Form 424B3 OppFi Inc.

September 28, 2021 6:08 AM EDT

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Filed Pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3)
Registration No. 333-258698

 

PROSPECTUS

LOGO

OppFi Inc.

Up to 100,964,668 Shares of Class A Common Stock

Up to 15,339,464 Shares of Class A Common Stock Issuable Upon Exercise of Warrants

and Up to 3,451,964 Warrants

 

 

This prospectus relates to the offer and sale from time to time by the selling securityholders named in this prospectus (the “Selling Securityholders”) of up to (A) 104,416,632 shares of our Class A common stock, par value $0.0001 per share (“Class A Common Stock”), which consists of (i) an aggregate of 3,443,750 shares of Class A Common Stock that were converted into shares of Class A Common Stock from shares of Class B common stock, par value $0.0001 per share (“Class B Common Stock”), on a one-for-one basis at the Closing (as defined below), (ii) 462,500 shares of Class A Common Stock and 231,250 shares of Class A Common Stock underlying warrants (“Private Placement Unit Warrants”) that were previously part of 462,500 private placement units (“Private Placement Units”) purchased by FG New America Investors LLC (the “Sponsor”) in connection with the initial public offering of FG New America Acquisition Corp. (the “IPO”), (iii) 71,325 shares of Class A Common Stock (the “Underwriter Shares”) and 59,464 shares of Class A Common Stock underlying warrants (“Underwriter Warrants”) that were previously part of 118,875 Underwriter Units (as defined below) issued to underwriters in IPO, (iv) 96,500,243 shares of Class A Common Stock issuable to the Members (as defined below) upon exercise of the Retained OppFi Units (as defined below) pursuant to the Exchange Rights (as defined below), (v) 486,850 shares of Class A Common Stock held by certain Members, (vi) 2,248,750 shares of Class A Common Stock underlying warrants issued to the Sponsor in a private placement concurrently with the IPO (the “Founder Warrants”) and (vii) 912,500 shares of Class A Common Stock underlying warrants to purchase Class A Common Stock at $15.00 per share issued to the Sponsor (the “$15 Exercise Price Warrants” and together with the Private Placement Unit Warrants, the Underwriter Warrants and the Founder Warrants, the “Private Placement Warrants”) in a private placement concurrently with the IPO and (B) up to 3,451,964 Private Placement Warrants.

In addition, this prospectus relates to the offer and sale of up to 11,887,500 shares of Class A Common Stock that are issuable by us upon the exercise of 11,887,500 warrants originally issued in the IPO at an exercise price of $11.50 per share of Class A Common Stock (the “Public Warrants” and together with the Private Placement Warrants, the “Warrants”). None of the Warrants are exercisable for twelve (12) months from the date of the closing of the offering in which such Warrants were purchased.

The Selling Securityholders may offer, sell, or distribute all or a portion of the securities hereby registered publicly or through private transactions at prevailing market prices or at negotiated prices. We will not receive any of the proceeds from such sales of the shares of Class A Common Stock or any Warrants, except with respect to amounts received by us upon the exercise of any such Warrants. We will bear all costs, expenses and fees in connection with the registration of these securities, including with regard to compliance with state securities or “blue sky” laws. The Selling Securityholders will bear all commissions and discounts, if any, attributable to their sale of shares of Class A Common Stock or warrants. See “Plan of Distribution” beginning on page 178 of this prospectus.

Our registration of the securities covered by this prospectus does not mean that either we or the Selling Securityholders, will issue, offer, or sell any of the securities. With the exception of the Underwriter Shares and shares of Class A Common Stock underlying the Underwriter Warrants, all other shares of Class A Common Stock registered hereunder are subject to lock-up agreements prohibiting the sale of such shares for a period of up to twenty-four months after the Closing. For more details, please see page 165 of this prospectus under the caption “Selling Securityholders - Certain Relationships with Selling Securityholders - Investor Rights Agreement”.

Our Class A Common Stock and Public Warrants are listed on The New York Stock Exchange (the “NYSE”) under the symbols “OPFI” and “OPFI WS,” respectively. On September 24, 2021, the last reported sales price of our Class A Common Stock was $8.15 per share and the last reported sales price of our Public Warrants was $1.68 per warrant.

 

 

We are an “emerging growth company” and “smaller reporting company” under applicable federal securities laws and will be subject to reduced public company reporting requirements. Investing in our securities involves risks. See “Risk Factors” beginning on page 5.

Neither the SEC nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

The date of this prospectus is September 27, 2021.


Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

     Page  

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

     ii  

CERTAIN DEFINED TERMS

     iii  

CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

     v  

PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

     1  

THE OFFERING

     3  

RISK FACTORS

     5  

USE OF PROCEEDS

     63  

DETERMINATION OF OFFERING PRICE

     63  

MARKET PRICE OF AND DIVIDENDS ON THE REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY AND RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS

     63  

UNAUDITED PRO FORMA CONDENSED COMBINED FINANCIAL INFORMATION

     64  

BUSINESS

     75  

OPPFI MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

     98  

MANAGEMENT

     130  

EXECUTIVE COMPENSATION

     139  

CERTAIN RELATIONSHIPS AND RELATED TRANSACTIONS

     146  

PRINCIPAL SECURITYHOLDERS

     149  

SELLING SECURITYHOLDERS

     151  

DESCRIPTION OF SECURITIES

     167  

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

     178  

CERTAIN U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSIDERATIONS

     181  

LEGAL MATTERS

     187  

EXPERTS

     187  

WHERE YOU CAN FIND ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

     187  

INDEX TO FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

     F-1  

You should rely only on the information provided in this prospectus, as well as the information incorporated by reference into this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement. Neither we nor the Selling Securityholders have authorized anyone to provide you with different information. Neither we nor the Selling Securityholders are making an offer of these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer is not permitted. You should not assume that the information in this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or any documents incorporated by reference is accurate as of any date other than the date of the applicable document. Since the date of this prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed.

 

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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

This prospectus is part of a registration statement on Form S-1 that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) using the “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf registration process, the Selling Securityholders may, from time to time, sell the securities offered by them described in this prospectus. We will not receive any proceeds from the sale by such Selling Securityholders of the securities offered by them described in this prospectus. This prospectus also relates to the issuance by us of the shares of Class A Common Stock issuable upon the exercise of any Warrants. We will receive proceeds from any exercise of the Warrants for cash.

Neither we nor the Selling Securityholders have authorized anyone to provide you with any information or to make any representations other than those contained in this prospectus or any applicable prospectus supplement or any free writing prospectuses prepared by or on behalf of us or to which we have referred you. Neither we nor the Selling Securityholders take responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may give you. Neither we nor the Selling Securityholders will make an offer to sell these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.

We may also provide a prospectus supplement or post-effective amendment to the registration statement to add information to, or update or change information contained in, this prospectus. You should read both this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement or post-effective amendment to the registration statement together with the additional information to which we refer you in the section of this prospectus entitled “Where You Can Find More Information.”

On July 20, 2021 (the “Closing Date”), FG New America Acquisition Corp., a Delaware corporation (“FGNA”), completed the transactions contemplated by that certain Business Combination Agreement, dated as of February 9, 2021 (the “Business Combination Agreement”), by and among FGNA, Opportunity Financial, LLC, a Delaware limited liability company (“OppFi”), OppFi Shares, LLC, a Delaware limited liability company (“OFS”), and Todd Schwartz, in his capacity as the representative (the “Members’ Representative”) of the members of OppFi immediately prior to the closing (the “Closing”) of the transactions contemplated by the Business Combination Agreement (the “Members”). At the Closing, (i) OppFi transferred to the Company (as defined below) 12,977,690 Class A common units of OppFi (“OppFi Units”), which was equal to the number of shares of FGNA’s Class A Common Stock issued and outstanding as of immediately prior to the Closing (after giving effect to redemptions by FGNA’s public stockholders prior to the Closing and the conversion of FGNA’s Class B Common Stock), (ii) FGNA contributed the Cash Consideration (as defined below) to OppFi in accordance with the Business Combination Agreement, which was distributed to the Members, and (iii) FGNA issued 96,987,093 shares of newly authorized Class V common stock, par value $0.0001 per share (“Class V Voting Stock”), which number of shares of Class V Voting Stock was equal to the number of OppFi Units retained by the Members immediately following the Closing (the “Retained OppFi Units”), and which shares of Class V Voting Stock were distributed to OFS, resulting in the combined company being organized in an “Up-C” structure. The transactions contemplated by the Business Combination Agreement are referred to herein as the “Business Combination.”

Upon the Closing, FGNA as the registrant changed its name to “OppFi Inc.”

Unless the context otherwise requires, the terms “we,” “us,” “our,” and the “Company” refers to OppFi Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries, including OppFi, following the Closing and references to “FGNA” refer to FG New America Acquisition Corp. at or prior to the Closing. All references herein to the “Board” refer to the board of directors of the Company.

 

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CERTAIN DEFINED TERMS

Unless the context indicates otherwise, the following terms have the following meanings when used in this prospectus:

“Affiliate” of any particular Person means any other Person controlling, controlled by, or under common control with such Person, where “control” means the possession, directly or indirectly, of the power to direct the management and policies of a Person, whether through the ownership of voting securities, its capacity as a sole or managing member, or otherwise.

“Amended and Restated Bylaws” means the amended and restated bylaws of the Company, dated as of the Closing Date.

“Cash Consideration” means cash consideration in the amount of $91,646,050 paid to the Members at the Closing, which was equal to the cash remaining in FGNA’s trust account as of immediately prior to the Closing.

“Charter” means the second amended and restated certificate of incorporation of the Company, dated as of the Closing Date.

“Common Stock” means the Class A Common Stock and Class V Voting Stock.

“Earnout Units” means the 25,500,000 Retained OppFi Units held by the Members at the Closing.

“Exchange Rights” means the rights of the Members, beginning on the nine month anniversary of the Closing (unless otherwise waived by the Company, or, with respect to the Initial Shares, following the registration under the Securities Act of such shares), to exchange each Retained OppFi Unit held by the Members, subject to certain conditions, for either one share of Class A Common Stock or, at the election of the Company in its capacity as the sole manager of OppFi, the cash equivalent of the market value of one share of Class A Common Stock provided that, the Earnout Units may not be so exchanged prior to the date that such Earnout Units are earned in accordance with the Business Combination Agreement.

“Initial Shares” means shares of Class A Common Stock issuable upon the exchange of 11,600,000 OppFi Units held by the Members, which shall not be subject to the nine month lock-up restrictions in the Investor Rights Agreement.

“Founder Holders” means each of the Sponsor, D. Kyle Cerminara, Larry G. Swets, Jr., Joseph Moglia, Nicholas Rudd, Hassan Baqar and Robert Weeks.

“Founder Shares” means the shares of Class B Common Stock held by the Founder Holders, which such shares of Class B Common Stock automatically converted into an equal number of shares of Class A Common Stock in connection with the Closing.

“Investor Rights Agreement” means the Investor Rights Agreement entered into at the Closing, by and among the Company, the Founder Holders, the Members, the Members’ Representative and the Underwriters.

“NYSE Independent” means a person who shall qualify as a director “independent” from the Company, the Sponsor and the Members, as such term is used in Rule 303A.02 (or any successor rule) of the NYSE Listed Company Manual.

“OppFi A&R LLCA” means the Third Amended and Restated Limited Liability Company Agreement of OppFi, which was entered into by the Company as OppFi’s sole manager and the Members, effective as of the Closing.

“Person” means any natural person, sole proprietorship, partnership, joint venture, trust, unincorporated association, corporation, limited liability company, entity or governmental entity.

 

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“SCG” means TCS Group, L.L.C. d/b/a the Schwartz Capital Group, an Illinois limited liability company affiliated with the Schwartz Family.

“SCG Holder” means each of the Affiliates of SCG, LTHS Capital Group, and Todd Schwartz Capital Group, and any of their respective permitted transferees (other than pursuant to clause (e) of the definition thereof in the Investor Rights Agreement or for purposes of Article II of the Investor Rights Agreement pursuant to clause (g) of the definition thereof in the Investor Rights Agreement) that beneficially own Common Stock.

“SCG Holders’ Representative” means Todd Schwartz, as representative of the SCG Holders, or any other party designated by a majority-in-intertest of the SCG Holders.

“Schwartz Family” means the several trusts and entities affiliated with SCG and the Schwartz family.

“Underwriter Units” means the 118,875 units issued to the Underwriters in a concurrent private placement at the time of the IPO.

“Underwriters” means Piper Sandler & Co. and ThinkEquity, a division of Fordham Financial Management, Inc., as representatives of the several underwriters in the IPO.

“Warrant Agreement” means that certain Warrant Agreement, dated as of September 29, 2020, by and between the Company and Continental Stock Transfer & Trust Company, a New York corporation, as warrant agent.

“Warrant Agent” means Continental Stock Transfer & Trust Company in its capacity as warrant agent under the Warrant Agreement.

 

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CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This prospectus contains forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements relate to expectations for future financial performance, business strategies, or expectations for the Company’s business. These forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements regarding the Company’s or its management team’s expectations, hopes, beliefs, intentions, or strategies regarding the future. In addition, any statements that refer to projections, forecasts, or other characterizations of future events or circumstances, including any underlying assumptions, are forward-looking statements.

Specifically, forward-looking statements may include statements relating to:

 

   

the benefits of the Business Combination;

 

   

the future financial performance of the Company following the Business Combination, including any projected financial information;

 

   

the liquidity and trading of our securities;

 

   

expansion plans and opportunities;

 

   

other statements preceded by, followed by or that include the words “may,” “can,” “should,” “will,” “estimate,” “plan,” “project,” “forecast,” “intend,” “expect,” “hope,” “anticipate,” “believe,” “seek,” “target” or similar expressions; and

 

   

other factors detailed under the section entitled “Risk Factors.”

These forward-looking statements are based on information available as of the date of this prospectus, and our management’s current expectations, forecasts and assumptions, and involve a number of judgments, risks and uncertainties. Accordingly, forward-looking statements should not be relied upon as representing the Company’s views as of any subsequent date. The Company does not undertake any obligation to update forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances after the date they were made, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as may be required under applicable securities laws.

You should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements. As a result of a number of known and unknown risks and uncertainties, the Company’s actual results or performance may be materially different from those expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements. Some factors that could cause actual results to differ include:

 

   

the occurrence of any event, change or other circumstances that could give rise to a claim under the Business Combination Agreement;

 

   

the outcome of any legal proceedings that may be instituted following the Business Combination;

 

   

the risk that the Business Combination disrupts our current plans and operations;

 

   

the inability to maintain the listing of our securities on the NYSE;

 

   

our ability to recognize the anticipated benefits of the Business Combination, which may be affected by, among other things, the ability of the Company to grow and manage growth profitably;

 

   

the unpredictability of the effects of COVID-19;

 

   

changes in applicable laws or regulations;

 

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the inability to profitably expand into new markets;

 

   

costs related to the proposed Business Combination;

 

   

the possibility that we may be adversely impacted by other economic, business and/or competitive factors;

 

   

the impact of stimulus or other government programs;

 

   

future interest rates; and

 

   

other risks and uncertainties indicated in this prospectus, including those under “Risk Factors” herein, and other filings that have been made or will be made with the SEC.

 

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PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

The following summary highlights selected information contained elsewhere in this prospectus and does not contain all of the information that you should consider in making your investment decision. Before investing in our securities, you should carefully read this entire prospectus, including our consolidated financial statements and the related notes included in this prospectus and the information set forth under the headings “Risk Factors” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.”

Our Company

We are a leading financial technology platform that powers banks to offer accessible lending products through its proprietary technology and artificial intelligence (“AI”) and a top-rated experience. Our primary mission is to facilitate financial inclusion and credit access to the 60 million everyday consumers who lack access to traditional credit through best available products and an unwavering commitment to our customers. Consumers on our platform benefit from higher approval rates and a highly automated, transparent, efficient, and fully digital experience. Our bank partners benefit from our turn-key, outsourced marketing, data science, and proprietary technology to digitally acquire, underwrite and service these everyday consumers. Unlike payday loans, earned wage access and similar credit products that often lack transparency, fairness, and ability to repay guidelines, we are dedicated to offering the best possible product and service at the best possible price. Loans facilitated on our platform can be up to five times cheaper than payday loans, are fully amortizing, accrue simple interest, are absent of fees (namely, no prepayment penalties, origination fees, late fees or insufficient funds fees), and present the customer with the total cost of the loan up front. The average installment loan facilitated by our platform is $1,500, payable in monthly installments and with an average contractual term of 11 months. There are no “rollovers” and payments are reported to the three major credit bureaus. Our dedication to borrowers is further evidenced by our “TurnUp” process described below and most importantly, by our exceptionally high customer satisfaction ratings. Since inception, OppFi has facilitated more than $2.3 billion in loan issuances covering over 1.5 million loans.

Corporate Information

FGNA was incorporated in the State of Delaware on June 24, 2020 as a special purpose acquisition company under the name FG New America Acquisition Corp. OppFi is a Delaware limited liability company formed on December 3, 2015. On October 2, 2020, FGNA completed its IPO. On the Closing Date, the Business Combination with OppFi was consummated, resulting in the combined company being organized in an “Up-C” structure, and FGNA as the registrant changed its name to “OppFi Inc.” OppFi is headquartered in Chicago, Illinois.

Recent Developments

In August, we officially launched the OppFi Credit Card to select OppLoans customers who have repaid their loans in full. OppFi Card is issued by First Electronic Bank, Member FDIC and features Mastercard as the exclusive card network. Upon approval, cardholders are instantly able to access their OppFi Card from the OppFi mobile app and directly add their card to their mobile wallets. This allows cardholders to access their card information immediately and begin making purchases online, in-app, and at the point of sale. Cardholders also receive a physical card that supports all payment types. We expect a deliberate roll out through year end before ramping originations in 2022.

Emerging Growth Status

We are an “emerging growth company,” as defined in Section 2(a) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”),, as modified by the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012 (the “JOBS Act”), and we may take advantage of certain exemptions from various reporting requirements that are applicable to other public companies that are not emerging growth companies, including, but not limited to, not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports and proxy statements, and exemptions from the requirements of holding a nonbinding advisory vote on executive compensation and stockholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved.


 

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Further, Section 102(b)(1) of the JOBS Act exempts emerging growth companies from being required to comply with new or revised financial accounting standards until private companies (that is, those that have not had a registration statement under the Securities Act declared effective or do not have a class of securities registered under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended the “Exchange Act”), are required to comply with the new or revised financial accounting standards. The JOBS Act provides that a company can elect to opt out of the extended transition period and comply with the requirements that apply to non-emerging growth companies but any such an election to opt out is irrevocable. We have elected not to opt out of such extended transition period which means that when a standard is issued or revised and it has different application dates for public or private companies, we, as an emerging growth company, can adopt the new or revised standard at the time private companies adopt the new or revised standard. This may make comparison of our financial statements with another public company which is neither an emerging growth company nor an emerging growth company which has opted out of using the extended transition period difficult or impossible because of the potential differences in accounting standards used.

We will remain an emerging growth company until the earlier of (1) the last day of the fiscal year (a) following the fifth anniversary of the completion of this offering, (b) in which we have total annual gross revenue of at least $1.07 billion, or (c) in which we are deemed to be a large accelerated filer, which means the market value of our Class A common stock held by non-affiliates equaled or exceeded $700 million as of the prior June 30, and (2) the date on which we have issued more than $1.0 billion in non-convertible debt securities during the prior three-year period.

Additionally, we are a “smaller reporting company” as defined in Item 10(f)(1) of Regulation S-K. Smaller reporting companies may take advantage of certain reduced disclosure obligations, including, among other things, providing only two years of audited financial statements. We will remain a smaller reporting company until the last day of the fiscal year in which (1) the market value of our common stock held by non-affiliates equaled or exceeded $250 million as of the end of the prior June 30th, and (2) our annual revenues equaled or exceeded $100 million during such completed fiscal year or the market value of our common stock held by non-affiliates equaled or exceeded $700 million as of the prior June 30th.


 

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THE OFFERING

 

Issuer

OppFi Inc. (f/k/a FG New America Acquisition Corp.)

Issuance of Class A Common Stock

 

Shares of Class A Common Stock offered by us

15,339,464 shares of Class A Common Stock issuable upon exercise of the Warrants, consisting of (i) 3,451,964 shares of Class A Common Stock issuable upon exercise of 3,451,964 Private Placement Warrants and 11,887,500 shares of Class A Common Stock issuable upon the exercise of 11,887,500 Public Warrants, in each case no earlier than October 2, 2021, which is twelve months from the date of the closing of the offering in which such Warrants were purchased.

 

Shares of Class A Common Stock outstanding
prior to (i) the exercise of all Warrants and (ii) the exchange of the Retained OppFi Units for 96,500,243 shares of Class A Common Stock and the surrender and cancellation of a corresponding number of shares of Class V Common Stock

13,464,540 shares of Class A Common Stock

 

Shares of Class A Common Stock outstanding assuming (i) cash exercise of all Warrants and (ii) no additional exchange of Retained OppFi Units

28,804,004 shares of Class A Common Stock

 

Shares of Class A Common Stock outstanding assuming (i) cash exercise of all Warrants and (ii) exchange of all OppFi Retained Units, including Earnout Units 125,304,247 shares of Class A Common Stock

125,304,247 shares of Class A Common Stock

 

Use of proceeds

We will receive up to an aggregate of approximately $179.6 million from the exercise of the Warrants, assuming the exercise in full of all of the Warrants for cash. We expect to use the net proceeds from the exercise of the Warrants for general corporate purposes. See “Use of Proceeds.”

 

Exercise Price of Warrants

$11.50 per share for the Private Placement Unit Warrants, the Underwriter Warrants and the Founder Warrants, and $15 per share for the $15 Exercise Price Warrants, in each case subject to adjustments as described herein.

Resale of Class A Common Stock and Warrants

 

Securities offered by the Selling Securityholders (including 96,500,243 shares of Class A Common Stock issuable upon exchange of the Retained OppFi
Units (and the surrender and cancellation of a corresponding number of shares of Class V Voting Stock), 4,464,425 outstanding shares of Class A Common Stock held by the Selling Securityholders and 3,451,964 shares of Class A Common Stock
that may be issued upon exercise of the Private Placement Warrants

104,416,632 shares of Class A Common Stock.

 

Private Placement Warrants offered by the Selling Securityholders

3,451,964

 


 

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Terms of the offering

The Selling Securityholders will determine when and how they will dispose of the shares of Class A Common Stock and Warrants registered under this prospectus for resale.

 

Use of proceeds

We will not receive any proceeds from the sale of shares of Class A Common Stock or Private Placement Warrants by the Selling Securityholders.

 

Lock-Up Restrictions

Certain of our stockholders are subject to certain restrictions on transfer until the termination of applicable lock-up periods. See “Certain Relationships with Selling Securityholders” for further discussion.

 

Risk Factors

Any investment in the securities offered hereby is speculative and involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the information set forth under “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this prospectus.

 

NYSE Stock Market Symbols

Our Class A Common Stock and Public Warrants are listed on the NYSE under the symbols “OPFI” and “OPFI WS,” respectively.

 

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RISK FACTORS

Investing in our securities involves risks. You should consider carefully the risks and uncertainties described below, together with all of the other information in this prospectus, including the section titled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and the financial statements and notes to the financial statements included herein, before deciding whether to purchase any of our securities. If any of these risks actually occur, our business, results of operations, financial condition, and prospects could be materially and adversely affected. Unless otherwise indicated, references in these risk factors to our business being harmed will include harm to our business, reputation, brand, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects. In such event, the market price of our securities could decline, and you could lose all or part of your investment. You should carefully consider the following risk factors in addition to the other information included in this prospectus, including matters addressed in the section entitled “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements.” We may face additional risks and uncertainties that are not presently known to us, or that we currently deem immaterial, which may also impair our business or financial condition. The following discussion should be read in conjunction with the financial statements and notes to the financial statements included herein.

Summary of Risk Factors Related to Our Business

The following is a summary of the risk factors our business faces. The list below is not exhaustive, and investors should read this “Risk Factors” section in full. Some of the risks we face include:

 

   

we are a rapidly growing company with a relatively limited operating history, which may result in increased risks, uncertainties, expenses and difficulties, and makes it difficult to evaluate our future prospects;

 

   

our revenue growth rate and financial performance in recent periods may not be indicative of future performance and such growth may slow over time;

 

   

the COVID-19 pandemic has harmed our growth rate and could continue to harm our growth rate and our business, financial condition and results of operations, including the credit risk of our customers;

 

   

if we fail to effectively manage our growth, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected;

 

   

we may not be able to maintain or increase our profitability in the future;

 

   

we may experience fluctuations in our quarterly operating results;

 

   

if we are unable to continue to improve our AI and machine learning-based risk models or if these models contain errors or are otherwise ineffective, our growth prospects, business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected;

 

   

loans originated by our bank partner FinWise accounted for approximately 68.1%, 62.6% and 53.2% of the net originations facilitated by our platform during the six months ended June 30, 2021 and the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively, and similar percentages of our net revenues. If FinWise were to cease or limit operations with us or if we are unable to attract and onboard new bank partners, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected;

 

   

our sales and onboarding process of new bank partners could take longer than expected, leading to fluctuations or variability in expected revenues and results of operations;

 

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our business may be adversely affected by economic conditions and other factors that we cannot control;

 

   

decreased demand for loans as a result of increased savings or income or government stimulus could result in a loss of revenues or decline in profitability if we are unable to successfully adapt to such changes;

 

   

our AI models have not yet been extensively tested during down-cycle economic conditions. If our AI models do not accurately reflect a borrower’s credit risk in such economic conditions, the performance of loans facilitated on our platform may be worse than anticipated;

 

   

our business is subject to a wide range of laws and regulations, many of which are evolving, and changes in such laws and regulations, and/or failure or perceived failure to comply with such laws and regulations, could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations;

 

   

substantially all of our revenue is derived from a single loan product, and it is thus particularly susceptible to fluctuations in the unsecured personal loan market. We also do not currently offer a broad suite of products that bank partners may find desirable. Although we intend to broaden the suite of products that we offer, our Salary Tap and OppFi Card products were only recently launched. If we are unable to diversify the products that we offer or successfully launch our Salary Tap and OppFi Card products, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected;

 

   

if we are unable to maintain diverse and robust sources of capital to fund loans originated by us on our platform in certain states or fund our purchase of participation rights in the economic interests of loans originated by our bank partners on our platform, then our growth prospects, business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected;

 

   

as a private company, OppFi had not previously endeavored to establish and maintain public-company-quality internal controls over financial reporting. If we fail to establish and maintain proper and effective internal controls over financial reporting, as a public company, our ability to produce accurate and timely financial statements could be impaired, investors may lose confidence in financial reporting and the trading price of our securities may decline;

 

   

it may be difficult and costly to protect our intellectual property rights, and we may not be able to ensure their protection;

 

   

if loans originated by us or loans originated by our bank partners and facilitated by our platform are found to violate the laws of one or more states, whether at origination or after sale by the originating bank partner, such loans may be unenforceable or otherwise impaired, and we or other program participants may be subject to, among other things, fines, judgments and penalties, and/or our commercial relationships may suffer, each of which would adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations;

 

   

if loans facilitated through our platform for one or more bank partners are subject to successful challenge that the bank partner was not the “true lender,” such loans may be unenforceable, subject to rescission, or otherwise impaired, we or other program participants may be subject to fines, judgments and penalties, and/or our commercial relationships may suffer, each of which would adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations;

 

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litigation, regulatory actions and compliance issues could subject us to significant fines, penalties, judgments, remediation costs and/or requirements resulting in increased expenses;

 

   

a minority share position may reduce the influence that our non-affiliate stockholders have on our management; and

 

   

other risk factors listed in this “Risk Factors” section.

Risks Related to Our Business and Industry

We are a rapidly growing company with a relatively limited operating history, which may result in increased risks, uncertainties, expenses and difficulties, and makes it difficult to evaluate our future prospects.

We were founded in 2012 and have experienced rapid growth in recent years. Our limited operating history may make it difficult to make accurate predictions about our future performance. Assessing our business and future prospects may also be difficult because of the risks and difficulties we face. These risks and difficulties include our ability to:

 

   

improve the effectiveness and predictiveness of our AI models;

 

   

maintain and increase the volume of loans facilitated by our lending platform;

 

   

enter into new and maintain existing bank partnerships;

 

   

successfully maintain diverse and robust sources of capital to fund loans originated by us on our platform in certain states or fund our purchase of participation rights in the economic interests of loans originated by our bank partners on our platform;

 

   

successfully fund a sufficient quantity of our borrower loan demand with low cost bank funding to help keep interest rates offered to borrowers competitive;

 

   

successfully build our brand and protect our reputation from negative publicity;

 

   

increase the effectiveness of our marketing strategies, including our direct consumer marketing initiatives;

 

   

continue to expand the number of potential borrowers;

 

   

successfully adjust our proprietary AI models, products and services in a timely manner in response to changing macroeconomic conditions and fluctuations in the credit market;

 

   

comply with and successfully adapt to complex and evolving regulatory environments;

 

   

protect against increasingly sophisticated fraudulent borrowing and online theft;

 

   

successfully compete with companies that are currently in, or may in the future enter, the business of providing online lending services to financial institutions or consumer financial services to borrowers;

 

   

enter into new markets and introduce new products and services;

 

   

effectively secure and maintain the confidentiality of the information received, accessed, stored, provided and used across our systems;

 

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successfully obtain and maintain funding and liquidity to support continued growth and general corporate purposes;

 

   

attract, integrate and retain qualified employees; and

 

   

effectively manage and expand the capabilities of our operations teams, outsourcing relationships and other business operations.

If we are not able to timely and effectively address these risks and difficulties as well as those described elsewhere in this “Risk Factors” section, our business and results of operations may be harmed.

Our revenue growth rate and financial performance in recent periods may not be indicative of future performance and such growth may slow over time.

We have grown rapidly over the last several years, and our recent revenue growth rate and financial performance may not be indicative of our future performance. For the six months ended June 30, 2021 and the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2020, our revenue was approximately $162 million, $229 million and $291 million, respectively, representing year-over-year revenue growth of approximately 27% from 2019 to 2020. You should not rely on our revenue for any previous quarterly or annual period as any indication of our revenue or revenue growth in future periods. As we grow our business, our revenue growth rates may slow, or our revenue may decline, in future periods for a number of reasons, which may include slowing demand for our platform offerings and services, increasing competition, a decrease in the growth of the overall credit market, changes in the regulatory environment, which could lead to increasing regulatory costs and challenges, and our failure to capitalize on growth opportunities. Further, we believe our growth over the last several years has been driven in large part by our AI models and our continued improvements to our AI models. Future incremental improvements to our AI models may not lead to the same level of growth as in past periods. In addition, we believe our growth over the last several years has been driven in part by our ability to rapidly streamline and automate the loan application and origination process on our platform. The Auto-Approval Rate on our platform was 6.5% in 2018 and increased to 25.7% in 2020, 41% in the first quarter of 2021 and 51% in the second quarter of 2021.1 We expect the Auto-Approval Rate on our platform to level off and remain relatively constant in the long term, and to the extent we expand our loan offerings beyond unsecured personal loans, we expect that such percentage may decrease in the short term. As a result of these factors, our revenue growth rates may slow, and our financial performance may be adversely affected.

The COVID-19 pandemic has harmed our growth rate and could continue to harm our growth rate and our business, financial condition and results of operations, including the credit risk of our customers.

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused extreme societal, economic and financial market volatility, resulting in business shutdowns, an unprecedented reduction in economic activity and significant dislocation to businesses, the capital markets and the broader economy. In addition, recent developments in new variants of COVID-19 have increased the uncertainty regarding such volatility in the future. In particular, the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the finances of borrowers on our platform has been profound, as many have been, and will likely continue to be, impacted by unemployment, reduced earnings and/or elevated economic disruption and insecurity.

