionate share of any management and other expenses charged by the BDCs in which it invests.

BDCs may employ the use of leverage through borrowings or the issuance of preferred stock. While leverage often serves to increase the yield of a BDC, this leverage also subjects a BDC to increased risks, including the likelihood of increased volatility of the BDC and the possibility that the BDC’s common share income will fall if the dividend rate of the preferred shares or the interest rate on any borrowings rises.

Exchange-Traded Funds (ETFs)

Subject to its investment policies and restrictions, and only to the extent permitted by the 1940 Act, the rules and regulations thereunder, and any applicable exemptive relief, the Fund may invest in ETFs for various purposes, which may or may not be a registered investment company (RIC) (i.e., open-end mutual fund). For example, the Fund may invest in S&P 500 Depositary Receipts (SPDRs), which track the S&P 500 Index; S&P MidCap 400 Depositary Receipts (MidCap SPDRs), which track the S&P MidCap 400 Index; and “Dow Industrial Diamonds,” which track the Dow Jones Industrial Average, or in ETFs that track other indexes; provided that such investments are consistent with the Fund’s investment objective(s) as determined by the Manager. Each of these securities represents shares of beneficial interest in a trust, or series of a trust, that typically holds a proportionate amount of shares of all stocks included in the relevant underlying index. Since most ETFs are a type of investment company, the Fund’s purchases of ETF shares are subject to its investment restrictions regarding investments in other investment companies.

An ETF’s shares have a market price that approximates the NAV of the ETF’s portfolio, which generally is designed to track the designated index or the NAV of the underlying basket of securities, currencies and/or commodities or commodities futures, as applicable. Some ETFs are actively managed and instead of replicating, they seek to outperform a particular index or basket or price of a commodity or currency. ETF shares are exchange-traded and as with other equity transactions, brokers charge a commission in connection with the purchase of shares of ETFs. In addition, an asset management fee is charged against the assets of an ETF (which is charged in addition to the investment management fee paid by the Fund).

Trading costs for ETFs can be higher than those for stock index futures contracts, but, because ETFs trade like other exchange-listed equities, they represent a relatively quick and convenient method of using the Fund’s assets to track the return of a particular stock index. Investments in an ETF that is a RIC (i.e., open-end mutual fund) generally present the same primary risks as investments in a conventional open-end mutual fund that is not exchange-traded. The price of an ETF can fluctuate, and the Fund could lose money investing in an ETF. In addition, ETFs are subject to the following risks that do not apply to conventional mutual funds: (i) the market price of an ETF’s shares may trade at a premium or discount to their NAV; (ii) an active trading market for an ETF’s shares may not develop or be maintained; or (iii) trading of an ETF’s shares may be halted if the listing exchange’s officials deem such action appropriate, the shares are delisted from the exchange, or the activation of market-wide “circuit breakers” (which are tied to large decreases in stock prices) halts stock trading generally.

Loans and Other Direct Debt Instruments

Loans. Subject to its investment policies and restrictions, the Fund may purchase loan participations and/or loan assignments (sometimes called bank loans). Loan participations are interests in amounts owed by a corporate, governmental, or other borrower to a lender or consortium of lenders (typically banks, insurance companies, or investment banks). Purchasers of participation interests do not have any direct contractual relationship with the borrower. Most floating rate loans are acquired directly from the agent bank or from another holder of the loan by assignment. In an assignment, the Fund purchases an assignment of a portion of a lender’s interest in a loan. In this case, the Fund may be required generally to rely upon the assigning bank to demand payment and enforce its rights against the borrower, but would otherwise be entitled to all of such bank’s rights in the loan.

Purchasers of participation interests may be subject to delays, expenses, and risks that are greater than those that would be involved if the purchaser could enforce its rights directly against the borrower. In addition, under the terms of a participation interest, the purchaser may be regarded as a creditor of the intermediate participant (rather than of the borrower), so that the purchaser also may be subject to the risk that the intermediate participant could become insolvent. The agreement between the purchaser and lender who sold the participation interest also may limit the rights of the purchaser to vote on changes that may be made to the loan agreement, such as waiving a breach of a covenant.

Most loan participations are secured, and most impose restrictive covenants that must be met by the borrower. These loans typically are made by a syndicate of banks and institutional investors, which are represented by an agent bank that has negotiated and structured the loan and that is responsible generally for collecting interest, principal, and other amounts from the borrower on its own behalf and on behalf of the other lending institutions in the syndicate, and for enforcing its and their other rights against the borrower. Typically, under loan agreements, the agent is given broad discretion in monitoring the borrower’s performance and is obligated to use the same care it would use in the management of its own property. Each of the lending

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institutions, including the agent bank, lends to the borrower a portion of the total amount of the loan, and retains the corresponding interest in the loan. Floating rate loans may include delayed draw term loans and pre-funded or synthetic letters of credit.

The Fund’s ability to receive payments of principal and interest and other amounts in connection with loans held by it will depend primarily on the financial condition of the borrower. The failure by the Fund to receive scheduled interest or principal payments on a loan would adversely affect the income of the Fund and would likely reduce the value of its assets, which would be reflected in a reduction in the Fund’s NAV. Banks and other lending institutions generally perform a credit analysis of the borrower before originating a loan or purchasing an assignment in a loan. In selecting the loans in which the Fund will invest, however, the Manager will not rely on that credit analysis of the agent bank but will perform its own investment analysis of the borrowers.

The Manager’s analysis may include consideration of the borrower’s financial strength and managerial experience, debt coverage, additional borrowing requirements or debt maturity schedules, changing financial conditions, and responsiveness to changes in business conditions and interest rates. The majority of the loans the Fund will invest in will be rated by one or more NRSROs. Investments in loans may be of any quality, including “distressed” loans, and will be subject to the Fund’s credit quality policy. Some floating rate loans and other debt securities are not rated by any NRSRO. Historically, floating rate loans have not been registered with the SEC or any state securities commission or listed on any securities exchange. As a result, the amount of public information available about a specific floating rate loan historically has been less extensive than if the floating rate loan were registered or exchange-traded.

Floating rate loans and other debt securities that are fully secured provide more protections than unsecured securities in the event of failure to make scheduled interest or principal payments. Indebtedness of borrowers whose creditworthiness is poor involves substantially greater risks and may be highly speculative. Borrowers that are in bankruptcy or restructuring may never pay off their indebtedness, or may pay only a small fraction of the amount owed. In connection with the restructuring of a floating rate loan or other debt security outside of bankruptcy court in a negotiated work-out or in the context of bankruptcy proceedings, equity securities or junior debt securities may be received in exchange for all or a portion of an interest in the security.

Corporate loans in which the Fund may purchase a loan assignment are made generally to provide bridge loans (temporary financing), finance internal growth, mergers, acquisitions (acquiring another company), recapitalizations (reorganizing the assets and liabilities of a borrower), stock purchases, leverage buy-outs (taking over control of a company), dividend payments to sponsors and other corporate activities. Under current market conditions, most of the corporate loans purchased by the Fund will represent loans made to highly leveraged corporate borrowers. The highly leveraged capital structure of the borrowers in such transactions may make such loans especially vulnerable to adverse changes in economic or market conditions. The Fund may hold investments in loans for a very short period of time when opportunities to resell the investments that the Manager believes are attractive arise.

Certain of the loans acquired by the Fund may involve revolving credit facilities under which a borrower may from time to time borrow and repay amounts up to the maximum amount of the facility. A revolving credit facility may require the Fund to increase its investment in a floating rate loan at a time when it would not otherwise have done so, even if the borrower’s condition makes it unlikely that the amount will ever be repaid.

Notwithstanding its intention in certain situations to not receive material non-public information with respect to its management of investments in floating rate loans, the Manager may from time to time come into possession of material, non-public information about the issuers of loans that may be held by the Fund. Possession of such information may in some instances occur despite the Manager’s efforts to avoid such possession, but in other instances, the Manager may choose to receive such information (e.g., in connection with participation in a creditor’s committee with respect to a financially distressed issuer). As, and to the extent, required by applicable law, the Manager’s ability to trade in these loans for the account of the Fund could potentially be limited by its possession of such information. Such limitations on the Manager’s ability to trade could have an adverse effect on the Fund by, for example, preventing the Fund from selling a loan that is experiencing a material decline in value. In some instances, these trading restrictions could continue in effect for a substantial period of time.

In some instances, other accounts managed by the Manager may hold other securities issued by borrowers whose floating rate loans may be held by the Fund. These other securities may include, for example, debt securities that are subordinate to the floating rate loans held by the Fund, convertible debt or common or preferred equity securities. In certain circumstances, such as if the credit quality of the issuer deteriorates, the interests of holders of these other securities may conflict with the interests of the holders of the issuer’s floating rate loans. In such cases, the Investment Manager may owe conflicting fiduciary duties to the Fund and other client accounts. The Manager will endeavor to carry out its obligations to all of its clients to the fullest extent possible, recognizing that in some cases certain clients may achieve a lower economic return, as a result of these conflicting client interests, than if the Investment Manager’s client account collectively held only a single category of the issuer’s securities.

A floating rate loan offered as part of the original lending syndicate typically is purchased at par value. As part of the original lending syndicate, a purchaser generally earns a yield equal to the stated interest rate. In addition, members of the original syndicate typically are paid a commitment fee. In secondary market trading, floating rate loans may be purchased or sold above, at, or below par, which can result in a yield that is below, equal to, or above the stated interest rate, respectively. At certain times when reduced opportunities exist for investing in new syndicated floating rate loans, floating rate loans may be available only through the secondary market.

If an agent becomes insolvent, or has a receiver, conservator, or similar official appointed for it by the appropriate bank or other regulatory authority, or becomes a debtor in a bankruptcy proceeding, the agent’s appointment may be terminated, and a successor agent would be appointed. If an appropriate regulator or court determines that assets held by the agent for the benefit of the purchasers of floating rate loans are subject to the claims of the agent’s general or secured creditors, the purchasers might incur certain costs and delays in realizing payment on a floating rate loan or suffer a loss of principal and/or interest. Furthermore, in the event of the borrower’s bankruptcy or insolvency, the borrower’s obligation to repay a floating rate loan may be subject to certain defenses that the borrower can assert as a result of improper conduct by the agent.

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Investment Strategies and Risks

Unlike publicly-traded common stocks which trade on national exchanges, there is no central place or exchange for loans to trade. Loans trade in an over-the-counter (OTC)market, and confirmation and settlement, which are effected through standardized procedures and documentation, may take significantly longer than 7 days to complete. Extended trade settlement periods may, in unusual market conditions with a high volume of shareholder redemptions, present a risk to shareholders regarding the Fund’s ability to pay redemption proceeds within the allowable time periods stated in its prospectus.

Loan interests may not be considered “securities,” and a purchaser, such as the Fund, therefore may not be entitled to rely on the anti-fraud protections of the federal securities laws.

Collateral. Most floating rate loans are secured by specific collateral of the borrower and are senior to most other securities of the borrower. The collateral typically has a market value, at the time the floating rate loan is made, that equals or exceeds the principal amount of the floating rate loan. The value of the collateral may decline, be insufficient to meet the obligations of the borrower, or be difficult to liquidate. As a result, a floating rate loan may not be fully collateralized and can decline significantly in value. Floating rate loan collateral may consist of various types of assets or interests. Collateral may include working capital assets, such as accounts receivable or inventory; tangible or intangible assets; or assets or other types of guarantees of affiliates of the borrower. Inventory is the goods a company has in stock, including finished goods, goods in the process of being manufactured, and the supplies used in the process of manufacturing. Accounts receivable are the monies due to a company for merchandise or securities that it has sold, or for the services it has provided. Tangible fixed assets include real property, buildings, and equipment. Intangible assets include trademarks, copyrights and patent rights, and securities of subsidiaries or affiliates.

Generally, floating rate loans are secured unless (i) the purchaser’s security interest in the collateral is invalidated for any reason by a court, or (ii) the collateral is fully released with the consent of the agent bank and lenders or under the terms of a loan agreement as the creditworthiness of the borrower improves. Collateral impairment is the risk that the value of the collateral for a floating rate loan will be insufficient in the event that a borrower defaults. Although the terms of a floating rate loan generally require that the collateral at issuance have a value at least equal to 100% of the amount of such floating rate loan, the value of the collateral may decline subsequent to the purchase of a floating rate loan. In most loan agreements there is no formal requirement to pledge additional collateral. There is no guarantee that the sale of collateral would allow a borrower to meet its obligations should the borrower be unable to repay principal or pay interest or that the collateral could be sold quickly or easily.

In addition, most borrowers pay their debts from the cash flow they generate. If the borrower’s cash flow is insufficient to pay its debts as they come due, the borrower may seek to restructure its debts rather than sell collateral. Borrowers may try to restructure their debts by filing for protection under the federal bankruptcy laws or negotiating a work-out. If a borrower becomes involved in bankruptcy proceedings, access to the collateral may be limited by bankruptcy and other laws. In the event that a court decides that access to the collateral is limited or void, it is unlikely that purchasers could recover the full amount of the principal and interest due.

There may be temporary periods when the principal asset held by a borrower is the stock of a related company, which may not legally be pledged to secure a floating rate loan. On occasions when such stock cannot be pledged, the floating rate loan will be temporarily unsecured until the stock can be pledged or is exchanged for, or replaced by, other assets.

Some floating rate loans are unsecured. If the borrower defaults on an unsecured floating rate loan, there is no specific collateral on which the purchaser can foreclose.

Floating Interest Rate Loans. The rate of interest payable on floating rate loans is the sum of a base lending rate plus a specified spread. Base lending rates generally are the London Interbank Offered Rate (LIBOR), the Certificate of Deposit (CD) Rate of a designated US bank, the Prime Rate of a designated US bank, the federal funds rate, or another base lending rate used by commercial lenders. A borrower usually has the right to select the base lending rate and to change the base lending rate at specified intervals. The applicable spread may be fixed at time of issuance or may adjust upward or downward to reflect changes in credit quality of the borrower.

The interest rate on LIBOR-based and CD Rate-based floating rate loans is reset periodically at intervals ranging from 30 to 180 days, while the interest rate on Prime Rate- or federal funds rate-based floating rate loans floats daily as those rates change. Investment in floating rate loans with longer interest rate reset periods can increase fluctuations in the floating rate loans’ values when interest rates change.

The yield on a floating rate loan will depend primarily on the terms of the underlying floating rate loan and the base lending rate chosen by the borrower. The relationship between LIBOR, the CD Rate, the Prime Rate, and the federal funds rate will vary as market conditions change.

Floating rate loans typically will have a stated term of five to nine years. However, because floating rate loans are frequently prepaid, their average maturity is expected to be two to three years. The degree to which borrowers prepay floating rate loans, whether as a contractual requirement or at their election, may be affected by general business conditions, the borrower’s financial condition, and competitive conditions among lenders. Prepayments cannot be predicted with accuracy. Prepayments of principal to the purchaser of a floating rate loan may result in the principal’s being reinvested in floating rate loans with lower yields.

The Fund limits the amount of total assets that it will invest in any one issuer or in issuers within the same industry (see Fundamental Investment Restrictions). For purposes of these restrictions, the Fund generally will treat the borrower as the “issuer” of indebtedness held by the Fund. In the case of participation interests where a bank or other lending institution serves as intermediate participant between the Fund and the borrower, if the participation interest does not shift to the Fund the direct debtor-creditor relationship with the borrower, the Fund, in appropriate circumstances, will treat both the lending bank or other lending institution and the borrower as “issuers” for these purposes. Treating an intermediate participant as an issuer of indebtedness may restrict a fund’s ability to invest in indebtedness related to a single intermediate participant, or a group of intermediate participants engaged in the same industry, even if the underlying borrowers represent many different companies and industries.

A borrower must comply with various restrictive covenants contained in the loan agreement. In addition to requiring the scheduled payment of interest and

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principal, these covenants may include restrictions on dividend payments and other distributions to stockholders, provisions requiring the borrower to maintain specific financial ratios, and limits on total debt. The loan agreement also may contain a covenant requiring the borrower to prepay the floating rate loan with any free cash flow. A breach of a covenant that is not waived by the agent (or by the lenders directly) normally is an event of default, which provides the agent or the lenders the right to call the outstanding floating rate loan.

Direct Debt Instruments. The Fund may invest in direct debt instruments, subject to its policies and restrictions regarding the quality of debt securities. Purchasers of loans and other forms of direct indebtedness depend primarily upon the creditworthiness of the borrower for payment of principal and interest. Direct debt instruments may not be rated by any NRSRO. If the Fund does not receive scheduled interest or principal payments on such indebtedness, the Fund’s share price and yield could be adversely affected. Loans that are fully secured offer the Fund more protection than an unsecured loan in the event of non-payment of scheduled interest or principal. However, there is no assurance that the liquidation of collateral from a secured loan would satisfy the borrower’s obligation, or that the collateral could be liquidated. Indebtedness of borrowers whose creditworthiness is poor involves substantially greater risks, and may be highly speculative. Borrowers that are in bankruptcy or restructuring may never pay off their indebtedness, or may pay only a small fraction of the amount owed. Direct indebtedness of developing countries also involves a risk that the governmental entities responsible for the repayment of the debt may be unable, or unwilling, to pay interest and principal when due.

Investments in loans through direct assignment of a financial institution’s interests with respect to a loan may involve additional risks to the Fund. For example, if a loan is foreclosed, the Fund could become part owner of any collateral, and would bear the costs and liabilities associated with owning and disposing of the collateral. Direct debt instruments also may involve a risk of insolvency of the lending bank or other intermediary. Direct debt instruments that are not in the form of securities may offer less legal protection to the Fund in the event of fraud or misrepresentation. In the absence of definitive regulatory guidance, the Fund seeks to avoid situations where fraud or misrepresentation could adversely affect the Fund.

A loan often is administered by a bank or other financial institution that acts as agent for all holders. The agent administers the terms of the loan, as specified in the loan agreement. Unless, under the terms of the loan or other indebtedness, the Fund has direct recourse against the borrower, it may have to rely on the agent to apply appropriate credit remedies against a borrower. If assets held by the agent for the benefit of the Fund were determined to be subject to the claims of the agent’s general creditors, the Fund might incur certain costs and delays in realizing payment on the loan or loan participation and could suffer a loss of principal or interest.

Investments in direct debt instruments may entail less legal protection for the Fund. Direct indebtedness purchased by the Fund may include letters of credit, revolving credit facilities, or other standby financing commitments obligating the Fund to pay additional cash on demand. These commitments may have the effect of requiring the Fund to increase its investment in a borrower at a time when it would not otherwise have done so, even if the borrower’s condition makes it unlikely that the amount will ever be repaid. Other types of direct debt instruments, such as loans through direct assignment of a financial institution’s interest with respect to a loan, may involve additional risks to the Fund. For example, if a loan is foreclosed, the Fund could become part owner of any collateral, and would bear the costs and liabilities associated with owning and disposing of the collateral.

The Fund limits the amount of total assets that it will invest in any one issuer or in issuers within the same industry. For purposes of these limitations, the Fund generally will treat the borrower as the issuer of indebtedness held by the Fund. In the case of loan participations where a bank or other lending institution serves as financial intermediary between the Fund and the borrower, if the participation does not shift to the Fund the direct debtor-creditor relationship with the borrower, SEC interpretations require the Fund, in appropriate circumstances, to treat both the lending bank or other lending institution and the borrower as issuers for these purposes. Treating a financial intermediary as an issuer of indebtedness may restrict the Fund’s ability to invest in indebtedness related to a single financial intermediary, or a group of intermediaries engaged in the same industry, even if the underlying borrowers represent many different companies and industries.

Listed Private Equity Companies and Funds

Subject to its investment policies and restrictions, the Fund may invest in securities of listed private equity companies and funds whose principal business is to invest in and lend capital to privately held companies. The Fund is subject to the underlying risks that affect the listed private equity companies and funds in which it invests. Generally, little public information exists for private companies, and there is a risk that the listed private equity companies and funds may not be able to make a fully informed investment decision. In addition, the listed private equity companies and funds may have relatively concentrated investment portfolios, consisting of a relatively small number of holdings. A consequence of this limited number of investments is that the aggregate returns realized by the listed private equity companies and funds may be adversely impacted by the poor performance of a small number of investments, or even a single investment. The Fund’s investment in listed private equity companies and funds subjects the Fund’s shareholders indirectly to the fees and expenses incurred by such companies and funds. Listed private equity companies and funds may include, among others, business development companies, investment holding companies, publicly traded limited partnership interests (common units), publicly traded venture capital funds, publicly traded venture capital trusts, publicly traded private equity funds, publicly traded private equity investment trusts, publicly traded closed-end funds, publicly traded financial institutions that lend to or invest in privately held companies and any other publicly traded vehicle whose purpose is to invest in privately held companies.

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Investment Strategies and Risks

Low-Rated Securities

Debt securities rated below the four highest categories (that is, below BBB- by S&P, for example) are not considered investment grade obligations and commonly are called “junk bonds” or “high yield”. These securities are predominately speculative and present more credit risk than investment grade obligations with respect to the issuer’s continuing ability to meet principal and interest payments.

Low-rated debt securities (including unrated securities determined by the Manager to be of comparable quality) generally involve greater volatility of price and risk of principal and income, including the possibility of default by, or bankruptcy of, the issuers of the securities. The market prices of these securities may fluctuate more than high-rated securities and may decline significantly in periods of general economic difficulty. In addition, the markets in which low-rated debt securities are traded are more limited than those in which higher-rated securities are traded. The existence of limited markets for particular securities may diminish the Fund’s ability to sell the securities at fair value either to meet redemption requests or to respond to changes in the economy or in the financial markets and could adversely affect and cause fluctuations in the daily NAV of the Fund’s shares.

Adverse publicity and investor perceptions, whether or not based on fundamental analysis, may decrease the values and liquidity of low-rated debt securities, especially in a thinly traded market. Valuation becomes more difficult and judgment plays a greater role in valuing low-rated debt securities than with respect to higher-rated debt securities for which more external sources of quotations and last sale information are available. Similarly, analysis of the creditworthiness of issuers of low-rated debt securities may be more complex than for issuers of higher-rated securities, and the ability of the Fund to achieve its investment objective may be more dependent upon such creditworthiness analysis than would be the case if the Fund were investing in higher-rated securities.

Low-rated debt securities may be more susceptible to real or perceived adverse economic and competitive industry conditions than investment grade securities. The prices of low-rated debt securities have been found to be less sensitive to interest rate changes than higher-rated investments, but more sensitive to adverse economic downturns or individual corporate developments. A projection of an economic downturn or of a period of rising interest rates, for example, could cause a decline in low-rated debt securities prices because the advent of a recession could lessen the ability of a highly leveraged company to make principal and interest payments on its debt securities. If the issuer of low-rated debt securities defaults, the Fund may incur additional expenses to seek recovery and lose all or part of its investment.

Distressed Debt Securities. Subject to its investment policies and restrictions, the Fund may invest in distressed companies (generally, debt securities rated below CCC+ by S&P, for example) (or, if unrated, determined by the Manager to be of comparable quality) (generally referred to as Distressed Debt). Investing in Distressed Debt includes investing in securities of companies that are, or are about to be, involved in reorganizations, financial restructurings, or bankruptcy. The Fund’s investment in Distressed Debt typically involves the purchase of bank debt, lower-rated or defaulted debt securities, comparable unrated debt securities, or other indebtedness (or participations in the indebtedness) of such companies. Such other indebtedness generally represents a specific commercial loan or portion of a loan made to a company by a financial institution such as a bank.

Loan participations represent fractional interests in a company’s indebtedness and generally are made available by banks or other institutional investors. By purchasing all or a part of a loan participation, the Fund, in effect, steps into the shoes of the lender. Distressed Debt purchased by the Fund may be in the form of loans, notes or bonds. If the loan is secured, the Fund will have a priority claim to the assets of the company ahead of unsecured creditors and stockholders otherwise no such priority of claims exists.

A merger or other restructuring, or a tender or exchange offer, proposed or pending at the time the Fund invests in these securities may not be completed on the terms or within the time frame contemplated, resulting in losses to the Fund. Distressed Debt securities typically are unrated, lower-rated, in default or close to default. Also, Distressed Debt generally is more likely to become worth less than the securities of more financially stable companies. An issuer of debt securities may be unable to make interest payments and repay principal when due. Changes in an issuer’s financial strength or in a security’s credit rating may affect a security’s value and, thus, impact Fund performance. These debt securities are subject to interest rate, credit and prepayment risk. An increase in interest rates will reduce the resale value of debt securities and changes in the financial condition or credit rating of an issue may affect the value of its debt securities. Issuers may prepay their obligations on fixed rate debt securities when interest rates decline, which can shorten a security’s maturity and reduce the Fund’s return.

Debt securities rated below investment grade, and the type of Distressed Debt securities which the Fund may purchase, generally are considered to have more risk than higher-rated debt securities. They also may fluctuate more in price, and are less liquid than higher-rated debt securities. Their prices are especially sensitive to developments affecting the company’s business and to ratings changes, and typically rise and fall in response to factors that affect the company’s stock prices. Issuers of such Distressed Debt are not as strong financially, and are more likely to encounter financial difficulties and be more vulnerable to adverse changes in the economy, such as a recession or a sustained period of rising interest rates. The risk that the Fund may lose its entire investment in defaulted bonds is greater in comparison to investing in non-defaulted bonds. Purchasers of participations in indebtedness must rely on the financial institution issuing the participation to assert any rights against the borrower with respect to the underlying indebtedness. In addition, the Fund incurs the risk as to the creditworthiness of the bank or other financial intermediary, as well as of the company issuing the underlying indebtedness.

Master Limited Partnerships (MLPs)

Subject to its investment policies and restrictions, the Fund may invest in MLPs. An MLP is a limited partnership (or similar entity, such as a limited liability company, that is classified as a partnership for federal tax purposes), the interests in which are publicly traded. MLP units generally are registered with the SEC and are freely traded on a securities exchange or in the OTC market. Many MLPs operate in the oil and gas industries, including energy processing and

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distribution. MLPs generally are pass-through entities or businesses that are taxed at the security holder level and generally are not subject to federal or state income tax at the entity level, subject to the application of certain partnership audit rules. Annual income, gains, losses, deductions and credits of such an MLP pass through directly to its security holders. Distributions from an MLP, whether they are attributable to its annual net income that is passed through or consist in part of a return of the amount originally invested, would not be taxable, to the extent they do not exceed the investor’s adjusted tax basis in its MLP interest. Generally, an MLP is operated under the supervision of one or more general partners. Limited partners are not involved in the day-to-day management of an MLP.

Investing in MLPs generally is subject to risks applicable to investing in a partnership as opposed to a corporation, which may include fewer protections afforded to investors (e.g., owners of common units in an MLP may have limited voting rights and no ability to elect directors, trustees or other managers). Although unitholders of an MLP generally are limited in their liability, similar to a corporation’s shareholders, an MLP’s creditors typically have the right to seek the return of distributions made to the MLP’s unitholders if the liability in question arose before the distributions were paid. This liability may stay attached to the unitholder even after the units are sold.

MLPs holding credit-related investments are subject to interest rate risk and the risk of default on payment obligations by debt issuers. MLPs that concentrate in a particular industry or geographic region are subject to the risks associated with such industry or region (such as the risks associated with investing in the real estate or oil and gas industries). Investments held by an MLP may be relatively illiquid, limiting the MLP’s ability to vary its portfolio promptly in response to changes in economic or other conditions. MLPs may have limited financial resources, their securities may trade infrequently and in limited volume, and they may be subject to more abrupt or erratic price movements than securities of larger or more broadly based companies.

Net income from an interest in a “qualified publicly traded partnership” (QTTP), which many MLPs are treated as for federal tax purposes, is “qualifying income” for an entity (such as the Fund) that is a “regulated investment company” for these purposes (RIC). Please see the section entitled Distributions and Taxes - Taxes for additional information regarding the tax consequences of the Fund’s investing in a QPTP.

Money Market Instruments

Money market instruments are high-quality, short-term debt instruments. They may include US government securities, commercial paper and other short-term corporate obligations, certificates of deposit and other financial institution obligations. These instruments may carry fixed or variable interest rates.

Mortgage-Backed and Asset-Backed Securities

Mortgage-Backed Securities. Mortgage-backed securities represent direct or indirect participations in, or are secured by and payable from, mortgage loans secured by real property and include single- and multi-class pass-through securities and collateralized mortgage obligations (CMOs). Multi-class pass-through securities and collateralized mortgage obligations are collectively referred to in this SAI as CMOs. Some CMOs are directly supported by other CMOs, which in turn are supported by mortgage pools. Investors typically receive payments out of the interest and principal on the underlying mortgages. The portions of the payments that investors receive, as well as the priority of their rights to receive payments, are determined by the specific terms of the CMO class.

The US government mortgage-backed securities in which the Fund may invest include mortgage-backed securities issued by the Federal National Mortgage Association (Fannie Mae), the Government National Mortgage Association (Ginnie Mae) or the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (Freddie Mac). Other mortgage-backed securities are issued by private issuers, generally the originators of and investors in mortgage loans, including savings associations, mortgage bankers, commercial banks, investment bankers and special purpose entities. Payments of principal and interest (but not the market value) of such private mortgage-backed securities may be supported by pools of mortgage loans or other mortgage-backed securities that are guaranteed, directly or indirectly, by the US government or one of its agencies or instrumentalities, or they may be issued without any government guarantee of the underlying mortgage assets but with some form of non-government credit enhancement. These credit enhancements do not protect investors from changes in market value.

Ginnie Mae is a government-owned corporation that is an agency of the US Department of Housing and Urban Development. It guarantees, with the full faith and credit of the United States, full and timely payment of all monthly principal and interest on its mortgage-backed securities. Government-related guarantors (i.e., not backed by the full faith and credit of the US government) include Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. Fannie Mae is a government-sponsored corporation owned by stockholders. It is subject to general regulation by the Federal Housing Finance Authority (FHFA). Fannie Mae purchases residential mortgages from a list of approved seller/servicers that include state and federally chartered savings and loan associations, mutual savings banks, commercial banks, credit unions and mortgage bankers. Fannie Mae guarantees the timely payment of principal and interest on pass-through securities that it issues, but those securities are not backed by the full faith and credit of the US government. Freddie Mac is a government sponsored corporation formerly owned by the twelve Federal Home Loan Banks and now owned by stockholders. Freddie Mac issues participation certificates, which represent interests in mortgages from Freddie Mac’s national portfolio. Freddie Mac guarantees the timely payment of interest and ultimate collection of principal on the participation certificates it issues, but those are not backed by the full faith and credit of the US government.

The Treasury historically has had the authority to purchase obligations of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac; however, in 2008, due to capitalization concerns, Congress provided the Treasury with additional authority to lend Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac emergency funds and to purchase the companies’ stock, as described below. In September 2008, those capital concerns led the Treasury and the FHFA to announce that Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac had been placed in conservatorship.

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Investment Strategies and Risks

Since that time, Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac have received significant capital support through Treasury preferred stock purchases as well as Treasury and Federal Reserve purchases of their mortgage backed securities. While the purchase programs for mortgage-backed securities ended in 2010, the Treasury continued its support for the entities’ capital as necessary to prevent a negative net worth. Although the US government has provided support for US government mortgage-related securities in the past, and Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac may need an injection of additional Treasury capital in the future, there can be no assurance that it will do so in the future. Accordingly, no assurance can be given that the Federal Reserve, Treasury, or the FHFA initiatives discussed above will ensure that Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac will remain successful in meeting their obligations with respect to the debt and mortgage-backed securities they issue. Moreover, there remains significant uncertainty as to whether (or when) Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac will emerge from conservatorship, which has no specified termination date. In addition, Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac also are the subject of several continuing class action lawsuits and investigations by federal regulators, which (along with any resulting financial restatements) may adversely affect the guaranteeing entities. Importantly, the future of the entities remains in question as the US government is considering multiple options, ranging from significant reform, nationalization, privatization, consolidation, or abolishment of the entities.