The magnitude and duration of the resulting decline in business activity cannot currently be estimated with any degree of certainty and has had several effects on our business and results of operations, including, among other things:

 

   

decreased origination volumes on our platform, in part due to government stimulus programs;

 

   

the potential for increased losses for new and existing originations caused by applying our current AI models to changing economic conditions, including a rapid rise in U.S. unemployment and the effects of government stimulus programs, which had positive effects on the credit performance of loans facilitated on our platform during the year ended December 31, 2020; and

 

1 

See the section titled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” for more information on how we define Auto Approval Rate.

 

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restricted sales operations and marketing efforts, and a reduction in the effectiveness of such efforts in some cases.

The COVID-19 pandemic may lead to a continued economic downturn, which could adversely affect demand for our platform and services, in addition to prolonging the foregoing challenges in our business.

In response to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, we have undertaken a number of initiatives to support borrowers on our platform who have suffered income loss or other hardships as a result of the pandemic. We worked with our bank partners to offer revised hardship and temporary relief plans to support borrowers impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic and adjust credit and underwriting processes and standards. While these changes to our hardship and temporary relief plans were designed to help borrowers impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic, the changes were implemented quickly, could cause economic losses to OppFi, and may not have had all the intended effects or desired impact. COVID-19 has also had serious impacts on the health of many customers, who may therefore be unable to repay their loans. We continue to actively monitor the situation, assess possible implications to our business and take appropriate actions in an effort to mitigate the adverse consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic. However, there can be no assurances that the initiatives we take will be sufficient or successful.

We have also taken precautionary measures intended to reduce the risk of the virus spreading to our employees, vendors and the communities in which we operate, including temporarily closing our physical office and virtualizing, postponing, or canceling bank partner, employee, or industry events, which may negatively impact our business. Furthermore, as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, we have required all employees who are able to do so to work remotely until further notice. It is possible that widespread remote work arrangements may have a negative impact on our operations, the execution of our business plans, the productivity and availability of key personnel and other employees necessary to conduct our business, and on third-party service providers who perform critical services for us, or otherwise cause operational failures due to changes in our normal business practices necessitated by the outbreak and related governmental actions. If a natural disaster, power outage, connectivity issue, or other event occurs that impacts our employees’ ability to work remotely, it may be difficult or, in certain cases, impossible, for us to continue our business for a substantial period of time.

Further, in response to the market conditions caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, we made certain operational changes, including reductions in our sales and marketing activities and certain operational expenses. We continue to evaluate market and other conditions and may make additional changes or implement additional operational changes, in the future.

The extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic continues to impact our business and results of operations will also depend on future developments that are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted, including new information which may emerge concerning the severity of the disease, the duration and spread of the outbreak, including the spread of the Delta variant, the scope of travel restrictions imposed in geographic areas in which we operate, mandatory or voluntary business closures, the impact on businesses and financial and capital markets, and the extent and effectiveness of actions taken throughout the world to contain the virus or treat its impact, including the effectiveness and availability of recently approved vaccines. An extended period of economic disruption as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic could have a material negative impact on our business, results of operations and financial condition, though the full extent and duration is uncertain. To the extent the COVID-19 pandemic continues to adversely affect our business and financial results, it is likely to also have the effect of heightening many of the other risks described in this “Risk Factors” section.

If we fail to effectively manage our growth, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.

 

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Over the last several years, we have experienced rapid growth and fluctuations in our business and the Total Net Originations on our platform, and we expect to continue to experience growth and fluctuations in the future. Total Net Originations on our platform were approximately $289.1 million in 2018, $496.5 million in 2019 and $483.4 million in 2020, representing a growth rate of approximately 71.7% from 2018 to 2019 and a growth rate of approximately -2.7% from 2019 to 2020. Total Net Originations on our platform were approximately $144 million for the three months ended June 30, 2021, representing a growth rate of approximately 84% from the prior year period.2 This rapid growth has placed, and may continue to place, significant demands on our management, processes and operational, technological and financial resources. Our ability to manage our growth effectively and to integrate new employees and technologies into our existing business will require us to continue to retain, attract, train, motivate and manage employees and expand our operational, technological and financial infrastructure. Continued growth could strain our ability to develop and improve our operational, technological, financial and management controls, enhance our reporting systems and procedures, recruit, train and retain highly skilled personnel and maintain user satisfaction. Any of the foregoing factors could negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We may not be able to maintain or increase our profitability in the future.

For the years ended December 31, 2018, 2019 and 2020, we experienced net income of approximately $9.7 million, $33.0 million and $77.5 million, respectively, representing an increase of approximately 239% from the year ended December 31, 2018 to the year ended December 31, 2019, and an increase of approximately 135% from the year ended December 31, 2019 to the year ended December 31, 2020. For the six months ended June 30, 2021, we experienced net income of approximately $42.4 million, representing a less than 1% increase from the prior year period. We intend to continue to expend significant funds to continue to develop and improve our proprietary AI models, improve our marketing efforts to increase the number of borrowers on our platform, enhance the features and overall user experience of our platform, expand the types of loan offerings on our platform and otherwise continue to grow our business, and we may not be able to increase our revenue enough to offset these significant expenditures. We may incur significant losses in the future for a number of reasons, including the other risks described in this section, and unforeseen expenses, difficulties, complications and delays, macroeconomic conditions and other unknown events. Any failure to increase our revenue sufficiently to keep pace with our investments and other expenses could prevent us from maintaining or improving profitability on a consistent basis. If we are unable to successfully address these risks and challenges as we encounter them, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.

We may experience fluctuations in our quarterly operating results.

Our quarterly results of operations, including the levels of our revenue, net income and other key metrics, are likely to vary significantly in the future, and period-to-period comparisons of our results of operations may not be meaningful. Accordingly, the results for any one quarter are not necessarily an accurate indication of future performance. Our quarterly financial results may fluctuate due to a variety of factors, many of which are outside of our control. Factors that may cause fluctuations in our quarterly financial results include:

 

   

our ability to improve the effectiveness and predictiveness of our AI models;

 

   

our ability to maintain relationships with existing bank partners and our ability to attract new bank partners;

 

   

our ability to maintain or increase loan volumes, and improve loan mix and the channels through which the loans, bank partners and loan funding are sourced;

 

   

general economic conditions, including economic slowdowns, recessions and tightening of credit markets, including due to the economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and any governmental response to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic;

 

2 

See the section titled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” for more information on how we define Total Net Originations.

 

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improvements to our AI models that negatively impact transaction volume, such as lower approval rates;

 

   

the timing and success of new products and services;

 

   

the effectiveness of our direct marketing and other marketing channels;

 

   

the amount and timing of operating expenses related to maintaining and expanding our business, operations and infrastructure, including acquiring new and maintaining existing bank partners and investors and attracting borrowers to our platform;

 

   

our cost of borrowing money and access to loan and participation right funding sources;

 

   

the number and extent of loans facilitated on our platform that are subject to loan modifications and/or temporary assistance due to disasters or emergencies;

 

   

the number and extent of prepayments of loans facilitated on our platform;

 

   

changes in the fair value of assets and liabilities on our balance sheet;

 

   

network outages or actual or perceived security breaches;

 

   

our involvement in litigation or regulatory enforcement efforts (or the threat thereof) or those that impact our industry generally;

 

   

the length of the onboarding process related to acquisitions of new bank partners;

 

   

changes in laws and regulations that impact our business; and

 

   

changes in the competitive dynamics of our industry, including consolidation among competitors or the development of competitive products by larger well-funded incumbents.

In addition, we experience significant seasonality in the demand for loans on our platform, which is generally lower in the first quarter. This seasonal slowdown is primarily attributable to high loan demand around the holidays in the fourth quarter and the general increase in borrowers’ available cash flows in the first quarter, including cash received from tax refunds, which temporarily reduces borrowing needs. While our growth has obscured this seasonality in our overall financial results, we expect our results of operations to continue to be affected by such seasonality in the future. In light of these factors, results for any period should not be relied upon as being indicative of performance in future periods.

If we are unable to continue to improve our AI models or if our AI models contain errors or are otherwise ineffective, our growth prospects, business, financial condition and results of operations would be adversely affected.

Our ability to attract customers to our platform and increase the number of loans facilitated on our platform will depend in large part on our ability to effectively evaluate a borrower’s creditworthiness and likelihood of default and, based on that evaluation, offer competitively priced loans and higher approval rates. Further, our overall operating efficiency and margins will depend in large part on our ability to maintain a high degree of automation in the loan application process and achieve incremental improvements in the degree of automation. If our AI models fail to adequately predict the creditworthiness of borrowers due to the design of our models or programming or other errors, and our AI models do not detect and account for such errors, or any of the other components of our credit decision process fails, we and our bank partners may experience higher than forecasted loan losses. Any of the foregoing could result in sub-optimally priced loans, incorrect approvals or denials of loans, or higher than expected loan losses, which in turn could adversely affect our ability to attract new borrowers and bank partners to our platform, increase the number of loans facilitated on our platform or maintain or increase the average size of loans facilitated on our platform.

 

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Our AI models also target and optimize other aspects of the lending process, such as borrower acquisition, fraud detection, default timing, loan stacking, prepayment timing and fee optimization, and our continued improvements to such models have allowed us to facilitate loans inexpensively and virtually instantly, with a high degree of consumer satisfaction and with an insignificant impact on loan performance. However, such applications of our AI models may prove to be less predictive than we expect, or than they have been in the past, for a variety of reasons, including inaccurate assumptions or other errors made in constructing such models, incorrect interpretations of the results of such models and failure to timely update model assumptions and parameters. Additionally, such models may not be able to effectively account for matters that are inherently difficult to predict and beyond our control, such as macroeconomic conditions, credit market volatility and interest rate fluctuations, which often involve complex interactions between a number of dependent and independent variables and factors. Material errors or inaccuracies in such AI models could lead us to make inaccurate or sub-optimal operational or strategic decisions, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Additionally, errors or inaccuracies in our AI models could result in any person exposed to the credit risk of loans facilitated on our platform, whether it be us, our bank partners or our sources of capital, experiencing higher than expected losses or lower than desired returns, which could impair our ability to retain existing or attract new bank partners and sources of capital, reduce the number, or limit the types, of loans bank partners and sources of capital are willing to fund, and limit our ability to increase commitments under our credit facilities. Any of these circumstances could reduce the number of loans facilitated on our platform and harm our ability to maintain diverse and robust sources of capital and could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Continuing to improve the accuracy of our AI models is central to our business strategy. While we believe that continuing to improve the accuracy of our AI models is key to our long-term success, those improvements could, from time to time, lead us to reevaluate the risks associated with certain borrowers, which could in turn cause us to lower approval rates or increase interest rates for any borrowers identified as a higher risk, either of which could negatively impact our growth and results of operations in the short term.

If our existing bank partners were to cease or limit operations with us or if we are unable to attract and onboard new bank partners, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.

In the year ended December 31, 2020, approximately 65% of our net originations were generated from loans originated by our bank partners and facilitated by our platform, approximately 96% of which was generated by our bank partner FinWise. For the six months ended June 30, 2021, approximately 86% of our net originations were generated from loans originated by our bank partners and facilitated by our platform, approximately 79% of which was generated by our bank partner FinWise. Our bank partner First Electronic Bank (“FEB”) began originating loans on our platform in May 2020 and our bank partner Capital Community Bank (“CCB”) began originating loans on our platform in October 2020. If any of our bank partners were to suspend, limit, or cease their operations or otherwise terminate their relationships with us, the number of loans facilitated through our platform could decrease and our revenue and revenue growth rates could be adversely affected. Our sales and onboarding process with new bank partners can be long and unpredictable. If we are unable to timely onboard our bank partners, or if our bank partners are not willing to work with us to complete a timely onboarding process, our results of operations could be adversely affected.

 

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We have entered into separate agreements with each of our three bank partners. Our agreements with our bank partners are nonexclusive, generally have 60-month terms and certain agreements automatically renew, subject to certain early termination provisions and minimum fee amounts, and do not include any minimum origination obligations or origination limits. Our agreement with FinWise began on October 31, 2017 and will continue until February 1, 2023, with an automatic renewal provision for two additional three-year terms following the initial term, unless earlier terminated pursuant to the terms of the agreement. Our bank partners could decide to stop working with us, ask to modify their agreement terms in a cost prohibitive manner when their agreement is up for renewal or enter into exclusive or more favorable relationships with our competitors. In addition, regulators may require that they terminate or otherwise limit their business with us; impose regulatory pressure limiting their ability to do business with us; or directly examine and assess our records, risk controls and compliance programs as they relate to our interactions with bank partners (and thereafter limit or prohibit future business between that bank partner and us). If the bank partners listed above or any of our future bank partners were to stop working with us, suspend, limit, or cease their operations, or otherwise terminate their relationship with us, the number of loans facilitated through our platform could decrease and our revenue and revenue growth rates could be adversely affected. We could in the future have disagreements or disputes with any of our bank partners, which could negatively impact or threaten our relationship with them. In our agreements with bank partners, we make certain representations and warranties and covenants concerning our compliance with specific policies of a bank partner, our compliance with certain procedures and guidelines related to laws and regulations applicable to our bank partners, as well as the services to be provided by us. If those representations and warranties were not accurate when made or if we fail to perform a covenant, we may be liable for any resulting damages, including potentially any losses associated with impacted loans, and our reputation and ability to continue to attract new bank partners would be adversely affected. Additionally, our bank partners may engage in mergers, acquisitions or consolidations with each other, our competitors or with third parties, any of which could be disruptive to our existing and prospective relationships with our bank partners.

Our bank partner FinWise accounts for a substantial portion of the total number of loans facilitated by our platform and our revenue, and if it was to cease or limit operations with us, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.

FinWise, a Utah-chartered bank, originates a majority of the loans facilitated by our platform. Loans originated by our bank partner FinWise accounted for approximately 68.1%, 62.6% and 53.2% of the net originations facilitated by our platform during the six months ended June 30, 2021 and the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively, and similar percentages of our net revenues. FinWise retains a certain portion of the economic interests in these originated loans on its own balance sheet and sells participation rights in the remainder of the economic interests in these originated loans to us, which we in turn sell to our special purpose finance entities. Our program arrangement with FinWise began on October 31, 2017 and has a term of five years. After the initial term, the agreement will be automatically extended for two renewal periods of three years each. Either party may choose to not renew by providing the other party 180 days’ notice prior to the end of the initial term or any renewal term. In addition, even during the term of our arrangement, FinWise could choose to reduce the volume of loans facilitated on our platform that it chooses to originate. We or FinWise may terminate our arrangement immediately upon a material breach and failure to cure such breach within a cure period, if any representations or warranties are found to be false and such error is not cured within a cure period, bankruptcy or insolvency of either party, receipt of an order or judgement by a governmental entity, a material adverse effect, or in certain change of control situations. If we are unable to continue to increase the number of other bank partners on our platform or if FinWise or one of our other bank partners were to suspend, limit or cease their operations or otherwise terminate their relationship with us, our business, financial condition and results of operations would be adversely affected.

The sales and onboarding process of new bank partners could take longer than expected, leading to fluctuations or variability in expected revenues and results of operations.

Our sales and onboarding process with new bank partners can be long and typically takes between three to six months. As a result, our revenues and results of operations may vary significantly from period to period. Prospective bank partners are often cautious in making decisions to implement our platform and related services because of the risk management alignment and regulatory uncertainties related to their use of our AI models, including their oversight, model governance and fair lending compliance obligations associated with using such models. In addition, prospective banks undertake an extensive diligence review of our platform, compliance and servicing activities before choosing to partner with us. Further, the implementation of our AI underwriting model often involves adjustments to the bank partner’s software and/or hardware platform or changes in their operational procedures, which may involve significant time and expense to implement. Delays in onboarding new bank partners can also arise while prospective bank partners complete their internal procedures to approve expenditures and test and accept our applications. Consequently, we face difficulty predicting the quarter in which new bank partners will begin using our platform and the volume of fees we will receive, which can lead to fluctuations in our revenues and results of operations.

 

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Our business may be adversely affected by economic conditions and other factors that we cannot control.

Uncertainty and negative trends in general economic conditions, including significant tightening of credit markets, historically have created a difficult operating environment for our industry. Many factors, including factors that are beyond our control, may impact our results of operations or financial condition and our overall success by affecting a borrower’s willingness to incur loan obligations or willingness or capacity to make payments on their loans. These factors include interest rates, unemployment levels, conditions in the housing market, immigration policies, gas prices, energy costs, government shutdowns, trade wars and delays in tax refunds, as well as events such as natural disasters, acts of war, terrorism, catastrophes and pandemics.

Many new consumers on our platform have limited or no credit history. Accordingly, such borrowers have historically been, and may in the future become, disproportionately affected by adverse macroeconomic conditions, such as the disruption and uncertainty caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, major medical expenses, divorce, death or other issues that affect borrowers could affect a borrower’s willingness or ability to make payments on their loans. If borrowers default on loans facilitated on our platform, the cost to service these loans may also increase without a corresponding increase in our servicing fees or other related fees and the value of the loans held on our balance sheet could decline. Higher default rates by these borrowers may lead to lower demand by our bank partners and institutional investors to fund loans facilitated by our platform, which would adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

During periods of economic slowdown or recession, our sources of capital may reduce the level of participation rights in loans originated by our bank partners on our platform that they will fund our purchase of, or the amounts of loans originated by us that they will fund, or demand terms that are less favorable to us to compensate for any increased risks. A reduction in the volume of the loans that can be facilitated by our platform due to our sources of capital would adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

For example, the COVID-19 pandemic and other related adverse economic events led to a significant increase in unemployment, comparable, and at times surpassing, the unemployment rates during the peak of the financial crisis in 2008. There can be no assurance that levels of unemployment or underemployment will improve in the near term. The increase in the unemployment rate could increase the delinquency rate of loans facilitated on ourplatform or increase the rate of borrowers declaring bankruptcy. If we are unable to improve our AI platform to account for events like the COVID-19 pandemic and the resulting rise in unemployment, or if our AI platform is unable to more successfully predict the creditworthiness of potential borrowers compared to other lenders, then our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.

In addition, personal loans are dischargeable in a bankruptcy proceeding involving a borrower without the need for the borrower to file an adversary claim. The discharge of a significant amount of personal loans facilitated by our platform could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations, including by causing our bank partners to stop working with us, suspend, limit, or cease their operations, or otherwise terminate their relationship with us.

Furthermore, the COVID-19 pandemic has caused some borrowers on our platform to request a temporary extension or modification of the payment schedules of their loans under the temporary relief or loan modification programs, or hardship programs, offered by us and/or our bank partners. If a large number of borrowers seek to participate in such hardship programs, the investment returns of us, our bank partners and our capital sources could decline. Further, if the rate of borrowers that participate in such hardship programs is greater than those experienced by our competitors, then our bank partners and our capital sources may become less interested in utilizing our platform or investing in loans facilitated on our platform, respectively, which could negatively impact our funding strategy, significantly increase our cost of obtaining loan funding and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

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Decreased demand for loans as a result of increased savings or income could result in a loss of revenues or decline in profitability if we are unable to successfully adapt to such changes.

The demand for the loan products facilitated on our platform in the markets we serve could decline due to a variety of factors, such as regulatory restrictions that reduce borrower access to particular products, the availability of competing or alternative products, or changes in borrowers’ financial conditions, particularly increases in income or savings, such as recent government stimulus programs. For instance, an increase in state or federal minimum wage requirements, or a decrease in individual income tax rates, could decrease demand for our loans. Additionally, a change in focus from borrowing to saving would reduce demand. Should we fail to adapt to a significant change in borrowers’ demand for, or access to, the loan products facilitated on our platform, our revenues could decrease significantly. Even if we make adaptations or introduce new products to fulfill borrower demand, borrowers may resist or may reject products whose adaptations make them less attractive or less available. Such decreased demand could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, results of operations, financial condition or cash flows.

Our AI models have not yet been extensively tested during down-cycle economic conditions. If our AI models do not accurately reflect a borrower’s credit risk in such economic conditions, the performance of loans facilitated on our platform may be worse than anticipated.

The performance of loans facilitated by our platform is significantly dependent on the effectiveness of our proprietary AI models used to evaluate a borrower’s credit profile and likelihood of default. While our AI models have been refined and updated to account for the COVID-19 pandemic, the bulk of the data gathered and the development of our AI models have largely occurred during a period of sustained economic growth, and our AI models have not been extensively tested during a down-cycle economy or recession and have not been tested at all during a down-cycle economy or recession without significant levels of government assistance. For example, during the year ended December 31, 2020, despite the outbreak and effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, our AI models indicated that the credit risk of OppFi loan applicants remained flat during this period and government stimulus programs had positive effects on the credit performance of loans facilitated on our platform during this period. There is no assurance that our AI models can continue to accurately predict loan performance under adverse economic conditions. If our AI models are unable to accurately reflect the credit risk of loans under such economic conditions, our bank partners, capital sources and we may experience greater than expected losses on such loans, which would harm our reputation and erode the trust we have built with our bank partners and capital sources. In addition, the fair value of the loans on our balance sheet may decline. Any of these factors could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Substantially all of our revenue is derived from a single loan product, and we are thus particularly susceptible to fluctuations in the unsecured personal loan market. We also do not currently offer a broad suite of products that bank partners may find desirable.

While we recently expanded the type of loan products offered on our platform to include Salary Tap, our payroll deduction secured installment loan product, and our OppFi Card credit card product, the vast majority of loan originations facilitated through our platform are currently unsecured personal installment loans. The market for unsecured personal loans has grown rapidly in recent years, and it is unclear to what extent such market will continue to grow, if at all. A wide variety of factors could impact the market for unsecured personal loans, including macroeconomic conditions, competition, regulatory developments and other developments in the credit market. For example, FICO has recently changed its methodology in calculating credit scores in a manner that potentially penalizes borrowers who take out personal loans to pay off or consolidate credit card debt. This change could negatively affect the overall demand for personal loans. Our success will depend in part on the continued growth of the unsecured personal loan market, and if such market does not further grow or grows more slowly than we expect, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.

In addition, bank partners may in the future seek partnerships with competitors that are able to offer them a broader array of credit products. Over time, in order to preserve and expand our relationships with our existing bank partners, and enter into new bank partnerships, it may become increasingly important for us to be able to offer a wider variety of products than we currently provide. We are also susceptible to competitors that may intentionally underprice their loan products, even if such pricing practices lead to losses. Such practices by competitors would negatively affect the overall demand for personal loans facilitated on our platform.

 

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Further, because such personal loans are unsecured, there is a risk that borrowers will not prioritize repayment of such loans, particularly in any economic downcycle. For example, the economic downcycle resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic may cause borrowers to incur additional debt. To the extent borrowers have or incur other indebtedness that is secured, such as a mortgage, a home equity line of credit or an auto loan, borrowers may choose to repay obligations under such secured indebtedness before repaying their loans facilitated on our platform. In addition, borrowers may not view loans facilitated on our platform, which were originated through an online platform, as having the same significance as other credit obligations arising under more traditional circumstances, such as loans originated by banks or other commercial financial institutions on other platforms. Any of the forgoing could lead to higher default rates and decreased demand by our bank partners and capital sources to fund loans facilitated by our platform, which would adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

For the years ended December 31, 2018, 2019 and 2020, and the three months ended June 30, 2021, we experienced default rates, which we refer to as net charge-offs as a percentage of average receivables on an annualized basis, of 37.2%, 42.2%, 35.6% and 28.4%, respectively. See the section titled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” for more information on net charge-offs as a percentage of average receivables. When a loan facilitated on our platform is charged off, the cost to service these loans may increase without a corresponding increase in our servicing fees or other related fees and the value of the loans held on our balance sheet may decline. Higher default rates may also lead to lower demand by our bank partners and capital sources to fund loans facilitated by our platform, which would adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We are also more susceptible to the risks of changing and increased regulations and other legal and regulatory actions targeted towards the unsecured personal loan market. It is possible that regulators may view unsecured personal loans as high risk for a variety of reasons, including that borrowers will not prioritize repayment of such loans due to the unsecured nature of such loans or because existing laws and regulations may not sufficiently address the benefits and corresponding risks related to financial technology as applied to consumer lending. Further, courts and/or regulators could change their interpretation or application of state and federal consumer financial protection laws for the unsecured personal loan product class given hardships borrowers experience or actual or perceived lack of borrower disclosure or understanding of loan terms. If we are unable to manage the risks associated with the unsecured personal loan market, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.

We are continuing to develop new loan products and services offerings, and if we are unable to manage the related risks, our growth prospects, business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.

We recently began offering Salary Tap, our payroll deduction secured installment loan product, and OppFi Card, our credit card product. We are continuing to invest in developing new loan products and service offerings, such as credit cards, mortgages, mobile banking and point-of-sale loans. New initiatives are inherently risky, as each involves unproven business strategies, new regulatory requirements and new financial products and services with which we, and in some cases our bank partners, have limited or no prior development or operating experience.

We cannot be sure that we will be able to develop, commercially market and achieve market acceptance of any new products and services that we may offer. In addition, our investment of resources to develop new products and services may either be insufficient or result in expenses that are excessive in light of revenue actually derived from these new products and services. If the profile or behavior of loan applicants using any new products and services is different from that of those currently served by our existing loan products, our AI models may not be able to accurately evaluate the credit risk of such borrowers, and our bank partners and capital sources may in turn experience higher levels of delinquencies or defaults. Failure to accurately predict demand or growth with respect to our new products and services could have an adverse impact on our reputation and business, and there is always risk that new products and services will be unprofitable, will increase our costs, decrease operating margins or take longer than anticipated to achieve target margins. In addition, any new products or services may raise new and potentially complex regulatory compliance obligations, which would increase our costs and may cause us to change our business in unexpected ways. Further, our development efforts with respect to these initiatives could distract management from current operations and will divert capital and other resources from our existing business.

 

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We may also have difficulty with securing adequate funding for any such new loan products and services, and if we are unable to do so, our ability to develop and grow these new offerings and services will be impaired. If we are unable to effectively manage the foregoing risks, our growth prospects, business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.

Our reputation and brand are important to our success, and if we are unable to continue developing our reputation and brand, our ability to retain existing and attract new bank partners, our ability to attract borrowers to our platform and our ability to maintain and improve our relationship with regulators of our industry could be adversely affected.

We believe maintaining a strong brand and trustworthy reputation is critical to our success and our ability to attract borrowers to our platform, attract new bank partners and maintain good relations with regulators and existing bank partners. Factors that affect our brand and reputation include: perceptions of artificial intelligence, our industry and our company, including the quality and reliability of our AI-enabled underwriting platform; the accuracy of our AI models; perceptions regarding the application of artificial intelligence to consumer lending specifically; our loan funding programs; changes to our platform; our ability to effectively manage and resolve borrower complaints; collection practices; privacy and security practices; litigation; regulatory activity; and the overall user experience of our platform. Negative publicity or negative public perception of these factors, even if inaccurate, could adversely affect our brand and reputation.

For example, consumer advocacy groups, politicians and certain government and media reports have, in the past, advocated governmental action to prohibit or severely restrict consumer loan arrangements where banks contract with a third-party platform such as ours to provide origination assistance services to bank customers. Such criticism has frequently been levied in the context of payday loan marketers, though other entities operating programs through which loans similar to loans facilitated on our platform are originated have also faced criticism. The perceived improper use of a bank charter by these entities has been challenged by both governmental authorities and private litigants, in part because of the higher rates and fees a bank is permitted to charge consumers in certain payday and small-dollar lending programs relative to non-bank lenders. Bank regulators have also required banks to exit third-party programs that the regulators determined involved unsafe and unsound practices or present other risks to the bank. We believe the payday or “small-dollar” loans that have been subject to more frequent criticism and challenge are fundamentally different from loans facilitated on our platform in many ways, including that loans facilitated on our platform typically have lower interest rates, longer terms and amortize over their life. If we are nevertheless associated with such payday or small-dollar consumer loans, or if we are associated with increased criticism of non-payday loan programs involving relationships between bank originators and non-bank lending platforms and program managers, demand for loans facilitated on our platform could significantly decrease, which could cause our bank partners to reduce their origination volumes or terminate their arrangements with us, impede our ability to attract new bank partners or delay the onboarding of bank partners, impede our ability to attract capital sources or reduce the number of potential borrowers who use our platform. Any of the foregoing could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.

Any negative publicity or public perception of loans facilitated on our platform or other similar consumer loans or the consumer lending service we provide may also result in us being subject to more restrictive interpretation or application of laws and regulations and potential investigations and enforcement actions. We may also become subject to additional lawsuits, including class action lawsuits, or other challenges such as government enforcement or arbitration, against our bank partners or us for loans originated by our bank partners on our platform or loans we service or have serviced, which we have been subject to in the past. See the section titled “Risk Factors—We have been in the past and may in the future be subject to federal and state regulatory inquiries regarding our business” for more information. If there are changes in the laws or in the interpretation or enforcement of existing laws affecting consumer loans similar to those offered on our platform, or our marketing and servicing of such loans, or if we become subject to such lawsuits, our business, financial condition and results of operations would be adversely affected.

 

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Artificial intelligence and related technologies are subject to public debate and heightened regulatory scrutiny. Any negative publicity or negative public perception of artificial intelligence could negatively impact demand for our platform, hinder our ability to attract new bank partners. From time to time, certain advocacy groups have made claims that unlawful or unethical discriminatory effects may result from the use of AI technology by various companies. Such claims, whether or not accurate, and whether or not concerning us or our AI-enabled underwriting platform, may harm our ability to attract prospective borrowers to our platform, retain existing and attract new bank partners and achieve regulatory acceptance of our business.

Harm to our reputation can also arise from many other sources, including employee or former employee misconduct, misconduct by outsourced service providers or other counterparties, failure by us or our bank partners to meet minimum standards of service and quality, and inadequate protection of borrower information and compliance failures and claims. If we are unable to protect our reputation, our business, financial condition and results of operations would be adversely affected.

If we do not compete effectively in our target markets, our business, results of operations and financial condition could be harmed.

The consumer lending market is highly competitive and increasingly dynamic as new entrants and emerging technologies continue to enter into the marketplace. With the introduction of new technologies and the influx of new entrants, competition may persist and intensify in the future, which could have an adverse effect on our operations or business.

Our inability to compete effectively could result in reduced loan volumes, reduced average size of loans facilitated on our platform, reduced fees, increased marketing and borrower acquisition costs or the failure of our platform to achieve or maintain more widespread market acceptance, any of which could have an adverse effect on our business and results of operations.

Consumer lending is a broad and competitive market, and we compete to varying degrees with other sources of unsecured consumer credit. This can include banks, non-bank lenders including retail-based lenders and other financial technology lending platforms. Because personal loans often serve as a replacement for credit cards, we also compete with the convenience and ubiquity that credit cards represent. Many of our competitors operate with different business models, such as lending-as-a-service or point-of-sale  lending, have different cost structures or regulatory obligations, or participate selectively in different market segments. They may ultimately prove more successful or more adaptable to new regulatory, economic, technological and other developments, including utilizing new data sources or credit models. We may also face competition from banks or companies that have not previously competed in the consumer lending market, including companies with access to vast amounts of consumer-related information that could be used in the development of their own credit risk models. Our current or potential competitors may be better at developing new products due to their large and experienced data science and engineering teams, who are able to respond more quickly to new technologies. Many of our current or potential competitors have significantly more resources, such as financial, technical and marketing resources, than we do and may be able to devote greater resources to the development, promotion, sale and support of their platforms and distribution channels. We face competition in areas such as compliance capabilities, commercial financing terms and costs of capital, interest rates and fees (and other financing terms) available to consumers from our bank partners, approval rates, model efficiency, speed and simplicity of loan origination, ease-of-use, marketing expertise, service levels, products and services, technological capabilities and integration, borrower experience, brand and reputation. Our competitors may also have longer operating histories, lower costs of capital, more extensive borrower bases, more diversified products and borrower bases, operational efficiencies, more versatile or extensive technology platforms, greater brand recognition and brand loyalty, broader borrower and partner relationships, more extensive and/or more diversified source of capital than we have, and more extensive product and service offerings than we have. Furthermore, our existing and potential competitors may decide to modify their pricing and business models to compete more directly with us. Our ability to compete will also be affected by our ability to provide our bank partners with a commensurate or more extensive suite of loan products than those offered by our competitors. In addition, current or potential competitors, including financial technology lending platforms and existing or potential bank partners, may also acquire or form strategic alliances with one another, which could result in our competitors being able to offer more competitive loan terms due to their access to lower-cost capital. Such acquisitions or strategic alliances among our competitors or potential competitors could also make our competitors more adaptable to a rapidly evolving regulatory environment. To stay competitive, we may need to increase our regulatory compliance expenditures or our ability to compete may be adversely affected.