The FHFA and the Treasury (through its agreements to purchase preferred stock of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac) also have imposed strict limits on the size of the mortgage portfolios of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. In August 2012, the Treasury amended its preferred stock purchase agreements to provide that the portfolios of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac will be wound down at an annual rate of 15% (up from the previously agreed annual rate of 10%), resulting in Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac reaching the $250 billion target imposed under the preferred stock purchase agreements. Further, when a ratings agency downgraded long-term US government debt in August 2011, the agency also downgraded the bond ratings of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, from AAA to AA+, based on their direct reliance on the US government (although that rating did not directly relate to their mortgage-backed securities). The US government’s commitment to ensure that Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac have sufficient capital to meet their obligations was, however, unaffected by the downgrade.

The Fund may purchase mortgage-backed securities issued by both government and non-government entities such as banks, mortgage lenders or other financial institutions. Other types of mortgage-backed securities likely will be developed in the future, and the Fund may invest in them if the Manager determines that such investments are consistent with the Fund’s objective(s) and investment policies.

Stripped Mortgage-Backed Securities. Stripped mortgage-backed securities are created when a US government agency or a financial institution separates the interest and principal components of a mortgage-backed security and sells them as individual securities. The holder of the principal-only security (PO) receives the principal payments made by the underlying mortgage-backed security, while the holder of the interest-only security (IO) receives interest payments from the same underlying security.

For example, IO classes are entitled to receive all or a portion of the interest, but none (or only a nominal amount) of the principal payments, from the underlying mortgage assets. If the mortgage assets underlying an IO experience greater than anticipated principal prepayments, then the total amount of interest allocable to the IO class, and therefore the yield to investors, generally will be reduced. In some instances, an investor in an IO may fail to recoup all of the investor’s initial investment, even if the security is guaranteed by the US government or considered to be of the highest quality. Conversely, PO classes are entitled to receive all or a portion of the principal payments, but none of the interest, from the underlying mortgage assets. PO classes are purchased at substantial discounts from par, and the yield to investors will be reduced if principal payments are slower than expected. IOs, POs and other CMOs involve special risks, and evaluating them requires special knowledge.

Asset-Backed Securities. Asset-backed securities have structural characteristics similar to mortgage-backed securities, as discussed above. However, the underlying assets are not first lien mortgage loans or interests therein, but include assets such as motor vehicle installment sales contracts, other installment sale contracts, home equity loans, leases of various types of real and personal property and receivables from revolving credit (credit card) agreements. Such assets are securitized through the use of trusts or special purpose corporations. Payments or distributions of principal and interest may be guaranteed up to a certain amount and for a certain time period by a letter of credit or a pool insurance policy issued by a financial institution unaffiliated with the issuer, or other credit enhancements may be present. The value of asset-backed securities also may depend on the creditworthiness of the servicing agent for the loan pool, the originator of the loans or the financial institution providing the credit enhancement.

Special Characteristics of Mortgage-Backed and Asset-Backed Securities. The yield characteristics of mortgage-backed and asset-backed securities differ from those of traditional debt securities. Among the major differences are that interest and principal payments are made more frequently, usually monthly, and that principal may be prepaid at any time because the underlying mortgage loans or other obligations generally may be prepaid at any time. Prepayments on a pool of mortgage loans are influenced by a variety of economic, geographic, social and other factors, including changes in mortgagors’ housing needs, job transfers, unemployment, mortgagors’ net equity in the mortgaged properties and servicing decisions. Generally, however, prepayments on fixed-rate mortgage loans will increase during a period of falling interest rates and decrease during a period of rising interest rates. Similar factors apply to prepayments on asset-backed securities, but the receivables underlying asset-backed securities generally are of a shorter maturity and thus are likely to experience substantial prepayments. Such securities, however, often provide that for a specified time period the issuers will replace receivables in the pool that are repaid with comparable obligations. If the issuer is unable to do so, repayment of principal on the asset-backed securities may commence at an earlier date.

The rate of interest on mortgage-backed securities is lower than the interest rates paid on the mortgages included in the underlying pool due to the annual fees paid to the servicer of the mortgage pool for passing through monthly payments to certificate holders and to any guarantor, and due to any yield retained by the issuer. Actual yield to the holder may vary from the coupon rate, even if adjustable, if the mortgage-backed securities are purchased or traded in the

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secondary market at a premium or discount. In addition, there normally is some delay between the time the issuer receives mortgage payments from the servicer and the time the issuer makes the payments on the mortgage-backed securities, and this delay reduces the effective yield to the holder of such securities.

Yields on pass-through securities typically are quoted by investment dealers and vendors based on the maturity of the underlying instruments and the associated average life assumption. The average life of pass-through pools varies with the maturities of the underlying mortgage loans. A pool’s term may be shortened by unscheduled or early payments of principal on the underlying mortgages. Because prepayment rates of individual pools vary widely, it is not possible to predict accurately the average life of a particular pool. In the past, a common industry practice has been to assume that prepayments on pools of fixed-rate 30-year mortgages would result in a 12-year average life for the pool. At present, mortgage pools, particularly those with loans with other maturities or different characteristics, are priced on an assumption of average life determined for each pool. In periods of declining interest rates, the rate of prepayment tends to increase, thereby shortening the actual average life of a pool of mortgage-related securities. Conversely, in periods of rising interest rates, the rate of prepayment tends to decrease, thereby lengthening the actual average life of the pool. Changes in the rate or speed of these payments can cause the value of the mortgage-backed securities to fluctuate rapidly. However, these effects may not be present, or may differ in degree, if the mortgage loans in the pools have adjustable interest rates or other special payment terms, such as a prepayment charge. Actual prepayment experience may cause the yield of mortgage-backed securities to differ from the assumed average life yield.

The market for privately issued mortgage-backed and asset-backed securities is smaller and less liquid than the market for US government mortgage-backed securities. CMO classes may be specifically structured in a manner that provides any of a wide variety of investment characteristics, such as yield, effective maturity and interest rate sensitivity. As market conditions change, however, and especially during periods of rapid or unanticipated changes in market interest rates, the attractiveness of some CMO classes and the ability of the structure to provide the anticipated investment characteristics may be reduced. These changes can result in volatility in the market value, and in some instances reduced liquidity, of the CMO class.

Municipal Obligations

Municipal obligations are issued by a wide range of state and local governments, agencies and authorities for various purposes. The two main kinds of municipal bonds are general obligation bonds and revenue bonds. The issuer of a general obligation bond has pledged its full faith, credit and taxing power for the payment of principal and interest on the bond. Revenue bonds are payable only from specific sources; these may include revenues from a particular facility or class of facilities or special tax or other revenue source. Private activity bonds are revenue bonds issued by or on behalf of public authorities to obtain funds to finance privately operated facilities. Their credit quality usually is directly related to the credit standing of the user of the facilities being financed.

Natural Resources and Physical Commodities

When the Fund invests in securities of companies engaged in natural resources activities, the Fund may be subject to greater risks and market fluctuations than funds with more diversified portfolios. The value of the Fund’s securities will fluctuate in response to market conditions generally, and will be particularly sensitive to the markets for those natural resources in which a particular issuer is involved. The values of natural resources also may fluctuate directly with respect to real and perceived inflationary trends and various political developments. In selecting the Fund’s investments, the Manager will consider each company’s ability to create new products, secure any necessary regulatory approvals, and generate sufficient customer demand. A company’s failure to perform well in any one of these areas, however, could cause its stock to decline sharply.

Natural resource industries throughout the world may be subject to greater political, environmental and other governmental regulation than many other industries. Changes in governmental policies and the need for regulatory approvals may have an adverse effect on the products and services of natural resources companies. For example, the exploration, development and distribution of coal, oil and gas in the US are subject to significant federal and state regulation, which may affect rates of return on such investments and the kinds of services that may be offered to companies in those industries. In addition, many natural resource companies have been subject to significant costs associated with compliance with environmental and other safety regulations. Such regulations also may hamper the development of new technologies. The direction, type or effect of any future regulations affecting natural resource industries are virtually impossible to predict.

Generally, energy commodities, such as coal, natural gas and crude oil, have distinctly higher volatility than other types of commodities, due in part to real time pricing and cross-commodity arbitrage described below. In purchasing related securities, the Manager considers the integration of derivatives and physical trades for risk management in a real-time environment. As well, scheduling receipts, deliveries and transmission of a commodity can all impact investments in commodities.

Energy commodities have unique market risks and physical properties which can affect the available supply. Factors unique to energy commodities include: research and development, location, recovery costs, transportation costs, conversion costs and storage costs, as well as global demand and other events that can affect demand such as war, weather and alternative energy sources. Natural gas and crude oil are especially susceptible to changes in supply and global demand. For example, global oil prices recently have been, and continue to be, subject to extreme market volatility.

An investor in commodities must be able to manage cross-commodity arbitrage, that is, the ability to determine positions stated in equivalent units of measure (e.g., British thermal units). When assessing an investment opportunity - in coal, natural gas or crude oil - this calculation can be critical in determining the success an investor has when calculating how a trade breaks down into a single common denominator. Coal tolling, for instance, involves the conversion of coal to electricity for a fee. The tolling of coal gives marketers, suppliers and generators another arbitrage opportunity if there is a disparity

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Investment Strategies and Risks

between coal and electricity prices while providing some added liquidity between the two commodities.

Principal risks of investing in certain types of commodities include:

cross-commodity arbitrage can negatively impact the Fund’s investments;
fluctuations in demand can negatively impact individual commodities: alternative sources of energy can create unforeseen competition; changes in weather can negatively affect demand; and global production can alter demand and the need for specific sources of energy;
fluctuations in supply can negatively impact individual commodities: transportation costs, research and development, location, recovery/retrieval costs, conversion costs, storage costs and natural disasters can all adversely impact different investments and types of energy;
environmental restrictions can increase costs of production;
restrictions placed by the government of a developing country related to investment, exchange controls, and repatriation of the proceeds of investment in that country; and
war can limit production or access to available supplies and/or resources.

Investments in precious metals (such as gold) and other physical commodities are considered speculative and subject to special risk considerations, including substantial price fluctuations over short periods of time, as well as increasing regulation. On the other hand, investments in precious metals, coins or bullion could help to moderate fluctuations in the value of the Fund’s holdings, since the prices of precious metals have at times tended not to fluctuate as widely as shares of issuers engaged in the mining of precious metals.

Because precious metals and other commodities do not generate investment income, the return on such investments will be derived solely from the appreciation or depreciation on such investments. The Fund also may incur storage and other costs relating to its investments in precious metals and other commodities, which may, under certain circumstances, exceed custodial and brokerage costs associated with investments in other types of securities.

When the Fund purchases a precious metal or other physical commodity, the Manager currently intends that it will only be in a form that is readily marketable. To continue to qualify as a RIC under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (Code), the Fund may not derive more than 10% of its yearly gross income from gains (without regard to losses) resulting from selling or otherwise disposing of precious metals or any other physical commodity (or options or futures contracts thereon unless the gain is realized from certain hedging transactions) and other “non-qualifying income.” See Distributions and Taxes - Taxes. Accordingly, the Fund may be required to hold its precious metals or sell them at a loss, or to sell some portfolio securities at a gain, when, for investment reasons, it would not otherwise do so.

The ability of the Fund to purchase and hold precious metals such as gold, silver and platinum may allow it to benefit from a potential increase in the price of precious metals or stability in the price of such metals at a time when the value of securities may be declining. For example, during periods of declining stock prices, the price of gold may increase or remain stable, while the value of the stock market may be subject to general decline.

Precious metal prices are affected by various factors, such as economic conditions, political events and monetary policies. As a result, the prices of gold, silver or platinum may fluctuate widely. The sole source of return to the Fund from such investments will be gains realized on their sale; a negative return will be realized if the metal is sold at a loss. Investments in precious metals do not provide a yield. The Fund’s direct investment in precious metals is limited by tax considerations. See Distributions and Taxes - Taxes.

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Options, Futures and Other Derivatives Strategies

General. The Manager may use certain options, futures contracts (sometimes referred to as futures), options on futures contracts, forward currency contracts, swaps, caps, floors, collars, indexed securities and other derivative instruments (collectively, Financial Instruments) in an attempt to enhance income or yield, to hedge, to gain exposure to securities, sectors or geographical areas or to otherwise manage the risks of the Fund’s investments.

Generally, the Fund may purchase and sell any type of Financial Instrument. However, as an operating policy, the Fund will only purchase or sell a particular Financial Instrument if the Fund is authorized to invest in the type of asset by which the return on, or value of, the Financial Instrument primarily is measured. Since the Fund is authorized to invest in foreign securities denominated in other currencies, the Fund may purchase and sell foreign currency derivatives.

Hedging strategies can be broadly categorized as short hedges and long hedges. A short hedge is a purchase or sale of a Financial Instrument intended partially or fully to offset potential declines in the value of one or more investments held in the Fund’s portfolio. Thus, in a short hedge, the Fund takes a position in a Financial Instrument whose price is expected to move in the opposite direction of the price of the investment being hedged.

Conversely, a long hedge is a purchase or sale of a Financial Instrument intended partially or fully to offset potential increases in the acquisition cost of one or more investments that the Fund intends to acquire. Thus, in a long hedge, the Fund takes a position in a Financial Instrument whose price is expected to move in the same direction as the price of the prospective investment being hedged. A long hedge is sometimes referred to as an anticipatory hedge. In an anticipatory hedge transaction, the Fund does not own a corresponding security. Therefore, the transaction relates to a security that the Fund intends to acquire. If the Fund does not complete the hedge by purchasing the security it anticipated purchasing, the effect on the Fund’s holdings is the same as if the underlying security had been purchased and later sold, and the transaction could be viewed as speculative.

Financial Instruments involving underlying securities may be used in an attempt to hedge against price movements in one or more particular securities positions that the Fund owns or intends to acquire. Financial Instruments involving underlying indexes, in contrast, may be used in an attempt to hedge against price movements in market sectors in which the Fund has invested or expects to invest, respectively. Financial Instruments involving underlying debt securities may be used in an attempt to hedge either individual securities or broad debt market sectors.

In addition, Financial Instruments also may be used in seeking to gain exposure to securities, sectors, markets or geographical areas. Financial Instruments can be used individually, as in the purchase of a call option, or in combination, as in the purchase of a call option and a concurrent sale of a put option, as an alternative to purchasing securities. Financial Instruments may be used in this manner in seeking to gain exposure more efficiently than through a direct purchase of the underlying security or to more specifically express the outlook of the Manager.

The enactment of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010 (the Dodd-Frank Act) resulted in historic and comprehensive statutory reform of certain OTC derivatives, including the manner in which the derivatives are regulated, derivatives documentation is negotiated, and trades are reported, executed or “cleared.”

Specifically, the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) has adopted rules to require certain standardized swaps, previously traded OTC, be executed in a regulated, transparent market and settled by means of a central clearing house. To date, the CFTC has designated only certain of the most common types of credit default index swaps and interest rate swaps as subject to mandatory clearing and certain public trading facilities have made certain of those cleared swaps available to trade, but it is expected that additional categories of swaps will in the future be designated as subject to mandatory clearing and trade execution requirements. Central clearing is intended to reduce counterparty credit risk and increase liquidity, but, central clearing does not eliminate these risks and may involve additional costs and risks not involved with uncleared swaps. The assets of the Fund may not be fully protected in the event of the bankruptcy of the futures commission merchant (FCM) or central counterparty because the Fund might be limited to recovering only a pro rata share of all available funds and margin segregated on behalf of an FCM’s customers. Credit risk of cleared swap participants is concentrated in a few clearinghouses, and the consequences of insolvency of a clearinghouse are not clear.

In addition, the banking regulators and the CFTC have issued regulations requiring the posting of initial and variation margin for uncleared swaps that are applicable to all financial end-users, including the Fund.

The regulation of derivatives is a rapidly changing area of law and is subject to modification by government and judicial action. In addition, the SEC, CFTC and the exchanges are authorized to take extraordinary actions in the event of a market emergency, including, for example, the implementation or reduction of speculative position limits, the implementation of higher margin requirements, the establishment of daily price limits and the suspension of trading. It is not possible to predict fully the effects of current or future regulation. Changing regulation may, among various possible effects, increase the cost of entering into derivatives transactions, require more assets of the Fund to be used for collateral in support of those derivatives than is currently the case, restrict the ability of the Fund to enter into certain types of derivative transactions, or could limit the Fund’s ability to pursue its investment strategies. New requirements, even if not directly applicable to the Fund, may increase the cost of the Fund’s investments and cost of doing business.

In 2012, pursuant to the Dodd-Frank Act, the CFTC made substantial amendments to the permissible exemptions, and to the conditions for reliance on the permissible exemptions, from registration as a “commodity pool operator” (CPO) under the Commodity Exchange Act (CEA). Under these amendments, if the Fund uses commodity interests (such as futures contracts, options on futures contracts and most swaps) other than for bona fide hedging purposes (as defined by the CFTC), the aggregate initial margin and premiums required to establish these positions (after taking into account unrealized profits and unrealized losses on any such positions and excluding the amount by which options are “in-the-money” at the time of purchase)may not exceed 5% of the Fund’s liquidation value, or alternatively, the aggregate net notional value of those positions, determined at the time the most recent position was

21

Investment Strategies and Risks

established, may not exceed 100% of the Fund’s liquidation value (after taking into account unrealized profits and unrealized losses on any such positions) unless the Manager has registered as a CPO. The Manager, in its management of the Fund, currently is complying, and intends to continue to comply, with at least one of the two alternative limitations described above. Accordingly, the Trust has claimed an exclusion from the definition of the term “commodity pool operator” with respect to the Fund under the CEA and the regulations thereunder.

In addition to complying with these de minimis trading limitations set forth in the CFTC Rule 4.5 under the CPO rules, to qualify for an exclusion under the amended regulation, the operator of the Fund must satisfy a marketing test, which requires, among other things, that the Fund not hold itself out as a vehicle for trading commodity interests. Complying with the de minimis trading limitations may restrict the Manager’s ability to use derivatives as part of the Fund’s investment strategies. Although the Manager believes that it will be able to execute the Fund’s investment strategies within the de minimis trading limitations, the Fund’s performance could be adversely affected. In addition, the Fund’s ability to use Financial Instruments may be limited by tax considerations. See Distributions and Taxes - Taxes.

Pursuant to authority granted under the Dodd-Frank Act, the Treasury issued a notice of final determination (Final Determination) stating that deliverable foreign exchange forwards, as defined in the Final Determination, should not be considered swaps foremost purposes. Thus, deliverable foreign exchange forwards are not deemed to be commodity interests. Therefore, the Fund may enter into deliverable foreign exchange forwards without such transactions counting against the de minimis trading limitations discussed above. Notwithstanding the Treasury’s determination, deliverable foreign exchange forwards (1) must be reported to swap data repositories, (2) are subject to business conduct standards, and (3) are subject to antifraud and anti-manipulation proscriptions of swap execution facilities.

In addition, pursuant to the Dodd-Frank Act and regulations adopted by the CFTC in connection with implementing the Dodd-Frank Act, non-deliverable forwards (NDFs) are deemed to be commodity interests, including for purposes of amended CFTC Rule 4.5, and are subject to the full array of regulations under the Dodd-Frank Act. Therefore, the Fund will limit its investment in NDFs as discussed above.

CFTC Rule 4.5 also provides that, for purposes of determining compliance with the de minimis trading limitations discussed above, swaps that are centrally-cleared on the same clearing organization may be netted where appropriate, but no such netting is permitted for uncleared swaps. To the extent some NDFs remain traded OTC and are not centrally-cleared, the absolute notional value of all such transactions, rather than the net notional value, would be counted against the de minimis trading limitations discussed above. Requests have been made to the CFTC staff for further guidance on this aspect of CFTC Rule 4.5.

In addition to the instruments, strategies and risks described below, the Manager expects to discover additional opportunities in connection with Financial Instruments and other similar or related techniques. These new opportunities may become available as new techniques are developed, as regulatory authorities broaden the range of permitted transactions and as new Financial Instruments or other techniques are developed. The Manager may utilize these opportunities to the extent that they are consistent with the Fund’s objective(s) and permitted by the Fund’s investment policies and restrictions and regulations adopted by applicable regulatory authorities. The Fund might not use any of these strategies, and there can be no assurance that any strategy used will succeed. The Fund’s Prospectus or this SAI will be supplemented to the extent that new products or techniques involve materially different risks than those described below or in the Prospectus.

Special Risks. The use of Financial Instruments involves special considerations and risks, certain of which are described below. Some of these techniques may increase the volatility of the Fund and may involve a small investment of cash relative to the magnitude of the risk assumed. Risks pertaining to particular Financial Instruments are described in the sections that follow:

(1) Successful use of certain Financial Instruments depends upon the ability of the Manager to predict movements of the overall securities, currency and interest rate markets, among other skills. There can be no assurance that any particular strategy will succeed, and the use of Financial Instruments could result in a loss, regardless of whether the intent was to reduce risk or increase return.

(2) There might be imperfect correlation, or even no correlation, between price movements of a Financial Instrument and price movements of the investments being hedged. For example, if the value of a Financial Instrument used in a short hedge increased by less than the decline in value of the hedged investment, the hedge would not be fully successful. Such a lack of correlation might occur due to factors unrelated to the value of the investments being hedged, such as speculation in the market or other pressures on the markets in which Financial Instruments are traded. The effectiveness of hedges using Financial Instruments on underlying indexes will depend on the degree of correlation between price movements in the index and price movements in the securities being hedged.

Because there are a limited number of types of exchange-traded options and futures contracts, the standardized contracts available may not match the Fund’s current or anticipated investments exactly. The Fund may invest in options and futures contracts based on securities, indexes or other instruments with different issuers, maturities, or other characteristics from the securities in which it typically invests, which involves a risk that the options or futures position will not perfectly correlate with the performance of the Fund’s other investments.

Options and futures prices also can diverge from the prices of their underlying instruments, even if the underlying instruments match the Fund’s investments well. Options and futures prices are affected by such factors as changes in volatility of the underlying instrument, the time remaining until expiration of the contract, and current and anticipated short-term interest rates, which may not affect security prices the same way. Imperfect correlation also may result from differing levels of demand in the options and futures markets and the securities markets, from structural differences in how options and futures and securities are traded, and/or from imposition of daily price fluctuation limits or trading halts. The Fund may purchase or sell options and futures contracts with a greater or

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lesser value than the securities it wishes to hedge or intends to purchase in order to attempt to compensate for differences in volatility between the contract and the securities, although this may not be successful in all cases. If price changes in the Fund’s options or futures positions are poorly correlated with its other investments, the positions may fail to produce anticipated gains or result in losses that are not offset by gains in other investments.

(3) If successful, the above-discussed strategies can reduce risk of loss by wholly or partially offsetting the negative effect of unfavorable price movements. However, such strategies also can reduce opportunity for gain by offsetting the positive effect of favorable price movements. For example, if the Fund entered into a short hedge because the Manager projected a decline in the price of a security in the Fund’s portfolio, and the price of that security increased instead, the gain from that increase might be wholly or partially offset by a decline in the price of the Financial Instrument. Moreover, if the price of the Financial Instrument declined by more than the increase in the price of the security, the Fund could suffer a loss. In either such case, the Fund would have been in a better position had it not attempted to hedge at all.

(4) As described below, the Fund might be required to maintain assets as cover, maintain segregated accounts or make margin payments when it takes positions in Financial Instruments involving obligations to third parties unless regulatory relief from restrictions applies. If the Fund were unable to close out its positions in such Financial Instruments, it might be required to continue to maintain such assets or accounts or make such payments until the position expired or matured. These requirements may require that the Fund sell portfolio securities at a disadvantageous time in order to meet such obligations, and could cause the Fund to incur losses.

(5) The Fund’s ability to close out a position in a Financial Instrument prior to expiration or maturity depends on the existence of a liquid secondary market or, in the absence of such a market, the ability and willingness of the other party to the transaction (counterparty) to enter into a transaction closing out the position. Therefore, there is no assurance that any position can be closed out at a time and price that is favorable to the Fund.

(6) Certain Financial Instruments, including options, futures contracts, combined positions and swaps, can create leverage, which may amplify or otherwise increase the Fund’s investment loss, possibly in an amount that could exceed the cost of that Financial Instrument or, under certain circumstances, that could be unlimited. Certain Financial Instruments also may require cash outlays that are only a small portion of the amount of exposure obtained through the Financial Instruments, which results in a form of leverage. Although leverage creates the opportunity for increased total return, it also can create investment exposure for the Fund that, in certain circumstances, could exceed the Fund’s net assets and could alter the risk profile of the Fund in unanticipated ways.

(7) When traded on foreign exchanges, Financial Instruments may not be regulated as rigorously as they would be if traded on or subject to the rules of an exchange located in the United States, may not involve a clearing mechanism and related guarantees, and will be subject to the risk of governmental actions affecting trading in, or the prices of, foreign securities, currencies and other instruments. The value of positions taken as part of non-US Financial Instruments also could be adversely affected by: (i) other complex foreign political, legal and economic factors; (ii) lesser availability of data on which to make trading decisions than in the United States; (iii) delays in the Fund’s ability to act upon economic events occurring in foreign markets during non-business hours in the United States; (iv) the imposition of different exercise and settlement terms and procedures and margin requirements than in the United States; and (v) lower trading volume and liquidity.

Options. A call option gives the purchaser the right, but not the obligation, to buy, and obligates the writer to sell, the underlying investment at the agreed-upon price during the option period. A put option gives the purchaser the right, but not the obligation, to sell, and obligates the writer to buy, the underlying investment at the agreed-upon price during the option period. Purchasers of options pay an amount, known as a premium, to the option writer in exchange for the right under the option contract. Options are traded on an organized, liquid exchange or in the OTC market.

The purchase of call options can serve as a long hedge, and the purchase of put options can serve as a short hedge. Writing put or call options can enable the Fund to enhance income or yield by reason of the premiums paid by the purchasers of such options.

Writing call options can serve as a limited short hedge, because declines in the value of the hedged investment would be offset to the extent of the premium received for writing the option. However, if the security or currency appreciates to a price higher than the exercise price of the call option, it can be expected that the option will be exercised and the Fund will be obligated to sell the security or currency at less than its market value.

Writing put options can serve as a limited long hedge because increases in the value of the hedged investment would be offset to the extent of the premium received for writing the option. However, if the security or currency depreciates to a price lower than the exercise price of the put option, it can be expected that the put option will be exercised and the Fund will be obligated to purchase the security or currency at more than its market value, which would be expected to result in a loss.

The value of an option position will reflect, among other things, the current market value of the underlying investment, the time remaining until expiration, the relationship of the exercise price to the market price of the underlying investment, the anticipated future price volatility of the underlying investment and general market conditions. Purchased options that expire unexercised have no value.

The Fund may effectively terminate its right or obligation under an option by entering into a closing transaction. For example, the Fund may terminate its obligation under a call or put option that it had written by purchasing the call or put option; this is known as a closing purchase transaction. Conversely, the Fund may terminate a position in a put or call option it had purchased by selling the put or call option; this is known as a closing sale transaction. Closing transactions permit the Fund to realize profits or limit losses on an option position prior to its exercise or expiration.

23

Investment Strategies and Risks

A type of put that the Fund may purchase is an optional delivery standby commitment, which is entered into by parties selling debt securities to the Fund. An optional delivery standby commitment gives the Fund the right to sell the security back to the seller on specified terms. This right is provided as an inducement to purchase the security.

Risks of Options on Securities. Options can offer large amounts of leverage, which may result in the Fund’s NAV being more sensitive to changes in the value of the related instrument. The Fund may purchase or write both options that are traded on domestic and foreign exchanges and OTC options. Exchange-traded options on securities in the United States are issued by the Options Clearing Corporation that, in effect, guarantees completion of every exchange-traded option transaction. In contrast, OTC options are contracts between the Fund and its counterparty (usually a securities dealer or a bank) with no clearing organization guarantee. Thus, when the Fund purchases an OTC option, it relies on the counterparty from whom it purchased the option to make or take delivery of the underlying investment upon exercise of the option. Failure by the counterparty to do so could result in the loss of any premium paid by the Fund as well as the loss of any expected benefit of the transaction. The Fund seeks to mitigate this risk by entering into a bilateral credit support arrangement with the counterparty, which requires the posting of collateral to cover the market value of purchased options, which would mitigate the possibility of losing any premium paid by the Fund, as well as any loss of expected benefit of the transaction.

The Fund’s ability to establish and close out positions in exchange-listed options depends on the existence of a liquid market, and there can be no assurance that such a market will exist at any particular time. Closing transactions can be made for OTC options only by negotiating directly with the counterparty, or by negotiating with a different counterparty willing to take the Fund’s place in the contract, called a novation. There can be no assurance that the Fund will in fact be able to close out an OTC option position at a favorable price prior to expiration. In the event of insolvency of the counterparty, the Fund would be able to terminate the position held with such counterparty; but, due to insolvency proceedings, might incur a significant delay in recovering any amounts owed to the Fund.

If the Fund were unable to effect a closing transaction for an option it had purchased, it would have to exercise the option to realize any profit. The inability to enter into a closing purchase transaction or an economically offsetting purchase transaction from another counterparty for a covered call option written by the Fund could cause material losses to the Fund because the Fund would, if unable to substitute other collateral, be unable to sell the investment used as cover for the written option until the option expires or is exercised.

Options on Indexes. Puts and calls on indexes are similar to puts and calls on securities or futures contracts except that all settlements are in cash and gain or loss depends on changes in the index in question rather than on price movements in individual securities or futures contracts. When the Fund writes a call on an index, it receives a premium and agrees that the purchaser of the call, upon exercise of the call, will receive from the Fund an amount of cash if the closing level of the index upon which the call is based is greater than the exercise price of the call. The amount of cash is equal to the difference between the closing price of the index and the exercise price of the call times a specified multiple (multiplier), which determines the total dollar value for each point of such difference. When the Fund buys a call on an index, it pays a premium and has the same rights as to such call as are indicated above. When the Fund buys a put on an index, it pays a premium and has the right to require the seller of the put, upon the Fund’s exercise of the put, to deliver to the Fund an amount of cash if the closing level of the index upon which the put is based is less than the exercise price of the put, which amount of cash is determined by the multiplier, as described above for calls. When the Fund writes a put on an index, it receives a premium and the purchaser of the put has the right to require the Fund to deliver to the purchaser an amount of cash equal to the difference between the closing level of the index and the exercise price times the multiplier if the closing level is less than the exercise price. The timing of the right of an option owner to exercise the option depends on the type of option and negotiations between the purchaser and seller.

Risks of Options on Indexes. The risks of investment in options on indexes may be greater than options on securities. Because index options are settled in cash, when the Fund writes a call on an index, it cannot provide in advance for its potential settlement obligations by acquiring and holding the underlying securities. The Fund can offset some of the risk of writing a call index option by holding a diversified portfolio of securities similar to those on which the underlying index is based. However, the Fund cannot, as a practical matter, acquire and hold a portfolio containing exactly the same securities as underlie the index and, as a result, bears a risk that the value of the securities held will vary from the value of the index. Even if the Fund could assemble a portfolio that exactly reproduced the composition of the underlying index, it still would not be fully covered from a risk standpoint because of the timing risk inherent in writing index options. When an index option is exercised, the amount of cash that the holder is entitled to receive is determined by the difference between the exercise price and the closing index level on the date when the option is exercised. This timing risk is an inherent limitation on the ability of index call option writers to cover their risk exposure by holding securities positions.

Over-the-Counter (OTC) Options. Unlike exchange-traded options, which are standardized with respect to the underlying instrument, expiration date, contract size and strike price, the terms of OTC options (options not traded on an exchange) typically are established by the Fund, and negotiated with a counterparty, prior to entering into the option contract. While this type of arrangement allows the Fund the flexibility to tailor the option to its needs, OTC options involve counterparty risk that is not applicable to exchange-traded options, which are guaranteed by the clearing organization of the exchange where they are traded. Some of the Fund’s counterparties are guaranteed by their parent holding companies with respect to that counterparty’s payment obligations under OTC trades (like OTC options). This helps to mitigate such counterparty risk.