 

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Our industry is driven by constant innovation. We utilize artificial intelligence and machine learning, which is characterized by extensive research efforts and rapid technological progress. If we fail to anticipate or respond adequately to technological developments, our ability to operate profitably could suffer. There can be no assurance that research, data accumulation and development by other companies will not result in AI models that are superior to our AI models or result in products superior to those we develop or that any technologies, products or services we develop will be preferred to any existing or newly-developed technologies, products or services. If we are unable to compete with such companies or fail to meet the need for innovation in our industry, the use of our platform could stagnate or substantially decline, or our loan products could fail to maintain or achieve more widespread market acceptance, which could harm our business, results of operations and financial condition.

If we are unable to manage the risks associated with fraudulent activity, our brand and reputation, business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.

Fraud is prevalent in the financial services industry and is likely to increase as perpetrators become more sophisticated. Although we have not experienced any material business or reputational harm as a result of fraudulent activity in the past, we are subject to the risk of fraudulent activity associated with borrowers and third parties handling borrower information. In the event of losses arising out of fraudulent loan applications, we may also be contractually obligated to indemnify our bank partners or capital sources for such losses. Fraud rates could also increase in a downcycle economy. We use several identity and fraud detection tools, including tools provided by third-party vendors and our proprietary AI models, to predict and otherwise validate or authenticate applicant-reported data and data derived from third-party sources. We have historically had very low levels of fraud rates, with fraudulent applications representing less than 0.1% of all approved loans over the past three years. However, the possibility of fraudulent or other malicious activities and human error or malfeasance cannot be eliminated entirely and will evolve as new and emerging technology is deployed, including the increasing use of personal mobile and computing devices that are outside of our network and control environments. Moreover, if our efforts are insufficient to accurately detect and prevent fraud, the level of fraud-related losses of loans facilitated on our platform could increase, which would decrease confidence in our platform. In addition, our bank partners, our sources of capital or we may not be able to recover amounts disbursed on loans made in connection with inaccurate statements, omissions of fact or fraud, which could erode the trust in our brand and negatively impact our ability to attract new bank partners and our sources of capital.

High profile fraudulent activity also could negatively impact our brand and reputation. In addition, significant increases in fraudulent activity could lead to regulatory intervention, which could increase our costs and also negatively impact our brand and reputation. Further, if there is any increase in fraudulent activity that increases the need for human intervention in screening loan application data, the level of automation on our platform could decline and negatively affect our unit economics. If we are unable to manage these risks, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.

We depend on our key personnel and other highly skilled personnel, and if we fail to attract, retain and motivate our personnel, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.

Our success significantly depends on the continued service of our senior management team, including Jared Kaplan, our President and Chief Executive Officer, Shiven Shah, our Chief Financial Officer, and other highly skilled personnel. Our success also depends on our ability to identify, hire, develop, motivate and retain highly qualified personnel for all areas of our organization.

Competition for highly skilled personnel, including engineering and data analytics personnel, is extremely intense, including in Chicago where our headquarters is located. We have experienced, and expect to continue to face, difficulty identifying and hiring qualified personnel in many areas, especially as we pursue our growth strategy. Further, as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, a large and increasing number of companies have adopted permanent work-from-home policies, which further increases the challenges associated with hiring and retaining qualified personnel. We may not be able to hire or retain such personnel at compensation or flexibility levels consistent with our existing compensation and salary structure and policies. Many of the companies with which we compete for experienced employees have greater resources than we have and may be able to offer more attractive terms of employment. In particular, candidates making employment decisions, specifically in high-technology industries, often consider the value of any equity they may receive in connection with their employment. Any significant volatility in the price of our securities may adversely affect our ability to attract or retain highly skilled technical, financial and marketing personnel.

 

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In addition, we invest significant time and expense in training our employees, which increases their value to competitors who may seek to recruit them. If we fail to retain our employees, we could incur significant expenses in hiring and training their replacements. While we are in the process of training their replacements, the quality of our services and our ability to serve our bank partners, investors and borrowers whose loans we service may suffer, resulting in an adverse effect on our business.

Security breaches of borrowers’ confidential information that we store may harm our reputation, adversely affect our results of operations and expose us to liability.

We are increasingly dependent on information technology systems and infrastructure to operate our business. In the ordinary course of our business, we collect, process, transmit and store large amounts of sensitive information, including personal information, credit information and other sensitive data of borrowers and potential borrowers. It is critical that we do so in a manner designed to maintain the confidentiality, integrity and availability of such sensitive information. We have made commitments to our bank partners as it relates to data security and information technology. We also have arrangements in place with certain of our third-party vendors that require us to share consumer information. We have outsourced elements of our operations (including elements of our information technology infrastructure) to third parties, and as a result, we manage a number of third-party vendors who may have access to our computer networks and sensitive or confidential information. In addition, many of those third parties may in turn subcontract or outsource some of their responsibilities to other third parties. As a result, our information technology systems, including the functions of third parties that are involved or have access to those systems, is large and complex, with many points of entry and access. While all information technology operations are inherently vulnerable to inadvertent or intentional security breaches, incidents, attacks and exposures, the size, complexity, accessibility and distributed nature of our information technology systems, and the large amounts of sensitive information stored on those systems, make such systems potentially vulnerable to unintentional or malicious, internal and external attacks. Any vulnerabilities can be exploited from inadvertent or intentional actions of our employees, third-party vendors, bank partners, loan investors or by malicious third parties. Attacks of this nature are increasing in their frequency, levels of persistence, sophistication and intensity, and are being conducted by sophisticated and organized groups and individuals with a wide range of motives (including, but not limited to, industrial espionage) and expertise, including organized criminal groups, “hacktivists,” nation states and others. In addition to the extraction of sensitive information, such attacks could include the deployment of harmful malware, ransomware, denial-of-service attacks, social engineering and other means to affect service reliability and threaten the confidentiality, integrity and availability of information and systems. In addition, the prevalent use of mobile devices increases the risk of data security incidents. Further, our shift to a remote working environment due to the COVID-19 pandemic could increase the risk of a security breach. Significant disruptions of our, our bank partners’ and third-party vendors’ and/or other business partners’ information technology systems or other similar data security incidents could adversely affect our business operations and result in the loss, misappropriation, or unauthorized access, use or disclosure of, or the prevention of access to, sensitive information, which could result in financial, legal, regulatory, business and reputational harm to us.

Because techniques used to obtain unauthorized access or to sabotage systems change frequently and generally are not recognized until they are launched against a target, we and our vendors may be unable to anticipate these techniques or to implement adequate preventative measures. In addition, many governments have enacted laws requiring companies to notify individuals of data security breaches involving their personal data. These mandatory disclosures regarding a security breach are costly to implement and often lead to widespread negative publicity following a breach, which may cause borrowers and potential borrowers to lose confidence in the effectiveness of our data security measures on our platform. Any security breach, whether actual or perceived, would harm our reputation and ability to attract new borrowers to our platform.

 

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We also face indirect technology, cybersecurity and operational risks relating to our borrowers, bank partners, investors, vendors and other third parties with whom we do business or upon whom we rely to facilitate or enable our business activities, including vendors, payment processors, and other parties who have access to confidential information due to our agreements with them. In addition, any security compromise in our industry, whether actual or perceived, or information technology system disruptions, whether from attacks on our technology environment or from computer malware, natural disasters, terrorism, war and telecommunication and electrical failures, could interrupt our business or operations, harm our reputation, erode borrower confidence, negatively affect our ability to attract new borrowers, or subject us to third-party lawsuits, regulatory fines or other action or liability, which could adversely affect our business and results of operations.

Like other financial services firms, we have been and continue to be the subject of actual or attempted unauthorized access, mishandling or misuse of information, computer viruses or malware, and cyber-attacks that could obtain confidential information, destroy data, disrupt or degrade service, sabotage systems or cause other damage, distributed denial of service attacks, data breaches and other infiltration, exfiltration or other similar events.

While we regularly monitor data flow inside and outside the company, attackers have become very sophisticated in the way they conceal access to systems, and we may not be aware that we have been attacked. Any event that leads to unauthorized access, use or disclosure of personal information or other sensitive information that we or our vendors maintain, including our own proprietary business information and sensitive information such as personal information regarding borrowers, loan applicants or employees, could disrupt our business, harm our reputation, compel us to comply with applicable federal and/or state breach notification laws and foreign law equivalents, subject us to time consuming, distracting and expensive litigation, regulatory investigation and oversight, mandatory corrective action, require us to verify the correctness of database contents, or otherwise subject us to liability under laws, regulations and contractual obligations, including those that protect the privacy and security of personal information. This could result in increased costs to us and result in significant legal and financial exposure and/or reputational harm. In addition, any failure or perceived failure by us or our vendors to comply with our privacy, confidentiality or data security-related legal or other obligations to our bank partners or other third parties, actual or perceived security breaches, or any security incidents or other events that result in the unauthorized access, release or transfer of sensitive information, which could include personally identifiable information, may result in governmental investigations, enforcement actions, regulatory fines, litigation, or public statements against us by advocacy groups or others, and could cause our bank partners and other third parties to lose trust in us or we could be subject to claims by our bank partners and other third parties that we have breached our privacy- or confidentiality-related obligations, which could harm our business and prospects. Moreover, data security incidents and other inappropriate access can be difficult to detect, and any delay in identifying them may lead to increased harm of the type described above. There can be no assurance that our security measures intended to protect our information technology systems and infrastructure will successfully prevent service interruptions or security incidents. For example, in December 2018, we were made aware of a software error by a vendor that displayed mismatched consumer data on a prepopulated form, which affected fewer than 100 participants on our platform. The vendor system was patched and we made changes to our systems designed to prevent similar issues in the future. However, we cannot provide any assurance that similar vulnerabilities will not arise in the future as we continue to expand the features and functionalities of our platform and introduce new loan products on our platform, and we expect to continue investing substantially to protect against security vulnerabilities and incidents.

We maintain errors, omissions, and cyber liability insurance policies covering certain security and privacy damages. However, we cannot be certain that our coverage will continue to be available on economically reasonable terms or will be available in sufficient amounts to cover one or more large claims, or that an insurer will not deny coverage as to any future claim, or that any insurer will be adequately covered by reinsurance or other risk mitigants or that any insurer will offer to renew policies at an affordable rate or offer such coverage at all in the future. The successful assertion of one or more large claims against us that exceed available insurance coverage, or the occurrence of changes in our insurance policies, including premium increases or the imposition of large deductible or co-insurance requirements, could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

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If we are unable to manage the risks related to our loan servicing and collections obligations, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.

Loans facilitated on our platform are not secured by any collateral, guaranteed or insured by any third party or backed by any governmental authority. As a result, we are limited in our ability to collect on such loans on behalf of ourselves and our bank partners if a borrower is unwilling or unable to repay them. We handle in-house substantially all of the servicing activities for loans facilitated on our platform, including collection activities, which requires that we hire and train significant numbers of servicing personnel. For more information about our collections procedures and experience handling collections, see the section titled “Information about OppFi—Customer Advocates and Collections Arrangements.” Our need for servicing personnel may vary over time and there is no assurance that we will be able to hire and train appropriate servicing personnel when necessary. For example, during periods of increased delinquencies caused by economic downturns or otherwise, it is important that our servicing personnel are proactive and consistent in contacting a borrower to bring a delinquent balance current and ultimately avoid the related loan becoming charged off, which in turn makes it extremely important that the servicing personnel are properly staffed and trained to take prompt and appropriate action. If the servicing personnel are unable to maintain a high quality of service, or fulfill their servicing obligations at all due to resource constraints resulting from the increased delinquencies, it could result in increased delinquencies and charge-offs on the loans, which could decrease fees payable to us, cause our bank partners to decrease the volume of loans facilitated on our platform and erode trust in our platform.

In addition, loan servicing is a highly regulated activity. Errors in our servicing activities or failures to comply with our servicing obligations could affect our internal and external reporting of the loans that we service, adversely affect our business and reputation and expose us to liability to borrowers, bank partners or capital sources. In addition, the laws and regulations governing these activities are subject to change. For example, during the COVID-19 pandemic certain states prohibited or restricted collection activities. If we are unable to comply with such laws and regulations, we could lose one or more of our licenses or authorizations, become subject to greater scrutiny by regulatory agencies, or become subject to sanctions or litigation, which may have an adverse effect on our ability to perform our servicing obligations or make our platform available to borrowers in particular states. Any of the foregoing could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

In addition, we charge our bank partners and capital sources a fixed percentage servicing fee based on the outstanding balance of loans serviced. If we fail to efficiently service such loans and the costs incurred exceed the servicing fee charged, our results of operations would be adversely affected.

Borrowers may prepay a loan at any time without penalty, which could reduce our servicing fees and deter our bank partners and investors from investing in loans facilitated by our platform.

Borrowers may decide to prepay all or a portion of the remaining principal amount on loans facilitated by our platform at any time without penalty. If the entire or a significant portion of the remaining unpaid principal amount of a loan is prepaid, we would not receive a servicing fee or we would receive a significantly lower servicing fee associated with such prepaid loan. Prepayments may occur for a variety of reasons. If prepayments increase, the amount of our servicing fees would decline, which could harm our business and results of operations. If a significant volume of prepayments occur that our AI models do not accurately predict, returns targeted by us, our bank partners and our capital sources would be adversely affected and our ability to attract new bank partners and capital sources would be negatively affected.

Our marketing efforts and brand promotion activities may not be effective, which could adversely affect our ability to grow our business.

 

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Promoting awareness of our platform is important to our ability to grow our business, attract new bank partners and increase the number of potential borrowers on our platform. We believe that the importance of brand recognition will increase as competition in the consumer lending industry expands. Successful promotion of our brand will depend largely on the effectiveness of marketing efforts and the overall user experience of our bank partners and potential borrowers on our platform, which factors are outside our control. The marketing channels that we employ may also become more crowded and saturated by other lending platforms, which may decrease the effectiveness of our marketing campaigns and increase borrower acquisition costs. Also, the methodologies, policies and regulations applicable to marketing channels may change. For example, internet search engines could revise their methodologies, which could adversely affect borrower volume from organic ranking and paid search. Search engines may also implement policies that restrict the ability of companies such as us to advertise their services and products, which could prevent us from appearing in a favorable location or any location in the organic rankings or paid search results when certain search terms are used by the consumer.

Our brand promotion activities may not yield increased revenues. If we fail to successfully build trust in our platform and the performance and predictability of loans facilitated on our platform, we may lose existing bank partners to our competitors or be unable to attract new bank partners and capital sources, which in turn would harm our business, results of operations and financial condition. Even if our marketing efforts result in increased revenue, we may be unable to recover our marketing costs through increases in loan volume, which could result in a higher borrower acquisition cost per account. Any incremental increases in loan servicing costs, such as increases due to greater marketing expenditures, could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Unfavorable outcomes in legal proceedings may harm our business and results of operations.

We are, and may in the future become, subject to litigation, claims, examinations, investigations, legal and administrative cases and proceedings, whether civil or criminal, or lawsuits by governmental agencies or private parties, which may affect our results of operations. These claims, lawsuits, and proceedings could involve labor and employment, discrimination and harassment, commercial disputes, intellectual property rights (including patent, trademark, copyright, trade secret, and other proprietary rights), class actions, general contract, tort, defamation, data privacy rights, antitrust, common law fraud, government regulation, or compliance, alleged securities and law violations or other investor claims, and other matters. Due to the consumer-oriented nature of our business and the application of certain laws and regulations, participants in our industry are regularly named as defendants in litigation alleging violations of federal and state laws and regulations and liability for common law torts, including fraud. Many of these legal proceedings involve alleged violations of consumer protection laws. In addition, we are, and may in the future become, subject to litigation, claims, examinations, investigations, legal and administrative cases and proceedings related to the loans facilitated on our platform.

In particular, lending programs that involve originations by a bank in reliance on origination-related services being provided by non-bank lending platforms and/or program managers are subject to potential litigation and government enforcement claims based on “rent-a-charter” or “true lender” theories, particularly where such programs involve the subsequent sale of such loans or interests therein to the platform. See “—If loans facilitated through our platform for one or more bank partners were subject to successful challenge that the bank partner was not the “true lender,” such loans may be unenforceable, subject to rescission or otherwise impaired, we or other program participants may be subject to fines, judgments and penalties, and/or our commercial relationships may suffer, each of which would adversely affect our business and results of operations” below. In addition, loans originated by banks (which are exempt from certain state requirements), followed by the sale, assignment, or other transfer to non-banks of such loans or interests therein are subject to potential litigation and government enforcement claims based on the theory that transfers of loans from banks to non-banks do not transfer the ability to enforce contractual terms such as interest rates and fees which banks may charge, but non-banks may not. See “—If loans originated by us or loans originated by our bank partners were found to violate the laws of one or more states, whether at origination or after sale by the originating bank partner, loans facilitated through our platform may be unenforceable or otherwise impaired, we or other program participants may be subject to, among other things, fines, judgments and penalties, and/or our commercial relationships may suffer, each of which would adversely affect our business and results of operations” below. If we were subject to such litigation or enforcement, then any unfavorable results of pending or future legal proceedings may result in contractual damages, usury related claims, fines, penalties, injunctions, the unenforceability, rescission or other impairment of loans originated on our platform or other censure that could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition. Even if we adequately address the issues raised by an investigation or proceeding or successfully defend a third-party lawsuit or counterclaim, we may have to devote significant financial and management resources to address these issues, which could harm our business, financial condition, reputation and results of operations.

 

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Recent financial, political and other events may increase the level of regulatory scrutiny on financial technology companies. Regulatory bodies may enact new laws or promulgate new regulations or view matters or interpret laws and regulations differently than they have in the past, or commence investigations or inquiries into our business practices. Any such investigations or inquiries, whether or not accurate or warranted, or whether concerning us or one of our competitors, could negatively affect our brand and reputation and the overall market acceptance of and trust in our platform. Any of the foregoing could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We may evaluate and potentially consummate acquisitions, which could require significant management attention, consume our financial resources, disrupt our business and adversely affect our financial results.

Our success will depend, in part, on our ability to grow our business. In some circumstances, we may determine to do so through the acquisition of complementary businesses and technologies rather than through internal development. The identification of suitable acquisition candidates can be difficult, time-consuming, and costly, and we may not be able to successfully complete identified acquisitions. In the future, we may acquire, assets or businesses. The risks we face in connection with acquisitions include:

 

   

diversion of management time and focus from operating our business to addressing acquisition integration challenges;

 

   

utilization of our financial resources for acquisitions or investments that may fail to realize the anticipated benefits;

 

   

inability of the acquired technologies, products or businesses to achieve expected levels of revenue, profitability, productivity or other benefits;

 

   

coordination of technology, product development and sales and marketing functions and integration of administrative systems;

 

   

transition of the acquired company’s borrowers to our systems;

 

   

retention of employees from the acquired company;

 

   

regulatory risks, including maintaining good standing with existing regulatory bodies or receiving any necessary approvals, as well as being subject to new regulators with oversight over an acquired business;

 

   

attracting financing;

 

   

cultural challenges associated with integrating employees from the acquired company into our organization;

 

   

the need to implement or improve controls, procedures and policies at a business that prior to the acquisition may have lacked effective controls, procedures and policies;

 

   

potential write-offs of loans or intangibles or other assets acquired in such transactions that may have an adverse effect on our results of operations in a given period;

 

   

liability for activities of the acquired company before the acquisition, including patent and trademark infringement claims, violations of laws, commercial disputes, tax liabilities and other known and unknown liabilities;

 

   

assumption of contractual obligations that contain terms that are not beneficial to us, require us to license or waive intellectual property or increase our risk for liability; and

 

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litigation, regulatory criticisms, customer claims or other liabilities in connection with the acquired company.

Our failure to address these risks or other problems encountered in connection with any future acquisitions and investments could cause us to fail to realize the anticipated benefits of these acquisitions or investments, cause us to incur unanticipated liabilities and harm our business generally. Future acquisitions could also result in dilutive issuances of the combined company’s equity securities, the incurrence of debt, contingent liabilities, amortization expenses or the write-off of goodwill, any of which could harm our financial condition.

Our business is subject to the risks of natural disasters and other catastrophic events, and to interruption by man-made problems, any of which could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Significant natural disasters or other catastrophic events, such as earthquakes, fires, hurricanes, blizzards, or floods (many of which are becoming more acute and frequent as a result of climate change), or interruptions by strikes, crime, terrorism, epidemics, pandemics, cyber-attacks, computer viruses, internal or external system failures, telecommunications failures, power outages or increased risk of cybersecurity breaches due to a swift transition to remote work brought about by a catastrophic event, could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition. For example, the COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant impact on the global economy and consumer confidence. If the outbreak persists or worsens, it could continue to adversely impact the economy and consumer confidence, and could negatively impact our operations and our platform, each of which could seriously harm our business. In addition, it is possible that continued widespread remote work arrangements may have a negative impact on our operations, the execution of our business plans, the productivity and availability of key personnel and other employees necessary to conduct our business, or otherwise cause operational failures due to changes in our normal business practices necessitated by the outbreak and related governmental actions. There is no guarantee that we will be as effective while working remotely because our team is dispersed, employees may have less capacity to work due to increased personal obligations (such as childcare, eldercare, or caring for family members who become sick), may become sick themselves and be unable to work, or may be otherwise negatively affected, mentally or physically, by the COVID-19 pandemic and prolonged social distancing. Additionally, remote work arrangements may make it more difficult to scale our operations efficiently, as the recruitment, onboarding and training of new employees may be prolonged or delayed. If a natural disaster, power outage, connectivity issue, or other event occurred that impacted our employees’ ability to work remotely, it may be difficult or, in certain cases, impossible, for us to continue our business for a substantial period of time. The increase in remote working may also result in privacy, data protection, data security, and fraud risks.

In addition, acts of war and other armed conflicts, disruptions in global trade, travel restrictions and quarantines, terrorism and other civil, political and geo-political unrest could cause disruptions in our business and lead to interruptions, delays or loss of critical data. Any of the foregoing risks may be further increased if our business continuity plans prove to be inadequate and there can be no assurance that both personnel and non-mission critical applications can be fully operational after a declared disaster within a defined recovery time. If our personnel, systems or data centers are impacted, we may suffer interruptions and delays in our business operations. In addition, to the extent these events impact the ability of borrowers to timely repay their loans, our business could be negatively affected.

We may not maintain sufficient business interruption or property insurance to compensate us for potentially significant losses, including potential harm to our business that may result from interruptions in our ability to provide our financial products and services.

Risks Related to Our Financial Reporting and Risk Management

If our estimates or judgments relating to our critical accounting policies prove to be incorrect or financial reporting standards or interpretations change, our results of operations could be adversely affected.

 

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The preparation of financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States requires our management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported and disclosed in our consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes. We base our estimates and assumptions on historical experience and on various other assumptions that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances. The results of these estimates form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets, liabilities, and equity, and the amount of revenue and expenses that are not readily apparent from other sources. Significant assumptions and estimates used in preparing our consolidated financial statements include those related to fair value determinations, stock-based compensation and consolidation of variable interest entities, as well as tax matters. Our results of operations may be adversely affected if our assumptions change or if actual circumstances differ from those in our assumptions, which could cause our results of operations to fall below the expectations of industry or financial analysts and investors, resulting in a decline in the trading price of the Class A Common Stock.

Additionally, we regularly monitor our compliance with applicable financial reporting standards and review new pronouncements and drafts thereof that are relevant to us. As a result of new standards, or changes to existing standards, and changes in their interpretation, we might be required to change our accounting policies, alter our operational policies and implement new or enhance existing systems so that they reflect new or amended financial reporting standards, or we may be required to restate our published financial statements. Such changes to existing standards or changes in their interpretation may have an adverse effect on our reputation, business, financial condition, and profit and loss, or cause an adverse deviation from our revenue and operating profit and loss target, which may negatively impact our results of operations.

If we fail to establish and maintain proper and effective internal control over financial reporting as a public company, our ability to produce accurate and timely financial statements could be impaired, investors may lose confidence in our financial reporting and the trading price of our Class A Common Stock may decline.

Pursuant to Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act the report by management on internal control over financial reporting will be on OppFi’s financial reporting and internal controls (as accounting acquirer). However, as an emerging growth company, an attestation of an independent registered public accounting firm will initially not be required. The rules governing the standards that must be met for management to assess internal control over financial reporting are complex and require significant documentation, testing and possible remediation. To comply with the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, the requirements of being a reporting company under the Exchange Act and any complex accounting rules in the future, we may need to upgrade our legacy information technology systems; implement additional financial and management controls, reporting systems and procedures; and hire additional accounting and finance staff.

If we are unable to hire the additional accounting and finance staff necessary to comply with these requirements, we may need to retain additional outside consultants. If we or, if required, our independent registered public accounting firm, are unable to conclude that our internal control over financial reporting is effective, investors may lose confidence in our financial reporting, which could negatively impact the price of our securities.

On April 12, 2021, the Acting Director of the Division of Corporation Finance and Acting Chief Accountant of the SEC together issued a statement regarding the accounting and reporting considerations for warrants issued by special purpose acquisition companies entitled “Staff Statement on Accounting and Reporting Considerations for Warrants Issued by Special Purpose Acquisition Companies (“SPACs”)” (the “SEC Statement”). Specifically, the SEC Statement focused on certain settlement terms and provisions related to certain tender offers following a business combination, which terms are similar to those contained in the Warrant Agreement governing our Warrants. Following the issuance of the SEC statement, on April 22, 2021, FGNA concluded that it was appropriate to restate its previously issued audited financial statements as of and for the period ended December 31, 2020, and as part of such process, FGNA identified a material weakness in its internal control over financial reporting. As the accounting acquirer in the Business Combination, we inherited this material weakness and the Warrants. FGNA reevaluated the accounting treatment of the Warrants, and determined to classify the Warrants as derivative liabilities measured at fair value, with changes in fair value each period reported in earnings. As a result, included on FGNA’s unaudited condensed consolidated balance sheet as of June 30, 2021 and consolidated balance sheet as of December 31, 2020 included in this prospectus are derivative liabilities related to embedded features contained within the Warrants. Accounting Standards Codification 815, Derivatives and Hedging (“ASC 815”), provides for the remeasurement of the fair value of such derivatives at each balance sheet date, with a resulting non-cash gain or loss related to the change in the fair value being recognized in earnings in the statement of operations. As a result of the recurring fair value measurement, our consolidated financial statements and results of operations may fluctuate quarterly, based on factors which are outside of our control. Due to the recurring fair value measurement, we expect that we will recognize non-cash gains or losses on the Warrants each reporting period and that the amount of such gains or losses could be material.

 

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As a result of the material weakness, the restatement, the change in accounting for the Warrants, and other matters raised or that may in the future be raised by the SEC, we may face potential litigation or other disputes, which may include, among others, claims invoking the federal and state securities laws, contractual claims or other claims arising from the restatement and material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting and the preparation of our financial statements. As of the date of this prospectus, we have no knowledge of any such litigation or dispute. However, we can provide no assurance that such litigation or dispute will not arise in the future. Any such litigation or dispute, whether successful or not, could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

We cannot assure you that there will not be additional material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting now or in the future. We have not previously been required to conduct such an internal control evaluation and assessment. Any failure to maintain internal control over financial reporting could severely inhibit our ability to accurately report our financial condition, results of operations or cash flows. If we are unable to conclude that our internal control over financial reporting is effective, or if our independent registered public accounting firm determines that hawse have a material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting, investors may lose confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial reports, the market price of our Class A Common Stock could decline, and we could be subject to sanctions or investigations by the NYSE, the SEC or other regulatory authorities. Failure to remedy any material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting, or to implement or maintain other effective control systems required of public companies, could also restrict our future access to the capital markets.

If our risk management framework does not effectively identify and control our risks, we could suffer unexpected losses or be adversely affected, which could have a material adverse effect on our business.

Our risk management processes and procedures seek to appropriately balance risk and return and mitigate risks. We have established processes and procedures intended to identify, measure, monitor and control the types of risk to which we are subject, including credit risk, market risk, liquidity risk, strategic risk, operational risk, cybersecurity risk and reputational risk. Credit risk is the risk of loss that arises when a loan obligor fails to meet the terms of a loan repayment obligation, the loan enters default, and if uncured results in financial loss of remaining principal and interest to the investor. Our exposure to credit risk mainly arises from our lending activities. Market risk is the risk of loss due to changes in external market factors, such as interest rates, asset prices, and foreign exchange rates. Liquidity risk is the risk that financial condition or overall safety and soundness are adversely affected by an inability, or perceived inability, to meet obligations (e.g., current and future cash flow needs) and support business growth. We actively monitor our liquidity position. Strategic risk is the risk from changes in the business environment, ineffective business strategies, improper implementation of decisions or inadequate responsiveness to changes in the business and competitive environment.

Our management is responsible for defining the priorities, initiatives, and resources necessary to execute our strategic plan, the success of which is regularly evaluated by our Board. Operational risk is the risk of loss arising from inadequate or failed internal processes, controls, people (e.g., human error or misconduct) or systems (e.g., technology problems), business continuity or external events (e.g., natural disasters), compliance, reputational, regulatory, or legal matters and includes those risks as they relate directly to us, fraud losses attributed to applications and any associated fines and monetary penalties as a result, transaction processing, or employees, as well as to third parties with whom we contract or otherwise do business. Operational risk is one of the most prevalent forms of risk in our risk profile. We strive to manage operational risk by establishing policies and procedures to accomplish timely and efficient processing, obtaining periodic internal control attestations from management, conducting internal process risk control self-assessments and audit reviews to evaluate the effectiveness of internal controls.

 

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In order to be effective, among other things, our enterprise risk management capabilities must adapt and align to support any new product or loan features, capability, strategic development, or external change. Cybersecurity risk is the risk of a malicious technological attack intended to impact the confidentiality, availability, or integrity of our systems and data, including, but not limited to, sensitive client data. Our technology and information security teams rely on a layered system of preventive and detective technologies, practices, and policies to detect, mitigate, and neutralize cybersecurity threats. In addition, our information security team and third-party consultants regularly assesses our cybersecurity risks and mitigation efforts. Cyberattacks can also result in financial and reputational risk.

Reputational risk is the risk arising from possible negative perceptions of us, whether true or not, among our current and prospective members, counterparties, employees, and regulators. The potential for either enhancing or damaging our reputation is inherent in almost all aspects of business activity. We manage this risk through our commitment to a set of core values that emphasize and reward high standards of ethical behavior, maintaining a culture of compliance, and by being responsive to member and regulatory requirements.

Risk is inherent in our business, and therefore, despite our efforts to manage risk, there can be no assurance that we will not sustain unexpected losses. We could incur substantial losses and our business operations could be disrupted to the extent our business model, operational processes, control functions, technological capabilities, risk analyses, and business/product knowledge do not adequately identify and manage potential risks associated with our strategic initiatives. There also may be risks that exist, or that develop in the future, that we have not appropriately anticipated, identified or mitigated, including when processes are changed or new products and services are introduced. If our risk management framework does not effectively identify and control our risks, we could suffer unexpected losses or be adversely affected, which could have a material adverse effect on our business.

Our projections are subject to significant risks, assumptions, estimates and uncertainties. As a result, our projected revenues, market share, expenses and profitability may differ materially from our expectations.

We operate in a rapidly changing and competitive industry and our projections will be subject to the risks and assumptions made by management with respect to our industry. Operating results are difficult to forecast because they generally depend on a number of factors, including the competition we face and our ability to attract and retain bank partners. Additionally, our business may be affected by reductions in consumer borrowing, spending and investing from time to time as a result of a number of factors which may be difficult to predict. This may result in decreased revenue levels, and we may be unable to adopt measures in a timely manner to compensate for any unexpected shortfall in income. This inability could cause our operating results in a given quarter to be higher or lower than expected. These factors make creating accurate forecasts and budgets challenging and, as a result, we may fall materially short of our forecasts and expectations, which could cause our stock price to decline and investors to lose confidence in us.

Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property and Platform Development

It may be difficult and costly to protect our intellectual property rights, and we may not be able to ensure their protection.

Our ability to operate our platform depends, in part, upon our proprietary technology. We may be unable to protect our proprietary technology effectively, which would allow competitors to duplicate our AI models or AI-enabled underwriting platform and adversely affect our ability to compete with them. We rely on a combination of copyright, trade secret, trademark laws and other rights, as well as confidentiality procedures, contractual provisions and our information security infrastructure to protect our proprietary technology, processes and other intellectual property. We do not currently have patent protection on our intellectual property. The steps we take to protect our intellectual property rights may be inadequate. For example, a third party may attempt to reverse engineer or otherwise obtain and use our proprietary technology without our consent. The pursuit of a claim against a third party for infringement of our intellectual property could be costly, and there can be no guarantee that any such efforts would be successful. Our failure to secure, protect and enforce our intellectual property rights could adversely affect our brand and adversely impact our business.

 

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Our proprietary technology, including our AI models, may actually or may be alleged to infringe upon third-party intellectual property, and we may face intellectual property challenges from such other parties. We may not be successful in defending against any such challenges or in obtaining licenses to avoid or resolve any intellectual property disputes. If we are unsuccessful, such claim or litigation could result in a requirement that we pay significant damages or licensing fees, or we could in some circumstances be required to make changes to our business to avoid such infringement, which would negatively impact our financial performance. We may also be obligated to indemnify parties or pay substantial settlement costs, including royalty payments, in connection with any such claim or litigation and to modify applications or refund fees, which could be costly. Even if we were to prevail in such a dispute, any litigation regarding our intellectual property could be costly and time consuming and divert the attention of our management and key personnel from our business operations.

Moreover, it has become common in recent years for individuals and groups to purchase intellectual property assets for the sole purpose of making claims of infringement and attempting to extract settlements from companies such as ours. Even in instances where we believe that claims and allegations of intellectual property infringement against us are without merit, defending against such claims is time consuming and expensive and could result in the diversion of time and attention of our management and employees. In addition, although in some cases a third party may have agreed to indemnify us for such costs, such indemnifying party may refuse or be unable to uphold its contractual obligations. In other cases, our insurance may not cover potential claims of this type adequately or at all, and we may be required to pay monetary damages, which may be significant.

Furthermore, our technology may become obsolete or inadequate, and there is no guarantee that we will be able to successfully develop, obtain or use new technologies to adapt our models and systems to compete with other technologies as they develop. If we cannot protect our proprietary technology from intellectual property challenges, or if our technology becomes obsolete or inadequate, our ability to maintain our model and systems, facilitate loans or perform our servicing obligations on the loans could be adversely affected.

Any significant disruption in our platform could prevent us from processing loan applicants and servicing loans, reduce the effectiveness of our AI models and result in a loss of bank partners or borrowers.

In the event of a system outage or other event resulting in data loss or corruption, our ability to process loan applications, service loans or otherwise facilitate loans on our platform would be adversely affected. We also rely on facilities, components, and services supplied by third parties, including data center facilities and cloud storage services. We host our platform using Amazon Web Services, or AWS, a provider of cloud infrastructure services. In the event that our AWS service agreement is terminated, or there is a lapse of service, interruption of internet service provider connectivity or damage to AWS data centers, we could experience interruptions in access to our platform as well as delays and additional expense in the event we must secure alternative cloud infrastructure services. Any interference or disruption of our technology and underlying infrastructure or our use of third-party services could adversely affect our relationships with our bank partners and the overall user experience of our platform. Also, as our business grows, we may be required to expand and improve the capacity, capability and reliability of our infrastructure. If we are not able to effectively address capacity constraints, upgrade our systems as needed and continually develop our technology and infrastructure to reliably support our business, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.

Additionally, in the event of damage or interruption, our insurance policies may not adequately compensate us for any losses incurred. Our disaster recovery plan has not been tested under actual disaster conditions, and we may not have sufficient capacity to recover all data and services in the event of an outage or other event resulting in data loss or corruption. These factors could prevent us from processing or posting payments on the loans, damage our brand and reputation, divert our employees’ attention, subject us to liability and cause borrowers to abandon our business, any of which could adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Our platform and internal systems rely on software that is highly technical, and if our software contains undetected errors, our business could be adversely affected.

 

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Our platform and internal systems rely on software that is highly technical and complex. In addition, our platform and internal systems depend on the ability of such software to store, retrieve, process and manage high volumes of data. The software on which we rely has contained, and may now or in the future contain, undetected errors or bugs. Some errors may only be discovered after the code has been released for external or internal use. Errors or other design defects within the software on which we rely may result in failure to accurately predict a loan applicant’s creditworthiness, failure to comply with applicable laws and regulations, approval of sub-optimally priced loans, incorrectly displayed interest rates to applicants or borrowers, or incorrectly charged interest to borrowers or fees to bank partners or capital sources, failure to detect fraudulent activity on our platform, a negative experience for consumers or bank partners, delayed introductions of new features or enhancements, or failure to protect borrower data or our intellectual property. Any errors, bugs or defects discovered in the software on which we rely could result in harm to our reputation, loss of consumers or bank partners, increased regulatory scrutiny, fines or penalties, loss of revenue or liability for damages, any of which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Some aspects of our business processes include open source software, and any failure to comply with the terms of one or more of these open source licenses could negatively affect our business.

We incorporate open source software into processes supporting our business. Such open source software may include software covered by licenses like the GNU General Public License and the Apache License. The terms of various open source licenses have not been interpreted by U.S. courts, and there is a risk that such licenses could be construed in a manner that limits our use of the software, inhibits certain aspects of our systems and negatively affects our business operations.

Some open source licenses contain requirements that we make source code available at no cost for modifications or derivative works we create based upon the type of open source software we use.

We may face claims from third parties claiming ownership of, or demanding the release or license of, such modifications or derivative works (which could include our proprietary source code or AI models) or otherwise seeking to enforce the terms of the applicable open source license. If portions of our proprietary AI models are determined to be subject to an open source license, or if the license terms for the open source software that we incorporate change, we could be required to publicly release the affected portions of our source code, re-engineer all or a portion of our model or change our business activities, any of which could negatively affect our business operations and potentially our intellectual property rights. If we were required to publicly disclose any portion of our proprietary models, it is possible we could lose the benefit of trade secret protection for our models.

In addition to risks related to license requirements, the use of open source software can lead to greater risks than the use of third-party commercial software, as open source licensors generally do not provide warranties or controls on the origin of the software. Use of open source software may also present additional security risks because the public availability of such software may make it easier for hackers and other third parties to determine how to breach our website and systems that rely on open source software. Many of the risks associated with the use of open source software cannot be eliminated and could adversely affect our business.

Risks Related to Our Dependence on Third Parties

We rely on strategic relationships with loan aggregators to attract applicants to our platform, and if we cannot maintain effective relationships with loan aggregators or successfully replace their services, or if loan aggregators begin offering competing products, our business could be adversely affected.

 

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A significant number of consumers that apply for a loan on Opploans.com learn about and access Opploans.com through the website of a loan aggregator, typically with a hyperlink from such loan aggregator’s website to a landing page on our website. For example, in 2019 and 2020, approximately 16.5% and 13.5%, respectively, of our net loan issuances were derived from traffic from our top three loan aggregators. For the six months ended June 30, 2021, approximately 15.7% of our gross loan issuances were derived from traffic from our top three loan aggregators. Our agreements with these loan aggregators generally provide that either party may terminate the agreement immediately upon a material breach of any provision of the agreement or at any time, with or without cause, by providing advance written notice. Even during the term of the agreements, loan aggregators may not be required to display offers from lenders on Opploans.com or prohibited from working with our competitors or from offering competing services. For example, one of our loan aggregators, Credit Karma, recently began directing more customer traffic to a program that hosts and aggregates the credit models of other loan providers directly on its platform for the purpose of giving credit offers. To date, we have opted not to participate in this program. In November 2020, we experienced a reduction in the number of loan applicants directed to our platform by Credit Karma and a corresponding decrease in the number of loans originated on our platform, and we may experience additional reductions in traffic from Credit Karma in the future. If traffic from our top loan aggregators continues to decrease in the future as a result of this program or for other reasons, our loan originations and results of operations would be adversely affected. There is also no assurance that our top loan aggregators will continue to contract with us on commercially reasonable terms or at all.

While we are planning to move towards more direct acquisition channels, we anticipate that we will continue to depend in significant part on relationships with loan aggregators to maintain and grow our business. Our current agreements with these loan aggregators do not require them to display offers from lenders on Opploans.com nor prohibit them from working with our competitors or from offering competing services. Further, there is no assurance that a loan aggregator will renew its contract with us on commercially reasonable terms or at all. Our competitors may be effective in providing incentives to loan aggregators to favor their products or services or in reducing the volume of loans facilitated through our platform. Loan aggregators may not perform as expected under our agreements with them, and we may have disagreements or disputes with them, which could adversely affect our brand and reputation. If we cannot successfully enter into and maintain effective strategic relationships with loan aggregators, our business could be adversely affected.

In addition, the limited information such loan aggregators collect from applicants does not always allow us to offer rates to applicants that we would otherwise be able to through direct applicant traffic to Opploans.com. Typically, the rates offered to borrowers who come to Opploans.com directly are lower and more competitive than those rates offered through aggregators. In the event we do not successfully optimize direct traffic, our ability to attract borrowers would be adversely affected.

Such loan aggregators also face litigation and regulatory scrutiny for their part in the consumer lending ecosystem, and as a result, their business models may require fundamental change or may not be sustainable in the future. For example, loan aggregators are increasingly required to be licensed as loan brokers or lead generators in many states, subjecting them to increased regulatory supervision and more stringent business requirements. While we require loan aggregators to make certain disclosures in connection with our bank partners’ offers and restrict how loan aggregators may display such loan offers, loan aggregators may nevertheless alter or even remove these required disclosures without notifying us, which may result in liability to us. Further, we do not have control over any content on loan aggregator websites, and it is possible that our brand and reputation may be adversely affected by being associated with such content. An unsatisfied borrower could also seek to bring claims against us based on the content presented on a loan aggregator’s website. Such claims could be costly and time consuming to defend and could distract management’s attention from the operation of the business.

Our proprietary AI models rely in part on the use of loan applicant and borrower data and other third-party data, and if we lose the ability to use such data, or if such data contain inaccuracies, our business could be adversely affected.

We rely on our proprietary AI models, which are statistical models built using a variety of data-sets. Our AI models rely on a wide variety of data sources, including data collected from applicants and borrowers, credit bureau data and our credit experience gained through monitoring the payment performance of borrowers over time. Under our agreements with our bank partners, we receive licenses to use data collected from loan applicants and borrowers. If we are unable to access and use data collected from applicants and borrowers, data received from credit bureaus, repayment data collected as part of our loan servicing activities, or other third-party data used in our AI models, or our access to such data is limited, our ability to accurately evaluate potential borrowers, detect fraud and verify applicant data would be compromised. Any of the foregoing could negatively impact the accuracy of our pricing decisions, the degree of automation in our loan application process and the volume of loans facilitated on our platform.

 

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Third-party data sources on which we rely include the consumer reporting agencies regulated by the CFPB and other alternative data sources. Such data is electronically obtained from third parties and used in our AI models to price applicants and in our fraud model to verify the accuracy of applicant-reported information. Data from national credit bureaus and other consumer reporting agencies and other information that we receive from third parties about an applicant or borrower may be inaccurate or may not accurately reflect the applicant or borrower’s creditworthiness for a variety of reasons, including inaccurate reporting by creditors to the credit bureaus, errors, staleness or incompleteness. For example, loan applicants’ credit scores may not reflect such applicants’ actual creditworthiness because the credit scores may be based on outdated, incomplete, or inaccurate consumer reporting data, including, as a consequence of us utilizing credit reports for a specific period of time after issuance before such reports are deemed to be outdated. Similarly, the data taken from an applicant’s credit report may also be based on outdated, incomplete or inaccurate consumer reporting data. Although we use numerous third-party data sources and multiple credit factors within our proprietary models, which helps mitigate this risk, it does not eliminate the risk of an inaccurate individual report.

Further, although we attempt to verify the income, employment and education information provided by certain selected applicants, we cannot guarantee the accuracy of applicant information. Our fraud model relies in part on data we receive from a number of third-party verification vendors, data collected from applicants, and our experience gained through monitoring the performance of borrowers over time. Information provided by borrowers may be incomplete, inaccurate or intentionally false. Applicants may also misrepresent their intentions for the use of loan proceeds. We do not verify or confirm any statements by applicants as to how loan proceeds are to be used after loan funding. If an applicant supplied false, misleading or inaccurate information and our fraud detection processes do not flag the application, repayments on the corresponding loan may be lower, in some cases significantly lower, than expected, leading to losses for the bank partner or investor.

In addition, if third party data used to train and improve our AI models is inaccurate, or access to such third-party data is limited or becomes unavailable to us, our ability to continue to improve our AI models would be adversely affected. Any of the foregoing could result in sub-optimally and inefficiently priced loans, incorrect approvals or denials of loans, or higher than expected loan losses, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We rely on third-party vendors and if such third parties do not perform adequately or terminate their relationships with us, our costs may increase and our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.

Our success depends in part on our relationships with third-party vendors. In some cases, third-party vendors are one of a limited number of sources. For example, we rely on national consumer reporting agencies, such as Clarity Services, Inc., a part of Experian, for a large portion of the data used in our AI models. In addition, we rely on third-party verification technologies and services that are critical to our ability to maintain a high level of automation on our platform. In addition, because we are not a bank, we cannot belong to or directly access the Automated Clearing House (“ACH”) payment network. As a result, we rely on one or more banks with access to the ACH payment network to process collections on loans facilitated on our platform. See the section titled “Risk FactorsRegulators and payment processors are scrutinizing certain online lenders’ access to the ACH system to disburse and collect loan proceeds and repayments, and any interruption or limitation on our ability to access this critical system would materially adversely affect our business.” Most of our vendor agreements are terminable by either party without penalty and with little notice. If any of our third-party vendors terminates its relationship with us or refuses to renew its agreement with us on commercially reasonable terms, we would need to find an alternate provider, and may not be able to secure similar terms or replace such providers in an acceptable timeframe. We also rely on other software and services supplied by vendors, such as communications, analytics and internal software, and our business may be adversely affected to the extent such software and services do not meet our expectations, contain errors or vulnerabilities, are compromised or experience outages. Any of these risks could increase our costs and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. Further, any negative publicity related to any of our third-party partners, including any publicity related to quality standards or safety concerns, could adversely affect our reputation and brand, and could potentially lead to increased regulatory or litigation exposure.

 

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We incorporate technology from third parties into our platform. We cannot be certain that our licensors are not infringing the intellectual property rights of others or that the suppliers and licensors have sufficient rights to the technology in all jurisdictions in which we may operate. Some of our license agreements may be terminated by our licensors for convenience. If we are unable to obtain or maintain rights to any of this technology because of intellectual property infringement claims brought by third parties against our suppliers and licensors or against us, or if we are unable to continue to obtain the technology or enter into new agreements on commercially reasonable terms, our ability to develop our platform containing that technology could be severely limited and our business could be harmed. Additionally, if we are unable to obtain necessary technology from third parties, we may be forced to acquire or develop alternate technology, which may require significant time and effort and may be of lower quality or performance standards. This would limit and delay our ability to provide new or competitive loan products or service offerings and increase our costs. If alternate technology cannot be obtained or developed, we may not be able to offer certain functionality as part of our platform and service offerings, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Failure by our third-party vendors or our failure to comply with legal or regulatory requirements or other contractual requirements could have an adverse effect on our business.

We have significant vendors that provide us with a number of services to support our platform. If any third-party vendors fail to comply with applicable laws and regulations or comply with their contractual requirements, including failure to maintain adequate systems addressing privacy and data protection and security, we could be subject to regulatory enforcement actions and suffer economic and reputational harm that could harm our business. Further, we may incur significant costs to resolve any such disruptions in service or failure to provide contracted services, which could adversely affect our business.

The CFPB and each of the prudential bank regulators that supervise our bank partners have issued guidance stating that institutions under their supervision may be held responsible for the actions of the companies with which they contract. As a service provider to those supervised entities, we must ensure we have implemented an adequate vendor management program. We or our bank partners could be adversely impacted to the extent we or our vendors fail to comply with the legal requirements applicable to the particular products or services being offered. Our use of third-party vendors is subject to increasing regulatory attention.

The CFPB and other regulators have also issued regulatory guidance that has focused on the need for financial institutions to perform increased due diligence and ongoing monitoring of third-party vendor relationships, thus increasing the scope of management involvement in connection with using third-party vendors. Moreover, if regulators conclude that we or our bank partners have not met the heightened standards for oversight of our third-party vendors, our bank partners could terminate their relationship with us or we or our bank partners could be subject to enforcement actions, civil monetary penalties, supervisory orders to cease and desist or other remedial actions, which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

If loans originated by us or loans originated by our bank partners were found to violate the laws of one or more states, whether at origination or after sale of participations rights by the originating bank partner, loans facilitated through our platform may be unenforceable or otherwise impaired, we or other program participants may be subject to, among other things, fines, judgments and penalties, and/or our commercial relationships may suffer, each of which would adversely affect our business and results of operations.

When establishing the interest rates and structures (and the amounts and structures of certain fees constituting interest under federal banking law, such as origination fees, late fees and non-sufficient funds fees) that are charged to borrowers on loans originated on our platform, our bank partners rely on certain authority under federal law to export the interest rate requirements of the state where each bank partner is located to borrowers in other states. Further, certain of our bank partners and capital sources rely on the ability of subsequent holders to continue charging such rate and fee structures and enforce other contractual terms agreed to by our bank partners that are permissible under federal and applicable state banking laws following the acquisition of the loans. The current annual percentage rates of the loans facilitated through our platform typically range from approximately 30% to 160%. In some states, the interest rates of certain loans facilitated on our platform exceed the maximum interest rate permitted for consumer loans made by non-bank lenders to borrowers residing in, or that have nexus to, such states. In addition, the rate structures for loans facilitated on our platform may not be permissible in all states for non-bank lenders and/or the amount or structures of certain fees charged in connection with loans facilitated on our platform may not be permissible in all states for non-bank lenders.

 

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Usury, fee, and disclosure related claims involving loans facilitated on our platform may be raised in multiple ways. Program participants may face litigation, government enforcement or other challenge, for example, based on claims that bank lenders did not establish loan terms that were permissible in the state they were located or did not correctly identify the home or host state in which they were located for purposes of interest exportation authority under federal law. Alternatively, we or our capital sources may face litigation, government enforcement, or other challenge, for example, based on claims that rates and fees were lawful at origination and through any period during which the originating bank partner retained the loan and interests therein, but that subsequent purchasers were unable to enforce the loan pursuant to its contracted-for terms, or that certain disclosures were not provided at origination because while such disclosures are not required of banks they may be required of non-bank lenders.

In Madden v. Midland Funding, LLC, 786 F.3d 246 (2d Cir. 2015), cert. denied, 136 S.Ct. 2505 (June 27, 2016), for example, the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit held that the non-bank purchaser of defaulted credit card debt could not rely on preemption standards under the National Bank Act applicable to the originator of such debt in defense of usury claims. Madden addressed circumstances under which a defaulted extension of credit under a consumer credit card account was assigned, following default, to a non-bank debt buyer that then attempted to collect the loan and to continue charging interest at the contracted-for rate. The debtor filed a suit claiming, among other claims, that the rate charged by the non-bank collection entity exceeded the usury rates allowable for such entities under New York usury law. Reversing a lower court decision, the Second Circuit held that preemption standards under the National Bank Act applicable to the bank that issued the credit card were not available to the non-bank debt buyer as a defense to usury claims. Following denial of a petition for rehearing by the Second Circuit, the defendant sought review by the United States Supreme Court. Following the United States Supreme Court’s request that the Solicitor General file a brief setting forth the government’s position on whether the Supreme Court should hear the case in 2016, the Solicitor General filed its brief recommending that the petition for a writ of certiorari be denied for certain vehicle suitability reasons, although the Solicitor General’s brief concluded that the Second Circuit’s decision was substantively incorrect as a matter of law. The Supreme Court denied certiorari on June 27, 2016, such that the Second Circuit’s decision remains binding on federal courts in the Second Circuit (which include all federal courts in New York, Connecticut, and Vermont). Upon remand to the District Court for consideration of additional issues, including whether a choice of law provision in the debtor’s credit card agreement was enforceable to displace New York usury law and class certification, the parties settled the matter in 2019.

The scope and validity of the Second Circuit’s Madden decision remain subject to challenge and clarification. For example, the Colorado Administrator of the Colorado Uniform Consumer Credit Code, or the UCCC, reached a settlement with respect to complaints against two online lending platforms whose business includes the use of bank partners and sale of loans to investors. The complaints included, among other claims, allegations, grounded in the Second Circuit’s Madden decision, that the rates and fees for certain loans could not be enforced lawfully by non-bank purchasers of bank-originated loans. Under the settlement, these banks and nonbank partners committed to, among other things, limit the annual percentage rates, or APR, on loans to Colorado consumers to 36% and take other actions to ensure that the banks were in fact the true lenders. The nonbanks also agreed to obtain and maintain a Colorado lending license. In Colorado, this settlement should provide a helpful model for what constitutes an acceptable bank partnership model. However, the settlement may also invite other states to initiate their own actions, and set their own regulatory standards through enforcement.

 

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As noted above, federal prudential regulators have also taken actions to address the Madden decision. On May 29, 2020, the OCC issued a final rule clarifying that, when a national bank or savings association sells, assigns, or otherwise transfers a loan, interest permissible before the transfer continues to be permissible after the transfer. That rule took effect on August 3, 2020. As discussed further below, the OCC also has issued a rule pertaining to the “true lender” issue. Similarly, the FDIC finalized on June 25, 2020 its 2019 proposal declaring that the interest rate for a loan is determined when the loan is made, and will not be affected by subsequent events. On July 29, 2020, California, New York and Illinois filed suit in the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California to enjoin enforcement of the OCC rule (Case No. 20-CV-5200) and, similarly in the same court, on August 20, 2020 California, Illinois, Massachusetts, Minnesota, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, and the District of Columbia sought to enjoin enforcement of the FDIC rule (Case No. 20-CV-5860), in each case related to permissible interest rates post-loan transfer on the grounds that the OCC and FDIC exceeded their authority when promulgating those rules.

There are factual distinctions between our program and the circumstances addressed in the Second Circuit’s Madden decision, as well as the circumstances in the Colorado UCCC settlement and similar cases. As noted above, there are also bases on which the Madden decision’s validity might be subject to challenge or the Madden decision may be addressed by federal regulation or legislation. Nevertheless, there can be no guarantee that a Madden-like claim will not be brought successfully against us or our program participants.

If a borrower or any state agency were to successfully bring a claim against us, our bank partners or our capital sources for a state usury law or fee restriction violation and the rate or fee at issue on the loan was impermissible under applicable state law, we, our bank partners or our capital sources may face various commercial and legal repercussions, including that such parties would not receive the total amount of interest expected, and in some cases, may not receive any interest or principal, may hold loans that are void, voidable, rescindable, or otherwise impaired or may be subject to monetary, injunctive or criminal penalties. Were such repercussions to apply to us, we may suffer direct monetary loss or may be a less attractive candidate for bank partners or capital sources to enter into or renew relationships; and were such repercussions to apply to our bank partners, such parties could be discouraged from using our platform. We may also be subject to payment of damages in situations where we agreed to provide indemnification, as well as fines and penalties assessed by state and federal regulatory agencies. Litigation or enforcement decisions might also affect our decision to continue operating in any particular state.

If loans facilitated through our platform for one or more bank partners were subject to successful challenge that the bank partner was not the “true lender,” such loans may be unenforceable, subject to rescission or otherwise impaired, we or other program participants may be subject to fines, judgments and penalties, and/or our commercial relationships may suffer, each of which would adversely affect our business and results of operations.

Loans facilitated on our platform by our bank partners are originated in reliance on the fact that our bank partners are the “true lenders” for such loans. That true lender status determines various loan program details, including that we do not hold licenses required solely for being the party that extends credit to consumers, and that loans facilitated on our platform by our bank partners may involve interest rates and structures (and certain fees and fees structures) permissible at origination only because the loan terms and lending practices are permissible only when the lender is a bank, and/or the disclosures provided to borrowers would be accurate and compliant only if the lender is a bank. Many state consumer financial regulatory requirements, including usury restrictions (other than the restrictions of the state in which a bank partner originating a particular loan is located) and many licensing requirements and substantive requirements under state consumer credit laws, are treated as inapplicable loans facilitated on our platform by our bank partners based on principles of federal preemption or express exemptions provided in relevant state laws for certain types of financial institutions or loans they originate.

 

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Certain recent litigation and regulatory enforcement has challenged, or is currently challenging, the characterization of bank partners as the “true lender” in connection with programs involving origination and/or servicing relationships between a bank partner and non-bank lending platform or program manager. As noted above, the Colorado Administrator has entered into a settlement agreement with certain banks and nonbanks that addresses this true lender issue. Specifically, the settlement agreement sets forth a safe harbor indicating that a bank is the true lender if certain specific terms and conditions are met. However, other states and consumers could also bring lawsuits based on these types of relationships. For example, on April 5, 2021, the Washington, DC Attorney General filed a lawsuit against us for allegedly deceptively marketing high-cost loans with interest rates above the Washington, DC usury cap. The usury claim is based on an allegation that we, who are not licensed in Washington, DC because a license is not required to service bank loans in the district, and not our partner bank, FinWise, originated these loans, and we are therefore in violation of the district’s usury laws. While we deny such allegations and intend to vigorously defend the matter, FinWise has ceased originating loans in Washington D.C. and as a result, we have ceased doing business in Washington, DC with FinWise and there can be no assurance as to the ultimate disposition of the action. Moreover, regardless of the merits of the claim, litigation is often expensive, time-consuming, disruptive to our operations, distracting to management and may involve payment of damages. The Washington, DC Attorney General previously filed a similar lawsuit on June 5, 2020 against online lender Elevate for allegedly deceptively marketing high-cost loans with interest rates above the Washington, DC usury cap. We have also been the subject of state attorneys general inquires of a similar nature in other states, including Montana and Washington state, as well as the California Department of Business Oversight, and the subject of litigation filed on behalf of putative classes of customers in California and Washington.

We note that the OCC on October 27, 2020, issued a final rule to address the “true lender” issue for lending transactions involving a national bank. For certain purposes related to federal banking law, including the ability of a national bank to “export” interest-related requirements from the state from which they lend, the rule would treat a national bank as the “true lender” if it is named as the lender in the loan agreement or funds the loan. In June 2021, Congress utilized a procedure under the Congressional Review Act to repeal the OCC’s “true lender” rule. Repeal of the “true lender” rule under the CRA prevents the OCC from issuing any substantially similar rule unless subsequently authorized by law to do so. The OCC rule did not apply to state-chartered banks and there can be no assurance that the FDIC will issue a similar rule applicable to state-chartered banks. While we do not anticipate any material changes to our business model as a result of the repeal of the OCC’s “true lender” rule because (i) the banks with whom we partner are state chartered, FDIC regulated banks and are the lenders under such loans, and (ii) the repeal of the OCC’s “true lender” rule does not have direct implications on the rules finalized by the OCC and FDIC last year around the continued validity of the “valid when made doctrine,” we cannot be certain that the repeal of such rule, or the restrictions on the OCC implementing a similar rule without statutory approval, will not have a material affect on our business or our industry.

We, our bank partners and similarly situated parties could become subject to challenges like that presented by the Colorado settlement and, if so, we could face penalties and/or loans facilitated on our platform by our bank partners may be void, voidable, or otherwise impaired in a manner that may have adverse effects on our operations (directly, or as a result of adverse impact on our relationships with our bank partners, institutional investors or other commercial counterparties). However, we are also taking steps to confirm that our business model conforms with the requirements of the Colorado safe harbor.

There can be no assurance that the Colorado Administrator or other regulators or customers will not make assertions similar to those made in its present actions with respect to the loans facilitated by our platform in the future. It is also possible that other state agencies or regulators could make similar assertions. If a court or a state or federal enforcement agency were to determine that we, rather than our bank partners, are the “true lender” for loans originated on our platform by our bank partners, and if for this reason (or any other reason) the loans were deemed subject to and in violation of certain state consumer finance laws, we could be subject to fines, damages, injunctive relief (including required modification or discontinuation of our business in certain areas) and other penalties or consequences, and the loans could be rendered void or unenforceable in whole or in part, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business.

Regulators and payment processors are scrutinizing certain online lenders’ access to the ACH system to disburse and collect loan proceeds and repayments, and any interruption or limitation on our ability to access this critical system would materially adversely affect our business.

When making loans, we typically use the ACH system to deposit loan proceeds into borrowers’ bank accounts. This includes loans originated by our bank partners. These loans also depend on the ACH system to collect amounts due by withdrawing funds from borrowers’ bank accounts when the borrower has provided authorization to do so. ACH transactions are processed by banks, and if these banks cease to provide ACH processing services or are not allowed to do so, we would have to materially alter, or possibly discontinue, some or all of our business if alternative ACH processors or other payment mechanisms are not available.

 

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In the past, heightened regulatory scrutiny by the U.S. Department of Justice, the FDIC and other regulators has caused some banks and ACH payment processors to cease doing business with consumer lenders who are operating legally, without regard to whether those lenders are complying with applicable laws, simply to avoid the risk of heightened scrutiny or even litigation. These actions have reduced the number of banks and payment processors who provide ACH payment processing services and could conceivably make it increasingly difficult to find bank partners and payment processors in the future and/or lead to significantly increased costs for these services. If we are unable to maintain access to needed services on favorable terms, we would have to materially alter, or possibly discontinue, some or all of our business if alternative processors are not available.

If we lost access to the ACH system because our payment processor was unable or unwilling to access the ACH system on our behalf, we would experience a significant reduction in borrower loan payments. Although we would notify borrowers that they would need to make their loan payments via physical check, debit card or other method of payment a large number of borrowers would likely go into default because they are expecting automated payment processing. Similarly, if regulatory changes limited our access to the ACH system or reduced the number of times ACH transactions could be re-presented, we would experience higher losses.

Risks Related to Our Regulatory Environment

Litigation, regulatory actions and compliance issues could subject us to significant fines, penalties, judgments, remediation costs and/or requirements resulting in increased expenses.