Generally, OTC foreign currency options used by the Fund are European-style options. This means that the option is only exercisable at its expiration. This is in contrast to American-style options, which are exercisable at any time prior to the expiration date of the option.

Futures Contracts and Options on Futures Contracts. Generally, a futures contract is a standardized agreement to buy or sell a specific quantity of an underlying reference instrument, such as a security, index, currency or commodity at a specific price on a specific date in the future. The purchase of futures

24

contracts or call options on futures contracts can serve as a long hedge, and the sale of futures contracts or the purchase of put options on a futures contract can serve as a short hedge. Writing call options on futures contracts can serve as a limited short hedge, using a strategy similar to that used for writing call options on securities or indexes. Similarly, writing put options on futures contracts can serve as a limited long hedge. Futures contracts and options on futures contracts also can be purchased and sold to attempt to enhance income or yield.

In addition, futures contract strategies can be used to manage the average duration of the Fund’s fixed-income holdings. If the Manager wishes to shorten the average duration of the Fund’s fixed-income holdings, the Fund may sell a debt futures contract or a call option thereon, or purchase a put option on that futures contract. If the Investment Manager wishes to lengthen the average duration of the Fund’s fixed-income holdings, the Fund may buy a debt futures contract or a call option thereon, or sell a put option thereon.

No price is paid upon entering into a futures contract. Instead, at the inception of a futures contract the Fund is required to deposit initial margin that typically is calculated as an amount equal to the volatility in market value of a contract over a fixed period. Initial margin requirements are determined by the respective exchanges on which the futures contracts are traded and the FCM. Margin also must be deposited when writing a call or put option on a futures contract, in accordance with applicable exchange rules. Unlike margin in securities transactions, initial margin on futures contracts and options thereon does not represent a borrowing, but rather is in the nature of a performance bond or good-faith deposit that is returned to the Fund at the termination of the transaction if all contractual obligations have been satisfied. Under certain circumstances, such as periods of high volatility, the Fund may be required by an exchange to increase the level of its initial margin payment, and initial margin requirements might be increased generally in the future by regulatory action.

Subsequent variation margin payments are made to and from the FCM daily as the value of the futures position varies, a process known as marking-to-market. Variation margin does not involve borrowing, but rather represents a daily settlement of the Fund’s obligations to or from a FCM. When the Fund purchases an option on a futures contract, the premium paid plus transaction costs is all that is at risk. In contrast, when the Fund purchases or sells a futures contract or writes a call or put option thereon, it is subject to daily variation margin calls that could be substantial in the event of adverse price movements. If the Fund has insufficient cash to meet daily variation margin requirements, it might need to sell securities at a time when such sales are disadvantageous.

Purchasers and sellers of futures contracts and options on futures contracts can enter into offsetting closing transactions, similar to closing transactions on options, by selling or purchasing the instrument purchased or sold. Positions in futures contracts and options on futures contracts may be closed only on an exchange or board of trade that provides a market for such contracts and options. However, there can be no assurance that a liquid market will exist for a particular contract at a particular time. In such event, it may not be possible to close a futures contract or options position.

Under certain circumstances, futures exchanges may establish daily limits on the amount that the price of a futures contract or an option on a futures contract can vary from the previous day’s settlement price; once that limit is reached, no trades may be made that day at a price beyond the limit. Daily price limits do not limit potential losses because prices could move to the daily limit for several consecutive days with little or no trading, thereby preventing liquidation of unfavorable positions. In addition, the CFTC and various exchanges have established limits referred to as “speculative position limits” or “accountability levels” on the maximum net long or net short position that any person, such as the Fund, may hold or control in a particular futures contract or option thereon. For more information, see Speculative Position Limits.

If the Fund were unable to liquidate a futures contract or an option on a futures position due to the absence of a liquid secondary market or the imposition of price limits, it could incur substantial losses. The Fund would continue to be subject to market risk with respect to the position. In addition, except in the case of purchased options, the Fund would continue to be required to make daily variation margin payments and might be required to maintain the position being hedged by the futures contract or option or to maintain cash or liquid assets in an account.

Risks of Futures Contracts and Options. The purchase or sale of a futures contract may result in losses to the Fund in excess of the amount that the Fund delivered as initial margin. Because of the relatively low margin deposits required, futures trading involves a high degree of leverage; as a result, a relatively small price movement in a futures contract may result in immediate and substantial loss, or gain, to the Fund. There also is a risk of loss by the Fund of the initial and variation margin deposits in the event of bankruptcy of the FCM with which the Fund has an open position in a futures contract. The assets of the Fund may not be fully protected in the event of the bankruptcy of the FCM or central counterparty because the Fund might be limited to recovering only a pro rata share of all available funds and margin segregated on behalf of an FCM’s customers. If an FCM does not provide accurate reporting, the Fund also is subject to the risk that the FCM could use the Fund’s assets, which are held in an omnibus account with assets belonging to the FCM’s other customers, to satisfy its own financial obligations or the payment obligations of another customer.

Futures contracts that are traded on non-US exchanges may not be as liquid as those purchased on CFTC-designated contract markets. In addition, non-US futures contracts may be subject to varied regulatory oversight. The price of any non-US futures contract and, therefore, the potential profit and loss thereon, may be affected by any change in the non-US exchange rate between the time a particular order is placed and the time it is liquidated, offset or exercised.

The amount of risk the Fund assumes when it purchases an option on a futures contract is the premium paid for the option plus related transaction costs. The purchase of an option also entails the risk that changes in the value of the underlying futures contract will not be fully reflected in the value of the option purchased. When the Fund sells (writes) an option on a futures contract, the Fund is subject to the risk of having to take a possibly adverse futures position if the purchaser of the option exercises its rights. If the Fund were required to take such a position, it could bear substantial losses.

The ordinary spreads between prices in the cash and futures markets (including the options on futures market), due to differences in the natures of those markets, are subject to the following factors, which may create distortions. First, all participants in the futures market are subject to margin deposit and

25

Investment Strategies and Risks

maintenance requirements. Rather than meeting additional margin deposit requirements, investors may close futures contracts through offsetting transactions, which could distort the normal relationship between the cash and futures markets. Second, in the case of a physically settled futures contract, the liquidity of the futures market depends on participants entering into offsetting transactions rather than making or taking delivery. To the extent participants decide to make or take delivery, liquidity in the futures market could be reduced, thus producing distortion. Third, from the point of view of speculators, the deposit requirements in the futures market are less onerous than margin requirements in the securities market. Therefore, increased participation by speculators in the futures market may cause temporary price distortions. Due to the possibility of distortion, a correct forecast of general interest rate, currency exchange rate or stock market trends by the Manager still may not result in a successful transaction. The Manager may be incorrect in its expectations as to the extent of various interest rate, currency exchange rate or stock market movements or the time span within which the movements take place.

Index Futures. When the Fund utilizes an index futures contract in an attempt to hedge, the risk of imperfect correlation between movements in the price of an index futures contract and movements in the price of the securities that are the subject of the hedge increases as the composition of the Fund’s portfolio diverges from the securities included in the applicable index. The price of the index futures contract may move more than or less than the price of the securities being hedged. If the price of the index futures contract moves less than the price of the securities that are the subject of the hedge, the hedge will not be fully effective but, if the price of the securities being hedged has moved in an unfavorable direction, the Fund would be in a better position than if it had not hedged at all. If the price of the securities being hedged has moved in a favorable direction, this advantage will be partially offset by the futures contract. If the price of the futures contract moves more than the price of the securities, the Fund will experience either a loss or a gain on the futures contract that will not be completely offset by movements in the price of the securities that are the subject of the hedge. To compensate for the imperfect correlation of movements in the price of the securities being hedged and movements in the price of the index futures contract, the Fund may buy or sell index futures contracts in a greater or lesser dollar amount than the dollar amount of the securities being hedged if the historical volatility of the prices of the securities being hedged is more than the historical volatility of the prices of the securities included in the index.

It also is possible that, where the Fund has sold index futures contracts in an attempt to hedge against a decline in the market, the market may advance and the value of the securities held in the portfolio may decline. If this occurred, the Fund would lose money on the futures contract and also experience a decline in value of its portfolio securities. However, while this could occur for a very brief period or to a very small degree, over time the value of a diversified portfolio of securities will tend to move in the same direction as the market indexes on which the futures contracts are based.

Where index futures contracts are purchased in an attempt to hedge against a possible increase in the price of securities before the Fund is able to invest in them in an orderly fashion, it is possible that the market may decline instead. If the Fund then concludes not to invest in them at that time because of concern as to possible further market decline or for other reasons, it will realize a loss on the futures contract that is not offset by a reduction in the price of the securities it had anticipated purchasing.

Foreign Currency Hedging Strategies-Special Considerations. Subject to its investment policies and restrictions, the Fund may use options and futures contracts on foreign currencies (including the euro), as described above, and forward foreign currency contracts (forward currency contracts), as described below, in an attempt to hedge against movements in the values of the foreign currencies in which the Fund’s securities are denominated or in an attempt to enhance income or yield. Currency hedges can protect against price movements in a security that the Fund owns or intends to acquire that are attributable to changes in the value of the currency in which it is denominated. Such hedges do not, however, protect against price movements in the securities that are attributable to other causes.

The Fund might seek to hedge against changes in the value of a particular currency when no Financial Instruments on that currency are available or such Financial Instruments are more expensive than certain other Financial Instruments. In such cases, the Fund may seek to hedge against price movements in that currency by entering into transactions using Financial Instruments on another currency or a basket of currencies, the values of which the Manager believes will have a high degree of positive correlation to the value of the currency being hedged. The risk that movements in the price of the Financial Instrument will not correlate perfectly with movements in the price of the currency subject to the hedging transaction is magnified when this strategy is used.

The value of Financial Instruments on foreign currencies depends on the value of the underlying currency relative to the US dollar.

There is no systematic reporting of last sale information for foreign currencies or any regulatory requirement that quotations available through dealers or other market sources be firm or revised on a timely basis. The interbank market in foreign currencies is a global, round-the-clock market. To the extent the US options or futures markets are closed while the markets for the underlying currencies remain open, significant price and rate movements might take place in the underlying markets that cannot be reflected in the markets for the Financial Instruments until they reopen.

Settlement of transactions involving foreign currencies might be required to take place within the country issuing the underlying currency. Thus, the Fund might be required to accept or make delivery of the underlying foreign currency in accordance with any US or foreign regulations regarding the maintenance of foreign banking arrangements by US residents and might be required to pay any fees, taxes and charges associated with such delivery assessed in the issuing country.

Forward Currency Contracts. Subject to its investment policies and restrictions, the Fund may enter into forward currency contracts to purchase or sell foreign currencies for a fixed amount of US dollars or another foreign currency. A forward currency contract involves an obligation to purchase or sell a specific currency at a future date, which may be any fixed number of days (term) from the date of the forward currency contract agreed upon by the parties, at a price set at the time of the entry into the forward currency contract. These forward currency contracts are traded directly between currency traders (usually large commercial banks) and their customers. Such transactions may serve as long hedges; for example, the Fund may purchase a forward currency contract to lock in the US dollar price of a security denominated in a foreign currency that the Fund intends to acquire. Forward currency contract transactions also may serve as short hedges; for example, the Fund may sell a forward currency contract to lock in the US dollar equivalent of the proceeds from the anticipated sale of a security or a dividend or interest payment denominated in a foreign currency.

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The Fund also may use forward currency contracts in an attempt to hedge against a decline in the value of existing investments denominated in foreign currency. For example, if the Fund owned securities denominated in euros, it could enter into a forward currency contract to sell euros in return for US dollars to hedge against possible declines in the euro’s value. Such a hedge, sometimes referred to as a position hedge, would tend to offset both positive and negative currency fluctuations, but would not offset changes in security values caused by other factors. The Fund also could hedge the position by selling another currency expected to perform similarly to the euro. This type of hedge, sometimes referred to as a proxy hedge, could offer advantages in terms of cost, yield or efficiency, but generally would not hedge currency exposure as effectively as a simple hedge into US dollars. Proxy hedges may result in losses if the currency used to hedge does not perform similarly to the currency in which the hedged securities are denominated.

The Fund also may use forward currency contracts in an attempt to enhance income or yield. The Fund could use forward currency contracts to increase its exposure to foreign currencies that the Manager believes might rise in value relative to the US dollar, or shift its exposure to foreign currency fluctuations from one country to another. For example, if the Fund owned securities denominated in a foreign currency and the Manager believed that currency would decline relative to another currency, it might enter into a forward currency contract to sell an appropriate amount of the first foreign currency, with payment to be made in the second foreign currency. This is accomplished through contractual agreements to purchase or sell a specified currency at a specified future date and price set at the time of the contract.

Forward currency contracts are currently individually negotiated and privately traded by currency traders and their customers. These forward currency contracts may involve the sale of US dollars and the purchase of a foreign currency, or may be foreign cross-currency contracts involving the sale of one foreign currency and the purchase of another foreign currency; such foreign cross-currency contracts may be considered a hedging rather than a speculative strategy if the Fund’s commitment to purchase the new (more favorable) currency is limited to the market value of the Fund’s securities denominated in the old (less favorable) currency. The Fund segregates liquid assets, such as cash, short-term securities and other liquid securities (marked to the market daily), having a value equal to, or greater than, any commitments to purchase currency on a forward basis. The prediction of currency movements is extremely difficult and the successful execution of a speculative strategy is highly uncertain.

The cost to the Fund of engaging in forward currency contracts varies with factors such as the currency involved, the length of the contract period and the market conditions then prevailing.

As is the case with futures contracts, purchasers and sellers of forward currency contracts can enter into offsetting closing transactions by selling or purchasing, respectively, an instrument identical to the instrument purchased or sold. Currently, secondary markets generally do not exist for forward currency contracts. Closing transactions generally can be made for forward currency contracts by negotiating directly with the counterparty or by entering an offsetting transaction with a second counterparty. There can be no assurance that the Fund will be able to close out a forward currency contract at a favorable price prior to maturity and, in such cases, the Fund would continue to be subject to market currency risk with respect to the position, and may continue to be required to maintain a position in securities denominated in the foreign currency or to maintain cash or liquid assets in an account. In addition, in the event of insolvency of the counterparty, the Fund might be unable to promptly terminate the position held with such counterparty and might incur a significant delay in recovering any amounts owed to the Fund. Even if the Fund entered an offsetting transaction with a second counterparty, the Fund would continue to be subject to settlement risk relating to the transaction with the insolvent counterparty.

The precise matching of forward currency contract amounts and the value of the securities involved generally will not be possible because the value of such securities, measured in the foreign currency, will change after the forward currency contract has been established. Thus, the Fund might need to purchase or sell foreign currencies in the spot (cash)market to the extent such foreign currencies are not covered by forward currency contracts. The projection of short-term currency market movements is extremely difficult, and the successful execution of a short-term hedging strategy is highly uncertain.

Normally, consideration of the prospect for currency parities will be incorporated into the longer-term investment decisions made with regard to overall diversification strategies. However, the Manager believes that it is important to have the flexibility to enter into such forward currency contracts when it determines that the best interests of the Fund will be served.

Successful use of forward currency contracts depends on the skill of the Manager in analyzing and predicting currency values. Forward currency contracts may substantially change the Fund’s exposure to changes in currency exchange rates and could result in losses to the Fund if currencies do not perform as the Manager anticipates. There is no assurance that the Manager’s use of forward currency contracts will be advantageous to the Fund or that the Manager will hedge at an appropriate time.

Forward currency contracts in which the Fund may engage include deliverable foreign exchange forwards. A deliverable foreign exchange forward contract provides for the actual exchange of the principal amounts of the two currencies in the contract (i.e., settlement on a physical basis). Foreign exchange forwards typically are traded in the interbank market directly between currency traders (usually large commercial banks) and their customers. Foreign exchange dealers realize a profit based on the difference (the spread) between the prices at which they are buying and the prices at which they are selling various currencies. The Fund also may be required to pay certain commissions. When the Fund enters into a deliverable foreign exchange forward, it relies on the counterparty to make or take delivery of the underlying currency at the maturity of the contract. Failure by the counterparty to do so would result in the loss of any expected benefit of the transaction.

27

Investment Strategies and Risks

The Fund may be required to obtain the currency that it must deliver under the foreign exchange forward through the sale of portfolio securities denominated in such currency or through conversion of other assets of the Fund into such currency.

The Fund also may enter into forward currency contracts that do not provide for physical settlement of the two currencies (each, a Reference Currency), but instead provide for settlement by a single cash payment calculated as the difference between the agreed-upon exchange rate and the prevailing market exchange rate at settlement based upon an agreed-upon notional amount (non-deliverable forwards, or NDFs). NDFs have a fixing date and a settlement (delivery) date. The fixing date is the date and time at which the difference between the prevailing market exchange rate and the agreed upon exchange rate is calculated. The settlement (delivery) date is the date by which the payment of the Settlement Amount is due to the party receiving payment.

NDFs typically may have terms from one month up to two years and are settled in US dollars. NDFs are subject to many of the risks associated with derivatives in general and forward currency transactions, including risks associated with fluctuations in foreign currency and the risk that the counterparty will fail to fulfill its obligations. Under definitions adopted by the CFTC and SEC, NDFs are considered swaps, and therefore are included in the definition of “commodity interests.” In contrast, forward currency contracts that qualify as deliverable forwards are not regulated as swaps foremost purposes, and are not included in the definition of “commodity interests.” However these forwards are subject to some requirements applicable to swaps, including reporting to swap data repositories, documentation requirements, and business conduct rules applicable to swap dealers. CFTC regulation of forward currency contracts, especially NDFs, may restrict the Fund’s ability to use these instruments in the manner described above.

Although NDFs historically have been traded OTC, as swaps they may in the future be required to be centrally cleared and traded on public facilities. Under such circumstances, they would be centrally cleared and a secondary market for them normally would exist. With respect to NDFs that are centrally-cleared, an investor could lose margin payments it has deposited with the clearing organization as well as the net amount of gains not yet paid by the clearing organization if the clearing organization breaches its obligations under the NDF, becomes insolvent or goes into bankruptcy. In the event of bankruptcy of the clearing organization, the investor may be entitled to the net amount of gains the investor is entitled to receive plus the return of margin owed to it only in proportion to the amount received by the clearing organization’s other customers, potentially resulting in losses to the investor. Even if some NDFs remain traded OTC, they will be subject to margin requirements for uncleared swaps and counterparty risk common to other swaps.

Speculative Position Limits. The CFTC and various exchanges have established limits referred to as “speculative position limits” or “accountability levels” on the maximum net long or short futures positions that any person or group of persons under common trading control (other than a hedger, which the Fund is not) may hold, own or control in a particular futures contract or option on a futures contract. Trading limits also are imposed on the maximum number of contracts that any person may trade on a particular trading day. An exchange may order the liquidation of positions found to be in violation of these limits and it may impose other sanctions or restrictions. Among the purposes of speculative position limits is to prevent a corner or squeeze on a market or undue influence on prices by any single trader or group of traders. The current federal speculative position limits established by the CFTC apply to certain agricultural commodity positions, such as grains (oats, corn, and wheat), the soybeans complex (soybeans, soybean oil and soybean meal) and cotton, as well as energy and metals contracts.

Recent regulations have changed the requirements related to the use of certain derivatives. Some of these new regulations have limited the availability of certain derivatives and made their use by funds more costly. Constraints on the ability of the Manager to use derivatives to gain access to markets, participate in investment opportunities or risk-manage the Fund’s assets could have an adverse impact on the Fund. The regulation of derivatives is a rapidly changing area of law and the impact of these new regulations are not certain at this time.

Combined Positions. The Fund may purchase and write options in combination with each other, or in combination with futures contracts or forward contracts, to adjust the risk and return characteristics of its overall position. A combined position usually will contain elements of risk that are present in each of its component transactions. For example, the Fund may purchase a put option and write a call option on the same underlying instrument in order to construct a combined position whose risk and return characteristics are similar to selling a futures contract. The Fund also may write a put option and purchase a call option on the same underlying instrument in order to construct a combined position whose risk and return characteristics are similar to holding the underlying instrument. Because combined options positions involve multiple trades, they may result in higher transaction costs, may be more difficult to open and close out and may perform in unanticipated ways. Because combined positions, like other Financial Instruments may require cash outlays that are only a small portion of the amount of exposure obtained through the combined positions, the Fund’s investment exposure gained through these combined positions could exceed its net assets.

Turnover. The Fund’s options and futures contracts activities may affect its turnover rate and brokerage commission payments. The exercise of calls or puts written by the Fund, and the sale or purchase of futures contracts, may cause it to sell or purchase related investments, thus increasing its turnover rate. Once the Fund has received an exercise notice on an option it has written, it cannot effect a closing transaction in order to terminate its obligation under the option and must deliver or receive the underlying securities at the exercise price. The exercise of puts purchased by the Fund also may cause the sale of related investments, also increasing turnover; although such exercise is within the Fund’s control, holding a protective put might cause it to sell the related investments for reasons that would not exist in the absence of the put. The Fund pays a brokerage commission each time it buys or sells a put or call or purchases or sells a futures contract. Such commissions could be higher than those that would apply to direct purchases or sales.

Swaps, Caps, Floors and Collars. The Fund may enter into swaps, including caps, floors and collars, for any legal purpose consistent with its investment objective(s) and policies, including to attempt: to obtain or preserve a particular return or a spread on a particular investment or portion of its portfolio; to

28

protect against an increase in the price of securities the Fund anticipates purchasing at a later date; to protect against currency fluctuations; to use as a duration management technique; to enhance income or capital gains; to protect against a decline in the price of securities the Fund currently owns; or to gain exposure to certain markets in an economical way.

A swap is an agreement involving the exchange by the Fund with another party of their respective commitments to pay or receive payments at specified dates based upon or calculated by reference to changes in specified prices or rates (e.g., interest rates in the case of interest rate swaps) based on a specified amount (the “notional” amount). Examples of swap agreements include, but are not limited to, equity, commodity, index or other total return swaps, foreign currency swaps, credit default swaps and interest rate swaps.

The Dodd-Frank Act and related regulatory developments have imposed comprehensive new regulatory requirements on swaps and swap market participants. The regulatory framework includes: (1) registration and regulation of swap dealers and major swap participants; (2) requiring central clearing and execution of standardized swaps; (3) imposing margin requirements on swap transactions; (4) regulating and monitoring swap transactions through position limits and large trader reporting requirements; and (5) imposing record keeping and centralized and public reporting requirements, on an anonymous basis, for most swaps. The CFTC is responsible for the regulation of most swaps. The SEC has jurisdiction over a small segment of the market referred to as “security-based swaps,” which includes swaps on single securities or credits, or narrow-based indices of securities or credits.

A swap agreement may be negotiated bilaterally and traded OTC between the two parties (for an uncleared swap) or, in some instances, must be transacted through an FCM and cleared through a clearinghouse that serves as a central counterparty (for a cleared swap). Certain standardized swaps currently are, and more in the future are expected to be, subject to mandatory central clearing and exchange-trading. The Dodd-Frank Act and implementing rules will ultimately require the clearing and exchange- trading of many swaps. Mandatory exchange-trading and clearing will occur on a phased-in basis based on the type of market participant, CFTC approval of contracts for central clearing and public trading facilities making such cleared swaps available to trade. To date, the CFTC has designated only certain of the most common types of credit default index swaps and interest rate swaps as subject to mandatory clearing and certain public trading facilities have made certain of those cleared swaps available to trade, but it is expected that additional categories of swaps will in the future be designated as subject to mandatory clearing and trade execution requirements. Central clearing is intended to reduce counterparty credit risk and increase liquidity, but central clearing does not eliminate these risks and may involve additional costs and risks not involved with uncleared swaps.

In an uncleared swap, the swap counterparty typically is a brokerage firm, bank or other financial institution. During the term of an uncleared swap, the Fund will be required to pledge to the swap counterparty, from time to time, an amount of cash and/or other assets equal to the total net amount (if any) that would be payable by the Fund to the counterparty if all outstanding swaps between the parties were terminated on the date in question, including any early termination payments. Likewise, the counterparty will be required to pledge cash or other assets to cover its obligations to the Fund. However, the amount pledged may not always be equal to or more than the amount due to the other party. Therefore, if a counterparty defaults in its obligations to the Fund, the amount pledged by the counterparty and available to the Fund may not be sufficient to cover all the amounts due to the Fund and the Fund may sustain a loss.

In a cleared swap, the Fund’s ultimate counterparty is a central clearinghouse rather than a brokerage firm, bank or other financial institution. Cleared swaps are submitted for clearing through each party’s FCM, which must be a member of the clearinghouse that serves as the central counterparty. Transactions executed on a swap execution facility (SEF) may increase market transparency and liquidity but may require the Fund to incur increased expenses to access the same types of swaps that it has used in the past. When the Fund enters into a cleared swap, it must deliver to the central counterparty (via the FCM) an amount referred to as “initial margin.” Initial margin requirements are determined by the central counterparty, and are typically calculated as an amount equal to the volatility in market value of the cleared swap over a fixed period, but an FCM may require additional initial margin above the amount required by the central counterparty. During the term of the swap agreement, a “variation margin” amount also may be required to be paid by the Fund or may be received by the Fund in accordance with margin controls set for such accounts.

Swap agreements can be structured to provide exposure to a variety of different types of investments or market factors. For example, in an interest rate swap, fixed-rate payments may be exchanged for floating rate payments; in a currency swap, US dollar-denominated payments may be exchanged for payments denominated in a foreign currency; and in a total return swap, payments tied to the investment return on a particular asset, group of assets or index may be exchanged for payments that are effectively equivalent to interest payments or for payments tied to the return on another asset, group of assets or index.

Caps, floors and collars have an effect similar to buying or writing options; they allow a purchaser to attempt to protect itself against interest rate movements exceeding specified minimum or maximum levels. The purchase of a cap entitles the purchaser to receive payments from the seller on a notional principal amount to the extent that a specified index exceeds a predetermined value. The purchase of a floor entitles the purchaser to receive payments from the seller on a notional principal amount to the extent that a specified index falls below a predetermined value. A collar combines elements of buying a floor and selling a cap.

In a long total return equity swap, the Fund will receive, and, in a short total return swap, the Fund pays, the price appreciation of an equity index, a custom basket of equity securities, or a single equity, plus any dividend or coupon income from such securities, in exchange for payments equivalent to a floating rate of interest, or if the equity swap is for the equivalent of one interest rate period, a fixed fee that is established at the outset of the swap. Floating rate payments are pegged to a base rate, such as the federal funds rate, that is periodically adjusted. Therefore, if interest rates increase over the term of the swap contract, the Fund may be required to pay a higher amount at each swap reset date.

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Investment Strategies and Risks

The Fund may enter into credit default swap contracts for hedging or investment purposes. The Fund may either sell or buy credit protection under these contracts. The seller in a credit default swap contract is required to pay the par (or other agreed-upon) value of a referenced debt obligation to the buyer in exchange for an equal face amount of deliverable obligations of the referenced debt obligation (or other agreed-upon debt obligation) described in the swap, or the seller may be required to deliver the related net cash amount, if the swap is cash settled, if there is a credit event by the issuer of that debt obligation. In return, the seller receives from the buyer a periodic stream of payments over the term of the contract or, if earlier, until the occurrence of a credit event. If the contract is terminated prior to its stated maturity, either the seller or the buyer would make a termination payment to the other in an amount approximately equal to the amount by which the value of the contract has increased in value to the recipient of the settlement payment. For example, if the contract is more valuable to the buyer (as would normally occur if the creditworthiness of the issuer of the referenced debt obligation has decreased), the seller would make a termination payment to the buyer. As the seller of credit protection, the Fund would effectively add leverage to the extent the notional amount exceeds the amount of cash the Fund has because, in addition to its total net assets, the Fund would be subject to the investment exposure of the notional amount of the swap. As the buyer, the Fund normally would be hedging its exposure on debt obligations that it holds.

Swap agreements may shift the Fund’s investment exposure from one type of investment to another. For example, if the Fund agrees to exchange payments in US dollars for payments in foreign currency, the swap agreement would tend to decrease the Fund’s exposure to US interest rates and increase its exposure to foreign currency and interest rates. Most swap agreements provide that, when the periodic payment dates for both parties are the same, payments are netted, and only the net amount is paid to the counterparty entitled to receive the net payment. Consequently, the Fund’s current obligations (or rights) under a swap agreement generally will be equal only to the net amount to be paid or received under the agreement, based on the relative values of the positions held by each counterparty.

Because swap agreements may have a leverage component, adverse changes in the value or level of the underlying asset, reference rate or index can result in gains or losses that are substantially greater than the amount invested in the swap itself. Certain swaps have the potential for unlimited loss, regardless of the size of the initial investment. The net amount of the excess, if any, of the Fund’s obligations over its entitlements with respect to each swap will be accrued on a daily basis and an amount of cash or liquid assets having an aggregate value at least equal to the accrued excess will be maintained in an account with the Fund’s custodian that satisfies the requirements of the 1940 Act. The Fund also will establish and maintain such account with respect to its total obligations under any swaps that are not entered into on a net basis and with respect to any caps or floors that are written by the Fund. The Manager and the Fund believe that such obligations do not constitute senior securities under the 1940 Act and, accordingly, do not treat them as being subject to the Fund’s borrowing restrictions.

The use of swap agreements entails certain risks that may be different from, or possibly greater than, the risks associated with investing directly in the referenced assets that underlie the swap agreement. Swaps are highly specialized instruments that require investment techniques and risk analyses different from those associated with stocks, bonds, and other traditional investments.

The use of a swap requires an understanding not only of the referenced asset, referenced rate, or index but also of the swap itself. If the Manager attempts to use a swap as a hedge against, or as a substitute for, the Fund’s portfolio investment, the Fund will be exposed to the risk that the swap will have or will develop an imperfect or no correlation with the portfolio investment. This could cause significant losses for the Fund. While hedging strategies involving swap instruments can reduce the risk of loss, they also can reduce the opportunity for gain or even result in losses by offsetting favorable price movements in other Fund investments.

As with other investments, swap agreements are subject to the risk that the market value of the instrument will change in a way detrimental to the Fund’s interest. The Fund bears the risk that the Manager will not accurately forecast future market trends or the values of assets, reference rates, indexes, or other economic factors in establishing swap positions for the Fund.

To the extent a swap is not centrally cleared, the use of a swap also involves the risk that a loss may be sustained as a result of the insolvency or bankruptcy of the counterparty or the failure of the counterparty to make required payments or otherwise comply with the terms of the agreement. The creditworthiness of firms with which the Fund enters into swaps, caps, floors or collars will be monitored by the Manager. If a counterparty’s creditworthiness declines, the value of the swap might decline, potentially resulting in losses. Changing conditions in a particular market area, whether or not directly related to the referenced assets that underlie the swap agreement, may have an adverse impact on the creditworthiness of the counterparty. For example, the counterparty may have experienced losses as a result of its exposure to a sector of the market that adversely affect its creditworthiness. If a default occurs by the other party to such transaction, the Fund may have contractual remedies pursuant to the agreements related to the transaction.

Central clearing is designed to reduce counterparty credit risk and increase liquidity compared to uncleared swaps because central clearing interposes the central clearinghouse as the counterparty to each participant’s swap, but it does not eliminate those risks completely and may involve additional costs and risks not involved with uncleared swaps. There also is a risk of loss by the Fund of the initial and variation margin deposits in the event of bankruptcy of an FCM with which the Fund has an open position, or the central counterparty in a swap contract. The assets of the Fund may not be fully protected in the event of the bankruptcy of an FCM or central counterparty because the Fund might be limited to recovering only a pro rata share of all available funds and margin segregated on behalf of an FCM’s customers. If an FCM does not provide accurate reporting, the Fund also is subject to the risk that the FCM could use the Fund’s assets, which are held in an omnibus account with assets belonging to the FCM’s other customers, to satisfy its own financial obligations or the payment obligations of another customer to the central counterparty. Credit risk of cleared swap participants is concentrated in a few clearinghouses, and the consequences of insolvency of a clearinghouse are not clear.

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With cleared swaps, the Fund may not be able to obtain terms as favorable as it would be able to negotiate for a bilateral, uncleared swap. In addition, an FCM may unilaterally amend the terms of its agreement with the Fund, which may include the imposition of position limits or additional margin requirements with respect to the Fund’s investment in certain types of swaps. Central counterparties and FCMs can require termination of existing cleared swap transactions upon the occurrence of certain events, and also can require increases in margin above the margin that is required at the initiation of the swap agreement.

Finally, the Fund is subject to the risk that, after entering into a cleared swap with an executing broker, no FCM or central counterparty is willing or able to clear the transaction. In such an event, the Fund may be required to break the trade and make an early termination payment to the executing broker.

Payment-In-Kind (PIK) Securities

Subject to its investment policies and restrictions, the Fund may invest in PIK securities. PIK securities are securities that contain provisions that allow an issuer, at its discretion, to make current interest payments either in cash or in the form of additional securities. These instruments may be valued at a deep discount from the face amount. Interest received in the form of additional securities is recorded as interest income. Federal tax law requires the holder of a PIK security to accrue that interest income with respect to the security regardless of the receipt (or non-receipt) of cash payments. Accordingly, although the Fund generally will not receive cash payments on PIK securities, it will have current income attributable to those securities. To avoid liability for federal income and excise taxes, therefore, the Fund may be required to distribute cash in an amount equal to income accrued with respect to those securities and may have to dispose of portfolio securities under disadvantageous circumstances in order to generate cash to make that distribution.

It is possible that by effectively increasing the principal balance payable to the Fund or deferring cash payment of such interest until maturity, the use of PIK features will increase the risk that such amounts will become uncollectible when due and payable. Prices of PIK securities may be more sensitive to changes in the issuer’s financial condition, fluctuations in interest rates and market demand/supply imbalances than cash-paying securities with similar credit ratings, and thus may be more speculative than are securities that pay interest periodically in cash. Investments in PIK securities may be illiquid or restricted, which may make it difficult for the Fund to dispose of them or to determine their current value.

Real Estate Investment Trust (REIT) Securities

Subject to its investment policies and restrictions, the Fund may invest in securities issued by REITs. A REIT is a domestic corporation (or a trust or association otherwise taxable as such for federal tax purposes) that meets certain requirements of the Code. The Code permits a qualifying REIT to deduct dividends it pays, thereby effectively eliminating entity-level federal income tax for a REIT that distributes all of its taxable income (including net capital gains) and making the REIT a modified pass-through vehicle for federal income tax purposes. To qualify for treatment as a REIT, a company must, among other things, derive at least 75% of its gross income each taxable year from real estate sources (such as rents from real estate, interest from mortgages on real estate, and gains from sales of real estate assets), and must annually distribute to its shareholders 90% or more of its taxable income (including net capital gains). Moreover, at the end of each quarter of its taxable year, at least 75% of the value of its total assets must be represented by real estate assets, cash and cash items and US government securities.

REITs are sometimes informally characterized as equity REITs, mortgage REITs and hybrid REITs. An equity REIT invests primarily in the fee ownership or leasehold ownership of land and buildings and derives its income primarily from rental income. A mortgage REIT invests primarily in mortgages on real estate, and derives its income primarily from interest payments received on credit it has granted. A hybrid REIT combines the characteristics of equity REITs and mortgage REITs. It is anticipated, although not required, that under normal circumstances, a majority of the Fund’s investments in REITs will consist of shares issued by equity REITs.

Repurchase Agreements and Reverse Repurchase Agreements

The Fund may purchase securities subject to repurchase agreements and reverse repurchase agreements, subject to its restriction on investment in illiquid investments, and subject to its investment policies and restrictions. A repurchase agreement is an instrument under which the Fund purchases a security and the seller (normally a commercial bank or broker-dealer) agrees, at the time of purchase, that it will repurchase the security at a specified time and price. A reverse repurchase agreement is the opposite: the Fund will sell the security with an obligation to repurchase it at an agreed-upon time and price. The amount by which the resale price is greater than the purchase price reflects an agreed-upon market interest rate effective for the period of the agreement. The return on the securities subject to the repurchase agreement may be more or less than the return on the repurchase agreement.

The majority of repurchase agreements in which the Fund will engage are overnight transactions, and the delivery pursuant to the resale typically will occur within 1 to 5 days of the purchase. The primary risk from repurchase agreements is that the Fund may suffer a loss if the seller fails to pay the agreed-upon amount on the delivery date and that amount is greater than the resale price of the underlying securities and other collateral held by the Fund. In the event of bankruptcy or other default by the seller, there may be possible delays and expenses in liquidating the underlying securities or other collateral, decline in their value or loss of interest. Additionally, reverse repurchase agreements involve borrowing to take advantage of investment opportunities; such leverage could magnify losses. If the Fund borrows money to purchase securities and those securities decline in value, then the value of the Fund’s shares will decline faster than if the Fund were not leveraged. The return on such collateral may be more or less than that from the repurchase agreement. The Fund’s repurchase agreements will be structured so as to fully collateralize the loans. In other words, the value of the underlying securities, which will be held by the Fund’s custodian bank or by a third party that qualifies as a custodian under Section 17(f) of the 1940 Act, is and, during the entire term of the agreement, will remain at least equal to the value of the loan, including the accrued interest earned thereon. Repurchase agreements are entered into only with those entities approved by the Manager.

Restricted Securities

Subject to its investment policies and restrictions, the Fund may invest in restricted securities. Restricted securities are securities that are subject to legal or

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Investment Strategies and Risks

contractual restrictions on resale. However, restricted securities generally can be sold in privately negotiated transactions, pursuant to an exemption from registration under the Securities Act of 1933 (1933 Act), or in a registered public offering. For example, the Fund may purchase commercial paper that is issued in reliance on the so-called private placement exemption from registration that is afforded by Section 4(a)(2) of the 1933 Act (Section 4(a)(2) paper). Section 4(a)(2) paper normally is resold to other institutional investors through or with the assistance of investment dealers who make a market in the Section 4(a)(2) paper, thus providing liquidity. Where registration is required, the Fund may be obligated to pay all or part of the registration expense and a considerable period may elapse between the time it decides to seek registration and the time the Fund may be permitted to sell a security under an effective registration statement. If, during such a period, adverse market conditions were to develop, the Fund might obtain a less favorable price than prevailed when it decided to seek registration of the security.

The Fund also may invest in securities that normally are purchased or resold pursuant to Rule 144A under the 1933 Act (Rule 144A securities). Rule 144A is designed to facilitate efficient trading among institutional investors by permitting the sale of certain unregistered securities. Rule 144A securities may be resold only to qualified institutional buyers, provided that certain other conditions for resale are met. To the extent privately placed securities held by the Fund qualify under Rule 144A and an institutional market develops for those securities, the Fund likely will be able to dispose of the securities without registering them under the 1933 Act.

There are risks associated with investments in restricted securities in that there can be no assurance of a ready market for resale. Also, the contractual restrictions on resale might prevent the Fund from reselling the securities at a time when such sale would be desirable. Restricted securities that are traded in foreign markets often are subject to restrictions that prohibit resale to US persons or entities or permit sales only to foreign broker-dealers who agree to limit their resale to such persons or entities. The buyer of such securities must enter into an agreement that, usually for a limited period of time, it will resell such securities subject to such restrictions. Restricted securities in which the Fund seeks to invest need not be listed or admitted to trading on a foreign or US exchange and may be less liquid than listed securities.

Restricted securities that have not been registered generally are referred to as private placements and are purchased directly from the issuer or in the secondary market and usually are not listed on an exchange nor traded in other established markets. Such securities are restricted as to disposition and generally are sold to institutional investors.

Certain of the Fund’s investments in private placements may consist of direct investments and may include investments in smaller, less-seasoned issuers, which may involve greater risks than investments in the securities of more established companies. These issuers may have limited product lines, markets or financial resources, or they may be dependent on a limited management group.

As a result of the absence of a public trading market, privately placed securities and other restricted securities may be less liquid and more difficult to value than publicly-traded securities. As relatively few purchasers of these securities may exist, especially in the event of adverse market or economic conditions or adverse changes in the issuer’s financial condition, the Fund could have difficulty selling them when the Manager believes it is advisable to do so. To the extent that restricted securities may be resold in privately negotiated transactions, the prices realized from the sales, due to illiquidity, could be less than those originally paid by the Fund or less than the fair market value.

In addition, issuers whose securities are not publicly traded may not be subject to the disclosure and other investor protection requirements that may be applicable if the securities were publicly traded. As a result, the Fund may be less able to predict a loss. In making investments in such securities, the Fund may obtain access to material non-public information, which may restrict the Fund’s ability to conduct portfolio transactions in such securities. The Fund also may take a minority interest in a privately offered security, which may limit the Fund’s ability to protect shareholders’ interests in connection with corporate actions by the privately held company. The Fund’s Portfolio Manager may serve on the board of directors (or similar governing body) of a privately held company, the securities of which that Fund may hold. While the Manager believes such service will be beneficial to the Fund and its shareholders, the Portfolio Manager’s service as a board member also could create a conflict of interest (or an appearance of a conflict of interest) that may impact the Fund. In addition, investments in privately placed securities may include other additional contractual obligations, such as the payment of registration expenses as noted above or the purchase of additional securities.

Securities Lending

The Fund may loan up to 25% of its assets to qualified broker/dealers or institutional investors for their use relating to short sales or other security transactions.

At the time a security is loaned, the borrower must post collateral equal to the required percentage of the market value of the loaned security, including any accrued interest. The required percentage is: (i) 102% with respect to US securities and foreign securities that are denominated and payable in US dollars; and (ii) 105% with respect to foreign securities. With respect to each loan if, on any business day, the aggregate market value of securities collateral plus cash collateral held is less than the aggregate market value of the securities which are the subject of such loan, the borrower will be notified to provide additional collateral by the end of the following business day which, together with the collateral already held, will be not less than the applicable initial collateral requirements for such security loan. If the aggregate market value of securities collateral and cash collateral held with respect to a security loan exceeds the applicable initial collateral requirement, upon request of the borrower, the Fund must return enough collateral to the borrower by the end of the following business day to reduce the value of the remaining collateral to the applicable initial collateral requirement for such security loan. As a result of the foregoing, the value of the collateral held with respect to a loaned security on any particular day may be more or less than the value of the security on loan.

The investment guidelines permit each separate account to hold certain securities that would be considered eligible securities for a money market fund. Cash collateral received is generally invested in government securities; certain obligations issued by government sponsored enterprises; repurchase agreements collateralized by US Treasury securities; obligations issued by the central government of any Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) country or its agencies, instrumentalities or establishments; certain obligations of supranational organizations, commercial paper, notes, bonds and other debt obligations; certificates of deposit, time deposits and other bank obligations; and asset-backed securities.

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The Fund can also accept US government securities and letters of credit (non-cash collateral) in connection with securities loans. In the event of default or bankruptcy by the lending agent, realization and/or retention of the collateral may be subject to legal proceedings. In the event the borrower fails to return loaned securities and the collateral received is insufficient to cover the value of the loaned securities and provided such collateral shortfall is not the result of investment losses, the lending agent has agreed to pay the amount of the shortfall to the Fund or, at the discretion of the lending agent, replace the loaned securities. The Fund continues to record dividends or interest, as applicable, on the securities loaned and is subject to changes in value of the securities loaned that may occur during the term of the loan. The Fund has the right under the Lending Agreement to recover the securities from the borrower on demand. With respect to security loans collateralized by non-cash collateral, the Fund receives loan premiums paid by the borrower. With respect to security loans collateralized by cash collateral, the earnings from the collateral investments are shared among the Fund, the security lending agent, and the borrower. The Fund records security lending income net of allocations to the security lending agent and the borrower.

Short Sales Against the Box

Subject to its investment policies and restrictions, the Fund may sell securities “short against the box;” provided, however, that the Fund’s aggregate short sales prices may not, at the time of any short sale, exceed 10% of its total assets. Whereas a short sale is the sale of a security the Fund does not own, a short sale is “against the box” if, at all times during which the short position is open, the Fund owns at least an equal amount of the securities sold short or other securities convertible into or exchangeable without further consideration for securities of the same issue as the securities sold short. Short sales against the box typically are used by sophisticated investors to defer recognition of capital gains or losses. The Fund has no present intention to sell securities short in this fashion.

Special Purpose Acquisition Companies

The Fund may invest in stock, warrants, and other securities of special purpose acquisition companies (SPACs) or similar special purpose entities that pool funds to seek potential acquisition opportunities. A SPAC is typically a publicly traded company that raises funds through an initial public offering (IPO) for the purpose of acquiring or merging with another company to be identified subsequent to the SPAC’s IPO. The securities of a SPAC are often issued in “units” that include one share of common stock and one right or warrant (or partial right or warrant) conveying the right to purchase additional shares or partial shares. Generally, unless and until a transaction is completed, a SPAC will invest its assets (minus a portion used to cover expenses) in U.S. government securities, money market funds and similar investments. If an acquisition or merger that meets the requirements for the SPAC is not completed within a pre-established period of time (e.g., two years), the invested funds are returned to the SPAC’s shareholders, minus certain permitted expenses. In that case, the rights or warrants issued by the SPAC will expire worthless.

Because SPACs and similar entities are in essence blank check companies that have no operating history or ongoing business other than seeking acquisitions, the value of their securities is particularly dependent on the ability of the entity’s management to identify and complete a profitable acquisition. As a result, the values of investments in SPACs may be highly volatile and may depreciate significantly over time, and an acquisition or merger, once effected, may prove unsuccessful and an investment in the SPAC may lose value. Moreover, an investment in a SPAC is subject to a variety of additional risks, including the following:

(i) a portion of the monies raised by the SPAC for the purpose of effecting an acquisition or merger may be expended prior to the transaction for payment of taxes and other expenses;

(ii) prior to any acquisition or merger, a SPAC’s assets are typically invested in U.S. government securities, money market funds and similar investments whose returns or yields may be significantly lower than those of the Fund’s other investments;

(iii) the Fund generally will not receive significant income from its investments in SPACs (both prior to and after any acquisition or merger) and, therefore, the Fund’s investments in SPACs will not significantly contribute to the Fund’s distributions to shareholders;

(iv) attractive acquisition or merger targets may become scarce if the number of SPACs seeking to acquire operating businesses increases;

(v) an attractive acquisition or merger target may not be identified at all, in which case the SPAC will be required to return any remaining monies to shareholders;

(vi) if an acquisition or merger target is identified, the Fund may elect not to participate in, or vote to approve, the proposed transaction or the Fund may be required to divest its interests in the SPAC, due to regulatory or other considerations, in which case the Fund may not reap any resulting benefits;

(vii) the warrants or other rights with respect to the SPAC held by the Fund may expire worthless or may be redeemed by the SPAC at an unfavorable price;

(viii) any proposed merger or acquisition may be unable to obtain the requisite approval, if any, of SPAC shareholders and/or antitrust and securities regulators;

(ix) under any circumstances in which the Fund receives a refund of all or a portion of its original investment (which typically represents a pro rata share of the proceeds of the SPAC’s assets, less any applicable taxes), the returns on that investment may be negligible, and the Fund may be subject to opportunity costs to the extent that alternative investments would have produced higher returns;

(x) to the extent an acquisition or merger is announced or completed, shareholders who redeem their shares prior to that time may not reap any resulting benefits;

(xi) the Fund may be delayed in receiving any redemption or liquidation proceeds from a SPAC to which it is entitled;

(xii) an investment in a SPAC may be diluted by additional later offerings of interests in the SPAC or by other investors exercising existing rights to purchase shares of the SPAC; and

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Investment Strategies and Risks

(xiii) only a thinly traded market for shares of or interests in a SPAC may develop, or there may be no market at all, leaving the Fund unable to sell its interest in a SPAC or to sell its interest only at a price below what the Fund believes is the SPAC interest’s intrinsic value.

US Government Securities

US government securities are securities issued or guaranteed as to principal or interest by the US, or by a person controlled or supervised by and acting as an instrumentality of the US government. These securities include Treasury Bills (which mature within one year of the date they are issued), Treasury Notes (which have maturities of one to ten years) and Treasury Bonds (which generally have maturities of more than ten years). All such Treasury securities are backed by the full faith and credit of the United States.

Certain securities issued or guaranteed by US government agencies or instrumentalities are backed by the full faith and credit of the US government, such as securities issued by the Export-Import Bank of the United States, Farm Credit System Financial Assistance Corporation, Farmers Home Administration, Federal Housing Administration, General Services Administration, Ginnie Mae, Maritime Administration or Small Business Administration.

Other securities issued or guaranteed by US government agencies or instrumentalities are not backed by the full faith and credit of the US government. For example, some securities are supported by the right of the agency or instrumentality to borrow from the Treasury, such as securities issued by the FHLB, Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac, and other securities are supported only by the credit of the agency or instrumentality, such as securities issued by the Federal Farm Credit Banks Funding Corporation or Tennessee Valley Authority.

If the securities issued or guaranteed by a US government agency or instrumentality are not backed by the full faith and credit of the US government, there can be no assurance that the US government would provide financial support to the agency or instrumentality. The Fund will invest in securities of agencies and instrumentalities only if the Investment Manager is satisfied that the credit risk involved is acceptable.

US government securities may include mortgage-backed securities issued or guaranteed as to the payment of principal and interest by US government agencies or instrumentalities, including, but not limited to, Ginnie Mae, Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. These mortgage-backed securities include pass-through securities, participation certificates and collateralized mortgage obligations. See Mortgage-Backed and Asset-Backed Securities. Timely payment of principal and interest on Ginnie Mae pass-throughs is guaranteed by the full faith and credit of the United States. Both Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac are instrumentalities of the US government, but their obligations are not backed by the full faith and credit of the United States. It is possible that the availability and the marketability (that is, liquidity) of the securities discussed in this section could be adversely affected by actions of the US government to tighten the availability of its credit.

Variable or Floating Rate Instruments

Variable or floating rate instruments (including notes purchased directly from issuers) bear variable or floating interest rates and may carry rights that permit holders to demand payment of the unpaid principal balance plus accrued interest from the issuers or certain financial intermediaries on dates prior to their stated maturities. Floating rate securities have interest rates that change whenever there is a change in a designated base rate while variable rate instruments provide for a specified periodic adjustment in the interest rate. These formulas are designed to result in a market value for the instrument that approximates its par value.

Warrants and Rights

Subject to its investment policies and restrictions, the Fund may invest in warrants and rights. Warrants are options to purchase equity securities at specified prices for a specific period of time. Their prices do not necessarily move parallel to the prices of the underlying securities. Rights are similar to warrants but normally have a short duration and are distributed directly by the issuer to its shareholders. Rights and warrants have no voting rights, receive no dividends, and have no rights with respect to the assets of the issuer. Warrants and rights are highly volatile and, therefore, more susceptible to sharp declines in value than the underlying security might be. They also generally are less liquid than an investment in the underlying securities.

When-Issued and Delayed-Delivery Transactions

Subject to its investment policies and restrictions, the Fund may purchase securities in which it may invest on a when-issued or delayed-delivery basis or sell them on a delayed-delivery basis. In either case payment and delivery for the securities take place at a future date. The securities so purchased or sold are subject to market fluctuation; their value may be less or more when delivered than the purchase price paid or received. When purchasing securities on a when issued or delayed-delivery basis, the Fund assumes the rights and risks of ownership, including the risk of price and yield fluctuations. No interest accrues to the Fund until delivery and payment is completed. When the Fund makes a commitment to purchase securities on a when-issued or delayed-delivery basis, it will record the transaction and thereafter reflect the value of the securities in determining its NAV per share. When the Fund sells securities on a delayed-delivery basis, the Fund does not participate in further gains or losses with respect to the securities. When the Fund makes a commitment to sell securities on a delayed-delivery basis, it will record the transaction and thereafter value the securities at the sale price in determining its NAV per share. If the other party to a delayed-delivery transaction fails to deliver or pay for the securities, the Fund could miss a favorable price or yield opportunity, or could suffer a loss.

The use of when-issued transactions and forward commitments enables the Fund to seek to hedge against anticipated changes in interest rates and prices. For instance, in periods of rising interest rates and falling prices, the Fund might sell securities in its portfolio on a forward commitment basis to limit its exposure to falling prices. In periods of falling interest rates and rising prices, the Fund might sell a security in its portfolio and purchase the same or a similar security on a when-issued or forward commitment basis, thereby fixing the purchase price to be paid on the settlement date at an amount below that to which the Fund anticipates the market price of such security to rise and, in the meantime, obtaining the benefit of investing the proceeds of the sale of its portfolio security at currently higher cash yields. Of course, the success of this strategy depends upon the ability of the Manager to correctly anticipate increases and decreases in interest rates and prices of securities. If the Manager anticipates a rise in interest rates and a decline in prices and, accordingly, the Fund sells securities on a forward commitment basis in an attempt to hedge against falling prices, but in fact interest rates decline and prices rise, the

34

Fund will have lost the opportunity to profit from the price increase. If the Manager anticipates a decline in interest rates and a rise in prices, and, accordingly, the Fund sells a security in its portfolio and purchases the same or a similar security on a when-issued or forward commitment basis in an attempt to enjoy currently high cash yields, but in fact interest rates increase and prices fall, the Fund will have lost the opportunity to profit from investment of the proceeds of the sale of the security at the increased interest rates. The likely effect of this hedging strategy, whether the Manager is correct or incorrect in its prediction of interest rate and price movements, is to reduce the chances of large capital gains or losses and thereby reduce the likelihood of wide variations in the Fund’s NAV.

When-issued securities and forward commitments may be sold prior to the settlement date, but the Fund enters into when-issued and forward commitments only with the intention of actually receiving or delivering the securities, as the case may be. The Fund may hold a when-issued security or forward commitment until the settlement date, even if the Fund will incur a loss upon settlement. In accordance with regulatory requirements, the Fund’s custodian bank maintains, in a separate account of the Fund, liquid assets, such as cash, short-term securities and other liquid securities (marked to the market daily), having a value equal to, or greater than, any commitments to purchase securities on a when-issued or forward commitment basis and, with respect to forward commitments to sell portfolio securities of the Fund, the portfolio securities themselves. If the Fund, however, chooses to dispose of the right to acquire a when-issued security prior to its acquisition or dispose of its right to deliver or receive against a forward commitment, it can incur a gain or loss.

The purchase of securities on a when-issued or forward commitment basis exposes the Fund to risk because the securities may decrease in value prior to their delivery. Purchasing securities on a when-issued or forward commitment basis involves the additional risk that the return available in the market when the delivery takes place will be higher than that obtained in the transaction itself. The Fund’s purchase of securities on a when-issued or forward commitment basis while remaining substantially fully invested could result in increased volatility of the price of the Fund’s shares.

Zero Coupon Securities

Zero coupon securities are debt obligations that do not entitle the holder to any periodic payment of interest prior to maturity or do not specify a future date when the securities begin to pay current interest; instead, they are sold at a deep discount from their face value (that is, with original issue discount (OID)) and are redeemed at face value when they mature. Because zero coupon securities do not pay current income, their prices can be very volatile when interest rates change and generally are subject to greater price fluctuations in response to changing interest rates than prices of comparable debt obligations that make current distributions of interest in cash.

Subject to its investment policies and restrictions, the Fund may invest in zero coupon securities that are stripped Treasury notes or bonds, zero coupon bonds of corporate or municipal issuers and other securities that are issued with OID. The federal tax law requires that a holder of a security with OID accrue as income (take into account, in the case of OID on a tax-exempt security (i.e., a security the interest on which is not subject to federal income tax)) each taxable year a ratable portion of the OID on the security, even though the holder may receive no interest payment on the security during the year. Accordingly, although the Fund generally will receive no payments on its zero coupon securities prior to their maturity or disposition, it will have current taxable or tax-exempt income attributable to those securities. To avoid liability for federal income and excise taxes, therefore, the Fund will be required to distribute cash in an amount equal to income accrued with respect to those securities and may have to dispose of portfolio securities under disadvantageous circumstances in order to generate cash to make that distribution.

A broker-dealer creates a derivative zero coupon security by separating the interest and principal components of a Treasury security and selling them as two individual securities. CATS (Certificates of Accrual on Treasury Securities), TIGRs (Treasury Investment Growth Receipts), and TRs (Treasury Receipts) are examples of derivative zeros.

The Federal Reserve Bank creates Separate Trading of Registered Interest and Principal of Securities (STRIPS) by separating the interest and principal components of an outstanding Treasury security and selling them as individual securities. Bonds issued by the Resolution Funding Corporation and the Financing Corporation also can be separated in this fashion. Original issue zeros are zero coupon securities originally issued by the US government, a government agency, or a corporation in zero coupon form.

Short-Term Debt Instruments and Temporary Investments

The Fund may invest in money market securities (the types of which are discussed below) for liquidity and cash management purposes or if the Manager determines that securities meeting the Fund’s investment objective and policies are not otherwise readily available for purchase. For temporary defensive purposes during periods when the Manager determines that conditions warrant, the Fund may increase this percentage up to 100%. For purposes of these policies, money market securities include (i) short-term US government securities, including custodial receipts evidencing separately traded interest and principal components of securities issued by the US Treasury; (ii) commercial paper rated in the highest short-term rating category by a NRSRO, such as S&P or Moody’s, or determined by the Manager to be of comparable quality at the time of purchase; (iii) short-term bank obligations (certificates of deposit, time deposits, and bankers’ acceptances) of US domestic banks, foreign banks and foreign branches of domestic banks, and commercial banks with assets of at least $1 billion as of the end of their most recent fiscal year; and (iv) repurchase agreements involving such securities. Each of these types of money market securities is discussed in this SAI.

US Government Securities. Examples of types of US government obligations in which the Fund may invest include US Treasury obligations and the obligations of US government agencies such as Federal Home Loan Banks, Federal Farm Credit Banks, Federal Land Banks, the Federal Housing Administration, Farmers Home Administration, Export-Import Bank of the US, Small Business Administration, Fannie Mae, Ginnie Mae, General Services Administration, Student Loan Marketing Association, Central Bank for Cooperatives, Freddie Mac, Federal Intermediate Credit Banks, Maritime Administration, and other similar agencies. Whether backed by the full faith and credit of the US Treasury or not, US government securities are not guaranteed against price movements due to fluctuating interest rates.

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Investment Strategies and Risks

US Treasury Obligations. US Treasury obligations consist of bills, notes, and bonds issued by the US Treasury and separately traded interest and principal component parts of such obligations that are transferable through the federal book-entry system known as Separate Trading of Registered Interest and Principal of Securities (“STRIPS”) and Treasury Receipts (“TRs”).
Receipts. Interests in separately traded interest and principal component parts of US government obligations that are issued by banks or brokerage firms and are created by depositing US government obligations into a special account at a custodian bank. The custodian holds the interest and principal payments for the benefit of the registered owners of the certificates or receipts. The custodian arranges for the issuance of the certificates or receipts evidencing ownership and maintains the register. TRs and STRIPS are interests in accounts sponsored by the US Treasury. Receipts are sold as zero coupon securities.
US Government Zero Coupon Securities. STRIPS and receipts are sold as zero coupon securities, that is, fixed income securities that have been stripped of their unmatured interest coupons. Zero coupon securities are sold at a (usually substantial) discount and redeemed at face value at their maturity date without interim cash payments of interest or principal. The amount of this discount is accreted over the life of the security, and the accretion constitutes the income earned on the security for both accounting and tax purposes. Because of these features, the market prices of zero coupon securities are generally more volatile than the market prices of securities that have similar maturity but that pay interest periodically. Zero coupon securities are likely to respond to a greater degree to interest rate changes than are non-zero coupon securities with similar maturity and credit qualities.
US Government Agencies. Some obligations issued or guaranteed by agencies of the US government are supported by the full faith and credit of the US Treasury, others are supported by the right of the issuer to borrow from the Treasury, while still others are supported only by the credit of the instrumentality. Guarantees of principal by agencies or instrumentalities of the US government may be a guarantee of payment at the maturity of the obligation so that in the event of a default prior to maturity there might not be a market and thus no means of realizing on the obligation prior to maturity. Guarantees as to the timely payment of principal and interest do not extend to the value or yield of these securities or to the value of the Fund’s shares.

Commercial Paper. Commercial paper is the term used to designate unsecured short-term promissory notes issued by corporations and other entities. Maturities on these issues vary from a few to 270 days. The Fund may invest in short-term promissory notes issued by corporations that, at the time of purchase, are rated P-1 and/or A-1. Commercial paper ratings P-1 by Moody’s and A-1 by S&P are the highest investment grade category.

Obligations of Domestic Banks, Foreign Banks and Foreign Branches of US Banks. The Fund may invest in obligations issued by banks and other savings institutions. Investments in bank obligations include obligations of domestic branches of foreign banks and foreign branches of domestic banks. Such investments in domestic branches of foreign banks and foreign branches of domestic banks are not covered by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (“FDIC”) and may involve risks that are different from investments in securities of domestic branches of US banks. These risks may include future unfavorable political and economic developments, possible withholding taxes on interest income, seizure or nationalization of foreign deposits, currency controls, interest limitations, or other governmental restrictions that might affect the payment of principal or interest on the securities held by the Fund. Additionally, these institutions may be subject to less stringent reserve requirements and to different accounting, auditing, reporting, and recordkeeping requirements than those applicable to domestic branches of US banks. Bank obligations include the following:

Bankers’ Acceptances. Bankers’ acceptances are bills of exchange or time drafts drawn on, and accepted by, a commercial bank. Corporations use bankers’ acceptances to finance the shipment and storage of goods and to furnish dollar exchange. Maturities are generally six months or less.
Certificates of Deposit. Certificates of deposit are interest-bearing instruments with a specific maturity. They are issued by banks and savings and loan institutions in exchange for the deposit of funds and normally can be traded in the secondary market prior to maturity. Unless they can be traded on a secondary market, certificates of deposit with penalties for early withdrawal may be considered illiquid.
Time Deposits. Time deposits are nonnegotiable receipts issued by a bank in exchange for the deposit of funds. Like a certificate of deposit, they earn a specified rate of interest over a definite period of time; however, they cannot be traded in the secondary market. Time deposits with a withdrawal penalty or that mature in more than seven days may be considered to be illiquid investments.

Subject to its investment policies and restrictions, the Fund may utilize derivative instruments, including, but not limited to, futures contracts, options and other types of derivative instruments, for defensive purposes.

Cybersecurity Risk

With the increased use of technologies such as the internet and the dependence on computer systems to perform necessary business functions, the Fund and its service providers may have become more susceptible to operational and related risks through breaches in cybersecurity. A cybersecurity incident may refer to intentional or unintentional events that allow an unauthorized party to gain access to Fund assets, customer data, or proprietary information, or cause the Fund or Fund service providers (including, but not limited to, the Manager, distributor, fund accountants, custodian, transfer agent, and financial intermediaries) to suffer data corruption or lose operational functionality. A cybersecurity incident could, among other things, result in the loss or theft of customer data or funds, customers or employees being unable to access electronic systems (denial of services), loss or theft of proprietary information or corporate data, physical damage to a computer or network system, or remediation costs associated with system repairs.

Any of these results could have a substantial adverse impact on the Fund and its shareholders. For example, if a cybersecurity incident results in a denial of service, Fund shareholders could lose access to their electronic accounts and be unable to buy or sell Fund shares for an unknown period of time, and employees could be unable to access electronic systems to perform critical duties for the Fund, such as trading, NAV calculation, shareholder accounting or fulfillment of Fund share purchases and redemptions. Cybersecurity incidents could cause the Fund or Fund service provider to incur regulatory penalties, reputational damage, additional compliance costs associated with corrective measures, or financial loss of a significant magnitude and could result in allegations that the Fund or Fund service provider violated privacy and other laws.