In the ordinary course of business, we have been named as a defendant in various legal actions, including class action lawsuits and other litigation. Generally, this litigation arises from the dissatisfaction of a consumer with the products or services offered on our platform. All such legal actions are inherently unpredictable and, regardless of the merits of the claims, litigation is often expensive, time-consuming, disruptive to our operations, and distracting to management. In addition, certain actions may include claims for indeterminate amounts of damages. Our involvement in any such matter also could cause significant harm to our or our bank partners’ reputations and divert management attention from the operation of our business, even if the matters are ultimately determined in our favor. If resolved against us, legal actions could result in significant verdicts and judgments, injunctive relief, equitable relief, and other adverse consequences that may affect our financial condition and how we operate our business, including our decision to continue operating in certain states.

In addition, a number of participants in the consumer financial services industry, ourselves included, have been the subject of putative class action lawsuits, state attorney general actions and other state regulatory actions and federal regulatory enforcement actions, including actions relating to alleged unfair, deceptive or abusive acts or practices, violations of state licensing and lending laws, including state usury and disclosure laws and allegations of noncompliance with various state and federal laws and regulations relating to originating, servicing and collecting consumer finance loans and other consumer financial services and products. The current regulatory environment increased regulatory compliance efforts and enhanced regulatory enforcement have resulted in us undertaking significant time-consuming and expensive operational and compliance improvement efforts, which may delay or preclude our or our bank partners’ ability to provide certain new products and services. There is no assurance that these regulatory matters or other factors will not, in the future, affect how we conduct our business and, in turn, have a material adverse effect on our business. In particular, legal proceedings brought under state consumer protection statutes or under several of the various federal consumer financial protection statutes may result in a separate fine assessed for each statutory and regulatory violation or substantial damages from class action lawsuits, potentially in excess of the amounts we earned from the underlying activities.

Some of our agreements used in the course of our business include arbitration clauses. If our arbitration agreements were to become unenforceable for any reason, we could experience an increase to our consumer litigation costs and exposure to potentially damaging class action lawsuits, with a potential material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.

We contest our liability and the amount of damages, as appropriate, in each pending matter. The outcome of pending and future matters could be material to our results of operations, financial condition and cash flows, and could materially adversely affect our business.

 

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In addition, from time to time, through our operational and compliance controls, we identify compliance issues that require us to make operational changes and, depending on the nature of the issue, result in financial remediation to impacted borrowers. These self-identified issues and voluntary remediation payments could be significant, depending on the issue and the number of borrowers impacted, and could generate litigation or regulatory investigations that subject us to additional risk.

We are subject to or facilitate compliance with a variety of federal, state, and local laws, including those related to consumer protection and loan financings, and if we fail to comply with such laws, our business could be adversely affected.

We must comply with regulatory regimes or facilitate compliance with regulatory regimes on behalf of our bank partners that are independently subject to federal and/or state oversight by bank regulators, including those applicable to our referral and marketing services, consumer credit transactions, loan servicing and collection activities and the purchase and sale of whole loans and other related transactions. Certain state laws generally regulate interest rates and other charges and require certain disclosures. In addition, other federal and state laws may apply to the origination, servicing and collection of loans originated on our platform or the purchase and sale of whole loans or participation rights. In particular, certain laws, regulations and rules we or our bank partners are subject to include:

 

   

state lending laws and regulations that require certain parties to hold licenses or other government approvals or filings in connection with specified activities, and impose requirements related to loan disclosures and terms, fees and interest rates, credit discrimination, credit reporting, servicemember relief, debt collection, repossession, unfair or deceptive business practices and consumer protection, as well as other state laws relating to privacy, information security, conduct in connection with data breaches and money transmission;

 

   

the Truth-in-Lending Act and Regulation Z promulgated thereunder, and similar state laws, which require certain disclosures to borrowers regarding the terms and conditions of their loans and credit

 

   

transactions, require creditors to comply with certain lending practice restrictions, limit the ability of a creditor to impose certain loan terms and impose disclosure requirements in connection with credit card origination;

 

   

the Equal Credit Opportunity Act and Regulation B promulgated thereunder, and similar state fair lending laws, which prohibit creditors from discouraging or discriminating against credit applicants on the basis of race, color, sex, age, religion, national origin, marital status, the fact that all or part of the applicant’s income derives from any public assistance program or the fact that the applicant has in good faith exercised any right under the federal Consumer Credit Protection Act;

 

   

the Fair Credit Reporting Act and Regulation V promulgated thereunder, imposes certain obligations on users of consumer reports and those that furnish information to consumer reporting agencies, including obligations relating to obtaining consumer reports, using consumer reports, taking adverse action on the basis of information from consumer reports, addressing risks of identity theft and fraud and protecting the privacy and security of consumer reports and consumer report information;

 

   

Section 5 of the Federal Trade Commission Act, which prohibits unfair and deceptive acts or practices in or affecting commerce, and Section 1031 of the Dodd-Frank Act, which prohibits unfair, deceptive or abusive acts or practices in connection with any consumer financial product or service, and analogous state laws prohibiting unfair, deceptive or abusive acts or practices;

 

   

the Credit Practices Rule which prohibits lenders from using certain contract provisions that the Federal Trade Commission has found to be unfair to consumers, requires lenders to advise consumers who co-sign obligations about their potential liability if the primary obligor fails to pay and prohibits certain late charges;

 

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the Fair Debt Collection Practices Act and similar state debt collection laws, which provide guidelines and limitations on the conduct of third-party debt collectors (and some limitation on creditors collecting their own debts) in connection with the collection of consumer debts;

 

   

the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act and Regulation P promulgated thereunder, which includes limitations on financial institutions’ disclosure of nonpublic personal information about a consumer to nonaffiliated third parties, in certain circumstances requires financial institutions to limit the use and further disclosure of nonpublic personal information by nonaffiliated third parties to whom they disclose such information and requires financial institutions to disclose certain privacy notices and practices with respect to information sharing with affiliated and unaffiliated entities as well as to safeguard personal borrower information, and other privacy laws and regulations;

 

   

the Bankruptcy Code, which limits the extent to which creditors may seek to enforce debts against parties who have filed for bankruptcy protection;

 

   

the Servicemembers Civil Relief Act, which allows military members to suspend or postpone certain civil obligations, requires creditors to reduce the interest rate to 6% on loans to military members under certain circumstances, and imposes restrictions on enforcement of loans to servicemembers, so that the military member can devote his or her full attention to military duties;

 

   

the Military Lending Act, which requires those who lend to “covered borrowers”, including members of the military and their dependents, to only offer Military APRs (a specific measure of all-in-cost-of-credit) under 36%, prohibits arbitration clauses in loan agreements, and prohibits certain other loan agreement terms and lending practices in connection with loans to military servicemembers, among other requirements, and for which violations may result in penalties including voiding of the loan agreement;

 

   

the Electronic Fund Transfer Act and Regulation E promulgated thereunder, which provide guidelines and restrictions on the electronic transfer of funds from consumers’ bank accounts, including a prohibition on a creditor requiring a consumer to repay a credit agreement in preauthorized (recurring)

 

   

electronic fund transfers and disclosure and authorization requirements in connection with such transfers;

 

   

the Telephone Consumer Protection Act and the regulations promulgated thereunder, which impose various consumer consent requirements and other restrictions in connection with telemarketing activity and other communication with consumers by phone, fax or text message, and which provide guidelines designed to safeguard consumer privacy in connection with such communications;

 

   

the federal Controlling the Assault of Non-Solicited Pornography and Marketing Act of 2003 and the Telemarketing Sales Rule and analogous state laws, which impose various restrictions on marketing conducted use of email, telephone, fax or text message;

 

   

the Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act and similar state laws, particularly the Uniform Electronic Transactions Act, which authorize the creation of legally binding and enforceable agreements utilizing electronic records and signatures and which require creditors and loan servicers to obtain a consumer’s consent to electronically receive disclosures required under federal and state laws and regulations;

 

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the Right to Financial Privacy Act and similar state laws enacted to provide the financial records of financial institution customers a reasonable amount of privacy from government scrutiny;

 

   

the Bank Secrecy Act and the USA PATRIOT Act, which relate to compliance with anti-money laundering, borrower due diligence, transaction monitoring and reporting and record-keeping policies and procedures;

 

   

the Executive Orders and regulations promulgated by the Office of Foreign Assets Control under the U.S. Treasury Department related to the administration and enforcement of sanctions against foreign jurisdictions and persons that threaten U.S. foreign policy and national security goals, primarily to prevent targeted jurisdictions and persons from accessing the U.S. financial system;

 

   

federal and state securities laws, including, among others, the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, the Exchange Act, the Investment Advisers Act of 1940, as amended, or the Investment Advisers Act of 1940 (referred to as the IAA) and the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended, or the Investment Company Act, rules and regulations adopted under those laws, and similar state laws and regulations, which govern how we offer, sell and transact in our loan financing products; and

 

   

other state-specific and local laws and regulations.

We may not always have been, and may not always be, in compliance with these and other applicable laws, regulations and rules. Compliance with these requirements is also costly, time-consuming and limits our operational flexibility. Additionally, Congress, the states and regulatory agencies, as well as local municipalities, could further regulate the consumer financial services industry in ways that make it more difficult or costly for us to offer our platform and related services or facilitate the origination of loans for our bank partners. These laws also are often subject to changes that could severely limit the operations of our business model. For example, in 2019, a bill was introduced in the U.S. Senate that would create a national cap of the lesser of 15% APR or the maximum rate permitted by the state in which the consumer resides, and in 2021, the Illinois legislature passed a law setting an interest rate cap of 36% on most consumer loans. Although the proposed national rate cap may never be enacted into law, if such a bill were to be enacted, it would greatly restrict the number of loans that could be funded through our platform. Further, changes in the regulatory application or judicial interpretation of the laws and regulations applicable to financial institutions also could impact the manner in which we conduct our business. The regulatory environment in which financial institutions operate has become increasingly complex, and following the financial crisis that began in 2008 and the financial distress experienced by many consumer as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, supervisory efforts to apply relevant laws, regulations and policies have become more intense. Additionally, states are increasingly introducing and, in some cases, passing laws that restrict interest rates and APRs on loans similar to the loans made on our platform. For example, California has enacted legislation to create a “mini-CFPB,” which could increase its oversight over bank partnership relationships and strengthen state consumer protection authority of state regulators to police debt collections and unfair, deceptive or abusive acts and practices. Additionally, voter referendums have been introduced and, in some cases, passed restrictions on interest rates and/or APRs. If such legislation or bills were to be propagated, or state or federal regulators seek to restrict regulated financial institutions such as our bank partners from engaging in business us in certain ways, our bank partners’ ability to originate loans in certain states could be greatly reduced, and as a result, our business, financial condition and results of operations would be adversely affected.

Where applicable, we seek to comply with state broker, credit service organization, small loan, finance lender, servicing, collection, money transmitter and similar statutes. Nevertheless, if we are found to not comply with applicable laws, we could lose one or more of our licenses or authorizations, become subject to greater scrutiny by other state regulatory agencies, face other sanctions or be required to obtain a license in such jurisdiction, which may have an adverse effect on our ability to continue to facilitate loans, perform our servicing obligations or make our platform available to consumers in particular states, which may harm our business. Further, failure to comply with the laws and regulatory requirements applicable to our business and operations may, among other things, limit our ability to collect all or part of the principal of or interest on loans facilitated on our platform. In addition, non-compliance could subject us to damages, revocation of required licenses, class action lawsuits, administrative enforcement actions and civil and criminal liability, all of which would harm our business.

 

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Internet-based loan origination processes may give rise to greater risks than paper-based processes and may not always be allowed under state law.

We use the internet to obtain application information and distribute certain legally required notices to applicants and borrowers, and to obtain electronically signed loan documents in lieu of paper documents with actual borrower signatures. These processes may entail greater risks than would paper-based loan origination processes, including risks regarding the sufficiency of notice for compliance with consumer protection laws, risks that borrowers may challenge the authenticity of loan documents, and risks that despite internal controls, unauthorized changes are made to the electronic loan documents. In addition, our software could contain “bugs” that result in incorrect calculations or disclosures or other non-compliance with federal or state laws or regulations. If any of those factors were to cause any loans, or any of the terms of the loans, to be unenforceable against our borrowers, or impair our ability to service loans, the performance of the underlying promissory notes could be adversely affected.

If we are found to be operating without having obtained necessary state or local licenses, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.

Certain states have adopted laws regulating and requiring licensing by parties that engage in certain activities regarding consumer finance transactions, including facilitating and assisting such transactions in certain circumstances. Furthermore, certain states and localities have also adopted laws requiring licensing for consumer debt collection or servicing and/or purchasing or selling consumer loans. While we believe we have obtained all necessary licenses, the application of some consumer finance licensing laws to our platform and the related activities we perform is unclear. In addition, state licensing requirements may evolve over time, including, in particular, recent trends toward increased licensing requirements and regulation of parties engaged in loan solicitation activities. States also maintain licensing requirements pertaining to the transmission of money, and certain states may broadly interpret such licensing requirements to cover loan servicing and the transmission of funds to investors. If we were found to be in violation of applicable state licensing requirements by a court or a state, federal, or local enforcement agency, we could be subject to fines, damages, injunctive relief (including required modification or discontinuation of our business in certain areas), criminal penalties and other penalties or consequences, and the loans originated by our bank partners on our platform could be rendered void or unenforceable in whole or in part, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business.

The CFPB has sometimes taken expansive views of its authority to regulate consumer financial services, creating uncertainty as to how the agency’s actions or the actions of any other new agency could impact our business.

The CFPB, which commenced operations in July 2011, has broad authority to create and modify regulations under federal consumer financial protection laws and regulations, such as the Truth in Lending Act and Regulation Z, ECOA and Regulation B, the Fair Credit Reporting Act, the Electronic Funds Transfer Act and Regulation E, among other regulations, and to enforce compliance with those laws. The CFPB supervises banks, thrifts and credit unions with assets over $10 billion and examines certain of our bank partners. Further, the CFPB is charged with the examination and supervision of certain participants in the consumer financial services market, including short-term, small dollar lenders, and larger participants in other areas of financial services. The CFPB is also authorized to prevent “unfair, deceptive or abusive acts or practices” through its rulemaking, supervisory and enforcement authority. To assist in its enforcement, the CFPB maintains an online complaint system that allows consumers to log complaints with respect to various consumer finance products, including our loan products. This system could inform future CFPB decisions with respect to its regulatory, enforcement or examination focus. The CFPB may also request reports concerning our organization, business conduct, markets and activities and conduct on-site examinations of our business on a periodic basis if the CFPB were to determine or suspect, as a result of information provided through its complaint system, that we were engaging in activities that pose risks to consumers.

 

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Only one online lending platform has ever received a no-action letter from the CFPB with respect to ECOA compliance as it pertains to underwriting applicants for unsecured non-revolving credit, and there continues to be uncertainty about the future of the CFPB and as to how its strategies and priorities, including in both its examination and enforcement processes, will impact our business and our results of operations going forward. In addition, evolving views regarding the use of alternative variables and machine learning in assessing credit risk and/or stated focus of the new Administration and CFPB leadership on fair lending could result in the CFPB taking actions that result in requirements to alter or cease offering affected financial products and services, making them less attractive and restricting our ability to offer them. The CFPB could also implement rules that restrict our effectiveness in servicing our financial products and services.

Although we have committed resources to enhancing our compliance programs, any actions by the CFPB (or other regulators) against us, our bank partners or our competitors could discourage the use of our services or those of our bank partners, which could result in reputational harm, a loss of bank partners, borrowers or capital sources, or discourage the use of our or their services and adversely affect our business. If the CFPB changes regulations or modifies through supervision or enforcement past regulatory guidance or interprets existing regulations in a different or stricter manner than they have been interpreted in the past by us, the industry or other regulators, our compliance costs and litigation exposure could increase materially. This is particularly true with respect to the application of ECOA and Regulation B to credit risk models that rely upon alternative variables and machine learning, an area of law where regulatory guidance is currently uncertain and still evolving, and for which there are not well-established regulatory norms for establishing compliance. If future regulatory or legislative restrictions or prohibitions are imposed that affect our ability to offer certain of our products or that require us to make significant changes to our business practices, and if we are unable to develop compliant alternatives with acceptable returns, these restrictions or prohibitions could have a material adverse effect on our business. If the CFPB, or another regulator, were to issue a consent decree or other similar order against us or our competitors, this could also directly or indirectly affect our results of operations.

We have been in the past and may in the future be subject to federal and state regulatory inquiries regarding our business, which may cause significant harm to our reputation, lead to investigations and enforcement actions from regulatory agencies or litigants, and divert management attention and resources from the operation of our business.

We have, from time to time in the normal course of our business, received, and may in the future receive or be subject to, inquiries or investigations by state and federal regulatory agencies and bodies such as the CFPB, state attorneys general, state financial regulatory agencies and other state or federal agencies or bodies regarding our platform, including the marketing of loans for lenders, underwriting and pricing of consumer loans for our bank partners, our fair lending compliance program and licensing and registration requirements. We have addressed these inquiries directly and engaged in open dialogue with regulators. For example, the CFPB has issued a civil investigative demand, or CID, to us, as a result of a consumer complaint, the stated purpose of which was to determine whether our lending practices violated any consumer financial laws with respect to the Military Lending Act. We have responded to the CFPB to refute the number of affected consumers, and on August 25, 2021 we received notification from the staff of the CFPB that the CFPB had completed its investigation and does not intend to recommend that the CFPB take enforcement action against us.

We have also received inquiries from state regulatory agencies regarding requirements to obtain licenses from or register with those states, including in states where we have determined that we are not required to obtain such a license or be registered with the state, and we expect to continue to receive such inquiries. Any such inquiries or investigations could involve substantial time and expense to analyze and respond to, could divert management’s attention and other resources from running our business, and could lead to public enforcement actions or lawsuits and fines, penalties, injunctive relief, and the need to obtain additional licenses that we do not currently possess. Our involvement in any such matters, whether tangential or otherwise and even if the matters are ultimately determined in our favor, could also cause significant harm to our reputation, lead to additional investigations and enforcement actions from other agencies or litigants, and further divert management attention and resources from the operation of our business. As a result, the outcome of legal and regulatory actions arising out of any state or federal inquiries we receive could be material to our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.

 

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The collection, processing, storage, use and disclosure of personal data could give rise to liabilities as a result of existing or new governmental regulation, conflicting legal requirements or differing views of personal privacy rights.

We receive, transmit and store a large volume of personally identifiable information and other sensitive data from applicants and borrowers. There are federal, state and foreign laws regarding privacy and the storing, sharing, use, disclosure and protection of personally identifiable information and sensitive data. Specifically, cybersecurity and data privacy issues, particularly with respect to personally identifiable information are increasingly subject to legislation and regulations to protect the privacy and security of personal information that is collected, processed and transmitted. For example, the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act includes limitations on financial institutions’ disclosure of nonpublic personal information about a consumer to nonaffiliated third parties, in certain circumstances requires financial institutions to limit the use and further disclosure of nonpublic personal information by nonaffiliated third parties to whom they disclose such information and requires financial institutions to disclose certain privacy notices and practices with respect to information sharing with affiliated and unaffiliated entities as well as to safeguard personal borrower information. In addition, the California Consumer Privacy Act, or the CCPA, which went into effect on January 1, 2020, requires, among other things, that covered companies provide disclosures to California consumers and afford such consumers new abilities to opt-out of certain sales or retention of their personal information by us. The CCPA has been amended on multiple occasions and the California attorney general approved final regulations on August 14, 2020. Although the regulations will bring some clarity regarding compliance with the CCPA, aspects of the CCPA and its interpretation remain unclear. We cannot fully predict the impact of the CCPA on our business or operations, but it may require us to further modify our data infrastructure and data processing practices and policies and to incur additional costs and expenses in an effort to continue to comply. In addition, California voters approved Proposition 24 in the November 2020 election to create the California Privacy Rights Act, which amends and purports to strengthen the CCPA and will create a state agency to enforce privacy laws. Additionally, other U.S. states are proposing and enacting laws and regulations that impose obligations similar to the CCPA or that otherwise involve significant obligations and restrictions. Compliance with current and future borrower privacy data protection and information security laws and regulations could result in higher compliance, technical or operating costs. Further, any actual or perceived violations of these laws and regulations may require us to change our business practices, data infrastructure or operational structure, address legal claims and regulatory investigations and proceedings and sustain monetary penalties and/or other harms to our business. We could also be adversely affected if new legislation or regulations are adopted or if existing legislation or regulations are modified such that we are required to alter our systems or change our business practices or privacy policies.

As the regulatory framework for artificial intelligence and machine learning technology evolves, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected.

The regulatory framework for artificial intelligence and machine learning technology is evolving and remains uncertain. It is possible that new laws and regulations will be adopted in the United States, or existing laws and regulations may be interpreted in new ways, that would affect the operation of our platform and the way in which we use artificial intelligence and machine learning technology, including with respect to fair lending laws. Further, the cost to comply with such laws or regulations could be significant and would increase our operating expenses, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

If we are required to register under the Investment Company Act, our ability to conduct business could be materially adversely affected.

The Investment Company Act contains substantive legal requirements that regulate the manner in which “investment companies” are permitted to conduct their business activities. In general, an “investment company” is a company that holds itself out as an investment company or holds more than 40% of the total value of its assets (minus cash and government securities) in “investment securities.” We believe we are not an investment company. We do not hold ourselves out as an investment company. We understand, however, that the loans held on our balance sheet could be viewed by the SEC or its staff as “securities,” which could in turn cause the SEC or its staff to view Opportunity Financial, LLC or an affiliate as an “investment company” subject to regulation under the Investment Company Act. We believe that we have never been an investment company because, among other reasons, we are primarily engaged in the business of providing an AI-based lending platform to banks. If we were ever deemed to be in non-compliance with the Investment Company Act, we could also be subject to various penalties, including administrative or judicial proceedings that might result in censure, fine, civil penalties, cease-and-desist orders or other adverse consequences, as well as private rights of action, any of which could materially adversely affect our business.

 

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Anti-money laundering, anti-terrorism financing, anti-corruption and economic sanctions laws could have adverse consequences for us.

We maintain a compliance program designed to enable us to comply with all applicable anti-money laundering and anti-terrorism financing laws and regulations, including the Bank Secrecy Act and the USA PATRIOT Act and U.S. economic sanctions laws administered by the Office of Foreign Assets Control. This program includes policies, procedures, processes and other internal controls designed to identify, monitor, manage and mitigate the risk of money laundering and terrorist financing and engaging in transactions involving sanctioned countries persons and entities. These controls include procedures and processes to detect and report suspicious transactions, perform borrower due diligence, respond to requests from law enforcement, and meet all recordkeeping and reporting requirements related to particular transactions involving currency or monetary instruments. We are also subject to anti-corruption and anti-bribery and similar laws, such as the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, as amended, or the FCPA, the U.S. domestic bribery statute contained in 18 U.S.C. § 201, and the U.S. Travel Act, which prohibit companies and their employees and agents from promising, authorizing, making, or offering improper payments or other benefits to government officials and others in the private sector in order to influence official action, direct business to any person, gain any improper advantage, or obtain or retain business. We have implemented an anti-corruption policy to ensure compliance with these anti-corruption and anti-bribery laws. No assurance is given that our programs and controls will be effective to ensure compliance with all applicable anti-money laundering and anti-terrorism financing and anti-corruption laws and regulations, and our failure to comply with these laws and regulations could subject us to significant sanctions, fines, penalties, contractual liability to our bank partners or institutional investors, and reputational harm, all of which could harm our business.

Risks Related to Loan Funding and Indebtedness

Our warehouse facilities expose us to certain risks, and we can provide no assurance that we will be able to access the whole loan sales markets, or secured warehouse credit facilities, in the future, which may require us to seek more costly financing.

We have funded, and may in the future fund, certain loans on our balance sheet and our purchase of participation rights in loans originated by our bank partners by selling such loans or participation interests to warehouse special purpose entities, or SPEs, which loan and participation rights sales are partially financed with associated warehouse credit facilities from financial institutions. Concurrently, the SPE borrows money from financial institutions pursuant to credit and security agreements. The lines of credit borrowed by the SPEs are each secured by the pool of loans and participation rights owned by the applicable SPE.

During periods of financial disruption, such as the financial crisis that began in 2008 and the COVID-19 pandemic that began in early 2020, the credit market constrained, and this could continue or occur again in the future. In addition, other matters, such as (i) accounting standards applicable to the foregoing transactions and (ii) capital and leverage requirements applicable to banks and other regulated financial institutions, could result in decreased investor demand, or increased competition from other institutions that undertake similar transactions. In addition, compliance with certain regulatory requirements, including the Dodd-Frank Act, the Investment Company Act and the so-called “Volcker Rule,” may affect the type of transactions that we are able to complete.

 

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If it is not possible or economical for us to engage in whole loan or participation rights sales in the future, we would need to seek alternative financing to support our loan funding programs and to meet our existing debt obligations. Such funding may not be available on commercially reasonable terms, or at all. If the cost of such loan funding mechanisms were to be higher than that of our whole loan and participation right sales, the fair value of the loans and participation rights would likely be reduced, which would negatively impact our results of operations. If we are unable to access such financing, our ability to originate loans and acquire participation rights in loans originated by our bank partners and our results of operations, financial condition and liquidity would be materially adversely affected.

If we are unable to maintain diverse and robust sources of capital, our growth prospects, business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.

Our business depends on maintaining diverse and robust sources of capital to originate loans facilitated on our platform in certain states and to acquire participation rights in loans that our bank partners originate using our platform. We currently have committed financing agreements with two non-banks lenders and one commercial bank. We cannot be sure that these funding sources will continue to be available on reasonable terms or at all beyond the current maturity dates of our existing credit facilities. See the section “OppFi Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Liquidity and Capital Resources” for more information.

Events of default or breaches of financial, performance or other covenants, or worse than expected performance of certain pools of loans underpinning our credit facilities, could reduce or terminate our access to funding from such facilities. Loan performance is dependent on a number of factors, including the predictiveness of our AI models and social and economic conditions. The availability and capacity of sources of capital also depends on many factors that are outside of our control, such as credit market volatility and regulatory reforms. In the event that we do not maintain adequate sources of capital, we may not be able to maintain the necessary levels of funding to retain current loan volume, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

In connection with our credit facilities, we make representations and warranties concerning the loans or participation rights sold, and if such representations and warranties are not accurate when made, we could be required to repurchase such loans or participation rights.

Under our credit facilities we make numerous representations and warranties concerning the characteristics of the loans facilitated on our platform, or participation rights with respect thereto, sold and transferred in connection with such transactions, including representations and warranties that the loans meet the eligibility requirements of those facilities. If those representations and warranties were not accurate when made, we may be required to repurchase the underlying loans or participation rights. Failure to repurchase so-called ineligible receivables when required could constitute an event of default or termination event under our credit facilities. Historically, we have not had to repurchase loans or participations rights as a result of inaccurate representations or warranties related to loans facilitated on our platform. While only a small number of loans or participation rights have been historically repurchased by us, there can be no assurance that we would have adequate cash or other qualifying assets available to make such repurchases if and when required. Such repurchases could be limited in scope, relating to small pools of loans or participation rights, or significant in scope, across multiple pools of loans or participation rights. If we were required to make such repurchases and if we do not have adequate liquidity to fund such repurchases, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.

We rely on borrowings under our corporate and warehouse credit facilities to fund certain aspects of our operations, and any inability to meet our obligations as they come due or to comply with various covenants could harm our business.

 

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Our corporate credit facilities consist of term loans and revolving loan facilities that we have drawn on to finance our operations and for other corporate purposes. As of June 30, 2021, we had approximately $207 million outstanding principal under these term loans and revolving credit facilities. These borrowings are generally secured by all the assets of the company that have not otherwise been sold or pledged to secure our structured finance facilities, such as assets belonging to our SPEs. These credit agreements contain operating and financial covenants, including customary limitations on the incurrence of certain indebtedness and liens, restrictions on certain transactions and limitations on distributions and stock repurchases. We have in the past, and may in the future, fail to comply with certain operating or financial covenants in our credit agreements, requiring a waiver from our lenders. Our ability to comply with or renegotiate these covenants may be affected by events beyond our control, and breaches of these covenants could result in a default under such agreements and any future financial agreements into which we may enter. If we were to default on our credit obligations and such defaults were not waived, our lenders may require repayment of any outstanding debt and terminate their agreements with us.

In addition, we, through our SPEs, have entered into warehouse credit facilities to partially finance the origination of loans by us on our platform or the purchase of participation rights in loans originated by our bank partners through our platform, which credit facilities are secured by the loans or participation rights. We generally hold these loans or participation rights on our balance sheet until we can liquidate them. As of December 31, 2020, outstanding borrowings under these warehouse credit facilities were $112 million, and $136 million of loans purchased were pledged as collateral. As of June 30, 2021, outstanding borrowings under these warehouse credit facilities were $158 million, and $207 million of loans purchased were pledged as collateral. See the section titled “OppFi Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Liquidity and Capital Resources” for more information about our term loans and revolving loan facilities.

Our warehouse credit facilities impose operating and financial covenants on the SPEs, and under certain events of default, the lenders could require that all outstanding borrowings become immediately due and payable or terminate their agreements with us. We have in the past, and may in the future, fail to comply with certain operating or financial covenants in our credit facilities, requiring waivers from our lenders. If we are unable to repay our obligations at maturity or in the event of default, the borrowing SPEs may have to liquidate the loans or participation rights held as collateral at an inopportune time or price or, if the lender liquidated the loans or participation rights, the SPE, and in certain situations we, would have to pay any amount by which the original purchase price exceeded their sale price. An event of default would negatively impact our ability to originate loans on our platform and purchase participation rights in loans originated by our bank partners on our platform and require us to rely on alternative funding sources, which might increase our costs or which might not be available when needed. If we were unable to arrange new or alternative methods of financing on favorable terms, we might have to curtail our lending programs, which could have an adverse effect on our and our bank partners’ ability or willingness to originate new loans, which in turn would have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Some of our borrowings carry a floating rate of interest linked to the London Inter-bank Offered Rate, or LIBOR. On July 27, 2017, the United Kingdom Financial Conduct Authority, or the FCA, announced that it intends to stop persuading or compelling banks to submit rates for the calculation of LIBOR after 2021. As a result, while the FCA and the submitting LIBOR banks have indicated they will support the LIBOR indices through 2021 to allow for an orderly transition to an alternative reference rate, it is possible that beginning in 2022, LIBOR will no longer be available as a reference rate. In particular, the interest rate of borrowings under our credit facilities are predominately based upon LIBOR. While these agreements generally include alternative rates to LIBOR, if a change in indices results in interest rate increases on our debt, debt service requirements will increase, which could adversely affect our cash flow and results of operations. We do not expect a materially adverse change to our financial condition or liquidity as a result of any such changes or any other reforms to LIBOR that may be enacted in the United Kingdom or elsewhere.

We may need to raise additional funds in the future, including through equity, debt or convertible debt financings, to support business growth and those funds may not be available on acceptable terms, or at all.

We intend to continue to make investments to support our business growth and may require additional funds to respond to business challenges, including the need to develop new loan products, enhance our AI models, improve our operating infrastructure, or acquire complementary businesses and technologies. Accordingly, we may need to engage in equity, debt or convertible debt financings to secure additional funds. If we raise additional funds by issuing equity securities or securities convertible into equity securities, the combined company’s stockholders may experience dilution. Debt financing, if available, may involve covenants restricting our operations or our ability to incur additional debt. Any debt or additional equity financing that we raise may contain terms that are not favorable to us or our stockholders.

 

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If we are unable to obtain adequate financing or on terms satisfactory to us when we require it, we may be unable to pursue certain business opportunities and our ability to continue to support our business growth and to respond to business challenges could be impaired and our business may be harmed.

Risks Related to Taxes

Taxing authorities may successfully assert that we should have collected or in the future should collect sales and use, gross receipts, value added or similar taxes and may successfully impose additional obligations on us, and any such assessments or obligations could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

The application of indirect taxes, such as sales and use tax, value-added tax, goods and services tax, business tax and gross receipts tax, to platform businesses is a complex and evolving issue. Many of the fundamental statutes and regulations that impose these taxes were established before the adoption and growth of the Internet and e-commerce. Significant judgment is required on an ongoing basis to evaluate applicable tax obligations and as a result amounts recorded are estimates and are subject to adjustments. In many cases, the ultimate tax determination is uncertain because it is not clear how new and existing statutes might apply to our business.