Similar adverse consequences could result from cybersecurity incidents affecting issuers of securities in which the Fund invests, counterparties with which the Fund engages in transactions, governmental and other regulatory authorities, exchange and other financial market operators, banks, brokers, dealers, insurance companies, and other financial institutions and other parties. Risk management systems and business continuity plans seek to reduce

36

the risks associated with cybersecurity in the event there is a cybersecurity breach, but there are inherent limitations in these systems and plans, including the possibility that certain risks may not have been identified, in large part because different or unknown threats may emerge in the future. Furthermore, the Fund does not control the cybersecurity systems and plans of the issuers of securities in which the Fund invests or the Fund’s third party service providers or trading counterparties or any other service providers whose operations may affect the Fund or its shareholders.

As an open-end management investment company, the Trust has delegated its operational activities to third-party service providers, subject to the oversight of the Board. Because the Trust operates its business through third-party service providers, it does not itself have any operational or security systems or infrastructure that are potentially subject to cyber attacks. The third-party service providers that facilitate the Trust’s business activities, including, but not limited to, fund management, custody of Trust assets, fund accounting and financial administration, and transfer agent services, could be sources of operational and informational security risk to the Trust and its shareholders, including from breakdowns or failures of the third-party service providers’ own systems or capacity constraints. A failure or breach of the operational or security systems or infrastructure of the Trust’s third-party service providers could disrupt the Trust’s operations, result in the disclosure or misuse of confidential or proprietary information, and cause losses. Although the Trust and its third-party service providers have business continuity plans and other safeguards in place, the operations of the Trust’s third-party service providers may be adversely affected by significant disruption of the service providers’ operating systems or physical infrastructure that support the Trust and its shareholders.

The proliferation of new technologies, the use of the Internet and telecommunications technologies to conduct business, as well as the increased sophistication and activities of organized crime, hackers, terrorists, activists, and others, have significantly increased the information security risks to which the Trust’s third-party service providers are subject. The third-party service providers rely on digital technologies, computer and email systems, software, and networks to conduct their business and the business of the Trust. The Trust’s third-party service providers have robust information security procedures; however, their technologies may become the target of cyber attacks or information security breaches that could result in the unauthorized release, gathering, monitoring, misuse, loss, or destruction of the Trust’s or its shareholders’ confidential and other information, or otherwise disrupt the business operations of the Trust or its third-party service providers. Although to date the Trust has not experienced any material losses relating to cyber attacks or other information security breaches, there can be no assurance that the Trust or its third-party service providers will not suffer such losses in the future.

Disruptions or failures in the physical infrastructure or operating systems that support the Trust’s third-party service providers, or cyber attacks or security breaches of the networks, systems, or devices that the Trust’s third-party service providers use to service the Trust’s operations, could result in financial losses, the inability of Trust shareholders to transact business, violations of applicable privacy and other laws, regulatory fines, penalties, reputational damage, reimbursement or other compensation costs, and/or additional compliance costs. The business continuity policies and procedures that the Trust and its third-party service providers have established seek to identify and mitigate the types of risk to which the Trust and its third-party service providers are subject. As with any risk-management system, there are inherent limitations to these business continuity policies and procedures as there may exist, or develop in the future, risks that have not been anticipated or identified.

Natural Disaster/Epidemic Risk

Natural or environmental disasters, such as earthquakes, fires, floods, hurricanes, tsunamis, and other severe weather-related phenomena generally, and widespread disease, including pandemics and epidemics, have been and can be highly disruptive to economies and markets, adversely impacting individual companies, sectors, industries, markets, currencies, interest and inflation rates, credit ratings, investor sentiment, and other factors affecting the value of a fund’s investments. Given the increasing interdependence among global economies and markets, conditions in one country, market, or region are increasingly likely to adversely affect markets, issuers, and/or foreign exchange rates in other countries. These disruptions could prevent a fund from executing advantageous investment decisions in a timely manner and could negatively impact the fund’s ability to achieve its investment objective. Any such event(s) could have a significant adverse impact on the value and risk profile of a fund.

IBOR Transition Risk

The London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”) was a common benchmark interest rate index used to make adjustments to variable-rate loans and historically was used throughout global banking and financial industries to determine interest rates for a variety of borrowing arrangements and financial instruments (such as debt instruments and derivatives).

The majority of LIBOR rates were phased out at the end of 2021. The most common tenors of USD LIBOR (overnight and 1-, 3-, 6- and 12- month) ceased publication as of June 30, 2023. In addition, global regulators have announced that, with limited exceptions, no new LIBOR-based contracts should be entered into after 2021. The United Kingdom Financial Conduct Authority, which regulated LIBOR, will permit the use of synthetic U.S. dollar LIBOR rates for non-U.S. contracts for a limited period of time after June 30, 2023, but any such rates would be considered non-representative of the underlying market.

Over the past several years, various regulators and industry bodies identified alternative reference rates (“ARRs”) to replace LIBOR and assist with the transition to the new ARRs. While the transition process away from LIBOR has become increasingly well-defined, there remains uncertainty and risks related to converting certain longer-term securities and transactions to a new ARR. For example, there can be no assurance that the composition or characteristics of any ARRs or financial instruments in which a fund invests that utilize ARRs will be similar to or produce the same value or economic equivalence as LIBOR or that these instruments will have the same volume or liquidity. Additionally, while some instruments tied to LIBOR or a similar rate may include a replacement rate, not all instruments have such fallback provisions, and the effectiveness of such replacement rates remains uncertain. The cessation of LIBOR or similar rates could affect the value and liquidity of investments tied to these rates, especially those that do not include fallback provisions. While it is expected that market participants will amend legacy financial instruments referencing LIBOR to include such fallback provisions to ARRs, there remains uncertainty regarding the willingness and ability of parties to add or amend such fallback provisions in legacy instruments.

Any effects of the transition away from LIBOR and the adoption of ARRs, as well as other unforeseen effects, could result in losses. Furthermore, the risks associated with the discontinuation of LIBOR and transition to replacement rates may be exacerbated if an orderly transition to an ARR is not completed in a timely manner.

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Disclosure of Portfolio Holdings

On each business day of the Fund, before the opening of regular trading on the Fund’s primary listing exchange, the Fund will disclose on its website (etf.macquarie.com) certain information relating to the portfolio holdings that will form the basis for the Fund’s next calculation of NAV per share. Consistent with current law, the Fund also releases complete portfolio holdings information each fiscal quarter through regulatory filings with no more than a 60-day lag.

Each business day, the Fund’s portfolio holdings information will be provided to the Distributor (as defined below) or other agents for dissemination through the facilities of the National Securities Clearing Corporation (NSCC) and/or other fee-based subscription services to NSCC members and/or subscribers to those other fee-based subscription services, including large institutional investors (known as “Authorized Participants”) that have been authorized by the Distributor to purchase and redeem large blocks of shares pursuant to legal requirements, and to entities that publish and/or analyze such information in connection with the process of purchasing or redeeming Creation Units or trading shares of the Fund in the secondary market.

Portfolio holdings information made available in connection with the creation/redemption process may be provided to other entities that provide services to the Fund in the ordinary course of business after it has been disseminated to the NSCC. From time to time, information concerning portfolio holdings other than portfolio holdings information made available in connection with the creation/redemption process, as discussed above, may be provided to other entities that provide services to the Fund in the ordinary course of business. The eligible third parties to whom portfolio holdings information may be released in advance of general release fall into the following categories: data consolidators (including rating agencies), fund rating/ranking services and other data providers and service providers to the Fund, including Authorized Participants and pricing services.

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Management of the Trust

Trustees and officers

The business and affairs of the Trust are managed under the direction of its Board of Trustees. Information on the Trust’s Trustees and principal officers is provided below. The Trustees serve for indefinite terms until their mandatory retirement, resignation, death, or removal. Trustees who are not “interested persons” as defined by the 1940 Act are referred to as the “Independent Trustees”.

Because the Fund had not commenced operations prior to the date of this SAI, the officers and Trustees of the Trust, as a group, owned of record or beneficially less than 1% of the outstanding shares of the Fund as of the date of this SAI.

Name, Address,
and Birth Year

 

Position(s) Held
with the Trust

 

Length of Time
Served

 

Number of Funds in
Fund Complex
Overseen by
Trustee

 

Principal Occupation(s)
During the Past Five Years

 

Other Directorships Held by
Trustee During the Past
Five Years

Interested Trustee                

John Leonard1
100 Independence,
610 Market Street
Philadelphia, PA
19106-2354




March 1960

  Trustee, President and Chief Executive Officer   Since October 2023   [4]  

Executive Director and Global Head of Equities - Macquarie Asset Management2 (2017-Present)

Head of Equities and Group Managing Director - UBS Asset Management (2008-2016)

  None
Independent Trustees                
Brian A. Swain
100 Independence,
610 Market Street
Philadelphia, PA
19106-2354
  Chair and Trustee   Since October 2023   [4]   Deputy Chief Investment Officer, Howard University (February 2018 – Present)   Director, Montgomery County, Maryland Employee Retirement Plan’s Investment Trust
                     
1969                    
Beata Kirr
100 Independence,
610 Market Street
Philadelphia, PA
19106-2354
  Trustee   Since October 2023   [4]   Chief Impact Officer, Managing Director, The Copia Group (May 2023 – Present); Bernstein Private Wealth (March 2007 – April 2023)   None
                     
1974                    
Thomas F. Flannery
100 Independence,
610 Market Street
Philadelphia, PA
19106-2354
  Trustee   Since October 2023   [4]   Retired, since July 2021   Director, Computershare Trust Company, NA, a nationally chartered bank
                     
1959                    
1John Leonard is considered to be an “Interested Trustee” because he is an executive officer of the Manager.

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Management of the Trust

Officers

 

Position(s) Held with the Trust

  Length of Time
Served
  Principal Occupation(s)
During the Past Five Years
David F. Connor
100 Independence,
610 Market Street
Philadelphia, PA 19106-2354
  Senior Vice President and Assistant Secretary   Since October 2023   David F. Connor has served in various capacities at different times at Macquarie Asset Management Public Investments.3
             
1963            
Richard Salus
100 Independence,
610 Market Street
Philadelphia, PA 19106-2354
  Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer   Since October 2023   Richard Salus has served in various capacities at different times at Macquarie Asset Management Public Investments.3
             
1963            

Danial V. Geatens
100 Independence,
610 Market Street
Philadelphia, PA 19106-2354

  Senior Vice President and Treasurer   Since October 2023   Daniel Geatens has served in various capacities at different times at Macquarie Asset Management Public Investments.3
             
1972            
Catherine A. DiValentino
100 Independence,
610 Market Street
Philadelphia, PA 19106-2354
  Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary   Since October 2023   Associate General Counsel, Macquarie Asset Management, since March 2022. Counsel, Faegre Drinker Biddle & Reath LLP, 2016-2022.
             
1979            
2Macquarie Asset Management is the marketing name for certain companies comprising the asset management division of Macquarie Group, including the Fund’s Manager.
3David F. Connor and Daniel V. Geatens serve in similar capacities for the six portfolios of the Optimum Fund Trust, which have the same investment manager as the Trust. Messrs. Connor, Geatens and Salus also serve in similar capacities for the Delaware Funds by Macquarie®, a fund complex that has the same investment manager as the Trust.

Because the Fund had not commenced operations prior to the date of this SAI, none of the Trustees of the Trust owned shares of any of the Fund as of the date of this SAI and had not received any compensation as of the date of this SAI.

Size and Composition of Board: The Board is currently comprised of four Trustees, three of whom are Independent Trustees. The Board comprises of Trustees with a variety of professional backgrounds and experiences. The Board believes that the skill sets of its members are complementary and add to the overall effectiveness of the Board. The Trustees regard diversity as an important consideration in the present composition of the Board and the selection of qualified candidates to fill vacancies on the Board.

Qualifications of the Trustees: The Board has concluded that, based on each Trustee’s experience, qualifications, attributes or skills on an individual basis and in combination with those of the other Trustees, each Trustee should serve as a Trustee. In reaching its determination the Board, at the recommendation of the Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee, considers, in light of the Trust’s business and structure, the individual’s experience, qualifications, attributes, and skills. No one such factor is determinative, but some of the relevant factors that have been considered include: (i) the Trustee’s educational background; business, professional training or practice; public service or academic positions; experience from service as a board member (including the Board) or as an executive of investment funds, public companies or significant private or not-for-profit entities or other organizations, and/or other life experiences; (ii) the ability to work effectively and collegially with other people; (iii) how the Trustee’s background and attributes contribute to the overall mix of skills and experience on the Board as a whole; and (iv) the Trustee’s willingness and ability to contribute to the Board’s oversight and decision-making functions and provide the necessary skills to allow the Board to carry out its responsibilities. In addition to the table above, set forth below is a brief discussion of the specific experience, qualifications and skills of each Trustee that led the Board to conclude that he or she should serve as a Trustee.

Thomas F. Flannery — Mr. Flannery has extensive experience in banking, wealth management, and the financial services industry. Mr. Flannery is currently retired. Prior to retirement, Mr. Flannery was a partner at Ernst & Young, LLP from October 1995 to July 2021. During his tenure at EY, he was the Co-Leader of the EY Wealth & Asset Management Practice in the Americas. Mr. Flannery also served as EY’s global coordinating partner for a leading global asset management firm. He is currently a director of Computershare Trust Company, NA, a nationally chartered bank performing corporate trust, plan administration and transfer agent services. Mr. Flannery received a BS in Business Administration and Accounting from Boston College, He also served as Past President of the Boston College Alumni Association and as Executive Director and Treasurer of the New England Council. He has served on the Board since October 2023.

40

Beata Kirr — Ms. Kirr has extensive experience in wealth management and the investment management industry. Ms. Kirr currently serves as Chief Impact Officer and Managing Director at The Copia Group, a private credit investment firm, a role she has held since May 2023. Previously, Ms. Kirr spent 16 years at Bernstein Private Wealth, where she was most recently Co-CIO/Co-Head of Investment Strategies, overseeing $100bn of AUM. Prior to that, she held senior investment and leadership roles in the organization, with responsibility for asset allocation, manager selection, platform product development, and investor and media communications. She has also worked at Goldman Sachs and a hedge fund of funds investment firm. She has extensive experience as a director of not-for-profit boards, including The Poetry Foundation and Women Employed. Ms. Kirr received a B.S. in Economics, magna cum laude, from The Wharton School at the University of Pennsylvania and an M.B.A. from the Kellogg School of Management. She has served on the Board since October 2023.

Brian A. Swain — Mr. Swain has extensive experience in the investment management industry. Mr. Swain joined Howard University in February 2018 and is currently the Deputy Chief Investment Officer for Howard University’s investment office responsible for the management of the Endowment and Retirement Trust. He is also currently an appointed board member of Montgomery County Employee Retirement Plan’s Investment Trust in Maryland and has served since October 2021. Prior to joining Howard University, Mr. Swain worked for 28 years in various roles including Senior Managing Director and portfolio manager of Tiburon Capital Management LLC, co-founder and Chief Investment Officer for Quattro Global Capital LLC, analyst, head of research and portfolio manager for the Palladin Group LLC, and received credit and analytical training at Penn Mutual Life Insurance Company. Mr. Swain received a Bachelor of Science, Finance in 1990 from The Pennsylvania State University, is a chartered financial analyst (CFA), member of the CFA Institute and CFA Washington. He has served on the Board since October 2023.

John Leonard — Mr. Leonard has extensive experience in the investment management industry. Mr. Leonard joined Macquarie Asset Management (MAM) in 2017 and currently serves as a Senior Managing Director and Head of Equities for MAM. In this role, he provides strategic oversight of the firm’s 14 equity investment teams, including multi-asset strategies. He also serves on MAM’s Internal European Board and is a member of the MAM Public Investments’ Executive Committee. Prior to joining the firm, John worked at UBS Global Asset Management for more than 25 years in a variety of roles, most recently as Global Head of Equities. He joined Brinson Partners (which later became part of UBS) as a Portfolio Strategy Analyst, before becoming Head of Equity Strategy, a role he held for nearly six years. He holds a Bachelor of Arts in government from Dartmouth College and a Master of Business Administration with a concentration in finance from the University of Chicago Booth School of Business. He holds the Chartered Financial Analyst® designation and he is a member of the CFA Institute.

The following table describes the estimated compensation received by each Trustee entitled to receive compensation for the Trust’s first fiscal year. Only the Trustees of the Trust who are not “interested persons” as defined by the 1940 Act (the “Independent Trustees”) receive compensation. The Manager, as a result of the Fund’s unitary management fee, pays such amounts to the Independent Trustees.

Trustee   Aggregate Compensation from the
Trust
  Pension or Retirement Benefits
Accrued as Part of Fund Expenses
  Total Compensation from the
Investment Companies in the Fund
Complex1
Thomas F. Flannery   $30,000   None   $30,000
Beata Kirr   $30,000   None   $30,000
Brian A. Swain   $32,500   None   $32,500
1Each independent Trustee receives a total annual retainer fee of $45,000 for serving as a Trustee, plus $5,000 for each full Board Meeting that an independent Trustee participates in. The Chair of the Audit Committee receives an annual retainer of $5,000. The Chair of the Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee receives an annual retainer of $5,000. The Independent Chair of the Board additionally receives an annual retainer of $10,000.

Board Leadership Structure: The Board has overall responsibility for the oversight of the Fund. The Chair of the Board is an Independent Trustee and the Chair of each Committee of the Board is an Independent Trustee. The Board has two standing Committees: the Audit Committee and the Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee. The role of the Chair of the Board is to preside at all meetings of the Board, to act as a liaison with service providers, fund officers, legal counsel and other Trustees generally between meetings and to actively develop meeting agendas. The Chair of each Committee performs a similar role with respect to the Committee. The Chair of the Board or the Chair of a Committee may also perform such other functions as may be delegated by the Board or the Committee, respectively, from time to time.

The Board has regular meetings four times a year, and may hold special meetings if required before its next regular meeting. Each Committee meets regularly to conduct the oversight functions delegated to that Committee by the Board and reports its findings to the Board. The Board and each standing Committee conduct annual assessments of their oversight function and structure. The Board has determined that the Board’s leadership structure is appropriate because it allows the Board to exercise independent judgment over management and to allocate areas of responsibility among Committees and the full Board to enhance effective oversight.

Audit Committee: This Committee monitors accounting and financial reporting policies and practices, and internal controls for the Trust. It also oversees the quality and objectivity of the Trust’s financial statements and the independent audit thereof, and acts as a liaison between the Trust’s independent registered public accounting firm and the full Board. The Trust’s Audit Committee consists of the Trust’s Independent Trustees: Thomas F. Flannery, Chair; Beata Kirr and Brian A. Swain.

Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee: This committee is responsible for nominating Trustees and making recommendations to the Board concerning Board composition, committee structure and governance, director education, and governance practices. The committee currently consists of the Trust’s Independent Trustees: Beata Kirr, Chair; Thomas F. Flannery and Brian A. Swain.

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Management of the Trust

The committee will consider shareholder recommendations for nomination to the Board only in the event that there is a vacancy on the Board. Shareholders who wish to submit recommendations for nominations to the Board to fill a vacancy must submit their recommendations in writing to the Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee, c/o Delaware Funds at 100 Independence, 610 Market Street, Philadelphia, PA 19106-2354. At a minimum, the recommendation should include: the name, address and business, educational and/or other pertinent background of the person being recommended; a statement concerning whether the person is an “interested person” as defined in the 1940 Act; any other information that the Fund would be required to include in a proxy statement concerning the person if he or she was nominated; and the name and address of the person submitting the recommendation, together with the number of Fund shares held by such person and the period for which the shares have been held. The recommendation also can include any additional information which the person submitting it believes would assist the committee in evaluating the recommendation.

In evaluating nominees, the committee considers, among other things, an individual’s background, skills, and experience; whether the individual is an “interested person” as defined in the 1940 Act; and whether the individual would be deemed an “audit committee financial expert” within the meaning of applicable SEC rules. The committee also considers whether the individual’s background, skills, and experience will complement the background, skills, and experience of other nominees and will contribute to the diversity of the Board.

Board Role in Risk Oversight: Investing in general and the operation of a fund involve a variety of risks, such as investment risk, illiquidity risk, compliance risk, and operational risk, among others. The Board oversees risk as part of its oversight of the Fund. Risk oversight is addressed as part of various regular Board and committee activities. The Board, directly or through its committees, reviews reports from among others, the Manager, sub-advisers, the Fund’s Chief Compliance Officer, the Fund’s independent registered public accounting firm, counsel, and other parties, as appropriate, regarding risks faced by the Fund and the risk management programs of the Manager and certain service providers. The actual day-to-day risk management with respect to the Fund resides with the Manager and other service providers to the Fund. Although the risk management policies of the Manager and the service providers are designed to be effective, those policies and their implementation vary among service providers and overtime, and there is no guarantee that they will be effective. Not all risks that may affect the Fund can be identified or processes and controls developed to eliminate or mitigate their occurrence or effects, and some risks are simply beyond any control of the Fund or the Manager, its affiliates or other service providers.

Code of Ethics

The Trust, the Manager, and the Distributor have adopted Codes of Ethics in compliance with the requirements of Rule 17j-1 under the 1940 Act, which govern personal securities transactions. Under the Codes of Ethics, persons subject to the Codes are permitted to engage in personal securities transactions, including securities that may be purchased or held by the Fund, subject to the requirements set forth in Rule 17j-1 under the 1940 Act and certain other procedures set forth in the applicable Code of Ethics. The Codes of Ethics are on public file with, and are available from, the SEC.

Proxy Voting Policy

The Trust has formally delegated to the Manager the responsibility for making all proxy voting decisions in relation to portfolio securities held by the Fund. If and when proxies need to be voted on behalf of the Fund, the Manager will vote such proxies pursuant to Macquarie Asset Management Public Investments’ (“MPI”) Proxy Voting Policies and Procedures (the “Procedures”). MPI has established a Proxy Voting Committee (the “Committee”), which is responsible for overseeing MPI’s proxy voting process for the Fund. One of the main responsibilities of the Committee is to review and approve the Procedures to ensure that the Procedures are designed to allow MPI to vote proxies in a manner consistent with the goal of voting in the best interests of the Fund.

In order to facilitate the actual process of voting proxies, MPI has contracted with proxy advisory firms to analyze proxy statements on behalf of the Fund and MPI’s other clients and provide MPI with research recommendations on upcoming proxy votes in accordance with the Procedures. The Committee is responsible for overseeing the proxy advisory firms’ services. If a proxy has been voted for the Fund, the proxy advisory firm will create a record of the vote. By no later than August 31 of each year, information (if any) regarding how the Fund voted proxies relating to portfolio securities during the most recently disclosed 12-month period ended June 30 is available without charge (i) through the Fund’s website at etf.macquarie.com; and (ii) on the Commission’s website at http://www.sec.gov.

When determining whether to invest in a particular company, one of the factors MPI may consider is the quality and depth of the company’s management. As a result, MPI believes that recommendations of management on any issue (particularly routine issues) should be given a fair amount of weight in determining how proxy issues should be voted. Thus, on many issues, MPI’s votes are cast in accordance with the recommendations of the company’s management. However, MPI may vote against management’s position when it runs counter to MPI’s specific Proxy Voting Guidelines (the “Guidelines”), and MPI will also vote against management’s recommendation when MPI believes such position is not in the best interests of the Fund.

As stated above, the Procedures also list specific Guidelines on how to vote proxies on behalf of the Fund. Some examples of the Guidelines are as follows: (i) generally vote for shareholder proposals asking that a majority or more of directors be independent; (ii) generally vote for management or shareholder proposals to reduce supermajority vote requirements, taking into account: ownership structure; quorum requirements; and vote requirements; (iii) votes on mergers and acquisitions should be considered on a case-by-case basis; (iv) generally vote re-incorporation proposals on a case-by-case basis; (v) votes with respect to equity-based compensation plans are generally determined on a case-by-case basis; (vi) generally vote for proposals requesting that a company report on its policies, initiatives, oversight mechanisms, and ethical standards related to social, economic, and environmental

42

sustainability, unless company already provides similar reports through other means or the company has formally committed to the implementation of a reporting program based on Global Reporting Initiative guidelines or a similar standard; and (vii) generally vote for management proposals to institute open-market share repurchase plans in which all shareholders may participate on equal terms.

Because the Trust has delegated proxy voting to MPI, the Fund is not expected to encounter any conflict of interest issues regarding proxy voting and therefore does not have procedures regarding this matter. However, MPI does have a section in its Procedures that addresses the possibility of conflicts of interest. Most of the proxies which MPI receives on behalf of its clients are voted in accordance with the Procedures. Since the Procedures are pre-determined by the Committee, application of the Procedures by MPI’s portfolio management teams when voting proxies after reviewing the proxy and research provided by the proxy advisory firms should in most instances adequately address any potential conflicts of interest. If MPI becomes aware of a conflict of interest in an upcoming proxy vote, the proxy vote will generally be referred to the Committee or the Committee’s delegates for review. If the portfolio management team for such proxy intends to vote in accordance with the proxy advisory firm’s recommendation pursuant to our Procedures, then no further action is needed to be taken by the Committee. If MPI’s portfolio management team is considering voting a proxy contrary to the proxy advisory firm’s research recommendation under the Procedures, the Committee or its delegates will assess the proposed vote to determine if it is reasonable. The Committee or its delegates will also assess whether any business or other material relationships between MPI and a portfolio company (unrelated to the ownership of the portfolio company’s securities) could have influenced an inconsistent vote on that company’s proxy. If the Committee or its delegates determines that the proposed proxy vote is unreasonable or unduly influenced by a conflict, the portfolio management team will be required to vote the proxy in accordance with the proxy advisory firm’s research recommendation or abstain from voting.

Investment Manager and Other Service Providers

Investment Manager

The Manager, located at 100 Independence, 610 Market Street, Philadelphia, PA 19106-2354, furnishes investment management services to the Fund, subject to the supervision and direction of the Board. The Manager also provides investment management services to affiliated mutual funds. Affiliates of the Manager also manage other investment accounts. While investment decisions for the Fund are made independently from those of the other funds and accounts, investment decisions for such other funds and accounts may be made at the same time as investment decisions for the Fund. The Manager pays the salaries of all Trustees, officers, and employees who are affiliated with both the Manager and the Trust. In the course of discharging its non-portfolio management duties under the advisory contract, the Manager may delegate to affiliates.

Together, the Manager and the other subsidiaries of Macquarie Management Holdings, Inc. (“MMHI”) manage, as of September 30, 2023, approximately $174 billion in assets, including mutual funds, separate accounts, and other investment vehicles. The Manager is a series of Macquarie Investment Management Business Trust (a Delaware statutory trust), which is a subsidiary of MMHI. MMHI is a subsidiary, and subject to the ultimate control, of Macquarie Group Limited (“Macquarie”). Macquarie is a Sydney, Australia-headquartered global provider of banking, financial, advisory, investment and funds management services. “Macquarie Asset Management” is the marketing name for certain companies comprising the asset management division of Macquarie Group Limited.

The Fund’s Investment Management Agreement (“Investment Management Agreement”) may be renewed each year only so long as such renewal and continuance are specifically approved at least annually by the Board or by vote of a majority of the outstanding voting securities of the Fund, and only if the terms of, and the renewal thereof, have been approved by the vote of a majority of the Independent Trustees of the Trust who are not parties thereto or interested persons of any such party, cast in person at a meeting called for the purpose of voting on such approval. The Investment Management Agreement is terminable without penalty on 60 days’ notice by the Trustees of the Trust or by the Manager. The Investment Management Agreement will terminate automatically in the event of its assignment.

As compensation for the services rendered under the Investment Management Agreement, the Fund shall pay the Manager a unitary management fee that is accrued daily and paid monthly as a percentage of average daily net assets equal to [ ]%. Management fees are accrued daily and paid monthly.

From the unitary management fees, the Manager pays most of the expenses of the Fund, including the cost of sub-advisory fees to any investment sub-adviser, transfer agency, custody, fund administration, legal, audit and other services. However, under the Investment Management Agreement, the Manager is not responsible for (i) interest expenses; (ii) taxes (including, but not limited to, income, excise, transfer and withholding taxes); (iii) expenses of the Fund incurred with respect to the acquisition and disposition of portfolio securities, instruments or other investments and the execution of portfolio transactions, including brokerage commissions; (iv) expenses incurred in connection with any distribution plan adopted by the Trust in compliance with Rule 12b-1 under the 1940 Act, including distribution fees; (v) litigation expenses; (vi) the investment advisory fee payable to the Manager; (vii) non-routine or

43

Investment Manager and Other Service Providers

extraordinary expenses (including, without limitation, the expense associated with proxy solicitations and fund reorganizations); and (viii) acquired fund fees and expenses. No information regarding the advisory fees paid by the Fund is currently available as the Fund has not commenced operations as of the date of this SAI.

Sub-Advisor

The Manager has entered into a sub-advisory agreement on behalf of the Fund, as described below, with MIMGL, which is an affiliate of the Manager (the “Affiliated Sub-Advisor”).

MIMGL, located at 50 Martin Place, Sydney, Australia, is an affiliate of the Manager and a part of MIM. Although the Manager has principal responsibility for the Manager’s portion of the Fund, the Manager may permit MIMIGL to execute Fund security trades on behalf of the Manager.

Distributor

Foreside Financial Services, LLC (the “Distributor”) acts as the principal underwriter in the continuous public offering of the Fund’s shares pursuant to a distribution agreement dated October 3, 2023 (the “Distribution Agreement”). The Distributor is located at Three Canal Plaza, Suite 100, Portland, Maine 04101.

Shares are continuously offered for sale by the Fund through the Distributor or its agent only in Creation Units, as described in the prospectus and above in the “Creation and Redemption of Creation Units” section of this SAI. Fund shares in amounts less than Creation Units are generally not distributed by the Distributor or its agent. The Distributor or its agent will arrange for the delivery of the prospectus and, upon request, this SAI to persons purchasing Creation Units and will maintain records of both orders placed with it or its agents and confirmations of acceptance furnished by it or its agents.

The Distributor may enter into agreements with securities dealers (Soliciting Dealers) who will solicit purchases of Creation Units of Fund shares. Such Soliciting Dealers may also be Authorized Participants, DTC participants and/or investor services organizations.

The Distributor may be entitled to payments from the Fund under the Rule 12b-1 plan, as discussed below. Except as noted, the Distributor received no other compensation from the Fund for acting as underwriter.

The Distribution Agreement for the Fund provides that it may be terminated at any time, without the payment of any penalty, on at least 60 days’ prior written notice to the other party following (i) the vote of a majority of the Independent Trustees, or (ii) the vote of a majority of the outstanding voting securities (as defined in the 1940 Act) of the relevant Fund. The Distribution Agreement will terminate automatically in the event of its assignment (as defined in the 1940 Act).

Distribution and service (12b-1) fees

The Board has adopted a plan pursuant to Rule 12b-1 for the Fund. However, no Rule 12b-1 plan fee is currently charged to the Fund, and there are no plans in place to impose a Rule 12b-1 plan fee. The plan is designed to benefit the Fund and its shareholders. The plan is expected to, among other things, increase advertising of the Fund, encourage purchases of Fund shares and service to its shareholders, and increase or maintain assets of the Fund so that certain fixed expenses may be spread over a broader asset base, with a positive impact on per share expense ratios. In addition, a positive cash flow into the Fund is useful in managing the Fund because the investment manager has more flexibility in taking advantage of new investment opportunities and handling shareholder redemptions.

The plan is a compensation type plan. If the plan is implemented, pursuant to such plan, the Fund would pay the Distributor or others for the expenses of activities that are primarily intended to sell shares of the Fund. These expenses also may include service fees paid to securities dealers or others who have executed a servicing agreement with the Fund, the Distributor and who provide service or account maintenance to shareholders (service fees); and the expenses of printing prospectuses and reports used for sales purposes, of marketing support and of preparing and distributing sales literature and advertisements. Together, these expenses, including the service fees, are “eligible expenses.”

To the extent fees are for distribution or marketing functions, as distinguished from administrative servicing or agency transactions, certain banks may not participate in the plan because of applicable federal law prohibiting certain banks from engaging in the distribution of fund shares. These banks, however, are allowed to receive fees under the plan for administrative servicing or for agency transactions.

The Distributor must provide written reports to the board at least quarterly on the amounts and purpose of any payment made under the plan and any related agreements, and furnish the board with such other information as the board may reasonably request to enable it to make an informed determination of whether the plan should be continued.

The plan has been approved according to the provisions of Rule 12b-1. The terms and provisions of the plan also are consistent with Rule 12b-1.

Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

[ ], located at [ ], is the Fund’s independent registered public accounting firm. The independent registered public accounting firm audits the financial statements included in the Fund’s annual report to shareholders.

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Transfer Agent

JPMorgan Chase Bank, N.A. (“JPMorgan”), with a place of business at 70 Fargo Street, Boston, MA 02210, serves as the Fund’s transfer agent (the “Transfer Agent”).

Fund Accountants

JPMorgan provides fund accounting and financial administration services to the Fund. Those services include performing functions related to calculating the Fund’s NAVs and providing financial reporting information, regulatory compliance testing, and other related accounting services.

Custodian

JPMorgan is the custodian of the Fund’s securities and cash. As custodian for the Fund, JPMorgan maintains a separate account or accounts for the Fund; receives, holds, and releases portfolio securities on account of the Fund; receives and disburses money on behalf of the Fund; and collects and receives income and other payments and distributions on account of the Fund’s portfolio securities. JPMorgan also serves as the Fund’s custodian for their investments in foreign securities.

Legal Counsel

Morgan, Lewis & Bockius LLP serves as the Trust’s legal counsel.

Portfolio Managers

Other Accounts Managed

The following chart lists certain information about types of other accounts for which each portfolio manager is primarily responsible as of [ ], 2024 unless otherwise noted. Any accounts managed in a personal capacity appear under “Other Accounts” along with the other accounts managed on a professional basis.

  No. of Accounts   Total Assets
Managed
  No. of Accounts
with
Performance-Based
Fees
  Total Assets in Accounts with
Performance-Based Fees
Bradley Klapmeyer              
Registered Investment Companies [  ]   $[  ]   [  ]   $[  ]
Other Pooled Investment Vehicles [  ]   $[  ]   [  ]   $[  ]
Other Accounts [  ]   $[  ]   [  ]   $[  ]
Bradley Angermeier              
Registered Investment Companies [  ]   $[  ]   [  ]   $[  ]
Other Pooled Investment Vehicles [  ]   $[  ]   [  ]   $[  ]
Other Accounts [  ]   $[  ]   [  ]   $[  ]

Description of Material Conflicts of Interest

Individual portfolio managers may perform investment management services for other funds or accounts similar to those provided to the Fund and the investment action for each such other fund or account and the Fund may differ.

For example, an account or fund may be selling a security, while another account or fund may be purchasing or holding the same security. As a result, transactions executed for one fund or account may adversely affect the value of securities held by another fund, account, or the Fund. Additionally, the management of multiple other funds or accounts and the Fund may give rise to potential conflicts of interest, as a portfolio manager must allocate time and effort to multiple funds or accounts and the Fund. A portfolio manager may discover an investment opportunity that may be suitable for more than one account or fund. The investment opportunity may be limited, however, so that all funds or accounts for which the investment would be suitable may not be able to participate. The Manager has adopted procedures designed to allocate investments fairly across multiple funds and accounts.

Some of the accounts managed by the portfolio manager as set forth in the table above may have performance-based fees. This compensation structure presents a potential conflict of interest because the portfolio manager has an incentive to manage these accounts so as to enhance his or her performance, to the possible detriment of other accounts for which the Manager does not receive a performance-based fee. A portfolio manager’s management of personal accounts also may present certain conflicts of interest. While the Manager’s Code of Ethics is designed to address these potential conflicts, there is no guarantee that it will do so.

Compensation Structure

Each portfolio manager’s compensation consists of the following:

Base Salary — Each named portfolio manager receives a fixed base salary. Salaries are determined by a comparison to industry data prepared by third parties to ensure that portfolio manager salaries are in line with salaries paid at peer investment advisory firms.

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Portfolio Managers

Bonus — Each named portfolio manager is eligible to receive an annual cash bonus. The bonus pool is determined by the revenues associated with the products the portfolio managers manage. Macquarie Asset Management keeps a percentage of the revenues and the remaining percentage of revenues (minus appropriate expenses associated with relevant products and the investment management team) creates the “bonus pool” for the product. Various members of the team have the ability to earn a percentage of the bonus pool with the most senior contributors generally having the largest share. The pool is allotted based on subjective factors and objective factors. The primary objective factor is the 1-, 3-, and 5-year performance of the funds managed relative to the performance of the appropriate Morningstar, Inc. peer groups and the performance of institutional composites relative to the appropriate indices. Three- and five-year performance is weighted more heavily and there is no objective award for a fund whose performance falls below the 50th percentile for a given time period.

Individual allocations of the bonus pool are based on individual performance measurements, both objective and subjective, as determined by senior management.

Macquarie Asset Management Public Investments Notional Investment Plan — A portion of a portfolio manager’s retained profit share may be notionally exposed to the return of certain funds within MAM Funds pursuant to the terms of the Macquarie Asset Management Public Investments Notional Investment Plan. The retained amount will vest in equal tranches over a period ranging from four to five years after the date of investment (depending on the level of the employee).

Macquarie Group Employee Retained Equity Plan — A portion of a portfolio manager’s retained profit share may be invested in the Macquarie Group Employee Retained Equity Plan (“MEREP”), which is used to deliver remuneration in the form of Macquarie equity. The main type of award currently being offered under the MEREP is units comprising a beneficial interest in a Macquarie share held in a trust for the employee, subject to the vesting and forfeiture provisions of the MEREP. Subject to vesting conditions, vesting and release of the shares occurs in a period ranging from four to five years after the date of investment (depending on the level of the employee).

Other Compensation — Portfolio managers may also participate in benefit plans and programs available generally to all similarly situated employees.

Ownership of Securities

As of [ ], none of the portfolio managers beneficially owned shares of the Fund.

Trading Practices and Brokerage

The Manager selects broker/dealers to execute transactions on behalf of the Fund for the purchase or sale of portfolio securities on the basis of its judgment of their professional capability to provide the service. The primary consideration in selecting broker/dealers is to seek those broker/dealers who will provide best execution for the Fund. Best execution refers to many factors, including the price paid or received for a security, the commission charged, the promptness and reliability of execution, the confidentiality and placement accorded the order, and other factors affecting the overall benefit obtained by the account on the transaction. Some trades are made on a net basis where the Fund either buys securities directly from the dealer or sells them to the dealer. In these instances, there is no direct commission charged but there is a spread (the difference between the buy and sell price), which is the economic equivalent of a commission. When a commission is paid, the Fund pays reasonable brokerage commission rates based upon the professional knowledge of the Manager’s trading department as to rates paid and charged for similar transactions throughout the securities industry. In some instances, the Fund pays a minimal share transaction cost when the transaction presents no difficulty.

Subject to applicable requirements, such as seeking best execution and Rule 12b-1(h) under the 1940 Act, the Manager may allocate out of all commission business generated by all of the funds and accounts under its management, brokerage business to broker/dealers who provide brokerage and research services. These services may include providing advice, either directly or through publications or writings, as to the value of securities, the advisability of investing in, purchasing, or selling securities, and the availability of securities or purchasers or sellers of securities; furnishing of analyses and reports concerning issuers, securities, or industries; providing information on economic factors and trends; assisting in determining portfolio strategy; providing computer software used in security analysis; and providing portfolio performance evaluation and technical market analyses. Such services are used by the Manager in connection with its investment decision-making process with respect to one or more mutual funds and separate accounts managed by it, and may not be used, or used exclusively, with respect to the mutual fund or separate account generating the brokerage.

As provided in the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the Fund’s Investment Management Agreement, higher commissions are permitted to be paid to broker/dealers who provide brokerage and research services than to broker/dealers who do not provide such services, if such higher commissions are deemed reasonable in relation to the value of the brokerage and research services provided. Although transactions directed to broker/dealers who provide such brokerage and research services may result in the Fund paying higher commissions, the Manager believes that such commissions are reasonable in relation to the value of the brokerage and research services provided. In some instances, services may be provided to the Manager that constitute in some part brokerage and research services used by the Manager in connection with its investment decision-making process and constitute in some part services used by the Manager in connection with administrative or other functions not related to its investment decision-making process. In such cases, the Manager will make a good faith allocation of brokerage and research services and will pay out of its own resources for services used by the Manager in connection with administrative or other functions not related to its investment decision-making process. In addition, so long as the Fund is not disadvantaged, other than the potential for additional commissions/equivalents, portfolio transactions that generate commissions or their equivalent can be allocated to broker/dealers that provide services directly or indirectly to the Fund and/or to other Macquarie Funds. Subject to best execution, commissions/equivalents allocated to brokers providing such services may or may not be generated by the funds receiving the service. In such instances, the commissions/equivalents would be used for the advantage of the Fund or other funds and not for the advantage of the Manager.

The Manager may place a combined order for two or more accounts or funds engaged in the purchase or sale of the same security if, in its judgment, joint

46

execution is in the best interest of each participant and will meet the requirement to seek best execution. Transactions involving commingled orders are allocated in a manner deemed equitable to each account or fund. When a combined order is executed in a series of transactions at different prices, each account participating in the order may be allocated an average price obtained from the executing broker. It is believed that the ability of the accounts to participate in volume transactions will generally be beneficial to the accounts and funds. Although it is recognized that, in some cases, the joint execution of orders could adversely affect the price or volume of the security that a particular account or fund may obtain, it is the opinion of the Manager and the Board that the advantages of combined orders outweigh the possible disadvantages of separate transactions.

Consistent with the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (“FINRA”) rules, and subject to seeking best execution, the Manager may place orders with broker/dealers that have agreed to defray certain Fund expenses, such as custodian fees.

The Fund has the authority to participate in a commission recapture program. Under the program and subject to seeking best execution (as described in the first paragraph of this section), the Fund may direct certain security trades to brokers who have agreed to rebate a portion of the related brokerage commission to the Fund in cash. Any such commission rebates will be included as a realized gain on securities in the appropriate financial statements of the Fund. The Manager and its affiliates have previously acted, and may in the future act, as an investment manager to mutual funds or separate accounts affiliated with the administrator of the commission recapture program. In addition, affiliates of the administrator act as consultants in helping institutional clients choose investment managers and may also participate in other types of businesses and provide other services in the investment management industry.

Capital Structure

Capitalization

The Trust currently has authorized, and allocated to the Fund, an unlimited number of shares of beneficial interest with no par value. All shares are, when issued in accordance with the Trust’s registration statement (as amended from time to time), governing instruments and applicable law, fully paid, and nonassessable. Shareholders do not have preemptive rights. All shares of the Fund represent an undivided proportionate interest in the assets of the Fund.

Noncumulative Voting

The Trust’s shares have noncumulative voting rights, meaning that the holders of more than 50% of the shares of the Trust voting for the election of Trustees can elect all of the Trustees if they choose to do so, and, in such event, the holders of the remaining shares will not be able to elect any Trustees.

Additional Information

The Declaration of Trust provides that each shareholder, by virtue of having become a shareholder of the Trust, shall be bound by the terms of the Declaration of Trust. The Declaration of Trust provides a detailed process for the bringing of derivative actions by shareholders for claims other than U.S. federal securities law claims beyond the process otherwise required by law. This process is intended to permit legitimate inquiries and claims while avoiding the time, expense, distraction, and other harm that can be caused to the Fund or its shareholders as a result of spurious shareholder demands and derivative actions. Prior to bringing a derivative action, a demand by the complaining shareholder must first be made on the Board of Trustees. The Declaration of Trust details conditions that must be met with respect to the demand. Following receipt of the demand, the Board of Trustees must be afforded a reasonable amount of time to consider and investigate the demand. The Declaration of Trust provides that, for derivative actions for claims other than claims arising under the U.S. federal securities laws, the Board of Trustees will be entitled to retain counsel or other advisors in considering the merits of the request and shall require an undertaking by the shareholders making such request to reimburse the Trust for the expense of any such advisors in the event that the Board of Trustees determine not to bring such action. This provision does not apply to claims arising under the U.S. federal securities laws. The Trust's process for bringing derivative suits may be more restrictive than other investment companies. The process for derivative actions for the Trust also may make it more expensive for a shareholder to bring a suit than if the shareholder was not required to follow such a process.

Creation and Redemption of Creation Units

General. The Trust issues and redeems shares of the Fund only in Creation Units on a continuous basis through the Distributor or its agent, without a sales load, at a price based on the Fund’s NAV next determined after receipt, on any Business Day (as defined below), of an order received by the Distributor or its agent in proper form. On days when the Listing Exchange closes earlier than normal, the Fund may require orders to be placed earlier in the day. The number of shares of the Fund that constitute a Creation Unit is [25,000] shares.

In its discretion, the Manager reserves the right to increase or decrease the number of the Fund’s shares that constitute a Creation Unit. The Board reserves the right to declare a split or a consolidation in the number of shares outstanding of the Fund, and to make a corresponding change in the number of shares constituting a Creation Unit, in the event that the per share price in the secondary market rises (or declines) to an amount that falls outside the range deemed desirable by the Board.

A “Business Day” with respect to the Fund is any day the Fund is open for business, including any day when it satisfies redemption requests as required by Section 22(e) of the 1940 Act. The Fund is open for business any day on which the Listing Exchange on which the Fund is listed for trading is open for business. As of the date of this SAI, the Listing Exchange observes the following holidays: New Year’s Day, Martin Luther King, Jr. Day, Presidents’ Day, Good Friday, Memorial Day, Juneteenth National Independence Day, Independence Day, Labor Day, Thanksgiving Day and Christmas Day.

To the extent the Fund engages in in-kind transactions, the Fund intends to comply with the U.S. federal securities laws in accepting securities for deposit and satisfying redemptions with redemption securities by, among other means, assuring that any securities accepted for deposit and any securities used to

47

Creation and Redemption of Creation Units

satisfy redemption requests will be sold in transactions that would be exempt from registration under the 1933 Act. Further, an Authorized Participant that is not a “qualified institutional buyer,” as such term is defined under Rule 144A of the 1933 Act, will not be able to receive securities that are restricted securities eligible for resale under Rule 144A.

Fund Deposit. The consideration for purchase of Creation Units of the Fund generally consists of the Deposit Securities (i.e., the in-kind deposit of a designated portfolio of securities, assets or other positions (including any portion of such securities, assets or other positions for which cash may be substituted)) and the Cash Component computed as described below. Together, the Deposit Securities and the Cash Component constitute the “Fund Deposit,” which will be applicable (subject to possible amendment or correction) to creation requests received in proper form. The Fund Deposit represents the minimum initial and subsequent investment amount for a Creation Unit of the Fund.

The “Cash Component” is an amount equal to the difference between the NAV of the shares (per Creation Unit) and the “Deposit Amount,” which is an amount equal to the market value of the Deposit Securities, and serves to compensate for any differences between the NAV per Creation Unit and the Deposit Amount. Payment of any stamp duty or other similar fees and expenses payable upon transfer of beneficial ownership of the Deposit Securities are the sole responsibility of the Authorized Participant purchasing the Creation Unit. Please see the Cash purchase method section below and the following discussion summarizing the in-kind method for further information on purchasing Creation Units of the Fund.

The Fund’s Manager makes available through the NSCC on each Business Day prior to the opening of business on the Listing Exchange, the list of names and the required number of shares of each Deposit Security and the amount of the Cash Component (if any) to be included in the current Fund Deposit (based on information as of the end of the previous Business Day for the Fund). Such Fund Deposit is applicable, subject to any adjustments as described below, to purchases of Creation Units of shares of the Fund until such time as the next-announced Fund Deposit is made available.

The identity and number of shares of the Deposit Securities and the amount of the Cash Component changes pursuant to changes in the composition of the Fund’s portfolio and as rebalancing adjustments and corporate action events are reflected from time to time by the investment manager with a view to the investment goal of the Fund. The composition of the Deposit Securities and the amount of the Cash Component may also change in response to adjustments to the weighting or composition of the component securities constituting the portfolio.

The Trust may require the substitution of an amount of cash (i.e., a “cash-in-lieu” amount) to replace any Deposit Security of the Fund that is a non-deliverable instrument. The amount of cash contributed will be equivalent to the value of the instrument listed as a Deposit Security, as determined by the Trust. A transaction fee may be charged on the cash amount contributed in lieu of the TBA transaction or mortgage pass-through security.

The Fund reserves the right to accept a nonconforming (i.e., custom) Fund Deposit. All questions as to the composition of the in-kind creation basket to be included in the Fund Deposit and the validity, form, eligibility, and acceptance for deposit of any instrument shall be determined by the Trust, and the Trust’s determination shall be final and binding.

The Fund reserves the right to permit or require the substitution of a “cash in lieu” amount to be added to the Cash Component to replace any Deposit Security that is a to-be-announced (“TBA”) transaction, that may not be available in sufficient quantity for delivery or that may not be eligible for transfer through the facilities of DTC (DTC Facilities) or the clearing process through the Continuous Net Settlement System of the NSCC (NSCC Clearing Process), a clearing agency that is registered with the SEC (as discussed below), or that the Authorized Participant is not able to trade due to a trading restriction. The Fund also reserves the right to permit or require a “cash in lieu” amount in other circumstances, including circumstances in which: (i) the delivery of the Deposit Security by the Authorized Participant would be restricted under applicable securities or other local laws; (ii) the delivery of the Deposit Security to the Authorized Participant would result in the disposition of the Deposit Security by the Authorized Participant becoming restricted under applicable securities or other local laws; or (iii) in certain other situations.

Cash purchase method. When partial or full cash purchases of Creation Units are available or specified for the Fund, they will be effected in essentially the same manner as in-kind purchases thereof. In the case of a partial or full cash purchase, the Authorized Participant must pay the cash equivalent of the Deposit Securities it would otherwise be required to provide through an in-kind purchase, plus the same Cash Component required to be paid by an in-kind purchaser.

Creation Units. An “Authorized Participant” is a member or participant of a clearing agency registered with the SEC, which has a written agreement with the Fund or one of its service providers (Authorized Participant Agreement) that allows such member or participant to place orders for the purchase and redemption of Creation Units. To be eligible to place orders with the Distributor and to create a Creation Unit of the Fund, an entity must be: (i) a “Participating Party,” i.e., a broker-dealer or other participant in the NSCC Clearing Process, or (ii) a DTC Participant, and, in either case, must have executed an Authorized Participant Agreement with the Distributor with respect to creations and redemptions of Creation Units. All shares of the Fund, however created, will be entered on the records of DTC in the name of Cede & Co. for the account of a DTC Participant.

Role of the Authorized Participant. Creation Units may be purchased only by or through an Authorized Participant that has entered into an Authorized Participant Agreement with the Distributor. Such Authorized Participant will agree, pursuant to the terms of such Authorized Participant Agreement and on behalf of itself or any investor on whose behalf it will act, to certain conditions, including that such Authorized Participant will make available in advance of each purchase of shares an amount of cash sufficient to pay the Cash Component, once the net asset value of a Creation Unit is next determined after receipt of the purchase order in proper form, together with the transaction fees described below. An Authorized Participant, acting on behalf of an investor, may require the investor to enter into an agreement with such Authorized Participant with respect to certain matters, including payment of the Cash Component. Investors who are not Authorized Participants must make appropriate arrangements with an Authorized Participant. Investors should be aware that their particular broker may not be an Authorized Participant or may not have executed an Authorized Participant Agreement and that orders to purchase Creation Units may have to be placed by the investor’s broker through an Authorized Participant. As a result, purchase orders placed through an Authorized Participant may result in additional charges to such investor. The Trust does not expect to enter into an Authorized Participant Agreement with more than a small number of Authorized Participants.

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Placement of creation orders. An Authorized Participant must submit an irrevocable order to purchase shares of the Fund, in proper form, generally before 4 p.m., Eastern time on any Business Day in order to receive that day’s NAV. Orders for Creation Units must be transmitted by an Authorized Participant by telephone or other transmission method acceptable to the Distributor or its agent pursuant to procedures set forth in the Authorized Participant Agreement and Authorized Participant Handbook (as may be amended or supplemented from time to time), as described below. Economic or market disruptions or changes, or telephone or other communication failure, may impede the ability to reach the Distributor or its agent or an Authorized Participant. Orders to create shares of the Fund that are submitted on the Business Day immediately preceding a holiday or a day (other than a weekend) when the equity markets in the relevant non-U.S. market are closed may not be accepted. The Fund’s deadline described above for the submission of purchase orders and the Fund’s deadline for the submission of redemption orders is referred to as the Fund’s “Cutoff Time.” Please see the Authorized Participant Agreement and Authorized Participant Handbook for information regarding the Fund’s Cutoff Times. The Distributor or its agent, in their discretion, may permit the submission of such orders and requests by or through an Authorized Participant at any time (including on days on which the Listing Exchange is not open for business) via communication through the facilities of the Distributor’s or its agent’s proprietary website maintained for this purpose.

Investors, other than Authorized Participants, are responsible for making arrangements for a creation request to be made through an Authorized Participant. Those placing orders to purchase Creation Units through an Authorized Participant should allow sufficient time to permit proper submission of the purchase order to the Distributor or its agent by the Cutoff Time on such Business Day.

Upon receiving an order for a Creation Unit, the Distributor or its agent will notify the investment manager and the custodian of such order. The custodian will then provide such information to any appropriate sub-custodian.

The Authorized Participant must make available on or before the prescribed settlement date, by means satisfactory to the Fund, immediately available or same day funds estimated by the Fund to be sufficient to pay the Cash Component next determined after acceptance of the purchase order, together with the applicable purchase transaction fees. Any excess funds will be returned following settlement of the issue of the Creation Unit. Those placing orders should ascertain the applicable deadline for cash transfers by contacting the operations department of the broker or depositary institution effectuating the transfer of the Cash Component. This deadline is likely to be significantly earlier than the Cutoff Time of the Fund. Investors should be aware that an Authorized Participant may require orders for purchases of shares placed with it to be in the particular form required by the individual Authorized Participant.

The Authorized Participant is responsible for all transaction-related fees, expenses and other costs (as described below), as well as any applicable cash amounts, in connection with any purchase order.

Once a purchase order has been accepted, it will be processed based on the NAV next determined after such acceptance in accordance with the Fund’s Cutoff Times as provided in the Authorized Participant Agreement and Authorized Participant Handbook (as may be amended or supplemented from time to time) and disclosed in this SAI.

Acceptance of orders for Creation Units. Subject to the conditions that (i) an irrevocable purchase order has been submitted by the Authorized Participant (either on its own or another investor’s behalf) and (ii) arrangements satisfactory to the Fund are in place for payment of the Cash Component and any other cash amounts which may be due, an order will be accepted, subject to the Fund’s right (and the right of the Distributor and the investment manager to reject any order until acceptance, as set forth below.

Once an order has been accepted, upon the next determination of the net asset value of the shares, the Fund will confirm the issuance of a Creation Unit, against receipt of payment, at such net asset value. The Distributor or its agent will then transmit a confirmation of acceptance to the Authorized Participant that placed the order.

The SEC has expressed the view that a suspension of creations that impairs the arbitrage mechanism applicable to the trading of ETF shares in the secondary market is inconsistent with Rule 6c-11 under the 1940 Act. The SEC’s position does not prohibit the suspension or rejection of creations in all instances. The Fund reserves the right, to the extent consistent with the provisions of Rule 6c-11 under the 1940 Act and the SEC’s position, to reject or revoke a creation order transmitted to it by the Distributor or its agent, including, for example, if: (i) the order is not in proper form; (ii) the investor(s), upon obtaining the shares ordered, would own 80% or more of the currently outstanding shares of the Fund; (iii) the Deposit Securities delivered do not conform to the identity and number of shares specified, as described above; (iv) acceptance of the Fund Deposit would, in the opinion of the Fund, be unlawful; or (v) circumstances outside the control of the Fund make it impossible to process purchase orders for all practical purposes. The Distributor or its agent shall notify a prospective purchaser of a Creation Unit and/or the Authorized Participant acting on behalf of such purchaser of its rejection of such order. The Fund, the Fund’s custodian, the sub-custodian and the Distributor or its agent are under no duty, however, to give notification of any defects or irregularities in the delivery of Fund Deposits nor shall any of them incur any liability for failure to give such notification.

Issuance of a Creation Unit. Except as provided herein, a Creation Unit will not be issued until the transfer of good title to the Fund of the Deposit Securities and the payment of the Cash Component have been completed. When the sub-custodian has confirmed to the custodian that the securities included in the Fund Deposit (or the cash value thereof) have been delivered to the account of the relevant sub-custodian or sub-custodians, the Distributor

49

Creation and Redemption of Creation Units

or its agent and the investment manager shall be notified of such delivery and the Fund will issue and cause the delivery of the Creation Unit. Typically, Creation Units are issued on a “T+2 basis” (i.e., two Business Days after trade date). The Fund reserves the right to settle Creation Unit transactions on a basis other than T+2 if necessary or appropriate under the circumstances.

To the extent contemplated by an Authorized Participant Agreement with the Distributor, the Fund will issue Creation Units to an Authorized Participant, notwithstanding the fact that the corresponding Fund Deposits have not been received in part or in whole, in reliance on the undertaking of the Authorized Participant to deliver the missing Deposit Securities as soon as possible, which undertaking shall be secured by such Authorized Participant’s delivery and maintenance of collateral having a value at least equal to 105% and up to 115%, which percentage the Trust may change at any time, in its sole discretion, of the value of the missing Deposit Securities in accordance with the Fund’s then-effective procedures. The Trust may use such cash deposit at any time to buy Deposit Securities for the Fund. The only collateral that is acceptable to the Fund is cash in U.S. dollars. Such cash collateral must be delivered no later than 1 p.m., Eastern time on the prescribed settlement date or such other time as designated by the Fund’s custodian. Information concerning the Fund’s current procedures for collateralization of missing Deposit Securities is available from the Distributor or its agent. The Authorized Participant Agreement will permit the Fund to buy the missing Deposit Securities at any time and will subject the Authorized Participant to liability for any shortfall between the cost to the Fund of purchasing such securities and the value of the cash collateral including, without limitation, liability for related brokerage, borrowings and other charges.

In certain cases, Authorized Participants may create and redeem Creation Units on the same trade date and in these instances, the Fund reserves the right to settle these transactions on a net basis or require a representation from the Authorized Participants that the creation and redemption transactions are for separate beneficial owners. All questions as to the number of shares of each security in the Deposit Securities and the validity, form, eligibility and acceptance for deposit of any securities to be delivered shall be determined by the Fund and the Fund’s determination shall be final and binding.

Costs associated with creation transactions. A standard creation transaction fee is imposed to offset the transfer and other transaction costs associated with the issuance of Creation Units. The standard creation transaction fee is charged to the Authorized Participant on the day such Authorized Participant creates a Creation Unit, and is the same, regardless of the number of Creation Units purchased by the Authorized Participant on the applicable Business Day. The Authorized Participant may also be required to cover certain brokerage, tax, foreign exchange, execution, market impact and other costs and expenses related to the execution of trades resulting from such transaction (up to the maximum amount shown below). Authorized Participants will also bear the costs of transferring the Deposit Securities to the Fund. Investors who use the services of a broker or other financial intermediary to acquire Fund shares may be charged a fee for such services.

The following table sets the Fund’s standard creation transaction fees and maximum additional charge (as described above):

Standard Creation Transaction Fee Maximum Additional Charge for
Creations
1
$500 7%
1.As a percentage of the net asset value per Creation Unit.

Redemption of Creation Units. Shares of the Fund may be redeemed by Authorized Participants only in Creation Units at their NAV next determined after receipt of a redemption request in proper form by the Distributor or its agent and only on a Business Day. The Fund will not redeem shares in amounts less than Creation Units. There can be no assurance, however, that there will be sufficient liquidity in the secondary market at any time to permit assembly of a Creation Unit. Investors should expect to incur brokerage and other costs in connection with assembling a sufficient number of shares to constitute a Creation Unit that could be redeemed by an Authorized Participant. Beneficial owners also may sell shares in the secondary market. The Fund generally redeems Creation Units for Fund Securities (as defined below) and the Cash Amount (as defined below). Please see the Cash redemption method section below and the following discussion summarizing the in-kind method for further information on redeeming Creation Units of the Fund.

The Fund’s Manager makes available through the NSCC, prior to the opening of business on the Listing Exchange on each Business Day, the designated portfolio of securities, assets or other positions (including any portion of such securities, assets or other positions for which cash may be substituted) that will be applicable (subject to possible amendment or correction) to redemption requests received in proper form (as defined below) on that day (Fund Securities), and an amount of cash as described below (Cash Amount) (if any). Such Fund Securities and the corresponding Cash Amount (each subject to possible amendment or correction) are applicable in order to effect redemptions of Creation Units of the Fund until such time as the next announced composition of the Fund Securities and Cash Amount is made available. Together, the Fund Securities and the Cash Amount constitute the “Fund Redemption.” Fund Securities received on redemption may not be identical to Deposit Securities that are applicable to creations of Creation Units.

Unless cash redemptions are available or specified for the Fund, the redemption proceeds for a Creation Unit generally consist of Fund Securities, plus the Cash Amount, which is an amount equal to the difference between the net asset value of the shares being redeemed, as next determined after the receipt of a redemption request in proper form, and the value of Fund Securities, less a redemption transaction fee (as described below).

The Fund reserves the right to deliver a nonconforming (i.e., custom) Fund Redemption. All questions as to the composition of the in-kind redemption basket to be included in the Fund Redemption shall be determined by the Trust, in accordance with applicable law, and the Trust’s determination shall be final and binding.

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The Fund may, in its sole discretion, substitute a “cash in lieu” amount to replace any Fund Security that may not be eligible for transfer through DTC Facilities or the NSCC Clearing Process or that the Authorized Participant is not able to trade due to a trading restriction. The Fund also reserves the right to permit or require a “cash in lieu” amount in other circumstances, including circumstances in which: (i) the delivery of a Fund Security to the Authorized Participant would be restricted under applicable securities or other local laws; (ii) the delivery of a Fund Security to the Authorized Participant would result in the disposition of the Fund Security by the Authorized Participant becoming restricted under applicable securities or other local laws; or (iii) in certain other situations. The amount of cash paid out in such cases will be equivalent to the value of the substituted security listed as a Fund Security. In the event that the Fund Securities have a value greater than the NAV of the shares, a compensating cash payment equal to the difference is required to be made by or through an Authorized Participant by the redeeming shareholder.

The Fund generally redeems Creation Units for Fund Securities and the Cash Amount, but the Fund reserves the right to utilize a cash option for redemption of Creation Units.

Cash redemption method. When partial or full cash redemptions of Creation Units are available or specified for the Fund, they will be effected in essentially the same manner as in-kind redemptions thereof. In the case of partial or full cash redemption, the Authorized Participant receives the cash equivalent of the Fund Securities it would otherwise receive through an in-kind redemption, plus the same Cash Amount to be paid to an in-kind redeemer.

Costs associated with redemption transactions. A standard redemption transaction fee is imposed to offset transfer and other transaction costs that may be incurred by the Fund. The standard redemption transaction fee is charged to the Authorized Participant on the day such Authorized Participant redeems a Creation Unit, and is the same regardless of the number of Creation Units redeemed by an Authorized Participant on the applicable Business Day. The Authorized Participant may also be required to cover certain brokerage, tax, foreign exchange, execution, market impact and other costs and expenses related to the execution of trades resulting from such transaction (up to the maximum amount shown below). Authorized Participants will also bear the costs of transferring the Fund Securities from the Fund to their account on their order. Investors who use the services of a broker or other financial intermediary to dispose of Fund shares may be charged a fee for such services.