In addition, governments are increasingly looking for ways to increase revenue, which has resulted in discussions about tax reform and other legislative action to increase tax revenue, including through indirect taxes. For example, on November 6, 2018, voters in San Francisco approved “Proposition C,” which authorizes San Francisco to impose additional taxes on businesses in San Francisco that generate a certain level of gross receipts. Such taxes would adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

We may face various indirect tax audits in various U.S. jurisdictions. In certain jurisdictions, we collect and remit indirect taxes. However, tax authorities may raise questions about or challenge or disagree with our calculation, reporting or collection of taxes and may require us to collect taxes in jurisdictions in which we do not currently do so or to remit additional taxes and interest, and could impose associated penalties and fees. For example, after the U.S. Supreme Court decision in South Dakota v. Wayfair Inc., certain states have adopted, or started to enforce, laws that may require the calculation, collection and remittance of taxes on sales in their jurisdictions, even if we do not have a physical presence in such jurisdictions. A successful assertion by one or more tax authorities requiring us to collect taxes in jurisdictions in which we do not currently do so or to collect additional taxes in a jurisdiction in which we currently collect taxes, could result in substantial tax liabilities, including taxes on past sales, as well as penalties and interest, could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations. Although we have reserved for potential payments of possible past tax liabilities in our financial statements, if these liabilities exceed such reserves, our financial condition will be harmed.

As a result of these and other factors, the ultimate amount of tax obligations owed may differ from the amounts recorded in our financial statements and any such difference may adversely impact our results of operations in future periods in which we change our estimates of our tax obligations or in which the ultimate tax outcome is determined.

Changes in U.S. tax laws could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

The Tax Act contains significant changes to U.S. tax law, including a reduction in the corporate tax rate and a transition to a new territorial system of taxation. The primary impact of the new legislation on our provision for income taxes was a reduction of the future tax benefits of our deferred tax assets as a result of the reduction in the corporate tax rate. The impact of the Tax Act will likely be subject to ongoing technical guidance and accounting interpretation, which we will continue to monitor and assess. As we expand the scale of our business activities, any changes in the U.S. taxation of such activities may increase our effective tax rate and harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

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Risks Related to the Business Combination and Integration of Businesses

Having a minority share position may reduce the influence of stockholders on the management of the Company.

Immediately following the Closing, (i) the Company’s public stockholders owned approximately 8.1% of the Company’s Common Stock (not including shares beneficially owned by the Founder Holders); (ii) the Founder Holders, the Underwriters and their transferees owned approximately 4.1% of the Company’s Common Stock; and (iii) the Members owned approximately 87.8% of the Company’s Common Stock. The ownership percentage with respect to the Company following the Closing does not take into account (i) the Warrants; or (ii) the issuance of any shares under the OppFi Inc. 2021 Equity Incentive Plan or the OppFi Inc. 2021 Employee Stock Purchase Plan. Please see the section entitled “Unaudited Pro Forma Combined Financial Information” for further information. To the extent that any shares of Class A Common Stock are issued upon exercise of the Warrants or the incentive plans, current stockholders may experience substantial dilution. This dilution could, among other things, limit the ability of our current stockholders to influence management of the post-combination company through the election of directors following the business combination.

There can be no assurance that we will be able to comply with the continued listing standards of the NYSE.

Our Class A Common Stock and Public Warrants are currently listed on the NYSE. If the NYSE delists our Class A Common Stock from trading on its exchange for failure to meet the listing standards, we and our stockholders could face significant adverse consequences including:

 

   

a limited availability of market quotations for our securities;

 

   

reduced liquidity for our securities;

 

   

a determination that our Class A Common Stock is a “penny stock,” which will require brokers trading in our Class A Common Stock to adhere to more stringent rules and possibly result in a reduced level of trading activity in the secondary trading market for our securities;

 

   

a limited amount of news and analyst coverage; and

 

   

decreased ability to issue additional securities or obtain additional financing in the future.

The National Securities Markets Improvement Act of 1996, which is a federal statute, prevents or preempts the states from regulating the sale of certain securities, which are referred to as “covered securities.” Because our Class A Common Stock and Public Warrants are listed on the NYSE, they are covered securities. Although the states are preempted from regulating the sale of our securities, the federal statute does allow the states to investigate companies if there is a suspicion of fraud, and, if there is a finding of fraudulent activity, then the states can regulate or bar the sale of covered securities in a particular case. While we are not aware of a state, other than the state of Idaho, having used these powers to prohibit or restrict the sale of securities issued by blank check companies, certain state securities regulators view blank check companies unfavorably and might use these powers, or threaten to use these powers, to hinder the sale of securities of blank check companies in their states. Further, if we were no longer listed on the NYSE, our securities would not be covered securities and we would be subject to regulation in each state in which we offer our securities, including in connection with our initial business combination.

Future resales of Class A Common Stock may cause the market price of our securities to drop significantly, even if our business is doing well.

 

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Immediately following the effectiveness of the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, the 11,600,000 Initial Shares may be exchanged for shares of our Class A Common Stock by the Members pursuant to the Members’ Exchange Rights, and may be sold without any contractual restriction by the Members. Pursuant to the lock-up restrictions agreed to in connection with the Investor Rights Agreement, beginning on the nine month anniversary of the Closing (unless earlier waived by the Company in its capacity as the sole manager of OppFi), or with respect to the Earnout Units, on such later date the Earnout Units are earned in accordance with the Business Combination Agreement, each Retained OppFi Unit (other than the Initial Shares) held by the Members may be exchanged, upon the exercise of such Members’ Exchange Rights, for either one share of Class A Common Stock or, at the election of the Company in its capacity as the sole manager of OppFi, the cash equivalent of the market value of one share of Class A Common Stock, pursuant to the terms and conditions of the OppFi A&R LLCA. Assuming the full exercise of the Exchange Rights by all of the Members (including with respect to the Initial Shares and the Earnout Units), the Members will own 87.8% of our Class A Common Stock.

Except with respect to the restrictions described above, the Members will not be restricted from selling the shares of Class A Common Stock held by them following their exercise of Exchange Rights, other than by applicable securities laws. As such, sales of a substantial number of shares of Class A Common Stock in the public market could occur at any time. These sales, or the perception in the market that the holders of a large number of shares intend to sell shares, could cause the market price of our Class A Common Stock to decline or increase the volatility in the market price of our Class A Common Stock.

There is no guarantee that the Warrants will ever be in the money, and they may expire worthless and the terms of our Warrants may be amended.

The exercise price for our Warrants (other than the $15 Exercise Price Warrants) is $11.50 per share of Class A Common Stock, and the exercise price of the $15 Exercise Price Warrants is $15 per share of Class A Common Stock. There is no guarantee that the Warrants will ever be in the money prior to their expiration, and as such, the Warrants may expire worthless.

Our only significant asset is our ownership interest in OppFi and the ownership may not be sufficient to pay dividends or make distributions or loans to enable us to pay any dividends on our Class A Common Stock or satisfy our other financial obligations.

We have no direct operations and no significant assets other than our ownership interest in OppFi. We depend on OppFi for distributions, loans and other payments to generate the funds necessary to meet our financial obligations, including our expenses as a publicly traded company and to pay any dividends with respect to our Class A Common Stock. The financial condition and operating requirements of OppFi may limit our ability to obtain cash from OppFi. The earnings from, or other available assets of, OppFi may not be sufficient to pay dividends or make distributions or loans to enable us to pay any dividends on our Class A Common Stock or satisfy our other financial obligations.

We may be required to take write-downs or write-offs, restructuring and impairment or other charges that could negatively affect our financial condition, results of operations and our stock price.

As a result of factors beyond our control, we may be forced to write-down or write-off assets, restructure our operations, or incur impairment or other charges that could result in our reporting losses. Unexpected risks may arise and previously known risks may materialize. Even though these charges may be non-cash items and not have an immediate impact on our liquidity, the fact that we report charges of this nature could contribute to negative market perceptions about us or our securities.

 

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The historical financial results of OppFi and unaudited pro forma financial information included in this prospectus may not be indicative of what our actual financial position or results of operations would have been.

The historical financial results of OppFi included in this prospectus do not reflect the financial condition, results of operations or cash flows OppFi would have achieved as a combined company during the periods presented or those that we will achieve in the future. This is primarily the result of the following factors: (i) we will incur additional ongoing costs as a result of the Business Combination, including costs related to public company reporting, investor relations and other compliance related costs; and (ii) our capital structure is also different from that reflected in OppFi’s historical financial statements. Our financial condition and future results of operations could be materially different from amounts reflected in its historical financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus, so it may be difficult for investors to compare our future results to historical results or to evaluate our relative performance or trends in our business.

Similarly, the unaudited pro forma financial information in this prospectus is presented for illustrative purposes only and has been prepared based on a number of assumptions. Accordingly, such pro forma financial information may not be indicative of our future operating or financial performance and our actual financial condition and results of operations may vary materially from our pro forma results of operations and balance sheet contained elsewhere in this prospectus, including as a result of such assumptions not being accurate. Additionally, the final acquisition accounting adjustments could differ materially from the unaudited pro forma adjustments presented in this prospectus. The unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial information does not give effect to any anticipated synergies, operating efficiencies or cost savings that may be associated with the Business Combination. See “Unaudited Pro Forma Combined Financial Information”.

The Charter includes a forum selection clause, which could discourage claims or limit stockholders’ ability to make a claim against us, our directors, officers, other employees or stockholders.

The Charter includes a forum selection clause. The charter provides that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware shall, to the fullest extent permitted by law, be the sole and exclusive forum for any stockholder (including a beneficial owner) to bring any: (i) derivative action or proceeding; (ii) action asserting a claim of breach of fiduciary duty owed by any of our directors, officers or other employees to us or our stockholders; (iii) action asserting a claim against us, our directors, officers or employees arising pursuant to any provision of the DGCL or the charter or bylaws; or (iv) action asserting a claim against us, our directors, officers or employees governed by the internal affairs doctrine, except for, as to each of (i) through (iv) above, any claim (A) as to which the Court of Chancery determines that there is an indispensable party not subject to the jurisdiction of the Court of Chancery (and the indispensable party does not consent to the personal jurisdiction of the Court of Chancery within ten days following the determination), (B) that is vested in the exclusive jurisdiction of a court or forum other than the Court of Chancery, (C) for which the Court of Chancery does not have subject matter jurisdiction, or (D) any action arising under the Securities Act as to which the Court of Chancery and the federal district court for the District of Delaware shall have concurrent jurisdiction. Unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the federal district courts of the United States of America shall be the sole and exclusive forum for the resolution of any complaint asserting a cause of action arising under federal securities laws, including the Securities Act. Under the Securities Act, federal and state courts have concurrent jurisdiction over all suits brought to enforce any duty or liability created by the Securities Act, and stockholders cannot waive compliance with the federal securities laws and the rules and regulations thereunder. Accordingly, there is uncertainty as to whether a court would enforce such a forum selection provision as written in connection with claims arising under the Securities Act. This forum selection clause may also discourage claims or limit stockholders’ ability to submit claims in a judicial forum that they find favorable and may result in additional costs for a stockholder seeking to bring a claim. While we believe the risk of a court declining to enforce this forum selection clause is low, if a court were to determine the forum selection clause to be inapplicable or unenforceable in an action, we may incur additional costs in conjunction with our efforts to resolve the dispute in an alternative jurisdiction, which could have a negative impact on our results of operations and financial condition. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the forum selection clause will not apply to suits brought to enforce any liability or duty created by the Exchange Act or any other claim for which the federal district courts of the United States of America shall be the exclusive forum.

 

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Unanticipated changes in effective tax rates or adverse outcomes resulting from examination of our income or other tax returns could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

We will be subject to income taxes in the United States, and our domestic tax liabilities will be subject to the allocation of expenses in differing jurisdictions. Our future effective tax rates could be subject to volatility or adversely affected by a number of factors, including:

 

   

changes in the valuation of our deferred tax assets and liabilities;

 

   

expected timing and amount of the release of any tax valuation allowances;

 

   

tax effects of stock-based compensation;

 

   

costs related to intercompany restructurings;

 

   

changes in tax laws, regulations or interpretations thereof; and

 

   

lower than anticipated future earnings in jurisdictions where we have lower statutory tax rates and higher than anticipated future earnings in jurisdictions where we have higher statutory tax rates.

In addition, we may be subject to audits of our income, sales and other transaction taxes by U.S. federal and state authorities. Outcomes from these audits could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

A market for our securities may not continue, which would adversely affect the liquidity and price of our securities.

The price of our securities may fluctuate. An active trading market for our securities may never develop or, if developed, it may not be sustained. In addition, the price of our securities can vary due to general economic conditions and forecasts, our general business condition and the release of our financial reports. Additionally, if our securities become delisted from the NYSE for any reason, and are quoted on the OTC Bulletin Board, an inter-dealer automated quotation system for equity securities that is not a national securities exchange, the liquidity and price of our securities may be more limited

If the Business Combination’s benefits following the Closing do not meet the expectations of investors, stockholders or financial analysts, the market price of our securities may decline.

If the benefits of the Business Combination following the Closing do not meet the expectations of investors or securities analysts, the market price of the Company’s securities may decline. In such case, fluctuations in the price of our securities could contribute to the loss of all or part of your investment. Prior to the Business Combination, there was not a public market for OppFi’s securities and trading in the shares of our Class A Common Stock may not become active. Accordingly, the valuation ascribed to OppFi and our Class A Common Stock in the Business Combination may not be indicative of the price that will prevail in the trading market in the future. If an active market for our securities develops and continues, the trading price of our securities could be volatile and subject to wide fluctuations in response to various factors, some of which are beyond our control. Any of the factors listed below could adversely effect on your investment in our securities and our securities may trade at prices significantly below the price you paid for them. In these circumstances, the trading price of our securities may not recover and may experience a further decline.

Factors affecting the trading price of our securities may include:

 

   

actual or anticipated fluctuations in our quarterly financial results or the quarterly financial results of companies perceived to be similar to us;

 

   

changes in the market’s expectations about our operating results;

 

   

the public’s reaction to our press releases, our other public announcements and our filings with the SEC;

 

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speculation in the press or investment community;

 

   

success of competitors;

 

   

our operating results failing to meet the expectation of securities analysts or investors in a particular period;

 

   

changes in financial estimates and recommendations by securities analysts concerning the post-combination company or the market in general;

 

   

operating and stock price performance of other companies that investors deem comparable to the post-combination company;

 

   

our ability to market new and enhanced products on a timely basis;

 

   

changes in laws and regulations affecting our business;

 

   

commencement of, or involvement in, litigation involving the post-combination company;

 

   

changes in the post-combination company’s capital structure, such as future issuances of securities or the incurrence of additional debt;

 

   

the volume of shares of our Class A Common Stock available for public sale;

 

   

any major change in our Board or management;

 

   

sales of substantial amounts of Class A Common Stock by our directors, officers or significant stockholders or the perception that such sales could occur; and

 

   

general economic and political conditions such as recessions, interest rates, fuel prices, international currency fluctuations and acts of war or terrorism.

Broad market and industry factors may materially harm the market price of our securities irrespective of our operating performance. The stock market in general and the NYSE have experienced price and volume fluctuations that have often been unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of the particular companies affected. The trading prices and valuations of these stocks, and of our securities, may not be predictable. A loss of investor confidence in the market for the stocks of other companies that investors perceive to be similar to the post-combination company could depress our stock price regardless of our business, prospects, financial conditions or results of operations. A decline in the market price of our securities also could adversely affect our ability to issue additional securities and our ability to obtain additional financing in the future.

In the past, securities class action litigation has often been initiated against companies following periods of volatility in their stock price. This type of litigation could result in substantial costs and divert our management’s attention and resources and could also require us to make substantial payments to satisfy judgments or to settle litigation.

Our quarterly operating results may fluctuate significantly and could fall below the expectations of securities analysts and investors due to seasonality and other factors, some of which are beyond our control, resulting in a decline in our stock price.

Our quarterly operating results may fluctuate significantly because of several factors, including:

 

   

profitability of our products, especially in new markets and due to seasonal fluctuations;

 

   

changes in interest rates;

 

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impairment of assets;

 

   

macroeconomic conditions, both nationally and locally;

 

   

negative publicity relating to our products;

 

   

changes in consumer preferences and competitive conditions; and

 

   

expansion to new markets.

If securities or industry analysts do not publish or cease publishing research or reports about us our business, or our market, or if they change their recommendations regarding our Class A Common Stock adversely, then the price and trading volume of our Class A Common Stock could decline.

The trading market for our Class A Common Stock will be influenced by the research and reports that industry or securities analysts may publish about us, our business, our market, or our competitors. Securities and industry analysts do not currently, and may never, publish research on us. If no securities or industry analysts commence coverage of us, our stock price and trading volume would likely be negatively impacted. If any of the analysts who may cover us change their recommendation regarding our stock adversely, or provide more favorable relative recommendations about our competitors, the price of our Class A Common Stock would likely decline. If any analyst who may cover us were to cease coverage of us or fail to regularly publish reports on us, we could lose visibility in the financial markets, which could cause our stock price or trading volume to decline.

We may be unable to obtain additional financing to fund our operations and growth.

We may require additional financing to fund our operations or growth. We cannot assure you that such financing will be available on acceptable terms, if at all. The failure to secure additional financing could adversely affect our continued development or growth. None of our officers, directors or stockholders are required to provide any financing to us.

Changes in laws, regulations or rules, or a failure to comply with any laws, regulations or rules, may adversely affect our business.

We are subject to laws, regulations and rules enacted by national, regional and local governments and the NYSE. In particular, we are required to comply with certain SEC, NYSE and other legal or regulatory requirements. Compliance with, and monitoring of, applicable laws, regulations and rules may be difficult, time consuming and costly. Those laws, regulations or rules and their interpretation and application may also change from time to time and those changes could adversely affect our business, investments and results of operations. In addition, a failure to comply with applicable laws, regulations or rules, as interpreted and applied, could adversely affect our business.

We will be a “controlled company” within the meaning of NYSE rules and, as a result, are exempt from certain corporate governance requirements.

So long as the SCG Holders and their affiliates maintain holdings of more than 50% of the voting power of our capital stock, we will be a “controlled company” within the meaning of NYSE corporate governance standards. Under these standards, a company need not comply with certain corporate governance requirements, including the requirements that:

 

   

a majority of our board of directors consist of “independent directors” as defined under NYSE rules;

 

   

the requirement that we have a compensation committee that is composed entirely of independent directors with a written charter addressing the committee’s purpose and responsibilities;

 

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we have a nominating and corporate governance committee that is composed entirely of independent directors with a written charter addressing the committee’s purpose and responsibilities, or otherwise have director nominees selected by vote of a majority of the independent directors; and

 

   

the requirement for an annual performance evaluation of the nominating and corporate governance and compensation committees.

We intend to rely on certain of these exemptions. As a result, our board of directors would not be required to consist of a majority of independent directors, and our compensation committee and nominating and corporate governance committee would not consist entirely of independent directors and will not be subject to annual performance evaluations. If we are no longer eligible to rely on the controlled company exception, we will comply with all applicable NYSE corporate governance requirements, but we will be able to rely on phase-in periods for certain of these requirements in accordance with NYSE rules. Accordingly, our stockholders may not have the same protections afforded to stockholders of companies that are subject to all NYSE corporate governance requirements.

The SCG Holders and their affiliates will have significant influence or control and their interests may conflict with those of other stockholders.

The SCG Holders and their affiliates collectively hold 87.8% of total voting power of all outstanding shares of Common Stock, voting together as a single class. Additionally, the Company has entered into the Investor Rights Agreement, pursuant to which the SCG Holders’ Representative has the right to nominate five directors to the Board.

The Investor Rights Agreement also provides that at each meeting at which directors are to be elected, the Company shall take such necessary action to include in the slate of nominees recommended by the Board for election as directors (i) five directors chosen by the SCG Holders’ Representative as long as the SCG Holders have at least of 50% of the voting power entitled to vote in the election of directors, (ii) four directors chosen by the SCG Holders’ Representative as long as the SCG Holders have at least of 40% of the voting power entitled to vote in the election of directors, (iii) three directors chosen by the SCG Holders’ Representative as long as the SCG Holders have at least of 30% of the voting power entitled to vote in the election of directors, (iv) three directors chosen by the SCG Holders’ Representative as long as the SCG Holders have at least of 30% of the voting power entitled to vote in the election of directors, (v) two directors chosen by the SCG Holders’ Representative as long as the SCG Holders have at least of 20% of the voting power entitled to vote in the election of directors and (vi) one director chosen by the SCG Holders’ Representative as long as the SCG Holders have at least of 5% of the voting power entitled to vote in the election of directors.

As such, the SCG Holders and their affiliates will have significant influence over the election of the members of our Board and thereby may significantly influence our policies and operations, including the appointment of management, future issuances of our Class A Common Stock or other securities, the payment of dividends, if any, the incurrence or modification of debt, amendments to our certificate of incorporation and bylaws, and the entering into of extraordinary transactions, and the SCG Holders’ interests may not in all cases be aligned with those of other stockholders.

In the event of a conflict between our interests and the interests of the SCG Holders and their affiliates, we have adopted policies and procedures, specifically a Code of Ethics and a Related Party Transactions Policy, to identify, review, consider and approve such conflicts of interest. In general, if an affiliate of a director, executive officer or significant stockholder, including the SCG Holders and their affiliates, intends to engage in a transaction involving us, that director, executive officer or significant stockholder must report the transaction for consideration and approval by our audit committee. However, there are no assurances that our efforts and policies to eliminate the potential impacts of conflicts of interest will be effective.

If you exercise your Public Warrants on a “cashless basis,” you will receive fewer shares of Class A Common Stock from the exercise than if you were to exercise your Warrants for cash.

 

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There are circumstances in which the exercise of the Public Warrants may be required or permitted to be made on a cashless basis. First, if a registration statement covering the shares of Class A Common Stock issuable upon exercise of the Public Warrants is not effective by the 60th business day after the Closing of the Business Combination, Public Warrant holders may, until there is an effective registration statement, exercise Public Warrants on a cashless basis in accordance with Section 3(a)(9) of the Securities Act or another exemption. Second, if our Class A Common Stock is at any time of any exercise of a Public Warrant not listed on a national securities exchange and is not a “covered security” under Section 18(b)(1) of the Securities Act, we may, at our option, require holders of Public Warrants who exercise their Public Warrants to do so on a cashless basis in accordance with Section 3(a)(9) of the Securities Act and, if we so elect, we will not be required to file or maintain in effect a registration statement, and if we do not so elect, we will use our best efforts to register or qualify the shares of Class A Common Stock under applicable blue sky laws to the extent an exemption is not available. Third, if we call the Public Warrants for redemption, our management will have the option to require all holders that wish to exercise Public Warrants to do so on a cashless basis. In the event of an exercise on a cashless basis, a holder would pay the exercise price by surrendering the Public Warrants for that number of shares of Class A Common Stock equal to the quotient obtained by dividing (x) the product of the number of shares of Class A Common Stock underlying the Public Warrants, multiplied by the difference between the exercise price of the Public Warrants and the “fair market value” (as defined in the next sentence) by (y) the fair market value. The “fair market value” is the average reported last sale price of the Class A Common Stock for the ten trading days ending on the third trading day prior to the date on which the notice of exercise is received by the Warrant Agent or on which the notice of redemption is sent to the holders of Public Warrants, as applicable. As a result, you would receive fewer shares of Class A Common Stock from the exercise than if you were to exercise the Public Warrants for cash.

We may amend the terms of the Warrants in a manner that may be adverse to holders of Public Warrants with the approval by the holders of at least 50% of the then-outstanding Warrants. As a result, the exercise price of your Warrants could be increased, the exercise period could be shortened and the number of shares of our Class A Common Stock purchasable upon exercise of a Warrant could be decreased, all without your approval.

Our Warrants have been issued under a Warrant Agreement between the Warrant Agent, and us. The Warrant Agreement provides that the terms of the Warrants may be amended without the consent of any holder to cure any ambiguity or correct any defective provision, but requires the approval by the holders of at least 50% of the then outstanding Public Warrants to make any change that adversely affects the interests of the registered holders of Public Warrants. Accordingly, we may amend the terms of the Public Warrants in a manner adverse to a holder if holders of at least 50% of the then outstanding Public Warrants approve of such amendment. Although our ability to amend the terms of the Public Warrants with the consent of at least 50% of the then outstanding Public Warrants is unlimited, examples of such amendments could be amendments to, among other things, increase the exercise price of the Warrants, convert the Warrants into cash or stock (at a ratio different than initially provided), shorten the exercise period or decrease the number of shares of Class A Common Stock purchasable upon exercise of a Warrant.

We may redeem unexpired Public Warrants prior to their exercise at a time that is disadvantageous to you, thereby making your Public Warrants worthless.

We have the ability to redeem outstanding Public Warrants at any time after they become exercisable and prior to their expiration, at a price of $0.01 per Public Warrant, provided that the last reported sales price of our Class A Common Stock equals or exceeds $18.00 per share (as adjusted for stock splits, stock dividends, reorganizations, recapitalizations and the like) for any 20 trading days within a 30 trading-day period ending on the third trading day prior to the date on which we give proper notice of redemption and provided certain other conditions are met. If and when the Public Warrants become redeemable by us, we may not exercise our redemption right if the issuance of shares of Class A Common Stock upon exercise of the Public Warrants is not exempt from registration or qualification under applicable state blue sky laws or we are unable to effect registration or qualification. We will use our best efforts to register or qualify the shares of Class A Common Stock under the blue-sky laws of the state of residence in those states in which the Public Warrants were offered by us in the IPO. Redemption of the outstanding Public Warrants could force you to (i) exercise your Public Warrants and pay the exercise price therefor at a time when it may be disadvantageous for you to do so, (ii) sell your Public Warrants at the then-current market price when you might otherwise wish to hold your Public Warrants or (iii) accept the nominal redemption price which, at the time the outstanding Public Warrants are called for redemption, is likely to be substantially less than the market value of your Public Warrants. None of the Private Placement Warrants will be redeemable by us so long as they are held by the Sponsor or its permitted transferees, or the Underwriters and their permitted transferees, respectively.

 

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Warrants will become exercisable for our Class A Common Stock, which would increase the number of shares eligible for future resale in the public market and result in dilution to our stockholders.

We have outstanding (i) Public Warrants to purchase 11,887,500 shares of Class A Common Stock, (ii) Private Placement Unit Warrants to purchase 231,250 shares of Class A Common Stock, (iii) Underwriter Warrants to purchase 59,464 shares of Class A Common Stock, (iv) Founder Warrants to purchase 2,248,750 shares of Class A Common Stock, and (v) $15 Exercise Price Warrants to purchase 912,500 shares of Class A Common Stock. The shares of Class A Common Stock issuable upon exercise of our Warrants will result in dilution to the then existing holders of Class A Common Stock and increase the number of shares eligible for resale in the public market. Sales of substantial numbers of shares Class A Common Stock in the public market could adversely affect the market price of our Class A Common Stock.

Anti-takeover provisions contained in the charter and bylaws, as well as provisions of Delaware law, could impair a takeover attempt.

The Charter contains provisions that may discourage unsolicited takeover proposals that stockholders may consider to be in their best interests. Together these provisions may make more difficult the removal of management and may discourage transactions that otherwise could involve payment of a premium over prevailing market prices for our securities. These provisions are described in the Section titled “Description of Securities—Certain Anti-Takeover Provisions of Delaware Law and the Company’s Charter and Amended and Restated Bylaws.”

We are an emerging growth company within the meaning of the Securities Act, and if we take advantage of certain exemptions from disclosure requirements available to emerging growth companies, this could make our securities less attractive to investors and may make it more difficult to compare our performance with other public companies.

We are an “emerging growth company” within the meaning of the Securities Act, as modified by the JOBS Act, and we may take advantage of certain exemptions from various reporting requirements that are applicable to other public companies that are not emerging growth companies including, but not limited to, not being required to comply with the auditor internal controls attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports and proxy statements, and exemptions from the requirements of holding a nonbinding advisory vote on executive compensation and stockholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved. As a result, our stockholders may not have access to certain information they may deem important. We could be an emerging growth company for up to five years, although circumstances could cause us to lose that status earlier, including if the market value of our Class A Common Stock held by non-affiliates exceeds $700 million as of any June 30 before that time, in which case we would no longer be an emerging growth company as of the following December 31. We cannot predict whether investors will find our securities less attractive because we will rely on these exemptions. If some investors find our securities less attractive as a result of our reliance on these exemptions, the trading prices of our securities may be lower than they otherwise would be, there may be a less active trading market for our securities and the trading prices of our securities may be more volatile.

Further, Section 102(b)(1) of the JOBS Act exempts emerging growth companies from being required to comply with new or revised financial accounting standards until private companies (that is, those that have not had a Securities Act registration statement declared effective or do not have a class of securities registered under the Exchange Act) are required to comply with the new or revised financial accounting standards. The JOBS Act provides that a company can elect to opt out of the extended transition period and comply with the requirements that apply to non-emerging growth companies but any such an election to opt out is irrevocable. We have elected not to opt out of such extended transition period which means that when a standard is issued or revised and it has different application dates for public or private companies, we, as an emerging growth company, can adopt the new or revised standard at the time private companies adopt the new or revised standard. This may make comparison of our financial statements with another public company which is neither an emerging growth company nor an emerging growth company which has opted out of using the extended transition period difficult or impossible because of the potential differences in accounting standards used.

 

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Additionally, we are a “smaller reporting company” as defined in Item 10(f)(1) of Regulation S-K. Smaller reporting companies may take advantage of certain reduced disclosure obligations, including, among other things, providing only two years of audited financial statements. We will remain a smaller reporting company until the last day of the fiscal year in which (1) the market value of our Common Stock held by non-affiliates exceeds $250 million as of the prior June 30th, and (2) our annual revenues exceeded $100 million during such completed fiscal year and the market value of our Common Stock held by non-affiliates exceeds $700 million as of the prior June 30th. To the extent we take advantage of such reduced disclosure obligations, it may also make comparison of our financial statements with other public companies difficult or impossible.

Cyber incidents or attacks directed at us could result in information theft, data corruption, operational disruption and/or financial loss.

We depend on digital technologies, including information systems, infrastructure and cloud applications and services, including those of third parties with which we may deal. Sophisticated and deliberate attacks on, or security breaches in, our systems or infrastructure, or the systems or infrastructure of third parties or the cloud, could lead to corruption or misappropriation of our assets, proprietary information and sensitive or confidential data. As an early stage company without significant investments in data security protection, we may not be sufficiently protected against such occurrences. We may not have sufficient resources to adequately protect against, or to investigate and remediate any vulnerability to, cyber incidents. It is possible that any of these occurrences, or a combination of them, could have adverse consequences on our business and lead to financial loss.

Our only principal asset is our interest in OppFi, and accordingly we depend on distributions from OppFi to pay distributions, taxes, other expenses, and make any payments required to be made by us under the Tax Receivable Agreement.

We are a holding company and have no material assets other than our ownership of the OppFi Units. We are not expected to have independent means of generating revenue or cash flow, and our ability to pay our taxes, operating expenses, and pay any dividends in the future, if any, will be dependent upon the financial results and cash flows of OppFi. There can be no assurance that OppFi will generate sufficient cash flow to distribute funds to us or that applicable state law and contractual restrictions, including negative covenants under debt instruments, will permit such distributions. If OppFi does not distribute sufficient funds to us to pay our taxes or other liabilities, we may default on contractual obligations or have to borrow additional funds. In the event that we are required to borrow additional funds it could adversely affect our liquidity and subject us to additional restrictions imposed by lenders.