The following table sets forth the Fund’s standard redemption transaction fees and maximum additional charge (as described above):

Standard Redemption Transaction Fee Maximum Additional Charge for
Redemptions
1
$500 2%
1.As a percentage of the net asset value per Creation Unit, inclusive of the standard redemption transaction fee .

Placement of redemption orders. Redemption requests for Creation Units of the Fund must be submitted to the Distributor or its agent by or through an Authorized Participant. An Authorized Participant must submit an irrevocable request to redeem shares of the Fund, in proper form, generally before 4 p.m., Eastern time on any Business Day, in order to receive that day’s NAV. On days when the Listing Exchange closes earlier than normal, the Fund may require orders to redeem Creation Units to be placed earlier that day. Investors, other than Authorized Participants, are responsible for making arrangements for a redemption request to be made through an Authorized Participant. Please see the Authorized Participant Agreement and Authorized Participant Handbook for information regarding the Fund’s Cutoff Times.

The Authorized Participant must transmit the request for redemption in the form required by the Fund to the Distributor or its agent in accordance with procedures set forth in the Authorized Participant Agreement and Authorized Participant Handbook (as may be amended or supplemented from time to time). Investors should be aware that their particular broker may not have executed an Authorized Participant Agreement and that, therefore, requests to redeem Creation Units may have to be placed by the investor’s broker through an Authorized Participant who has executed an Authorized Participant Agreement. At any time, only a limited number of broker-dealers will have an Authorized Participant Agreement in effect. Investors making a redemption request should be aware that such request must be in the form specified by such Authorized Participant. Investors making a request to redeem Creation Units should allow sufficient time to permit proper submission of the request by an Authorized Participant and transfer of the shares to the Fund’s transfer agent; such investors should allow for the additional time that may be required to effect redemptions through their banks, brokers or other financial intermediaries if such intermediaries are not Authorized Participants.

A redemption request is considered to be in “proper form” if: (i) an Authorized Participant has transferred or caused to be transferred to the Fund’s transfer agent the Creation Unit redeemed through the book-entry system of DTC so as to be effective by the Listing Exchange closing time on any Business Day; (ii) a request in form satisfactory to the Fund is received by the Distributor or its agent from the Authorized Participant on behalf of itself or another redeeming investor within the time periods specified above; and (iii) all other procedures set forth in the Authorized Participant Agreement and Authorized Participant Handbook (as may be amended or supplemented from time to time) are properly followed. If the transfer agent does not receive the investor’s shares through DTC Facilities by 10 a.m., Eastern time on the prescribed settlement date, the redemption request may be deemed rejected. Investors should be aware that the deadline for such transfers of shares through the DTC Facilities may be significantly earlier than the close of business on the Listing Exchange. Those making redemption requests should ascertain the deadline applicable to transfers of shares through the DTC Facilities by contacting the operations department of the broker or depositary institution effecting the transfer of the shares.

Upon receiving a redemption request, the Distributor or its agent shall notify the Fund and the Fund’s transfer agent of such redemption request. The tender of an investor’s shares for redemption and the distribution of the securities and/or cash included in the redemption payment made in respect of Creation Units redeemed will be made through DTC and the relevant Authorized Participant to the Beneficial Owner thereof as recorded on the book-entry system of DTC

51

Creation and Redemption of Creation Units

or the DTC Participant through which such investor holds, as the case may be, or by such other means specified by the Authorized Participant submitting the redemption request. Once a redemption request has been accepted, it will be processed based on the NAV next determined after such acceptance in accordance with the Fund’s Cutoff Times as provided in the Authorized Participant Agreement and Authorized Participant Handbook (as may be amended or supplemented from time to time) and disclosed in this SAI.

A redeeming Beneficial Owner or Authorized Participant acting on behalf of such Beneficial Owner must maintain appropriate security arrangements with a qualified broker-dealer, bank or other custody providers in each jurisdiction in which any of the portfolio securities are customarily traded, to which account such portfolio securities will be delivered.

Deliveries of redemption proceeds by the Fund generally will be made within two Business Days (i.e., “T+2”). The Fund reserves the right to settle redemption transactions later than T+2 if necessary or appropriate under the circumstances and compliant with applicable law. Delayed settlement may occur due to a number of different reasons, including, without limitation, settlement cycles for the underlying securities, unscheduled market closings, an effort to link distribution to dividend record dates and ex-dates and newly announced holidays. For example, the redemption settlement process may be extended beyond T+2 because of the occurrence of a holiday in a non-U.S. market or in the U.S. bond market that is not a holiday observed in the U.S. equity market.

If the Fund includes a foreign investment in its basket, and if a local market holiday, or series of consecutive holidays, or the extended delivery cycles for transferring foreign investments to redeeming Authorized Participants prevents timely delivery of the foreign investment in response to a redemption request, the Fund may delay delivery of the foreign investment more than seven days if the Fund delivers the foreign investment as soon as practicable, but in no event later than 15 days.

If neither the redeeming Beneficial Owner nor the Authorized Participant acting on behalf of such redeeming Beneficial Owner has appropriate arrangements to take delivery of Fund Securities in the applicable non-U.S. jurisdiction and it is not possible to make other such arrangements, or if it is not possible to effect deliveries of Fund Securities in such jurisdiction, the Fund may in its discretion exercise its option to redeem such shares in cash, and the redeeming Beneficial Owner will be required to receive its redemption proceeds in cash. In such case, the investor will receive a cash payment equal to the net asset value of its shares based on the NAV of the Fund next determined after the redemption request is received in proper form (minus a redemption transaction fee and additional charges specified above, to offset the Fund’s brokerage and other transaction costs associated with the disposition of Fund Securities). Redemptions of shares for Fund Securities will be subject to compliance with applicable U.S. federal and state securities laws and the Fund (whether or not it otherwise permits cash redemptions) reserves the right to redeem Creation Units for cash to the extent that the Fund cannot lawfully deliver specific Fund Securities upon redemptions or cannot do so without first registering the Fund Securities under such laws.

When partial or full cash redemptions of Creation Units are available or specified for the Fund, proceeds will be paid to the Authorized Participant redeeming shares as soon as practicable after the date of redemption (within seven calendar days thereafter).

To the extent contemplated by an Authorized Participant Agreement with the Distributor, in the event an Authorized Participant has submitted a redemption request in proper form but is unable to transfer all or part of the Creation Unit to be redeemed to the Fund, at or prior to 10 a.m., Eastern time on the prescribed settlement date, the Distributor or its agent will accept the redemption request in reliance on the undertaking by the Authorized Participant to deliver the missing shares as soon as possible. Such undertaking shall be secured by the Authorized Participant’s delivery and maintenance of collateral consisting of cash, in U.S. dollars in immediately available funds, having a value at least equal to 105% and up to 115%, which percentage the Trust may change at any time, in its sole discretion, of the value of the missing shares. Such cash collateral must be delivered no later than 10 a.m., Eastern time on the prescribed settlement date and shall be held by the Fund’s custodian and marked-to-market daily. The fees of the Fund’s custodian and any sub-custodians in respect of the delivery, maintenance and redelivery of the cash collateral shall be payable by the Authorized Participant. The Authorized Participant Agreement will permit the Fund to purchase missing Fund shares or acquire the Deposit Securities and the Cash Amount underlying such shares, and will subject the Authorized Participant to liability for any shortfall between the cost of the Fund acquiring such shares, the Deposit Securities or Cash Amount and the value of the cash collateral including, without limitation, liability for related brokerage and other charges.

Because the portfolio securities of the Fund may trade on exchange(s) on days that the Listing Exchange is closed or are otherwise not Business Days for the Fund, shareholders may not be able to redeem their shares of the Fund, or purchase or sell shares of the Fund on the Listing Exchange on days when the NAV of the Fund could be significantly affected by events in the relevant non-U.S. markets.

The right of redemption may be suspended or the date of payment postponed with respect to the Fund: (i) for any period during which the Listing Exchange is closed (other than customary weekend and holiday closings); (ii) for any period during which trading on the Listing Exchange is restricted; (iii) for any period during which an emergency exists as a result of which disposal of the shares of the Fund’s portfolio securities or determination of its net asset value is not reasonably practicable; or (iv) in such other circumstances as is permitted by the SEC.

Custom baskets. The Fund may utilize custom creation or redemption baskets consistent with Rule 6c-11 under the 1940 Act. A custom order may be placed when, for example, an Authorized Participant cannot transact in an instrument in the in-kind creation or in-kind redemption basket and therefore has additional cash included in lieu of such instrument. The Trust has adopted policies and procedures that govern the construction and acceptance of baskets, including heightened requirements for certain types of custom baskets. These policies and procedures provide detailed parameters for the construction and acceptance of custom baskets that are in the best interests of the Fund and its shareholders, including the process for any revisions to, or deviations from, those parameters, and specify the titles or roles of the employees of the investment manager who are required to review each custom basket for compliance with the parameters.

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Distributions and Taxes

Taxes

General

The Fund is treated as a separate corporation for federal tax purposes. The Fund has elected and qualified since its inception for treatment as a registered investment company (RIC) under the Code, and each intends to continue to qualify for that treatment so that it is relieved of federal income tax on that part of its investment company taxable income (consisting generally of net taxable investment income, the excess of net short-term capital gain over net long-term capital loss, and net gains and losses from certain foreign currency transactions, all determined without regard to any deduction for dividends paid) and net capital gain (that is, the excess of net long-term capital gain over net short-term capital loss) that it distributes to its shareholders. To continue to qualify for treatment as a RIC, the Fund must distribute to its shareholders for each taxable year at least 90% of the sum of its investment company taxable income and 90% of its net tax-exempt income, if any, including, for purposes of satisfying this distribution requirement, certain distributions made by the Fund after the close of its taxable year that are treated as made during such taxable year and must meet several additional requirements. For the Fund, these requirements include the following:

the Fund must derive at least 90% of its gross income each taxable year from (a) dividends, interest, payments with respect to securities loans, and gains from the sale or other disposition of securities or foreign currencies, or other income (including gains from options, futures contracts, or forward currency contracts) derived with respect to its business of investing in securities or those currencies (collectively, Qualifying Income) and (b) net income from an interest in a QPTP (Income Requirement); and
at the close of each quarter of the Fund’s taxable year, (a) at least 50% of the value of its total assets must be represented by cash and cash items, US government securities, securities of other RICs and other securities that are limited, in respect of any one issuer, to an amount that does not exceed 5% of the value of the Fund’s total assets and that does not represent more than 10% of the issuer’s outstanding voting securities (equity securities of QPTPs being considered voting securities for these purposes) (50% Diversification Requirement), and (b) not more than 25% of the value of its total assets may be invested in (i) the securities (other than US government securities or the securities of other RICs) of any one issuer, (ii) the securities (other than securities of other RICs) of two or more issuers the Fund controls that are determined to be engaged in the same, similar, or related trades or businesses, or (iii) the securities of one or more QPTPs (collectively, RIC Diversification Requirements).

The gains that the Fund derives from investments in options or futures contracts on gold that are made for the purpose of hedging the Fund’s investment in securities of companies in the businesses of mining, processing, producing, exploring for, refining, or selling gold generally constitute Qualifying Income. However, direct investments by the Fund in precious metals, structured notes linked to precious metals or options or futures contracts on precious metals made for non-hedging purposes would have adverse tax consequences for the Fund and its shareholders if it either (1) derived more than 10% of its gross income in any taxable year from the disposition of such metals, notes, options, and futures contracts and from other non-Qualifying Income and thus failed to satisfy the Income Requirement or (2) held such metals, notes, options, and futures contracts in such quantities that it failed to satisfy the 50% Diversification Requirement. If the Fund invests in such metals, notes, options or futures contracts, it intends to manage or continue to manage its holdings thereof so as to avoid failing to satisfy those requirements for these reasons.

The Fund will be able to cure a failure to satisfy any of the Income and RIC Diversification Requirements under the RIC Modernization Act of 2010 (the Modernization Provisions) as long as the failure “is due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect” and the Fund pays a deductible tax calculated in accordance with those provisions and meets certain other requirements.

If the Fund failed to qualify for treatment as a RIC for any taxable year and was unable, or determined not to, avail itself of the Modernization Provisions, then for federal tax purposes, it would be taxed as an ordinary corporation on the full amount of its taxable income for that year (even if it distributed that income to its shareholders). In addition, the shareholders would treat all those distributions, including distributions of net capital gain as taxable dividends to the extent of the Fund’s earnings and profits, taxable as ordinary income, except as follows: (i) for individual and certain other noncorporate shareholders (each, a “noncorporate shareholder”), the part of such dividends that is “qualified dividend income” (as defined below under Shareholder Tax Considerations) would be subject to federal income tax at the rates for net capital gain - a maximum of 15%, or 20% for noncorporate shareholders with taxable income exceeding certain thresholds (which are adjusted for inflation annually); and (ii) all or part of those dividends would be eligible for the dividends-received deduction available to corporations under certain circumstances. In addition, the Fund could be required to recognize unrealized gains, pay substantial taxes and interest, and make substantial distributions before requalifying for RIC treatment.

Dividends and other distributions the Fund declares in October, November, and/or December of any year that are payable to its shareholders of record on a date in such a month are deemed to have been paid by the Fund and received by the shareholders on December 31 if the Fund pays them during the following January. Accordingly, those dividends and other distributions (except for exempt-interest dividends, as described below) will be taxed to the shareholders for the year in which that December 31 falls.

The Fund will be subject to a nondeductible 4% federal excise tax (Excise Tax) to the extent it fails to distribute, by the end of any calendar year, substantially all of its ordinary (taxable) income for that year and capital gain net income for the one-year period ending on October 31 of that year, plus certain other amounts. For these purposes, the Fund may defer into the next taxable year any capital loss incurred between November 1 and the end of the current taxable year as well as certain late year ordinary losses incurred between January 1 and the end of the current taxable year. It is the policy of the Fund to pay sufficient dividends and other distributions each year to avoid imposition of the Excise Tax.

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Distributions and Taxes

When the Fund engages in securities lending, while securities are loaned out by the Fund, the Fund generally will receive from the borrower amounts equal to any dividends or interest paid on the borrowed securities. For federal income tax purposes, payments made “in lieu of” dividends are not considered dividend income. These distributions will neither qualify for the reduced rate of taxation for individuals on qualified dividends nor the 50% dividends-received deduction for corporations. Also, any foreign tax withheld on payments made “in lieu of” dividends or interest will not qualify for the pass- through of foreign tax credits to shareholders.

Investments in Partnerships and QPTPs

A QPTP is defined as a publicly traded partnership (generally, a partnership the interests in which are “traded on an established securities market” or are “readily tradable on a secondary market (or the substantial equivalent thereof)”) other than a partnership at least 90% of the gross income of which consists of Qualifying Income. All of the net income derived by a fund from an interest in a QPTP will be treated as Qualifying Income but the Fund may not invest more than 25% of its total assets in one or more QPTPs. However, there can be no assurance that a partnership classified as a QPTP in one year will qualify as a QPTP in the next year. Any such failure to annually qualify as a QPTP might, in turn, cause a fund to fail to qualify as a RIC. Although, in general, the passive loss rules of the Code do not apply to RICs, such rules do apply to a fund with respect to items attributable to an interest in a QPTP. Fund investments in partnerships, including in QPTPs, may result in the fund being subject to state, local or foreign income, franchise or withholding tax liabilities.

If an MLP is treated as a partnership for US federal income tax purposes (whether or not a QPTP), all or a portion of the dividends received by a fund from the MLP likely will be treated as a return of capital for US federal income tax purposes because of accelerated deductions available with respect to the activities of such MLPs. Further, because of these accelerated deductions, on the disposition of interests in such an MLP, a fund likely will realize taxable income in excess of economic gain with respect to those MLP interests (or if the fund does not dispose of the MLP, the fund could realize taxable income in excess of cash flow with respect to the MLP in a later period), and the fund must take such income into account in determining whether the fund has satisfied its Distribution Requirement. A fund may have to borrow or liquidate securities to satisfy its Distribution Requirement and to meet its redemption requests, even though investment considerations might otherwise make it undesirable for the fund to sell securities or borrow money at such time. In addition, any gain recognized, either upon the sale of a fund’s MLP interest or sale by the MLP of property held by it, including in excess of economic gain thereon, treated as so-called “recapture income,” will be treated as ordinary income. Therefore, to the extent a fund invests in MLPs, fund shareholders might receive greater amounts of distributions from the fund taxable as ordinary income than they otherwise would in the absence of such MLP investments.

Although MLPs generally are expected to be treated as partnerships for US federal income tax purposes, some MLPs may be treated as passive foreign investment companies or “regular” corporations for US federal income tax purposes. The treatment of particular MLPs for US federal income tax purposes will affect the extent to which a fund can invest in MLPs and will impact the amount, character, and timing of income recognized by the Fund.

Income from Foreign Securities

Dividends and interest the Fund receives, and gains it realizes, on foreign securities may be subject to income, withholding, or other taxes imposed by foreign countries and US possessions (collectively, “foreign taxes”) that would reduce the yield and/or total return on its securities. Tax conventions between certain countries and the United States may reduce or eliminate foreign taxes, however, and many foreign countries do not impose taxes on capital gains in respect of investments by foreign investors. Under certain circumstances, the Fund may elect to pass-through foreign taxes paid by the Fund to shareholders, although it reserves the right not to do so. If the Fund makes such an election and obtains a refund of foreign taxes paid by the Fund in a prior year, the Fund may be eligible to reduce the amount of foreign taxes reported by the Fund to its shareholders, generally by the amount of the foreign taxes refunded, for the year in which the refund is received.

Subject to its investment policies and restrictions, the Fund may invest in the stock of passive foreign investment companies (PFICs). A PFIC is any foreign corporation (with certain exceptions) that, in general, meets either of the following tests for a taxable year: (1) at least 75% of its gross income is passive or (2) an average of at least 50% of its assets produce, or are held for the production of, passive income. Whether a foreign corporation is a PFIC is a fact-intensive determination that is based on various facts and circumstances that may change from time to time, and the principles and methodology used in determining whether a foreign corporation is a PFIC are subject to interpretation. It is possible that the Fund could invest in a foreign corporation that becomes, or is determined to be, a PFIC after the Fund makes the investment.

Under certain circumstances, the Fund will be subject to federal income tax on a portion of any “excess distribution” it receives on the stock of a PFIC or of any gain on disposition of the stock (collectively, “PFIC income”), plus interest thereon, even if the Fund distributes the PFIC income as a dividend to its shareholders. The balance of the PFIC income will be included in the Fund’s investment company taxable income and, accordingly, will not be taxable to it to the extent it distributes that income to its shareholders. To avoid the foregoing tax and interest obligation, the Fund might make a “qualified electing fund” (QEF) or “marked-to-market” election. If the Fund invests in a PFIC and elects to treat the PFIC as a QEF, then in lieu of the foregoing tax and interest obligation, the Fund will be required to include in income each taxable year its pro rata share of the QEF’s annual ordinary earnings and net capital gain- which the Fund probably would have to distribute to satisfy the Distribution Requirement and avoid imposition of the Excise Tax - even if the QEF does not distribute those earnings and gain to the Fund. In most instances it will be very difficult, if not impossible, to make this election because of certain requirements thereof.

The Fund may elect to mark-to-market its stock in any PFIC. Marking-to-market, in this context, means including in gross income each taxable year (and treating as ordinary income) the excess, if any, of the fair market value of a PFIC’s stock over the Fund’s adjusted basis therein as of the end of that year.

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Pursuant to the election, the Fund also may deduct (as an ordinary, not a capital, loss) the excess, if any, of its adjusted basis in PFIC stock over the fair market value thereof as of the taxable year-end, but only to the extent of any net mark-to-market gains with respect to that stock the Fund included in income for prior taxable years under the election. The Fund’s adjusted basis in each PFIC’s stock with respect to which it makes this election will be adjusted to reflect the amounts of income included and deductions taken under the election.

Foreign Currency Gains and Losses

Gains or losses (1) from the disposition of foreign currencies, including forward currency contracts, (2) except in certain circumstances, from options and forward contracts on foreign currencies (and on financial instruments involving foreign currencies) and from notional principal contracts (e.g., swaps, caps, floors and collars) involving payments denominated in foreign currencies, (3) on the disposition of each debt security denominated in a foreign currency that are attributable to fluctuations in the value of the foreign currency between the date of acquisition of the security and the date of its disposition, and (4) that are attributable to fluctuations in exchange rates that occur between the time the Fund accrues interest, dividends or other receivables, or expenses or other liabilities, denominated in a foreign currency and the time the Fund actually collects the receivables or pays the liabilities, generally are treated as ordinary income or loss. These gains or losses may increase or decrease the amount of the Fund’s investment company taxable income to be distributed to its shareholders as ordinary income, rather than affecting the amount of its net capital gain, and may cause some or all of the Fund’s previously distributed income to be classified as a return of capital.

A fund that is permitted to invest in forward currency contracts may elect to treat gains and losses from those contracts as capital gains or losses. These gains or losses may increase or decrease the amount of a fund’s investment company taxable income (if short-term in nature) or net capital gain (if long-term in nature) to be distributed to its shareholders.

Income from Financial Instruments and Foreign Currencies

The use of hedging and option income strategies, such as writing (selling) and purchasing options and futures contracts and entering into forward currency contracts, involves complex rules that will determine for income tax purposes the amount, character and timing of recognition of the gains and losses the Fund realizes in connection therewith. Gains from the disposition of foreign currencies (except certain gains that may be excluded by future regulations), and gains from options, futures contracts and forward currency contracts the Fund derives with respect to its business of investing in securities or foreign currencies (see the discussion under General above regarding options and futures contracts on gold), will be treated as Qualifying Income. The Fund will monitor its transactions, make appropriate tax elections, and make appropriate entries in its books and records when it acquires any Financial Instrument to mitigate the effect of these rules, prevent its disqualification as a RIC, and minimize the imposition of federal income tax.

The Fund’s need to satisfy the Income Requirement and the RIC Diversification Requirements to qualify for treatment as a RIC may limit its ability to engage in certain swap agreements and derivatives transactions. Moreover, the rules governing the tax treatment of swap agreements are not entirely clear in certain respects. For example, the tax treatment of a payment made or received under a swap agreement in particular, whether such a payment is, wholly or partially, ordinary income or capital gain will vary depending on the terms of the particular agreement. The tax treatment of swap agreements and other derivatives also may be affected by future legislation, regulations, and/or guidance issued by the IRS. While the Fund intends to account for swap agreements in a manner it considers to be appropriate under applicable tax rules, the IRS might not accept that treatment. If it did not, the Fund’s status as a RIC might be affected. The Fund intends to monitor developments in this area.

Any income the Fund earns from writing options is treated as short-term capital gain. If the Fund enters into a closing purchase transaction, it will have a short-term capital gain or loss based on the difference between the premium it received for the option it wrote and the premium it paid for the option it bought. If an option written by the Fund lapses without being exercised, the premium it received also will be a short-term capital gain. If such an option is exercised and the Fund thus sells the securities subject to the option, the premium the Fund received will be added to the exercise price to determine the gain or loss on the sale.

Certain futures contracts, foreign currency contracts and “non-equity” options (that is, certain listed options, such as those on a “broad-based” securities index) - but excluding any “securities futures contract” that is not a “dealer securities futures contract” (both as defined in the Code) and any interest rate cap or floor, interest rate or certain other swap, or similar agreement - in which the Fund may invest will be “Section 1256 contracts.” Section 1256 contracts the Fund holds at the end of its taxable year, other than contracts subject to a “mixed straddle” election the Fund may make, are marked to market (that is, treated as sold at that time for their fair market value) for federal income tax purposes, with the result that unrealized gains or losses are treated as though they were realized. Sixty percent of any net gains or losses recognized on these deemed sales, and 60% of any net realized gains or losses from any actual sales of Section 1256 contracts, are treated as long-term capital gains or losses, and the balance is treated as short-term capital gains or losses. Section 1256 contracts also are marked-to-market at the end of October of each year for purposes of the Excise Tax. The Fund may need to distribute any net marked-to-market gains as of the end of its taxable year to its shareholders to satisfy the Distribution Requirement (i.e., with respect to the portion treated as short-term capital gain, which will be includible in its investment company taxable income, and thus taxable to its shareholders as ordinary income when distributed to them). These rules also may operate to increase the net capital gain the Fund recognizes, even though it may not have closed the transactions and received cash to pay distributions of that gain.

Under Code Section 988, a gain or loss (1) from the disposition of foreign currencies, (2) except in certain circumstances, from options, futures, and forward contracts on foreign currencies (and on financial instruments involving foreign currencies) and from notional principal contracts (e.g., swaps, caps, floors, and collars) involving payments denominated in foreign currencies, (3) on the disposition of each foreign-currency-denominated debt security that are

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Distributions and Taxes

attributable to fluctuations in the value of the foreign currency between the dates of acquisition and disposition of the security, and (4) that is attributable to exchange rate fluctuations between the time the Fund accrues interest, dividends, or other receivables or expenses or other liabilities denominated in a foreign currency and the time it actually collects the receivables or pays the liabilities generally will be treated as ordinary income or loss. These gains or losses will increase or decrease the amount of the Fund’s investment company taxable income, rather than affecting the amount of its net capital gain. (Note, however, that under certain circumstances, the Fund may make an election to treat foreign currency gain or loss on certain forward contracts, futures contracts and options as capital gain or loss). If the Fund’s Section 988 losses (other than those to which such an election applies) exceed its other investment company taxable income for a taxable year, the Fund would not be able to distribute any dividends.

Offsetting positions the Fund enters into or holds in any actively traded security, option, futures, or forward currency contract may constitute a “straddle” for federal income tax purposes. Straddles are subject to certain rules that may affect the amount, character, and timing of recognition of the Fund’s gains and losses with respect to positions of the straddle by requiring, among other things, that (1) loss realized on disposition of one position of a straddle be deferred to the extent of any unrealized gain in an offsetting position until the latter position is disposed of, (2) the Fund’s holding period for certain straddle positions not begin until the straddle is terminated (possibly resulting in gain being treated as short-term rather than long-term capital gain), and (3) losses recognized with respect to certain straddle positions, that otherwise would constitute short-term capital losses, be treated as long-term capital losses. Applicable regulations also provide certain “wash sale” rules, which apply to transactions where a position is sold at a loss and a new offsetting position is acquired within a prescribed period, and “short sale” rules applicable to straddles. Different elections are available to the Fund, which may mitigate the effects of the straddle rules, particularly with respect to “mixed straddles” (i.e., a straddle of which at least one, but not all, positions are section 1256 contracts).

The premium the Fund receives for writing (selling) a put or call option is not included in income at the time of receipt. When a covered call option written (sold) by the Fund expires, it will realize a short-term capital gain equal to the amount of the premium it received for writing the option. When the Fund terminates its obligations under such an option by entering into a closing transaction, it will realize a short-term capital gain (or loss), depending on whether the cost of the closing transaction is less (or more) than the premium it received when it wrote the option. When a covered call option written by the Fund is exercised, it will be treated as having sold the underlying security, producing long-term or short-term capital gain or loss, depending on the holding period of the underlying security and whether the sum of the option price it receives on the exercise plus the premium it received when it wrote the option is more or less than the underlying security’s basis.

Income from REITs

Subject to its investment policies and restrictions, the Fund may invest in REITs that (1) hold residual interests in real estate mortgage investment conduits (REMICs) or (2) engage in mortgage securitization transactions that cause the REITs to be taxable mortgage pools (TMPs) or have a qualified REIT subsidiary that is a TMP. A portion of the net income allocable to REMIC residual interest holders may be “excess inclusion income.” The Code authorizes the issuance of regulations dealing with the taxation and reporting of excess inclusion income; however, those regulations have not yet been issued.

Under a 2006 Notice issued by the IRS, a portion of the Fund’s income from a US REIT that is attributable to the REIT’s residual interest in a REMIC or equity interests in a TMP will be subject to federal income tax in all events. The excess inclusion income of a RIC will be allocated to shareholders of the RIC in proportion to the dividends received by such shareholders, with the same consequences as if the shareholders held the related REMIC residual interest or, if applicable, TMP directly. In general, excess inclusion income allocated to shareholders (i) cannot be offset by net operating losses (subject to a limited exception for certain thrift institutions), (ii) will constitute “unrelated business taxable income” (UBTI) to entities (including qualified pension plans, individual retirement accounts, 401(k) plans, Keogh plans or other tax-exempt entities) subject to tax on UBTI, thereby potentially requiring such an entity that is allocated excess inclusion income, and otherwise might not be required to file a tax return, to file a tax return and pay tax on such income, and (iii) in the case of a foreign shareholder, will not qualify for any reduction in US federal withholding tax. In addition, if at any time during any taxable year a “disqualified organization” (which generally includes certain cooperatives, governmental entities, and tax- exempt organizations not subject to UBTI) is a record holder of a share in a RIC, then the RIC will be subject to a tax equal to that portion of its excess inclusion income for the taxable year that is allocable to the disqualified organization, multiplied by the corporate income tax rate. The Notice imposes certain reporting requirements upon RICs that have excess inclusion income. There can be no assurance that the Fund will not allocate to shareholders excess inclusion income. However, the Fund will not invest directly in REMIC residual interests or intends to invest in REITs that, to its knowledge, invest in those interests or are TMPs or have a qualified REIT subsidiary that is a TMP. It is unlikely that these rules will apply to the Fund that has a non-REIT strategy.

Income from OID Securities

Subject to its investment policies and restrictions, the Fund may invest in taxable or municipal zero coupon bonds or other securities issued with OID. Asa holder of those securities, the Fund must include in its gross income (or take into account, in the case of OID on tax-exempt securities) the OID that accrues on them during the taxable year, even if it receives no corresponding payment on the securities during the year. Similarly, the Fund must include in its gross income each taxable year, securities it receives as “interest” on PIK securities. Because the Fund annually must distribute (1) substantially all of its investment company taxable income, including any accrued OID and other non-cash income, to avoid imposition of the Excise Tax, and (2) substantially all of the sum of that income and its net tax-exempt income (including any tax-exempt OID), to satisfy the Distribution Requirement, it may be required in a particular taxable year to distribute as a dividend an amount that is greater than the total amount of cash it actually receives. Those distributions will be made from the Fund’s cash assets or from the proceeds of sales of its portfolio securities, if necessary. The Fund may realize capital gains or losses from those sales, which would increase or decrease its investment company taxable income and/or net capital gain.

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Investments in Convertible Securities

Convertible debt is ordinarily treated as a “single property” consisting of a pure debt interest until conversion, after which the investment becomes an equity interest. If the security is issued at a premium (i.e., for cash in excess of the face amount payable on retirement), the creditor-holder may amortize the premium over the life of the bond. If the security is issued for cash at a price below its face amount, the creditor-holder must accrue original issue discount in income over the life of the debt. The creditor-holder’s exercise of the conversion privilege is treated as a nontaxable event. Mandatorily convertible debt (e.g., an exchange traded note or ETN issued in the form of an unsecured obligation that pays a return based on the performance of a specified market index, exchange currency, or commodity) is often, but not always, treated as a contract to buy or sell the reference property rather than debt. Similarly, convertible preferred stock with a mandatory conversion feature is ordinarily, but not always, treated as equity rather than debt. Dividends received generally are qualified dividend income and eligible for the corporate dividends-received deduction. In general, conversion of preferred stock for common stock of the same corporation is tax-free. Conversion of preferred stock for cash is a taxable redemption. Any redemption premium for preferred stock that is redeemable by the issuing company might be required to be amortized under original issue discount principles.

Shareholder Tax Considerations

Dividends the Fund pays to you from its investment company taxable income will be taxable as ordinary income, except that the Fund’s dividends attributable to its “qualified dividend income” (i.e., dividends received on stock of most domestic and certain foreign corporations with respect to which the Fund satisfies certain holding period and other restrictions) generally will be subject to federal income tax for noncorporate shareholders who satisfy those restrictions with respect to their Fund shares at the federal income tax rates for net capital gain - a maximum of 15%, or 20% for noncorporate shareholders with taxable income exceeding certain thresholds (which are adjusted for inflation annually). A portion of the Fund’s dividends also may be eligible for the dividends-received deduction allowed to corporate shareholders (DRD) - the eligible portion may not exceed the aggregate dividends the Fund receives from domestic corporations subject to federal income tax (excluding REITs) and excludes dividends from foreign corporations - subject to similar restrictions.

Distributions to you of the Fund’s net capital gain (net long-term capital gain over net short-term capital loss) will be taxable as long-term capital gain, at the 15% and 20% maximum rates mentioned above, regardless of how long you have held your Fund shares. Shareholders other than Qualified Plans, IRAs and other tax-exempt investors will be subject to federal income tax on dividends and capital gain distributions received from the Fund, regardless of whether they are received in cash or additional Fund shares.

Distributions by the Fund that are not paid from earnings and profits will be treated as a return of capital to the extent of (and in reduction of) the shareholder’s tax basis in his shares; any excess will be treated as gain from the sale of his shares.

Thus, the portion of a distribution that constitutes a return of capital will decrease the shareholder’s tax basis in his Fund share (but not below zero), and will result in an increase in the amount of gain (or decrease in the amount of loss) that will be recognized by the shareholder for tax purposes on the later sale of such Fund shares.

A shareholder’s cost basis information will be provided on the redemption of any of the shareholder’s shares, subject to certain exceptions for exempt recipients. The Fund will calculate the shareholder’s cost basis using its default method, unless the shareholder instructs the Fund to use a different calculation method. Please contact the broker (or other nominee) that holds your shares with respect to reporting of cost basis and available elections for your account.

If Fund shares are sold at a loss after being held for six months or less, the loss will be treated as a long-term, instead of a short- term, capital loss to the extent of any capital gain distributions received on those shares. Investors also should be aware that if they purchase shares shortly before the record date for a dividend (other than an “exempt-interest dividend” described in the following sub-section) or other distribution, they will receive some portion of the purchase price back as a taxable distribution.

If more than 50% of the value of the Fund’s total assets at the close of its taxable year consists of securities of foreign corporations, the Fund will be eligible to, and may file an election with the IRS that will enable its shareholders, in effect, to benefit from any foreign tax credit or deduction available with respect to any foreign taxes it pays. Pursuant to the election, the Fund would treat those taxes as dividends paid to its shareholders and each shareholder (1) would be required to include in gross income, and treat as paid by the shareholder, the shareholder’s proportionate share of those taxes, (2) would be required to treat that share of those taxes and of any dividend the Fund paid that represents income from foreign or US possessions sources (“foreign-source income”) as the shareholder’s own income from those sources, and (3) could either use the foregoing information in calculating the foreign tax credit against the shareholder’s federal income tax or, alternatively, deduct the foreign taxes deemed paid by the shareholder in computing taxable income. If the Fund makes this election for a taxable year, it will report to its shareholders shortly after that year their respective shares of the foreign taxes it paid and its foreign-source income.

Individual shareholders of the Fund described in the preceding paragraph who have no more than $300 ($600 for married persons filing jointly) of creditable foreign taxes included on IRS Forms 1099 and all of whose foreign source income is “qualified passive income” may elect each taxable year to be exempt from the foreign tax credit limitation for federal income tax purposes (about which shareholders may wish to consult their tax advisors), in which event they would be able to claim a foreign tax credit without having to file the detailed IRS Form 1116 that otherwise is required. A shareholder will not be entitled to credit or deduct its allocable portion of foreign taxes the Fund paid if the shareholder has not held that Fund’s shares for at least 16 days during the 31-day period beginning 15 days before the ex-distribution date for those shares. The minimum holding period will be extended if the shareholder’s risk of loss with respect to those shares is reduced by reason of holding an offsetting position. No deduction for foreign taxes may be claimed by a shareholder who does not

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Distributions and Taxes

itemize deductions. A foreign shareholder may not deduct or claim a credit for foreign taxes in determining its federal income tax liability unless the Fund dividends paid to it are effectively connected with the shareholder’s conduct of a US trade or business.

Income dividends the Fund pays to a nonresident alien individual, foreign corporation or partnership, or foreign trust or estate (each, a “foreign shareholder”), other than (1) dividends paid to a foreign shareholder whose ownership of shares is effectively connected with a trade or business within the United States the shareholder conducts and (2) capital gain distributions paid to a nonresident alien individual who is physically present in the United States for no more than 182 days during the taxable year, generally will be subject to a federal withholding tax of 30% (or lower treaty rate) and US estate tax. Income from the Fund that is effectively connected with a US trade or business carried on by a foreign shareholder will subject ordinary income dividends, capital gain dividends and any gains realized upon the sale or redemption of shares of the Fund to US federal income tax at the rates applicable to US citizens or domestic corporations and require the filing of a nonresident US income tax return.

Generally, dividends reported by the Fund to shareholders as interest-related dividends and paid from its qualified net interest income from US sources are not subject to US withholding tax. “Qualified interest income” includes, in general, US source (1) bank deposit interest; (2) short-term original discount; (3) interest (including original issue discount, market discount or acquisition discount) on an obligation that is in registered form, unless it is earned on an obligation issued by a corporation or partnership in which the Fund is a 10% shareholder or is contingent interest; and (4) any interest-related dividend from another regulated investment company. Similarly, short-term capital gain dividends reported by the Fund to shareholders as paid from its net short-term capital gains, other than short-term capital gains realized on disposition of US real property interests (see the discussion below), are not subject to US withholding tax unless you were a nonresident alien individual present in the US for a period or periods aggregating 183 days or more during the calendar year. The Fund reserves the right to not report interest- related dividends or short-term capital gain dividends. Additionally, the Fund’s reporting of interest-related dividends or short- term capital gain dividends may not be passed through to shareholders by intermediaries who have assumed tax reporting responsibilities for this income in managed or omnibus accounts due to systems limitations or operational constraints.

Special US tax certification requirements may apply to non-US shareholders both to avoid US backup withholding imposed at a rate of 24% and to obtain the benefits of any treaty between the US and the shareholder’s country of residence. In general, if you are a non-US shareholder, you must provide a Form W-8 BEN-E (or other applicable Form W-8) to establish that you are not a US person, to claim that you are the beneficial owner of the income and, if applicable, to claim a reduced rate of, or exemption from, withholding as a resident of a country with which the US has an income tax treaty. A Form W-8 BEN-E provided without a US taxpayer identification number will remain in effect for a period beginning on the date signed and ending on the last day of the third succeeding calendar year, unless an earlier change of circumstances makes the information on the form incorrect. Certain payees and payments are exempt from backup withholding.

The tax consequences to a non-US shareholder entitled to claim the benefits of an applicable tax treaty may be different from those described herein. Non-US shareholders are urged to consult their own tax advisors with respect to the particular tax consequences to them of an investment in the Fund, including the applicability of foreign tax.

Foreign shareholders may be subject to US estate tax and are subject to special US tax certification requirements to avoid backup withholding and claim any treaty benefits. Exemptions from US withholding tax are provided for certain capital gain dividends paid by the Fund from net long-term capital gains, exempt-interest dividends, interest-related dividends and short- term capital gain dividends, if such amounts are reported by the Fund. However, notwithstanding such exemptions from US withholding at the source, any such dividends and distributions of income and capital gains will be subject to back-up withholding at a rate of 24%, if such shareholder fails to properly certify that he or she is not a US person.

Under the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act (FATCA), “foreign financial institutions” (FFIs) or “non-financial foreign entities” (NFFEs) that are Fund shareholders may be subject to a generally nonrefundable 30% withholding tax on income dividends the Fund pays. After December 31, 2018, FATCA withholding also would have been applied to certain capital gain distributions, return of capital distributions, and the proceeds arising from the sale or a redemption of Fund shares; however, based on proposed regulations issued by the IRS, which can be relied upon currently, such withholding no longer is required unless final regulations provide otherwise (which is not expected). As more fully discussed below, the FATCA withholding tax generally can be avoided (a) by an FFI, if it reports certain information regarding direct and indirect ownership of financial accounts US persons hold with the FFI and (b) by an NFFE, if it certifies its status as such and, in certain circumstances, also certifies that (i) it has no substantial US persons as owners or (ii) it does have such owners and reports information relating to them to the withholding agent (which may be the Fund). The Treasury has negotiated intergovernmental agreements (IGAs) with certain countries and is in various stages of negotiations with other foreign countries with respect to one or more alternative approaches to implement FATCA; entities in those countries may be required to comply with the terms of the IGA instead of Treasury regulations.

An FFI can avoid FATCA withholding by becoming a “participating FFI,” which requires the FFI to enter into a tax compliance agreement with the IRS under the Code. Under such an agreement, a participating FFI agrees to (1) verify and document whether it has US accountholders, (2) report certain information regarding their accounts to the IRS, and (3) meet certain other specified requirements.

An FFI resident in a country that has entered into a Model I IGA with the United States must report to that country’s government (pursuant to the terms of the applicable IGA and applicable law), which will, in turn, report to the IRS. An FFI resident in a Model II IGA country generally must comply with US regulatory requirements, with certain exceptions, including the treatment of recalcitrant accountholders. An FFI resident in one of those countries that complies with whichever of the foregoing applies will be exempt from FATCA withholding.

58

An NFFE that is the beneficial owner of a payment from the Fund can avoid FATCA withholding generally by certifying its status as such and, in certain circumstances, by also certifying that either (1) it does not have any substantial US owners or (2) it does have one or more such owners and reports the name, address, and taxpayer identification number of each such owner. The NFFE will report to the Fund or other applicable withholding agent, which will, in turn, report information to the IRS.

Those foreign shareholders also may fall into certain exempt, excepted, or deemed compliant categories established by Treasury regulations, IGAs, and other guidance regarding FATCA. An FFI or NFFE that invests in the Fund will need to provide the Fund with documentation properly certifying the entity’s status under FATCA to avoid FATCA withholding. The requirements imposed by FATCA are different from, and in addition to, the tax certification rules to avoid backup withholding described in the Prospectus. Foreign investors are urged to consult their tax advisor regarding the application of these requirements to their own situation and the impact thereof on their investment in the Fund.

The foregoing is an abbreviated summary of certain federal income tax considerations affecting the Fund and its shareholders. The discussion does not purport to be complete or to deal with all aspects of federal income taxation that may be relevant to shareholders in light of their particular circumstances. It is based on current provisions of the Code, the regulations promulgated thereunder, judicial decisions, and administrative pronouncements, all of which are subject to change (which has occurred frequently in recent years), some of which may be retroactive. Prospective investors are urged to consult their own tax advisor for more detailed information and for information regarding other federal tax considerations and any state, local or foreign taxes that may apply to them.

59

Performance Information

Because the Fund is new, there is no performance history. Once the Fund has commenced operations, you can obtain the Fund’s most current performance information by calling 844-469-9911 or visit our website at etf.macquarie.com.

Performance quotations represent the Fund’s past performance and should not be considered as representative of future results. The Fund will calculate their performance in accordance with the requirements of the rules and regulations under the 1940 Act, or any other applicable US securities laws, as they may be revised from time to time by the SEC.

Principal Holders

Following the creation of the initial Creation Unit(s) of shares of the Fund and immediately prior to the commencement of trading in the Fund’s shares, a holder of shares may be a “control person” of the Fund, as defined in the 1940 Act. The Fund cannot predict the length of time for which one or more shareholders may remain a control person of the Fund.

Because the Fund had not commenced operations prior to the date of this SAI, no Depository Trust Company (DTC) participant owned of record 5% or more of the outstanding shares of the Fund.

Financial Statements

[ ] serves as the independent registered public accounting firm for the Trust and, in its capacity as such, will audit the annual financial statements contained in the Fund’s Annual Reports once the Fund commences operations.

60

Appendix A - Description of Ratings

Corporate Obligation Ratings

Moody’s Investment Grade

Aaa: Bonds rated Aaa are judged to be of the highest quality, with minimal credit risk.

Aa: Bonds rated Aa are judged to be high quality and are subject to very low credit risk.

A: Bonds rated A are considered upper medium-grade obligations and are subject to low credit risk.

Baa: Bonds rated Baa are subject to moderate credit risk and are considered medium-grade obligations. As such they may have certain speculative characteristics.

Moody’s Below Investment Grade

Ba: Bonds rated Ba are judged to have speculative elements and are subject to substantial credit risk.

B: Bonds rated B are considered speculative and are subject to high credit risk.

Caa: Bonds rated Caa are judged to be of poor standing and are subject to very high credit risk.

Ca: Bonds rated Ca are considered highly speculative and are likely in, or very near, default, with some prospect of recovery of principal and interest.

C: Bonds rated C are the lowest rated class of bonds and are typically in default. They have little prospect for recovery of principal or interest.

Note: Moody’s appends numerical modifiers 1, 2 and 3 to each generic rating classification from Aa through Caa. The modifier 1 indicates that the obligation ranks in the higher end of its generic rating category; modifier 2 indicates a mid-range ranking; and modifier 3 indicates a ranking in the lower end of that generic rating category.

S&P®

The issue rating definitions are expressions in terms of default risk. As such, they pertain to senior obligations of an entity. Junior obligations are typically rated lower than senior obligations, to reflect the lower priority in bankruptcy. (Such differentiation applies when an entity has both senior and subordinated obligations, secured and unsecured obligations, or operating company and holding company obligations.) Accordingly, in the case of junior debt, the rating may not conform exactly with the category definition.

Investment Grade

AAA: This is the highest rating assigned by S&P to a debt obligation. The obligor’s capacity to meet its financial commitment on the obligation is extremely strong.

AA: Obligations rated AA differ from AAA issues only in a small degree. The obligor’s capacity to meet its financial commitment on the obligation is very strong.

A: Obligations rated A are somewhat more susceptible to the adverse effects of changes in circumstances and economic conditions than obligations in the higher ratings categories. However, the obligor’s capacity to meet its financial commitment on the obligation is still strong.

BBB: Obligations rated BBB exhibit adequate protection parameters. However, adverse economic conditions or changing circumstances are more likely to lead to a weakened capacity of the obligor to meet its financial commitment on the obligation.

Below Investment Grade

BB, B, CCC, CC, C: Obligations rated BB, B, CCC, CC and C are regarded as having significant speculative characteristics. BB indicates the least degree of speculation and C the highest degree of speculation. While these obligations will likely have some quality and protective characteristics, these may be outweighed by large uncertainties or major exposures to adverse conditions.

BB: An obligation rated BB is less vulnerable to nonpayment than other speculative issues. However, it faces major ongoing uncertainties or exposure to adverse business, financial, or economic conditions which could lead to the obligor’s inadequate capacity to meet its financial commitment on the obligation.

B: An obligation rated B is more vulnerable to nonpayment than obligations rated BB, but the obligor currently has the capacity to meet its financial commitment on the obligation. Adverse business, financial, or economic conditions will likely impair the obligor’s capacity or willingness to meet its financial commitment on the obligation.

CCC: An obligation rated CCC is currently vulnerable to nonpayment, and is dependent upon favorable business, financial, and economic conditions for the obligor to meet its financial commitment on the obligation. In the event of adverse business, financial, or economic conditions, the obligor is not likely to have the capacity to meet its financial commitment on the obligation.

CC: An obligation rated CC is currently highly vulnerable to nonpayment.

61

Appendix A - Description of Ratings

C: A subordinated debt or preferred stock obligation rated C is currently highly vulnerable to nonpayment. The C rating may be used to cover a situation where a bankruptcy petition has been filed or similar action taken, but payments on this obligation are being continued. The C rating is also assigned toa preferred stock issue in arrears on dividends or sinking fund payments, but that is still making payments.

D: Obligations rated D are in payment default. The D rating category is used when payments on an obligation are not made on the date due even if the applicable grace period has not expired, unless S&P believes that such payments will be made during such grace period. The D rating is also used upon the filing of a bankruptcy petition or the taking of a similar action if payments on an obligation are jeopardized.

Plus (+) or minus (-): The ratings from “AA” to “CCC” may be modified by the addition of a plus or minus sign to show relative standing within the major rating categories.

r: This symbol is attached to the ratings of instruments with significant noncredit risks and highlights risks to principal or volatility of expected returns that are not addressed in the credit rating.

Short-Term Debt Ratings

Moody’s

Moody’s short-term debt ratings are opinions of the ability of issuers to honor short-term financial obligations. Ratings may be assigned to issuers, short-term programs and to individual short-term debt instruments. These obligations generally have an original maturity not exceeding 13 months, unless explicitly noted. Moody’s employs the following designations to indicate the relative repayment capacity of rated issuers:

P-1 (Prime-1): Issuers (or supporting institutions) so rated have a superior ability to repay short-term debt obligations.

P-2 (Prime-2): Issuers (or supporting institutions) so rated have a strong ability to repay short-term debt obligations.

P-3 (Prime-3): Issuers (or supporting institutions) so rated have an acceptable ability to repay short-term debt obligations.

NP: Issuers (or supporting institutions) rated Not Prime do not fall within any of the Prime rating categories.

S&P®

S&P’s ratings are a current opinion of the creditworthiness of an obligor with respect to a specific financial obligation, a specific class of financial obligations, or a specific financial program. Short-term ratings are generally assigned to those obligations considered short-term in the relevant market. In the US, for example, that means obligations with an original maturity of no more than 365 days - including commercial paper. Short-term ratings are also used to indicate the creditworthiness of an obligor with respect to put features on long-term obligations. The result is a dual rating, in which the short-term rating addresses the put feature, in addition to the usual long-term rating.

A-1: This designation indicates that the obligor’s capacity to meet its financial commitment on the obligation is strong. Within this category, certain obligations are designated with a plus sign (+). This indicates that the obligor’s capacity to meet its financial commitment on these obligations is extremely strong.

A-2: Issues carrying this designation are somewhat more susceptible to the adverse effects of changes in circumstances and economic conditions than obligations carrying the higher designations. However, the obligor’s capacity to meet its financial commitments on the obligation is satisfactory.

A-3: Issues carrying this designation exhibit adequate protection parameters. However, adverse economic conditions or changing circumstances are more likely to lead to a weakened capacity of the obligor to meet its financial commitment on the obligation.

62

 

PART C

(Macquarie ETF Trust)

File Nos. 333-273398/811-23890

OTHER INFORMATION

Item 28. Exhibits. The following exhibits are incorporated by reference to the Registrant’s previously filed documents indicated below, except as noted:
  (a) Articles of Incorporation.
    (1) Form of Agreement and Declaration of Trust incorporated into this filing by reference to the Registration Statement on Form N-1A filed on November 21, 2023.
    (2) Certificate of Trust (February 17, 2023) incorporated into this filing by reference to the Registration Statement on Form N-1A filed on July 24, 2023.
  (b) By-Laws. By-Laws (October 3, 2023) incorporated into this filing by reference to Pre-Effective Amendment No. 1 to the Registration Statement on Form N-1A filed on November 8, 2023.
  (c) Instruments Defining Rights of Security Holders. None other than those contained in Exhibits (a) and (b).
  (d) Investment Advisory Contracts.
    (1) Form of Investment Management Agreement (November 1, 2023) between Delaware Management Company, a series of Delaware Investment Management Business Trust, and the Registrant incorporated into this filing by reference to Pre-Effective Amendment No. 1 to the Registration Statement on Form N-1A filed on November 8, 2023.
    (2) Investment Management Agreement ([Macquarie Focused Large Growth ETF]) to be filed by amendment.
    (3) Form of Sub-Advisory Agreement (November 1, 2023) between Delaware Management Company, a series of Macquarie Investment Management Business Trust, and Macquarie Investment Management Global Limited incorporated into this filing by reference to Pre-Effective Amendment No. 1 to the Registration Statement on Form N-1A filed on November 8, 2023.
    (4) Sub-Advisory Agreement ([Macquarie Focused Large Growth ETF]) to be filed by amendment.
  (e) Underwriting Contracts.
    (1) ETF Distribution Agreement (October 3, 2023) between the Registrant and Foreside Financial Services, LLC incorporated into this filing by reference to Pre-Effective Amendment No. 1 to the Registration Statement on Form N-1A filed on November 8, 2023.
    (2) ETF Distribution Services Agreement (October 3, 2023) between Delaware Management Company, a series of Macquarie Investment Management Business Trust, and Foreside Financial Services, LLC incorporated into this filing by reference to Pre-Effective Amendment No. 1 to the Registration Statement on Form N-1A filed on November 8, 2023.
    (3) Form of Authorized Participant Agreement incorporated into this filing by reference to Pre-Effective Amendment No. 1 to the Registration Statement on Form N-1A filed on November 8, 2023.
  (f) Bonus or Profit Sharing Contracts. Not applicable.
  (g) Custodian Agreements.

 

 

    (1) Global Custody Agreement (August 23, 2023) between the Registrant and JPMorgan Chase Bank, N.A. incorporated into this filing by reference to Pre-Effective Amendment No. 1 to the Registration Statement on Form N-1A filed on November 8, 2023.
    (2) Form of Joinder and Amendment to Global Custody Agreement between the Registrant and JP Morgan Chase Bank, N.A. incorporated into this filing by reference to Pre-Effective Amendment No. 1 to the Registration Statement on Form N-1A filed on November 8, 2023.
  (h) Other Material Contracts.
    (1) Form of Agency Services Agreement between the Registrant and JPMorgan Chase, Bank, N.A. incorporated into this filing by reference to Pre-Effective Amendment No. 1 to the Registration Statement on Form N-1A filed on November 8, 2023.
    (2) Form of Fund Services Agreement between the Registrant and JPMorgan Chase Bank, N.A. incorporated into this filing by reference to Pre-Effective Amendment No. 1 to the Registration Statement on Form N-1A filed on November 8, 2023.
  (i) Legal Opinion. To be filed by amendment.
  (j) Other Opinion. Not applicable.
  (k) Omitted Financial Statements. Not applicable.
  (l) Initial Capital Agreements. Not applicable.
  (m) Rule 12b-1 Plan.
    (1) Distribution Plan (12b-1 Plan) (October 3, 2023) incorporated into this filing by reference to Pre-Effective Amendment No. 1 to the Registration Statement on Form N-1A filed on November 8, 2023.
  (n) Rule 18f-3 Plan.  Not applicable.
  (o) Reserved.
  (p) Codes of Ethics.
    (1) Code of Ethics for Macquarie Asset Management, Delaware Funds by Macquarie, Optimum Fund Trust and Macquarie ETF Trust (October 2023) incorporated into this filing by reference to Pre-Effective Amendment No. 1 to the Registration Statement on Form N-1A filed on November 8, 2023.
    (2) Code of Ethics for Macquarie Investment Management Global Limited (February 18, 2021) incorporated into this filing by reference to Delaware Group Equity Funds IV (File No. 033-00442) Post-Effective Amendment No. 81 Exhibit No. EX-99.p.4 filed July 28, 2021 (Accession No. 0001145443-21-000329).
  (q) Other.  
    (1) Powers of Attorney (October 3, 2023) incorporated into this filing by reference to Pre-Effective Amendment No. 1 to the Registration Statement on Form N-1A filed on November 8, 2023.
Item 29. Persons Controlled by or Under Common Control with the Registrant. None.

 

 

Item 30. Indemnification. Reference is made to: Article VII, Sections 1 and 2 to the Form of Agreement and Declaration of Trust attached as Exhibit No. EX-99.a.1; Section 6 of the ETF Distribution Agreement incorporated by reference to Exhibit No. EX-99.e.1 in Pre-Effective Amendment No. 1 to the Registration Statement on Form N-1A filed on November 8, 2023; Section 8 of the Investment Management Agreement incorporated by reference to Exhibit No. EX-99.d.1 in Pre-Effective Amendment No. 1 to the Registration Statement on Form N-1A filed on November 8, 2023; and Section 7 of the Sub-Advisory Agreement incorporated into this filing by reference to Exhibit No. EX-99.d.2 in Pre-Effective Amendment No. 1 to the Registration Statement on Form N-1A filed on November 8, 2023.
  Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act of 1933 may be permitted to trustees, officers or persons controlling the Registrant pursuant to the foregoing provisions, or otherwise, the Registrant has been informed that in the opinion of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act of 1933 and is, therefore, unenforceable. In the event that a claim for indemnification against such liabilities (other than the payment by the registrant of expenses incurred or paid by a director, officer or controlling person of the registrant in the successful defense of any action, suit or proceeding) is asserted by such trustee, officer or controlling person in connection with the securities being registered, the registrant will, unless in the opinion of its counsel the matter has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question whether such indemnification by it is against public policy as expressed in the Act and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue.
Item 31. Business and Other Connections of the Investment Adviser.
  Delaware Management Company (the “Manager”), a series of Macquarie Investment Management Business Trust, serves as investment manager to the Registrant and also serves as investment manager or sub-advisor to certain of the other funds in the Delaware Funds by Macquarie® (the “Delaware Funds”) (Delaware Group® Adviser Funds, Delaware Group Cash Reserve, Delaware Group Equity Funds I, Delaware Group Equity Funds II, Delaware Group Equity Funds IV, Delaware Group Equity Funds V, Delaware Group Global & International Funds, Delaware Group Government Fund, Delaware Group Income Funds, Delaware Group Limited-Term Government Funds, Delaware Group State Tax-Free Income Trust, Delaware Group Tax-Free Fund, Delaware Pooled® Trust, Delaware VIP® Trust, Ivy Funds, Ivy Variable Insurance Portfolios, Voyageur Insured Funds, Voyageur Intermediate Tax Free Funds, Voyageur Mutual Funds, Voyageur Mutual Funds II, Voyageur Mutual Funds III and Voyageur Tax Free Funds) and the Optimum Fund Trust, as well as to certain non-affiliated registered investment companies. In addition, certain officers of the Manager also serve as trustees and/or officers of other Delaware Funds and Optimum Fund Trust. A company indirectly owned by the Manager’s parent company acts as principal underwriter to the mutual funds in the Delaware Funds and another such company acts as the shareholder services, dividend disbursing, accounting servicing and transfer agent for all of the Delaware Funds.
  The Manager, located at 100 Independence, 610 Market Street, Philadelphia, PA 19106-2354, is a series of Macquarie Investment Management Business Trust (a Delaware statutory trust), which is a subsidiary of MMHI. MMHI is a wholly owned subsidiary of Macquarie Group Limited. Information on the directors and officers of the Manager set forth in its Form ADV filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (File No. 801-32108) is incorporated into this filing by reference. The Manager, with the approval of the Registrant’s board of trustees, selects sub-advisors for the series of the Registrant. The following company, which is a registered investment adviser, serves as sub-advisor for the specified series of the Registrant.
  Macquarie Investment Management Global Limited (MIMGL), located at 50 Martin Place, Sydney, Australia, serves as sub-advisor to Macquarie Global Listed Infrastructure ETF and Macquarie Energy Transition ETF. MIMGL is an affiliate of the Manager and a part of Macquarie Asset Management (MAM). MAM is the marketing name for certain companies comprising the asset management division of Macquarie Group Limited. Information on the directors and officers of MIMGL set forth in its Form ADV filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (File No. 801-106854) is incorporated into this filing by reference.

 

 

Item 32. Principal Underwriters.  
(a) Foreside Financial Services, LLC (the “Distributor”) serves as principal underwriter for the following investment companies registered under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended:
  1. 13D Activist Fund, Series of Northern Lights Fund Trust
  2. 2nd Vote Funds
  3. AAMA Equity Fund, Series of Asset Management Fund
  4. AAMA Income Fund, Series of Asset Management Fund
  5. Advisers Investment Trust
  6. AG Twin Brook Capital Income Fund
  7. Alpha Alternative Assets Fund (f/k/a A3 Alternative Credit Fund)
  8. AltShares Trust
  9. American Beacon Select Funds
  10. Aristotle Funds Series Trust
  11. Boston Trust Walden Funds (f/k/a The Boston Trust & Walden Funds)
  12. Bow River Capital Evergreen Fund
  13. Constitution Capital Access Fund, LLC
  14. Cook & Bynum Funds Trust
  15. Datum One Series Trust
  16. Diamond Hill Funds
  17. Driehaus Mutual Funds
  18. Engine No. 1 ETF Trust
  19. FMI Funds, Inc.
  20. Impax Funds Series Trust I (f/k/a Pax World Funds Series Trust I)
  21. Impax Funds Series Trust III (f/k/a Pax World Funds Series Trust III)
  22. Inspire 100 ETF, Series of Northern Lights Fund Trust IV
  23. Inspire Corporate Bond ETF, Series of Northern Lights Fund Trust IV
  24. Inspire Faithward Mid Cap Momentum ETF, Series of Northern Lights Fund Trust IV
  25. Inspire Fidelis Multi Factor ETF, Series of Northern Lights Fund Trust IV
  26. Inspire Global Hope ETF, Series of Northern Lights Fund Trust IV
  27. Inspire International ETF, Series of Northern Lights Fund Trust IV
  28. Inspire Small Mid Cap ETF, Series of Northern Lights Fund Trust IV
  29. Inspire Tactical Balanced ETF, Series of the Northern Lights Fund Trust IV
  30. Nomura Alternative Income Fund
  31. PPM Funds
  32. Praxis Mutual Funds
  33. Primark Private Equity Investments Fund
  34. Rimrock Funds Trust

 

 

  35. SA Funds – Investment Trust
  36. Sequoia Fund, Inc.
  37. Simplify Exchange Traded Funds
  38. Siren ETF Trust
  39. Tactical Dividend and Momentum Fund, Series of Two Roads Shared Trust
  40. Zacks Trust

 

(b) The following are the Officers and Manager of the Distributor, the Registrant’s underwriter. The Distributor’s main business address is Three Canal Plaza, Suite 100, Portland, Maine 04101.

 

Name Address Position with Underwriter Position with
Registrant
Teresa Cowan 111 E. Kilbourn Ave, Suite 2200,
Milwaukee, WI 53202
President/Manager None
Chris Lanza Three Canal Plaza, Suite 100,
Portland, ME  04101
Vice President None
Kate Macchia Three Canal Plaza, Suite 100,
Portland, ME  04101
Vice President None
Jennifer A. Brunner 111 E. Kilbourn Ave, Suite 2200,
Milwaukee, WI 53202
Vice President and Chief Compliance Officer None
Kelly B. Whetstone Three Canal Plaza, Suite 100,
Portland, ME  04101
Secretary None
Susan L. LaFond 111 E. Kilbourn Ave, Suite 2200,
Milwaukee, WI 53202
Treasurer None
Weston Sommers Three Canal Plaza, Suite 100,
Portland, ME  04101
Financial and Operations Principal and Chief Financial Officer None

 

(c) None.
Item 33. Location of Accounts and Records.
  Delaware Management Company (100 Independence, 610 Market Street, Philadelphia, PA 19106-2354); JPMorgan Chase Bank, National Association (383 Madison Avenue, Floor 11, New York, NY 10017); Foreside Financial Services, LLC (Three Canal Plaza, Suite 100, Portland, ME 04101).
Item 34. Management Services. None.
Item 35. Undertakings. Not applicable.

 

 

 

SIGNATURES

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933 and the Investment Company Act of 1940, the Registrant has duly caused this Registration Statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, duly authorized, in the City of Philadelphia and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania on the 23rd day of February, 2024.

  MACQUARIE ETF TRUST
   
  By: /s/ John Leonard
    John Leonard
President/Chief Executive Officer

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, this Registration Statement has been signed below by the following persons in the capacities and on the date indicated:

Signature     Title Date
         
/s/ John Leonard       President/Chief Executive Officer February 23, 2024
John Leonard     (Principal Executive Officer) and Trustee  
         
Thomas F. Flannery *   Trustee February 23, 2024
Thomas F. Flannery        
         
Beata Kirr *   Trustee February 23, 2024
Beata Kirr        
         
Brian A. Swain *   Trustee February 23, 2024
Brian A. Swain        
         
Richard Salus *   Chief Financial Officer February 23, 2024
Richard Salus     (Principal Financial Officer)  
         
*By: /s/ John Leonard      

John Leonard
as Attorney-in-Fact for each of the persons indicated
(Pursuant to Powers of Attorney filed herewith)

 



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