OppFi will continue to be treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes and, as such, generally will not be subject to any entity-level U.S. federal income tax. Instead, taxable income will be allocated, for U.S. federal income tax purposes, to the holders of OppFi Units. Accordingly, we will be required to pay U.S. federal income taxes on our allocable share of the net taxable income of OppFi. Under the terms of the OppFi A&R LLCA, OppFi is obligated to make tax distributions to holders of OppFi Units (including us) calculated at certain assumed rates. In addition to tax expenses, we will also incur expenses related to our operations, including our payment obligations under the Tax Receivable Agreement, which could be significant and some of which will be reimbursed by OppFi (excluding payment obligations under the Tax Receivable Agreement). We intend to cause OppFi to make ordinary distributions and tax distributions to the holders of OppFi Units on a pro rata basis in amounts sufficient to cover all applicable taxes, relevant operating expenses, payments under the Tax Receivable Agreement and dividends, if any, declared by us. However, as discussed below, OppFi’s ability to make such distributions may be subject to various limitations and restrictions, including, but not limited to, retention of amounts necessary to satisfy the obligations of OppFi and its subsidiaries and restrictions on distributions that would violate any applicable restrictions contained in OppFi’s debt agreements, or any applicable law, or that would have the effect of rendering OppFi insolvent. To the extent we are unable to make payments under the Tax Receivable Agreement for any reason, such payments will be deferred and will accrue interest until paid, provided, however, that nonpayment for a specified period and/or under certain circumstances may constitute a material breach of a material obligation under the Tax Receivable Agreement and therefore accelerate payments under the Tax Receivable Agreement, which could be substantial.

 

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Additionally, although OppFi generally will not be subject to any entity-level U.S. federal income tax, it may be liable under certain federal income tax legislation for adjustments to its tax return, absent an election to the contrary. In the event OppFi’s calculations of taxable income are incorrect, OppFi and/or its members, including us, in later years may be subject to material liabilities pursuant to this federal income tax legislation and its related guidance.

We anticipate that the distributions we receive from OppFi may, in certain periods, exceed our actual liabilities and our obligations to make payments under the Tax Receivable Agreement. The Board, in its sole discretion, will make any determination from time to time with respect to the use of any such excess cash so accumulated, which may include, among other uses, to pay dividends on our Class A Common Stock. We will have no obligation to distribute such cash (or other available cash other than any declared dividend) to our stockholders. We may, if necessary, undertake ameliorative actions, which may include pro rata or non-pro rata reclassifications, combinations, subdivisions or adjustments of outstanding OppFi Units, to maintain one-for-one parity between OppFi Units held by us and shares of our Class A Common Stock.

We may be unable to obtain forgiveness of the PPP Loan, in whole or in part, in accordance with the provisions of the CARES Act, which could adversely affect our financial condition.

On April 13, 2020, we received loan proceeds of approximately $6.4 million pursuant to the Paycheck Protection Program (“PPP”) under the CARES Act, administered by the Small Business Administration (the “SBA”). We used the PPP money on permitted purposes under the CARES Act and related regulations, including but not limited to retaining current employees, maintaining payroll and making lease and utility payments. The PPP Loan is evidenced by a promissory note, dated as of April 13, 2020, issued by BMO Harris Bank National Association, which contains customary events of default relating to, among other things, payment defaults and breaches of representations and warranties. The PPP Loan is scheduled to mature on April 13, 2022 (the “Maturity Date”), bears interest at a rate of 1.00% per annum, and is subject to the standard terms and conditions applicable to loans administered by the SBA under the CARES Act.

Commencing December 2020, we were required to pay regular monthly payments in an amount equal to one month’s accrued interest under the PPP Loan. All interest which accrues during the initial six months of the loan period will be deferred and payable on the Maturity Date. The amounts outstanding under the PPP Loan may be prepaid by us at any time prior to maturity without penalty. Under the CARES Act, as amended in June 2020, loan forgiveness is generally available for the sum of documented payroll costs, covered rent payments, covered mortgage interest and covered utilities during the 8-week period beginning on the date of the first disbursement of the PPP Loan. The amount of the PPP Loan eligible to be forgiven may be reduced in certain circumstances, including as a result of certain headcount or salary reductions. We will be required to repay any portion of the outstanding principal that is not forgiven, along with accrued interest, and we cannot provide any assurance that we will be eligible for loan forgiveness, that we will apply for forgiveness, or that any amount of the PPP Loan will ultimately be forgiven by the SBA.

In order to apply for the PPP Loan, we were required to certify, among other things, that the current economic uncertainty made the PPP Loan request necessary to support our ongoing operations. We made this certification in good faith after analyzing, among other things, the maintenance of our workforce, our need for additional funding to continue operations, and our ability to access alternative forms of capital in the current market environment in light of the uncertainty resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic. Following this analysis, we believe that we satisfied all eligibility criteria for the PPP Loan, and that our receipt of the PPP Loan is consistent with the broad objectives of the CARES Act. The certification described above did not contain any objective criteria and is subject to interpretation.

 

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On April 23, 2020, the SBA issued new guidance that indicated that borrowers “must make this certification in good faith, taking into account their current business activity and their ability to access other sources of liquidity sufficient to support their ongoing operations in a manner that is not significantly detrimental to the business.” After being made aware of this new guidance, we conducted additional analysis and determined that we still satisfied the eligibility criteria and had made the certification in good faith. Once again, though, this guidance did not contain any objective criteria and is subject to interpretation.

Under PPP, all or a portion of the PPP Loan is eligible for forgiveness if we were eligible for the PPP Loan, use the loan proceeds for eligible expenses and otherwise satisfy PPP requirements. While we believe we are eligible for the PPP Loan, in the event it was determined that we were not eligible for the PPP Loan, it is possible we would be required to repay the PPP Loan on an accelerated basis, rather than over two years provided under the PPP Loan, and at a higher interest rate than 1.000% per annum. If we were to be audited and receive an adverse finding in such audit, some or all of the PPP Loan might not be forgiven and we could be required to return or repay some or all of the PPP Loan, together with interest on the loan, which could reduce our liquidity, and potentially subject us to fines and penalties

Pursuant to the Tax Receivable Agreement, we will be required to pay to the Members and/or the exchanging holders of Retained OppFi Units, as applicable, 90% of the net income tax savings that we realize as a result of increases in tax basis in our assets related to the Business Combination and the future exchange of the Retained OppFi Units for shares of Class A Common Stock (or cash) pursuant to the OppFi A&R LLCA and tax benefits related to entering into the Tax Receivable Agreement, including tax benefits attributable to payments under the Tax Receivable Agreement, and those payments may be substantial.

In connection with the Business Combination, the Members will be deemed for U.S. federal (and applicable state and local) income tax purposes to sell to us OppFi Units for the Cash Consideration and may in the future exchange their OppFi Units, together with the cancelation of an equal number of shares of Class V Voting Stock, for shares of our Class A Common Stock (or cash) pursuant to the OppFi A&R LLCA, subject to certain conditions and transfer restrictions as set forth therein and in the Investor Rights Agreement. These sales and exchanges are expected to result in increases in our allocable share of the tax basis of the tangible and intangible assets of OppFi. These increases in tax basis may increase (for income tax purposes) depreciation and amortization deductions allocable to us and therefore reduce the amount of income or franchise tax that we would otherwise be required to pay in the future had such sales and exchanges never occurred.

We have entered into the Tax Receivable Agreement, which generally provides for the payment by us of 90% of certain net tax benefits, if any, that we realize (or in certain cases are deemed to realize) as a result of these increases in tax basis and tax benefits related to the transactions contemplated under the Business Combination Agreement and the exchange of Retained OppFi Units for Class A Common Stock (or cash) pursuant to the OppFi A&R LLCA and tax benefits related to entering into the Tax Receivable Agreement, including tax benefits attributable to payments under the Tax Receivable Agreement. These payments are our obligation and not of OppFi. The actual increase in our allocable share of OppFi’s tax basis in its assets, as well as the amount and timing of any payments under the Tax Receivable Agreement, will vary depending upon a number of factors, including the timing of exchanges, the market price of the Class A Common Stock at the time of the exchange and the amount and timing of the recognition of our income. While many of the factors that will determine the amount of payments that we will make under the Tax Receivable Agreement are outside of our control, we expect that the payments we will make under the Tax Receivable Agreement will be substantial and could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition.

Any payments we make under the Tax Receivable Agreement will generally reduce the amount of overall cash flow that might have otherwise been available to us. To the extent that we are unable to make timely payments under the Tax Receivable Agreement for any reason, the unpaid amounts will be deferred and will accrue interest until paid; however, nonpayment for a specified period and/or under certain circumstances may constitute a material breach of a material obligation under the Tax Receivable Agreement and therefore accelerate payments due under the Tax Receivable Agreement, as further described below. Furthermore, our future obligation to make payments under the Tax Receivable Agreement could make us a less attractive target for an acquisition, particularly in the case of an acquirer that cannot use some or all of the tax benefits that may be deemed realized under the Tax Receivable Agreement.

 

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In certain cases, payments under the Tax Receivable Agreement may (i) exceed the actual tax benefits we realize or (ii) be accelerated.

Payments under the Tax Receivable Agreement will be based on the tax reporting positions that we determine, and the IRS or another taxing authority may challenge all or any part of the tax basis increases, as well as other tax positions that we take, and a court may sustain such a challenge. In the event that any tax benefits initially claimed by us are disallowed, the Members and the exchanging holders will not be required to reimburse us for any excess payments that may previously have been made under the Tax Receivable Agreement, for example, due to adjustments resulting from examinations by the IRS or other taxing authorities. Rather, excess payments made to such holders will be applied against and reduce any future cash payments otherwise required to be made by us, if any, after the determination of such excess. However, a challenge to any tax benefits initially claimed by us may not arise for a number of years following the initial time of such payment and, even if challenged earlier, such excess cash payment may be greater than the amount of future cash payments that we might otherwise be required to make under the terms of the Tax Receivable Agreement and, as a result, there might not be future cash payments against which such excess can be applied. As a result, in certain circumstances we could make payments under the Tax Receivable Agreement in excess of our actual income or franchise tax savings, which could materially impair our financial condition.

Moreover, the Tax Receivable Agreement provides that, in the event that (i) we exercise our early termination rights under the Tax Receivable Agreement, (ii) certain changes of control occur (as described in the Tax Receivable Agreement), (iii) we, in certain circumstances, fail to make a payment required to be made pursuant to the Tax Receivable Agreement by the applicable final payment date, which non-payment continues for 30 days following such final payment date or (iv) we materially breach any of our material obligations under the Tax Receivable Agreement other than as described in the foregoing clause (iii), which breach continues without cure for 30 days following receipt by us of written notice thereof and written notice of acceleration is received by us thereafter (except that in the case that the Tax Receivable Agreement is rejected in a case commenced under bankruptcy laws, no written notice of acceleration is required), in the case of clauses (iii) and (iv), unless certain liquidity exceptions apply, our obligations under the Tax Receivable Agreement will accelerate and we will be required to make a lump-sum cash payment to the applicable parties to the Tax Receivable Agreement equal to the present value of all forecasted future payments that would have otherwise been made under the Tax Receivable Agreement, which lump-sum payment would be based on certain assumptions, including those relating to our future taxable income. The lump-sum payment could be substantial and could exceed the actual tax benefits that we realize subsequent to such payment because such payment would be calculated assuming, among other things, that we would have certain assumed tax benefits available to us and that we would be able to use the assumed and potential tax benefits in future years.

There may be a material negative effect on our liquidity if the payments under the Tax Receivable Agreement exceed the actual income or franchise tax savings that we realize. Furthermore, our obligations to make payments under the Tax Receivable Agreement could also have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing certain mergers, asset sales, other forms of business combinations or other changes of control.

Increases in our income tax rates, changes in income tax laws or disagreements with tax authorities can adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations.

Increases in our income tax rates or other changes in income tax laws in the United States or any particular jurisdiction in which we operate could reduce our after-tax income from such jurisdiction and adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations. Existing tax laws in the United States have been and could in the future be subject to significant change. For example, in December 2017, the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (“TCJA”) was signed into law in the United States which provided for significant changes to then-existing tax laws and subsequent legislation (such as the enactment of the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act in March 2020) modifying certain TCJA provisions and additional guidance issued by the IRS pursuant to the TCJA may continue to impact us in future periods. Additional changes in the U.S. tax regime, including changes in how existing tax laws are interpreted or enforced, can adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations.

 

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We will also be subject to regular reviews, examinations and audits by the IRS and other taxing authorities with respect to income and non-income-based taxes. Economic and political pressures to increase tax revenues in jurisdictions in which we operate, or the adoption of new or reformed tax legislation or regulation, may make resolving tax disputes more difficult and the final resolution of tax audits and any related litigation can differ from our historical provisions and accruals, resulting in an adverse impact on our business, financial condition or results of operations.

Tax Risks Related to the Structure After the Business Combination

Although we may be entitled to tax benefits relating to additional tax depreciation or amortization deductions as a result of the tax basis step-up we receive in connection with the exchanges of Retained OppFi Units into our Class A Common Stock and related transactions, we will be required to pay the Members 90% of these tax benefits under the Tax Receivable Agreement.

Immediately following the effectiveness of the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, the 11,600,000 Initial Shares may be exchanged for shares of our Class A Common Stock by the Members pursuant to the Members’ Exchange Rights, and may be sold without any contractual restriction by the Members. Pursuant to the lock-up restrictions agreed to into in connection with the Investor Rights Agreement, beginning on the nine month anniversary of the Closing (unless earlier waived by the Company in its capacity as the sole manager of OppFi), or with respect to the Earnout Units, on such later date the Earnout Units are earned in accordance with the Business Combination Agreement, each Retained OppFi Unit (other than the Initial Shares) held by the Members may be exchanged, upon the exercise of such Members’ Exchange Rights, for either one share of Class A Common Stock or, at the election of the Company in its capacity as the sole manager of OppFi, the cash equivalent of the market value of one share of Class A Common Stock, pursuant to the terms and conditions of the OppFi A&R LLCA. The deemed exchanges in the business combination and any exchanges pursuant to the OppFi A&R LLCA, are expected to result in increases in our allocable share of the tax basis of the tangible and intangible assets of OppFi. These increases in tax basis may increase (for tax purposes) depreciation and amortization deductions and therefore reduce the amount of income or franchise tax that we would otherwise be required to pay in the future, although the Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”) or any applicable foreign, state or local tax authority may challenge all or part of that tax basis increase, and a court could sustain such a challenge.

At the Closing, we entered into the Tax Receivable Agreement, which generally provides for the payment by us to holders of Retained OppFi Units of 90% of certain tax benefits, if any, that we realize as a result of these increases in tax basis and of certain other tax benefits related to entering into the Tax Receivable Agreement, including income or franchise tax benefits attributable to payments under the Tax Receivable Agreement. These payment obligations pursuant to the Tax Receivable Agreement are the obligation of the Company and not of OppFi. The actual increase in our allocable share of OppFi’s tax basis in its assets, as well as the amount and timing of any payments under the Tax Receivable Agreement, will vary depending upon a number of factors, including the timing of exchanges, the market price of shares of our Class A Common Stock at the time of the exchange, the extent to which such exchanges are taxable and the amount and timing of our income. Because none of the foregoing factors are known at this time, we cannot determine the amounts (if any) that would be payable under the Tax Receivable Agreement. However, we expect that as a result of the possible size and frequency of the exchanges and the resulting increases in the tax basis of the tangible and intangible assets of OppFi, the payments that we expect to make under the Tax Receivable Agreement will be substantial and could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition. The payments under the Tax Receivable Agreement are not conditioned upon continued ownership of the Company by the holders of units. See “Certain Relationships and Related Transactions—Related Party Transactions in Connection with the Business Combination—Tax Receivable Agreement.”

The Members will not be required to reimburse us for any excess payments that may previously have been made under the Tax Receivable Agreement, for example, due to adjustments resulting from examinations by taxing authorities. Rather, excess payments made to such holders will be netted against payments otherwise to be made, if any, after the determination of such excess. As a result, in certain circumstances we could make payments under the Tax Receivable Agreement in excess of our actual income or franchise tax savings, which could materially impair our financial condition.

 

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In certain cases, payments under the Tax Receivable Agreement may be accelerated or significantly exceed the actual benefits we realize in respect of the tax attributes subject to the Tax Receivable Agreement.

The Tax Receivable Agreement provides that, in the event that we exercise our right to early termination of the Tax Receivable Agreement, or in the event of a change of control of the Company or we are more than 90 days late in making of a payment due under the Tax Receivable Agreement, the Tax Receivable Agreement will terminate, and we will be required to make a lump-sum payment to the Members equal to the present value of all forecasted future payments that would have otherwise been made under the Tax Receivable Agreement, which lump-sum payment would be based on certain assumptions, including those relating to our future taxable income. The change of control payment to the Members could be substantial and could exceed the actual tax benefits that we receive as a result of acquiring units from owners of OppFi because the amounts of such payments would be calculated assuming that we would have been able to use the potential tax benefits each year for the remainder of the amortization periods applicable to the basis increases, and that tax rates applicable to us would be the same as they were in the year of the termination.

Decisions made in the course of running our business, such as with respect to mergers, asset sales, other forms of business combinations or other changes in control, may influence the timing and amount of payments that are received by the other holders of Retained OppFi Units under the Tax Receivable Agreement. For example, the earlier disposition of assets following an exchange or acquisition transaction will generally accelerate payments under the Tax Receivable Agreement and increase the present value of such payments, and the disposition of assets before an exchange or acquisition transaction will increase an existing owner’s tax liability without giving rise to any rights of holders of Retained OppFi Units to receive payments under the Tax Receivable Agreement.

There may be a material negative effect on our liquidity if the payments under the Tax Receivable Agreement exceed the actual income or franchise tax savings that we realize in respect of the tax attributes subject to the Tax Receivable Agreement or if distributions to us by OppFi are not sufficient to permit us to make payments under the Tax Receivable Agreement after we have paid taxes and other expenses. Furthermore, our obligations to make payments under the Tax Receivable Agreement could make us a less attractive target for an acquisition, particularly in the case of an acquirer that cannot use some or all of the tax benefits that are deemed realized under the Tax Receivable Agreement. We may need to incur additional indebtedness to finance payments under the Tax Receivable Agreement to the extent our cash resources are insufficient to meet our obligations under the Tax Receivable Agreement as a result of timing discrepancies or otherwise which may have a material adverse effect on our financial condition.

We may not be able to realize all or a portion of the tax benefits that are expected to result from the acquisition of Retained OppFi Units from OppFi Members.

Pursuant to the Tax Receivable Agreement, the Company will share tax savings resulting from (A) the amortization of the anticipated step-up in tax basis in OppFi’s assets as a result of (i) the business combination and (ii) the exchange of Retained OppFi Units that were received in connection with the business combination, for shares of Class A Stock pursuant to the OppFi A&R LLCA and (B) certain other related transactions with the Members. The amount of any such tax savings attributable to the payment of cash to the Members in the business combination and the exchanges contemplated by the Exchange Agreement will be paid 90% to the Members and retained 10% by the Company. Any such amounts payable will only be due once the relevant tax savings have been realized by the Company. Our ability to realize, and benefit from, these tax savings depends on a number of assumptions, including that we will earn sufficient taxable income each year during the period over which the deductions arising from any such basis increases and payments are available and that there are no adverse changes in applicable law or regulations. If our actual taxable income were insufficient to fully utilize such tax benefits or there were adverse changes in applicable law or regulations, we may be unable to realize all or a portion of these expected benefits and our cash flows and stockholders’ equity could be negatively affected.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

All of the securities offered by the Selling Securityholders pursuant to this prospectus will be sold by the Selling Securityholders for their respective accounts. We will not receive any of the proceeds from these sales.

Assuming the cash exercise of all outstanding Warrants, we will receive an aggregate of approximately $179.6 million. We expect to use the net proceeds from the exercise of the Warrants, if any, for working capital and general corporate purposes. We will have broad discretion over the use of any proceeds from the exercise of the Warrants. There is no assurance that the holders of the Warrants will elect to exercise any or all of such Warrants. To the extent that any Warrants are exercised on a “cashless basis,” the amount of cash we would receive from the exercise of the Warrants will decrease.

The Selling Securityholders will pay any underwriting discounts and commissions and expenses incurred by the Selling Securityholders for brokerage, accounting, tax or legal services or any other expenses incurred by the Selling Securityholders in disposing of the securities. We will bear the costs, fees and expenses incurred in effecting the registration of the securities covered by this prospectus, including all registration and filing fees, NYSE listing fees and fees and expenses of our counsel and our independent registered public accounting firm.

DETERMINATION OF OFFERING PRICE

The offering price of the shares of Class A Common Stock underlying the Warrants offered hereby is determined by reference to the exercise price of the Warrants (other than the $15 Exercise Price Warrants) of $11.50 per share and by the exercise price of the $15 Exercise Price Warrant of $15 per share. The Public Warrants are listed on the NYSE under the symbol “OPFI WS.”

We cannot currently determine the price or prices at which shares of our Class A Common Stock or Warrants may be resold by the Selling Securityholders under this prospectus.

MARKET PRICE OF AND DIVIDENDS ON THE REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY AND RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS

As of the Closing Date, there were approximately 21 holders of record of the Class A Common Stock, excluding beneficial owners holding shares through nominee holders of record, no holders of record of the Class B Common Stock, which automatically converted into Class A Common Stock on a one-for-one basis immediately following the Closing and one holder of record of the Class V Voting Stock.

The Class A Common Stock and Public Warrants began trading on the NYSE under the symbols “OPFI” and “OPFI WS,” respectively, on July 21, 2021. In connection with the Closing, each of FGNA’s publicly traded units automatically separated into their component securities upon consummation of the Business Combination and, as a result, no longer trade as a separate security and were delisted from the NYSE.

We have not paid any cash dividends on the Class A Common Stock to date and do not intend to pay any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. The payment of cash dividends in the future will be dependent upon our revenue and earnings, if any, capital requirements, liabilities and related reserves, and general financial condition. The payment of any cash dividends will be within the discretion of the Board from time to time and subject to applicable Delaware law. It is the present intention of the Board to retain all earnings, if any, for use in business operations and, accordingly, the Board does not anticipate declaring any dividends in the foreseeable future. Further, the Company’s ability to declare dividends is currently limited by restrictive covenants in connection with various credit facilities.

 

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UNAUDITED PRO FORMA COMBINED FINANCIAL INFORMATION

Introduction

We are providing the following unaudited pro forma combined financial information to aid you in your analysis of the financial aspects of the Business Combination (as defined below). Unless the context otherwise requires, the terms “we,” “us,” “our,” and the “Company” refers to OppFi Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries, including Opportunity Financial, LLC, a Delaware limited liability company (“OppFi”), following the Closing and references to “FGNA” refer to FG New America Acquisition Corp. at or prior to the Closing (as defined below).

The unaudited pro forma combined financial information is prepared in accordance with Article 11 of Regulation S-X. The unaudited pro forma combined financial information presents the pro forma effects of the Business Combination.

The Unaudited Pro Forma Combined Financial Statements

The following unaudited pro forma combined balance sheet as of June 30, 2021 assumes that the Business Combination occurred on June 30, 2021. The unaudited pro forma combined statement of operations for the six months ended June 30, 2021, and for the year ended December 31, 2020, assumes that the Business Combination had been completed on January 1, 2020.

Management has made significant estimates and assumptions in its determination of the pro forma transaction accounting adjustments. As the unaudited pro forma combined financial information has been prepared based on these preliminary estimates, the final amounts recorded may differ materially from the information presented. The unaudited pro forma combined financial information does not give effect to any anticipated synergies, operating efficiencies, tax savings or cost savings that may be associated with the Business Combination.

The unaudited pro forma transaction accounting adjustments reflecting the completion of the Business Combination are based on certain currently available information and certain assumptions and methodologies that the Company believes are reasonable under the circumstances. The unaudited pro forma transaction accounting adjustments, which are described in the accompanying notes, may be revised as additional information becomes available and is evaluated. Therefore, it is likely that the actual adjustments will differ from the unaudited pro forma transaction accounting adjustments, and it is possible the difference may be material. The Company believes that its assumptions and methodologies provide a reasonable basis for presenting all of the significant effects of the Business Combination based on information available to management at this time and that the unaudited pro forma transaction accounting adjustments give appropriate effect to those assumptions and are properly applied in the unaudited pro forma combined financial information.

The pro forma combined financial statements do not necessarily reflect what the Company’s financial condition or results of operations would have been had the Business Combination occurred on the dates indicated. The pro forma combined financial information also may not be useful in predicting the future financial condition and results of operations of the post-combination company. The actual financial position and results of operations may differ significantly from the pro forma amounts reflected herein due to a variety of factors.

The historical financial information of FGNA was derived from (i) the unaudited financial statements of FGNA as of June 30, 2021 and for the period from January 1, 2021 to June 30, 2021 and (ii) the audited financial statements of FGNA as of December 31, 2020, and for the period from June 24, 2020 (inception) to December 31, 2020, in each case as contained in the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. The historical financial information of OppFi was derived from (i) the unaudited consolidated financial statements as of and for the six months ended June 30, 2021 and (ii) the audited consolidated financial statements as of and for the year ended December 31, 2020, in each case as contained in the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. The unaudited pro forma combined financial information is qualified in its entirety by reference to, and should be read together with FGNA’s and OppFi’s audited and unaudited financial statements and related notes as described above, the section titled “OppFi Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” contained in the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, and other financial information included elsewhere in the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part.

Description of the Transaction

On July 20, 2021 (the “Closing Date”), FGNA completed the transactions contemplated by that certain Business Combination Agreement, dated as of February 9, 2021 (the “Business Combination Agreement”), by and among FGNA, OppFi, OppFi Shares, LLC, a Delaware limited liability company (“OFS”), and Todd Schwartz, in his capacity as the representative (the “Members’ Representative”) of the members of OppFi immediately prior to the closing (the “Closing”) of the transactions contemplated by the Business Combination Agreement (the “Members”). At the Closing, (i) OppFi transferred to the Company (as defined below) 12,977,690 Class A common units of OppFi (“OppFi Units”), which was equal to the number of shares of FGNA’s Class A common stock, par value $0.0001 per share (“Class A Common Stock”), issued and outstanding as of immediately prior to the Closing (after giving effect to redemptions by FGNA’s public stockholders prior to the Closing and the conversion of FGNA’s Class B common stock, par value $0.0001 per share (“Class B Common Stock”)), (ii) FGNA contributed the Cash Consideration (as defined below) to OppFi in accordance with the Business Combination Agreement, which was distributed to the Members, and (iii) FGNA issued 96,987,093 shares of newly authorized Class V common stock, par value $0.0001 per share (“Class V Voting Stock”), which number of shares of Class V Voting Stock was equal to the number of OppFi Units retained by the Members immediately following the Closing (the “Retained OppFi Units”), and which shares of Class V Voting Stock were distributed to OFS, resulting in the combined company being organized in an “Up-C” structure. The transactions contemplated by the Business Combination Agreement are referred to herein as the “Business Combination.”

Upon the Closing, FGNA as the registrant changed its name to “OppFi Inc.”

 

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The aggregate value of the consideration paid to the Members in the Business Combination was approximately $806,517,000, after giving effect to the estimated purchase price adjustments as set forth in the Business Combination Agreement, consisting of: (i) cash consideration in the amount of $91,646,050 (the “Cash Consideration”), equal to the cash remaining in FGNA’s trust account as of immediately prior to the Closing (following the redemption of 14,822,435 shares of Class A Common Stock by the FGNA’s public stockholders (the “Redemption Shares”)), and (ii) 96,987,093 shares of Class V Voting Stock.

Immediately after giving effect to the Business Combination, there were 12,977,690 issued and outstanding shares of Class A Common Stock (giving effect to the Redemption Shares and 3,443,750 shares of Class A Common Stock issued upon the conversion of the Class B Common Stock). On the business day following the Closing, FGNA’s public units automatically separated into their component securities upon consummation of the Business Combination and, as a result, no longer trade as a separate security and were delisted from NYSE.

In connection with the Closing, on the Closing Date, 25,500,000 Retained OppFi Units (“Earnout Units”) held by the Members and an equal number of shares of Class V Voting Stock distributed to OFS in connection with the transaction, are subject to certain restrictions and potential forfeiture pending the achievement (if any) of certain earnout targets pursuant to the terms of the Business Combination Agreement.

But for restrictions related to a lock-up (transfer restrictions) and forfeiture (earnout criteria), as such restrictions are more specifically set forth in the Investor Rights Agreement entered into at the Closing, by and among the Company, certain founder holders of FGNA, the Members, the Members’ Representative and/or the Third Amended and Restated Limited Liability Company Agreement of OppFi (the “OppFi A&R LLCA”), as applicable, the Earnout Units have all other economic and voting rights of the other units of OppFi. With respect to transfers, the Earnout Units are subject to a lock-up until the later of the end of the lock-up period applicable to other OppFi Units or until such Earnout Units are earned in accordance with the Business Combination Agreement. With respect to distributions (other than tax distributions, which in respect of such Earnout Units are treated the same as any other OppFi Unit in accordance with the OppFi A&R LLCA) in relation to the Earnout Units, such distributions (other than tax distributions) are held back until the Earnout Units are earned. If an Earnout Unit is not earned, and therefore forfeited, related distributions are distributed to the other holders of units at such time.

Following the Closing, the combined Company is organized in an “Up-C” structure in which substantially all of the assets and the business of the combined Company are held by OppFi and its subsidiaries, and the Company’s only direct assets will consist of OppFi Units. The Company owned, as of the Closing, directly or indirectly, approximately 11.8% of the OppFi Units and controls OppFi as the sole manager of OppFi in accordance with the terms of the OppFi A&R LLCA, and all remaining OppFi Units are beneficially owned by the Members. In addition, OFS holds a controlling voting interest in the Company after the Closing and therefore has the ability to control OppFi.

In connection with the Closing, pursuant to (i) the terms and conditions of the FGNA’s certificate of incorporation, (ii) a letter agreement entered into on September 29, 2020, whereby certain holders of Class B Common Stock agreed to waive any and all anti-dilution rights described in FGNA’s charter and (iii) a sponsor forfeiture agreement, dated July 15, 2021, whereby the Sponsor agreed, among other things, to forfeit 2,500,000 shares of Class B Common Stock at the Closing, the outstanding shares of Class B Common Stock were converted into shares of Class A Common Stock on a one-for-one basis and into an aggregate of 3,443,750 shares of Class A common stock.

Beginning on the nine-month anniversary of the Closing (unless otherwise waived by the Company, or, with respect to 11,600,000 Retained OppFi Units held by the Members, following the registration under the Securities Act of such shares), each Retained OppFi Unit held by the Members may be exchanged, subject to certain conditions, for either one share of Class A common stock or, at the election of the Company in its capacity as the sole manager of OppFi, the cash equivalent of the market value of one share of Class A common stock, pursuant to the terms and conditions of the OppFi A&R LLCA. For each Retained OppFi Unit so exchanged, one share of the Class V Voting Stock will be canceled by the Company.

The Cash Consideration payable to the Members was paid from cash available to FGNA us from the trust account that held the proceeds (including interest) of FGNA’s initial public offering that closed on October 2, 2020, and after giving effect to taxes payable, redemptions by FGNA’s public stockholders for their pro rata share of the aggregate amount of funds on deposit in the trust account.

 

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Accounting for the Business Combination

Business combinations in which the legal acquirer is not the accounting acquirer are commonly referred to as “reverse acquisitions” and can represent asset acquisitions, capital transactions and business combinations. A reverse acquisition occurs when the entity that issues securities (the legal acquirer) is identified as the acquiree for accounting purposes and the entity whose equity interests are acquired (the legal acquiree) is identified as the acquirer for accounting purposes. Reverse acquisitions are accounted for in accordance with Subtopic 805-40 of Accounting Standards Codification Topic 805 “Business Combinations” (“ASC 805-40”). The Business Combination will be accounted for as a reverse acquisition for which OppFi was determined to be the accounting acquirer based on the following factors:

 

  (i)

The OFS will retain the largest and controlling voting interest in post-combination company.

 

  (ii)

OppFi’s former management will represent the management of the post-combination company.

 

  (iii)

The Members retain the ability to elect the majority of the members of the post-combination company’s board of directors.

 

  (iv)

OppFi is larger as compared to FGNA based on assets, revenues or earnings.

Other factors were evaluated but are not considered to have a material impact on the determination of OppFi as the accounting acquirer. The transaction is accounted for as a reverse acquisition in accordance with U.S. GAAP. Under this method of accounting, FGNA, which is the legal acquirer, will be treated as the “acquired” company for financial reporting purposes and OppFi will be treated as the accounting acquirer. As the same entity controls the target company and post transaction public reporting entity, for accounting purposes, the transaction is treated as the equivalent of a capital transaction in which OppFi is issuing units for the net assets of FGNA, accompanied by a recapitalization. The net assets of FGNA are stated at historical cost, with no goodwill or other intangible assets recorded. Operations prior to the transaction are those of OppFi.

Accounting Policies and Reclassifications

Based on management’s initial analysis of the accounting policies of FGNA and OppFi, there were no significant differences identified that would have an impact on the unaudited pro forma combined financial information or that would require adjustments to the unaudited pro forma combined financial statements. Upon completion of the transaction, management is performing a comprehensive review of the accounting policies of FGNA and OppFi. As a result of the comprehensive review, management may identify differences between the accounting policies of these entities which, when conformed, could have a material impact on the financial statements of the post-combination company.

The following unaudited pro forma combined balance sheet as of June 30, 2021, and the unaudited pro forma combined statement of operations for the six months ended June 30, 2021 and for the year ended December 31, 2020 are based on the historical financial statements of FGNA and OppFi. The unaudited pro forma transaction accounting adjustments are based on information currently available, and assumptions and estimates underlying the unaudited pro forma transaction accounting adjustments are described in the accompanying notes. Actual results may differ materially from the assumptions used to present the accompanying unaudited pro forma combined financial information.

 

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FG New America Acquisition Corp.

Unaudited Pro Forma Combined Balance Sheet

As of June 30, 2021

(in thousands)

 

                   Pro forma               
                   Transaction               
            OppFi      Accounting            Proforma  
     FGNA (Historical)      (Historical)      Adjustments            Combined  

ASSETS

             

Cash and cash equivalents

   $ 310      $ 55,253      $ 91,646       A      $ 25,751  
           (29,812     C     
           (91,646     D     

Restricted Cash

     —          65,526        —            65,526  

Finance Receivable

     —          296,514        —            296,514  

Prepaid expenses

     118           —            118  

Debt issuance costs

     —          1,786        —            1,786  

Other assets

     —          5,598        —            5,598  

Marketable securities held in trust account

     243,381        —          (243,381     A        —    

Property, equipment and software, net

     —          12,558        —            12,558  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

      

 

 

 

Total Assets

   $ 243,809      $ 437,235      $ (273,193      $ 407,851  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

      

 

 

 

 

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Unaudited Pro Forma Combined Balance Sheet (continued)

As of June 30, 2021

(in thousands)

 

                  Pro forma             
                  Transaction             
           OppFi      Accounting          Proforma  
     FGNA (Historical)     (Historical)      Adjustments          Combined  

LIABILITIES

            

Accounts payable

   $ 1,540     $ 627      $ (1,511   C    $ 656  

Accrued Expenses

     —         28,622        (4,629   J      23,993  

Secured borrowing payable

     —         17,649        —            17,649  

Senior Debt, Net

     —         206,644        —            206,644  

Warrant Liabilities

     39,441       —          (5,180   N      34,261  

Other debt

     —         6,354        —            6,354  
  

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

      

 

 

 

Total liabilities

     40,981       259,896        (11,320        289,557  

Class A common stock subject to possible redemption, 21,215,577 shares at redemption value

     197,827       —          (197,827   B      —    

Stockholders’ Equity:

            

Common Stock

     2       —          2     B      13  
          6     F   
          3     M   

Preferred units

     —         6,660        (6,660   F      —    

Additional paid-in capital

     32,385       581        (151,735   A      58,703  
          197,825     B   
          (29,812   C   
          (27,386   E   
          4,629     J   
          6,654     F   
          (104,332   K   
          1,511     C   
          123,203     M   
          5,180     N   

Accumulated (deficit) earnings

     (27,386     170,098        (91,646   D      (44,754
          27,386     E   
          (123,206   M   
  

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

      

 

 

 

Total stockholders’ equity

     5,001       177,339        (168,379        13,961  

Noncontrolling interests

          104,332     K      104,332  
  

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

      

 

 

 

Total equity

     5,001       177,339        (64,046        118,293  
  

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

      

 

 

 

Total Liabilities, Stockholder’s Equity and Noncontrolling interests

   $ 243,809     $ 437,235      $ (273,193      $ 407,851  
  

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

      

 

 

 

 

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FG New America Acquisition Corp.

Unaudited Pro Forma Combined Statement of Operations

For the six months Ended June 30, 2021

(in thousands, except share and per share data)

 

     Six Months                         
     Ended June 30,     Six Months Ended                Six Months Ended  
     2021     June 30, 2021                June 30, 2021  
                 Pro forma             
                 Transaction             
     FGNA     OppFi     Accounting          Pro Forma  
     (Historical)     (Historical)     Adjustments          Combined  

Interest and loan related income, net

   $ —       $ 162,133     $ —          $ 162,133  

Other income

     —         500       —            500  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

      

 

 

 

Total revenue

     —         162,633       —            162,633  

Provision for credit losses on finance receivables

     —         (38     —            (38

Change in fair value of finance receivables

     —         (33,695     —            (33,695
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

      

 

 

 

Net Revenue

     —         128,900       —            128,900  

Expenses:

           

Salaries and employee benefits

     —         28,966       —            28,966  

Interest expense and amortized debt issuance costs

     —         18,922       —            18,922  

Interest expense - related party

     —         10,856       —            10,856  

Direct marketing costs

     —         137            137  

Technology costs

     —         5,880            5,880  

Depreciation and amortization

     —         4,577       —            4,577  

Professional fees

     —         4,569            4,569  

Payment Processing Fees

     —         3,312            3,312  

Occupancy

     —         1,759       —            1,759  

Management Fees - related party

     —         350       —            350  

General, administrative and other

     2,355       7,201       (2,355   G      7,201  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

      

 

 

 

Total Expenses

     2,355       86,528       (2,355        86,528  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

      

 

 

 

(Loss) / Income from Operations

     (2,355     42,371       2,355          42,371  

Change in fair value of warrant liabilities

     (17,005     —         3,155     O      (13,850

Investment income on trust account

     12       —         (12   H      —    
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

      

 

 

 

Net (loss)/income before taxes

     (19,348     42,371       5,498          28,521  

Provision for income taxes

     —         —         842     I      842  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

      

 

 

 

Net (loss)/income

   $ (19,348   $ 42,371     $ 4,656        $ 27,679  

Net (loss)/income attributable to noncontrolling interest

         24,412     L      24,412  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

      

 

 

 

Net (loss)/income attributable to common stockholders

   $ (19,348   $ 42,371     $ (19,756      $ 3,267  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

      

 

 

 

Basic weighted average shares outstanding

              12,977,690  

Fully diluted weighted average shares outstanding

              12,977,690  

Basic net income per share

            $ 0.25  

Fully diluted net income per share

            $ 0.25  

 

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FG New America Acquisition Corp.

Unaudited Pro Forma Combined Statement of Operations

For the Year Ended December 31, 2020

(in thousands, except share and per share data)

 

     For the Period                          
     from June 24,                          
     2020 (Inception)     Year Ended                 Year Ended  
     to December 31,     December 31,                 December 31,  
     2020     2020                 2020  
                  Transaction             
                  Accounting          Pro Forma  
                  Adjustments          Combined  
     FGNA     OppFi      Assuming No          Assuming No  
     (Historical)     (Historical)      Redemptions          Redemptions  

Interest and loan related income, net

   $ —       $ 290,225      $ —          $ 290,225  

Other income

     —         789        —            789  
  

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

      

 

 

 

Total revenue

     —         291,014        —            291,014  

Total provision

     —         90,787        —            90,787  
  

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

      

 

 

 

Net Revenue

     —         200,227        —            200,227  

Expenses:

            

Salaries and employee benefits

     —         44,196        —            44,196  

Interest expense and amortized debt issuance costs

     —         20,667        —            20,667  

Interest expense - related party

     —         562        —            562  

Direct marketing costs

     —         18,643             18,643  

Technology costs

     —         7,623             7,623  

Depreciation and amortization

     —         6,732        —            6,732  

Professional fees

     —         6,569             6,569  

Payment Processing Fees

     —         4,123             4,123  

Occupancy

     —         3,091        —            3,091  

Management Fees - related party

     —         700        —            700  

Formation Costs

     1       —          (1   G      —    

General, administrative and other

     190       9,805        (190   G      9,805  
  

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

      

 

 

 

Total Expenses

     191       122,711        (191        122,711  
  

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

      

 

 

 

(Loss) / Income from Operations

     (191     77,516        191          77,516  

Change in fair value of warrant liabilities

     (7,853     —          2,025     O      (5,828

Investment income on trust account

     6       —          (6   H      —    
  

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

      

 

 

 

Net (loss)/income before taxes

     (8,038     77,516        2,210          71,688  

Provision for income taxes

     —         —          2,115     I      2,115  
  

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

      

 

 

 

Net (loss)/income

   $ (8,038   $ 77,516      $ 95        $ 69,573  

Net (loss)/income attributable to noncontrolling interest

        $ 61,362     L    $ 61,362  
  

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

      

 

 

 

Net (loss)/income attributable to common stockholders

   $ (8,038   $ 77,516      $ (61,267      $ 8,211  
  

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

      

 

 

 

Basic weighted average shares outstanding - excluding Class V voting stock pertaining to Earnout Units

               12,977,690  

Fully diluted weighted average shares outstanding - excluding Class V voting stock pertaining to Earnout Units

               12,977,690  

Basic net income per share - excluding Class V voting stock pertaining to Earnout Units

             $ 0.63  

Fully diluted net income per share - excluding Class V voting stock pertaining to Earnout Units

             $ 0.63  

Adjustments to Unaudited Pro Forma Combined Financial Information

The historical consolidated financial statements have been adjusted in the unaudited pro forma combined financial information to give effect to pro forma events that are (1) directly attributable to the transaction, (2) factually supportable and (3) with respect to the statement of operations, expected to have a continuing impact on the results of the post-combination company.

There were no intercompany balances or transactions between FGNA and OppFi as of the dates and for the periods of these unaudited pro forma combined financial statements.

The unaudited pro forma basic and diluted earnings per share amounts presented in the unaudited pro forma combined consolidated statements of operations, are based upon the number of shares outstanding, assuming the transaction occurred on January 1, 2020.

 

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The unaudited pro forma transaction accounting adjustments included in the unaudited pro forma combined balance sheet as of June 30, 2021, and the unaudited pro forma combined statements of operations for the six months ended June 30, 2021, and for the year ended December 31, 2020, are as follows:

Adjustments to Unaudited Pro Forma Combined Balance Sheet

 

  A.

Represents the reclassification of cash and investments held in the trust account that became available at the Closing.

 

  B.

Represents the reclassification of Class A Common Stock subject to possible redemption to permanent equity.

 

  C.

Represents the pro forma transaction accounting adjustments for transaction costs incurred in aggregate by FGNA and OppFi of approximately $8.6 million and $21.2 million, respectively, for legal, financial advisory, insurance and other professional fees as part of the Business Combination, including approximately $1.5 million in costs previously recognized as expense.

 

  D.

Represents the pro forma transaction accounting adjustments for Cash Consideration to be paid to the Members in exchange for the OppFi Units, as defined herein.

 

  E.

Represents the pro forma transaction accounting adjustments for the elimination of FGNA’s historical accumulated deficit at reverse acquisition.

 

  F.

Represents the pro forma transaction accounting adjustments to eliminate the OppFi Preferred Units as a result of the Recapitalization (as defined in the Business Combination Agreement), pursuant to which all classes of equity held by the Members were converted or exchanged (whether by direct exchange, merger or otherwise) into a number of OppFi Units in the amounts determined in accordance with the OppFi A&R LLCA, the result of which was that the Members collectively held a single class of equity interests in OppFi as of immediately prior to the Closing.

 

  J.

Represents the pro forma transaction accounting adjustments for the cashless exercise of the outstanding warrant to purchase 511,459 OppFi Preferred Units at June 30, 2021, which warrant provided for automatic cashless exercise immediately prior to, and conditioned upon, the Closing.

 

  K.

Represents the proforma transaction accounting adjustment for the noncontrolling interest of the Retained OppFi Unit holders, which is calculated as combined pro forma total equity of $118.3 million multiplied by 88.2% representing the percentage of outstanding OppFi Units retained by the Members.

 

  M.

Represents the proforma transaction accounting adjustment for the issuance of 25,500,000 shares of Class V Voting Stock at fair value issued to OFS in connection with the Closing which are subject to certain restrictions and potential forfeiture pending the achievement (if any) of certain earnout targets pursuant to the terms of the Business Combination Agreement.

 

  N.

Represents the proforma transaction accounting adjustment related to 2,200,000 warrants forfeited upon the close of the transaction.

 

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Adjustments to Unaudited Pro Forma Combined Statement of Operations

 

  G.

Represents pro forma transaction accounting adjustment to eliminate historical expenses incurred by FGNA, which will not be recurring after the completion of the Business Combination.

 

  H.

Represents pro forma transaction accounting adjustment to eliminate interest income earned on FGNA’s trust account, which will not be recurring after the completion of the Business Combination.

 

  L.

Represents pro forma income tax provision at a rate of 25% reflecting the U.S. federal statutory rate of 21% and a blended statutory rate for state income taxes, net of federal benefit, of 4%, based on applicable law in effect on December 31, 2020, and June 30, 2021, and applied to pre-tax income after deducting the approximately 88.2% of pass-through income to the Members. Represents pro forma transaction accounting adjustment to reflect net income attributable to the retained OppFi Unit holders as a noncontrolling interest.

 

  O.

Represents the proforma transaction accounting adjustment to the change in fair value resulting from the forfeiture of 2,200,000 in warrants at the close of the transaction.

Net Income Per Share

Represents the net income / loss per share calculated using the historical weighted average shares outstanding of the Company, giving effect to the Retained OppFi Units as participating securities (“shares”), assuming the shares were outstanding since January 1, 2020. As the Business Combination and related transactions are being reflected as if they had occurred at the beginning of the period presented, the calculation of weighted average shares outstanding for basic and diluted net income / loss per share assumes that the shares currently outstanding as well as issuable relating to the transaction have been outstanding for the entire period presented. The calculation excludes Company warrants of 15,339,437 with strike prices of $11.50 and $15.00 as they are anti-dilutive.

 

     Six months  
     ended June 30, 2021  

Pro forma net income available to common shareholders, basic

   $ 3,267  

Weighted average common shares outstanding, basic

     12,977,690  

Weighted average common shares outstanding, diluted

     12,977,690  

Net income per share, basic

   $ 0.25  

Net income per share, diluted

   $ 0.25  

Weighted average common shares calculation:

  

Total outstanding shares pre business combination

     30,300,125  

Total pro forma common shares to be issued pursuant to the Business Combination Agreement

     96,987,093  

Share redemptions and forfeitures

     (17,322,435

Noncontrolling interests

     (96,987,093
  

 

 

 

Weighted average common shares outstanding, basic

     12,977,690  
  

 

 

 

Weighted average common shares outstanding, diluted

     12,977,690  
  

 

 

 

 

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     Twelve months  
     ended December 31, 2020  

Pro forma net income available to common shareholders, basic

   $ 8,211  

Weighted average common shares outstanding, basic

     12,977,690  

Weighted average common shares outstanding, diluted

     12,977,690  

Net income per share, basic

   $ 0.63  

Net income per share, diluted

   $ 0.63  

Weighted average common shares calculation:

  

Total outstanding shares pre business combination

     30,300,125  

Total pro forma common shares to be issued pursuant to the Business Combination Agreement

     96,987,093  

Share redemptions and forfeitures

     (17,322,435

Noncontrolling interests

     (96,987,093
  

 

 

 

Weighted average common shares outstanding, basic

     12,977,690  
  

 

 

 

Weighted average common shares outstanding, diluted

     12,977,690  
  

 

 

 

 

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COMPARATIVE SHARE INFORMATION

The following table sets forth the per share data of FGNA on a stand-alone basis and the unaudited pro forma combined per share data for the six months ended June 30, 2021 and for the year ended December 31, 2020.

The pro forma combined book value information reflects the Business Combination and related transactions as if they had occurred on June 30, 2021 or on December 31, 2020. For pro forma combined information, the weighted average shares outstanding and net income per share information give pro forma effect to the Business Combination and related transactions as if they had occurred on January 1, 2020.

You should read the information in the following table in conjunction with the historical financial statements of FGNA and OppFi and related notes that are in each case as contained in the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. The unaudited pro forma combined per share information is derived from, and should be read in conjunction with, the unaudited pro forma combined financial statements and related notes included above.

The unaudited pro forma combined net income per share information below does not purport to represent the net income per share which would have occurred had the companies been combined during the periods presented, nor net income per share for any future date or period. The unaudited pro forma combined book value per share information below does not purport to represent what the value of FGNA and OppFi would have been had the companies been combined during the periods presented.

 

     OppFi      FGNA      Pro Forma
Combined
 
     (in thousands, except share and per share data)  
Six Months Ended June 30, 2021         

Net income (loss) attributable to common stockholders

   $ 42,371      $ (19,348    $ 3,267  

Stockholders’ Equity

   $ 177,339      $ 5,001      $ 13,861  

Weighted average shares outstanding, basic

     53,273        10,974,550        12,977,690  

Weighted average shares outstanding, diluted

     53,501        10,974,550        12,977,690  

Basic net income (loss) per share

   $ 0.80      $ (1.76    $ 0.25  

Diluted net income (loss) per share

   $ 0.79      $ (1.76    $ 0.25  

Stockholders’ equity per share(4)

   $ 3.33      $ 0.71      $ 1.08  

 

     OppFi      FGNA      Pro Forma
Combined
 
     (in thousands, except share and per share data)  
Year Ended December 31, 2020         

Net income (loss) attributable to common stockholders

   $ 77,516      $ (8,038    $ 8,211  

Stockholders’ Equity

   $ 99,332      $ 5,001      $ 5,856  

Weighted average shares outstanding, basic

     52,125        7,016,091        12,977,690  

Weighted average shares outstanding, diluted

     52,339        7,016,091        12,977,690  

Basic net income (loss) per share

   $ 1.49      $ (1.15    $ 0.63  

Diluted net income (loss) per share

   $ 1.48      $ (1.15    $ 0.63  

Stockholders’ equity per share(4)

   $ 1.91      $ 0.55      $ 0.45  

 

(1)

Excludes an aggregate of 10,107,945 weighted average shares subject to possible redemption at December 31, 2020 and 19,325,575 weighted average shares subject to redemption at June 30, 2021.

(2)

In the periods when net loss is incurred, no impact of dilutive securities is included in the calculation of weighted average number of common shares outstanding.

(3)

Excludes the effect of 21,215,577 shares of Class A Common Stock classified as held for redemption as of December 31, 2020 and 19,325,575 shares of Class A common stock classified as held for redemption as of June 30, 2021.

(4)

Based on weighted average shares outstanding, basic.

 

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BUSINESS

Unless the context otherwise requires, all references in this section to “OppFi” refer to OppFi and its subsidiaries prior to the consummation of the Business Combination, or the Company from and after the Business Combination in the present tense. OppFi’s business and the industry in which OppFi operates is subject to a high degree of uncertainty and risk due to a variety of factors, including those described in the section titled “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this prospectus. These and other factors could cause results to differ materially from those expressed in the estimates made by the independent parties and by OppFi.

Industry, Market and Other Data

Unless otherwise indicated, estimates and information concerning OppFi’s industry and the market in which OppFi operates contained in this prospectus, including OppFi’s general expectations, market position, market opportunity, and market size, are based on industry publications and reports generated by third-party providers, other publicly available studies, and its internal sources and estimates. This information involves a number of assumptions and limitations, and you are cautioned not to give undue weight to such estimates. Although OppFi is responsible for all of the disclosure contained in this section of the prospectus captioned “Information About OppFi” and OppFi believes the information from the industry publications and other third-party sources included in this prospectus is reliable, OppFi has not independently verified the accuracy or completeness of the data contained in such sources. The content of, or accessibility through, the below sources and websites, except to the extent specifically set forth in this prospectus, does not constitute a portion of this prospectus and is not incorporated herein, and any websites are an inactive textual reference only.

The source of certain statistical data, estimates and forecasts contained in this prospectus are the following independent industry publications or reports:

 

   

Brevoort, Kenneth P. Grimm, Philipp and Kambara, Michelle, “Data Point: Credit Invisibles,” Consumer Financial Protection Bureau, accessed July 15, 2016, http://files.consumerfinance.gov/f/201505_cfpb_data-point-credit-invisibles.pdf.

 

   

Chen, Lisa, and Gregory Elliehausen (2020). “The Cost Structure of Consumer Finance Companies and Its Implications for Interest Rates: Evidence from the Federal Reserve Board’s 2015 Survey of Finance Companies,” FEDS Notes. Washington: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, August 03, 2020, https://doi.org/10.17016/2380-7172.2610.

 

   

Elkins, Kathleen. “Here’s how much money Americans have in their savings accounts.” CNBC.com, Sept 13, 2017.

 

   

Farrell, Diana, Greig, Fiona, Chenxi, Yu, “Weathering Volatility 2.0: A Monthly Stress Test to Guide Savings,” J.P. Morgan Chase & Co. Institute, October 2019, accessed March 12, 2021, https://www.jpmorganchase.com/content/ dam/jpmc/jpmorgan-chase-and-co/institute/pdf/institute-volatility-cash-buffer-executive-summary.pdf.

 

   

Friedman, Zack. “78% Of Workers Live Paycheck To Paycheck.” Forbes.com, January 11, 2019.

 

   

Graham, Karen and Golden, Elaine (2019). “Financially Underserved Market Size Study 2019,” https://s3.amazonaws.com/cfsi-innovation-files-2018/wp-content/uploads/2020/01/31170215/2019-Market-Size-Report.pdf.

 

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Hard, Kausar. et. al. “UNEQUAL ACCESS TO CREDIT: The Hidden Impact of Credit Constraints.” NewYorkFed.org, 2019.

As disclosed in this prospectus, the Net Promoter Scores for the lending programs of OppFi’s banking partners are 85. The Net Promoter Scores were derived through a third-party service that administers surveys to loan applicants immediately following the applicants’ acceptance of a loan on OppFi’s platform. Net Promoter Scores are calculated based on responses measured on a scale of zero to ten to the survey question, “How likely are you to recommend OppLoans to a friend?” Responses of nine or 10 are considered “promoters,” responses of seven or eight are considered neutral or “passives,” and responses of six or less are considered “detractors.” The percentage of detractors is subtracted from the percentage of promoters to obtain the Net Promoter Score using the methodology developed by Bain & Company, Inc. References to OppFi’s bank partners’ Net Promoter Scores are based on survey data gathered in 2020. Net promoter score for the bank industry are based on 2016 Net Promoter Score Benchmarks Study by the Qualtrics XM Institute (formerly Temkin Group).

Company Overview

OppFi is a leading financial technology platform that powers banks to offer accessible lending products through its proprietary technology and artificial intelligence, or AI, and a top-rated experience. OppFi’s primary mission is to facilitate financial inclusion and credit access to the 60 million everyday consumers who lack access to traditional credit through best available products and an unwavering commitment to its customers. Unlike payday loans, earned wage access and similar credit products that often lack transparency, fairness, and ability to repay guidelines, OppFi is dedicated to offering the best possible product and service at the best possible price. Loans facilitated on OppFi’s platform can be up to five times cheaper than payday loans,3 are fully amortizing, accrue simple interest, are absent of fees (namely, no prepayment penalties, origination fees, late fees or insufficient funds fees), and present the customer with the total cost of the loan up front. The average installment loan facilitated by OppFi’s platform is $1,500, payable in monthly installments and with an average contractual term of 11 months. There are no “rollovers” and payments are reported to the three major credit bureaus. OppFi’s dedication to borrowers is further evidenced by its “TurnUp” process described below and most importantly, by its exceptionally high customer satisfaction ratings.

 

 

LOGO

OppFi is a leading mission-driven financial technology platform that powers banks to offer accessible lending products and a top-rated experience to everyday consumers. OppFi partners with banks to facilitate short-term lending options for everyday consumers who lack access to mainstream financial products. OppFi’s AI-enabled financial technology platform focuses on helping these everyday consumers who lack access to traditional credit products to build a better financial path. Consumers on OppFi’s platform benefit from higher approval rates and a highly automated, transparent, efficient, and fully digital experience. OppFi’s bank partners benefit from its turn-key, outsourced marketing, data science, and proprietary technology to digitally acquire, underwrite and service these everyday consumers. Since inception, OppFi has facilitated more than $2.3 billion in gross loan issuances covering over 1.5 million loans.

OppFi’s “Everyday Consumers” are median U.S. consumers, who are employed, have bank accounts, and earn median wages. Some have experienced a hardship or emergency and need a loan; others are struggling to make ends meet; while others have unplanned expenses, like buying a computer for their child who is in remote school due to COVID-19, for which they did not have money budgeted. When they apply for a loan through a bank, they are rejected due to their credit score.

The OppFi solution begins with an approximately 5-minute mobile-optimized online application which, at the applicant’s request, feeds into its “TurnUp” process, which performs a search for mainstream lower cost credit products that offer an annual percentage rate, or APR, of less than 36%. Approximately 90% of the time, no offers of lower credit are returned. If no mainstream credit options are available, the application is processed through OppFi’s proprietary underwriting platform. OppFi’s AI-enabled underwriting platform utilizes alternative metrics to determine customers’ creditworthiness. OppFi’s proprietary algorithms are validated by bank partners to facilitate their underwriting processes. These algorithms ignore traditional credit scores, which are typically not the most accurate predictor of this consumer’s ability and willingness to repay.4 OppFi’s solution is based on the belief that everyday consumers can be provided credit in a way that is both accessible and affordable.

 

3 

Based on a 59% APR installment loan from OppFi compared to >300% APR of payday and title loans.

4 

OppFi has conducted a retroactive analysis of loss rates by risk segment against a Vantage 4.0 credit score model and was able to conclude the internal model had better risk adjusted losses over a twelve-month period. In fact, OppFi’s internal model recommended the approval of 29% additional loans at the same default rate. See the section titled “—Proprietary, data driven decisioning and risk models” for more information.

 

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OppFi collects and calculates over 500 attributes on loan applications for uses in loan decisions. These attributes are based on data from credit bureaus, bank transactions and loan applications. Using this information, OppFi generates a proprietary score in combination with scores generated from third party providers. Scores are shared with applicants, along with the relevant factors for the score calculation. The proprietary score determines the exact loan terms to be offered to an applicant.

OppFi’s platform offers consumers a streamlined application experience that is simple, easy and transparent. After applying, applicants often receive instant decisions, as 75% of OppFi’s underwriting decisions are automated, with next business day funding. This process provides consumers with instant access to fair, transparent credit as well as an opportunity to build financial health over time through our standard reporting to the three major credit bureaus. OppFi’s installment loans have an average contractual length of less than one year, and its partner banks reward customers over time with lower priced products as they repay. OppFi’s installment loans have no fees, including no origination fees, no late fees, and no insufficient funds, or NSF, fees. Customers are offered transparent and flexible repayment options, including allowing customers to make payments for their full term, as well as allowing them to pre-pay their loans with no penalties. OppFi’s goal is to ultimately improve consumers’ access to credit via improved credit scores and to graduate them to more mainstream products over time, such as near-prime loan products and credit cards.

In pursuit of its mission to provide financial inclusion to the Everyday Consumer, OppFi focuses not only on providing initial access to credit but also on education and providing a pathway toward building financial health. OppU, OppFi’s financial education platform, provides free, standards-aligned courses intended to teach financial literacy to its customers. With OppU, both customers and non-customers can learn what it takes to build credit as well as how to budget and manage their finances.

Some OppFi consumers also have access to Salary Tap, OppFi’s payroll deduction secured installment loan product. Mechanically similar to the standard installment loan product, Salary Tap provides customers with the ability to repay through salary allotment, significantly improving repayment security and offered at lower rates to consumers. Salary Tap is currently available to OppFi customers who work at a qualified employer and apply for the Salary Tap product, so long as the applicant does not have an active or written off loan with OppFi. The percentage of OppFi’s customers who have used Salary Tap is less than 0.1%.

OppFi launched its credit card, OppFi Card, as a graduation product for consumers starting in the second half of 2021, utilizing best-in-class mobile experience and customer service to provide OppFi consumers with another opportunity to build credit and an alternative to traditional credit cards after they have built credit through its other products.

 

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OppFi believes that it has already achieved significant scale, and is continuing to grow significantly via its legacy installment loan product along with new product offerings including its recently launched Salary Tap payroll deduction product and anticipated credit card, OppFi Card. As of June 30, 2021, OppFi has amassed a base of nearly 662,000 unique customers since its inception and is growing rapidly. OppFi’s net promoter score (NPS) of 83 for the year ended June 30, 2021, far exceeds the industry average NPS of 32 for banks and is reflective of its commitment to providing a best in class customer service experience. NPS is a score that measures the likelihood of users to recommend a company’s products or services to others, and ranges from a low of negative 100 to high of positive 100, and benchmark scores can vary significantly by industry. A score greater than zero represents a company having more promoters than detractors. Additionally, OppFi has been ranked as an Inc. 5000 company since 2016 and was named the eighth fastest-growing Chicagoland company in 2020 by Crain’s Chicago Business, measured by five-year growth rate. OppFi has maintained an A+ rating from the Better Business Bureau (BBB) since January 2016 and a 4.9/5 star rating with more than 14,000 online customer reviews, making it one of the top customer-rated financial platforms online.

For the six months ended June 30, 2020 and 2021, revenue was approximately $136 million and $163 million, respectively, representing period-over-period revenue growth of approximately 20%. OppFi generated earnings before tax (EBT) of approximately $42 million and $42 million for the six months ended June 30, 2020 and 2021, respectively.5

 

LOGO

Market Opportunity

 

 

LOGO

Approximately 60 Million Americans Lack Access to Mainstream Credit

About half of U.S. consumers have non-prime credit scores (below a FICO score of 620)6, approximately 57% have less than $1,000 in their savings account7, and nearly eight out of 10 live paycheck-to-paycheck.8 OppFi operates in this segment of the financial services industry by providing a variety of credit products to historically underserved and underbanked consumers. Generally, these consumers are in need of fair, affordable, transparent and flexible credit products to cover everyday expenses and cash shortfalls, but traditional banks and credit providers are largely unwilling to service these consumers due to low FICO scores or similar factors. More than 90% of top lenders use the FICO score among other quantifiable metrics and qualifying rules to determine a potential borrower’s creditworthiness, and these criteria often result in adverse selection—potentially overlooking consumers who are otherwise willing and able to repay while simultaneously accepting consumers who are not.

Many U.S. Middle Income, Credit-Challenged Consumers Lack Access to Affordable Credit.

Several demographic and socioeconomic trends have driven demand from these unbanked and underbanked consumers, including stagnant to declining growth in the household income for working-class individuals. In 2017, a study conducted by CareerBuilder found that 78% of U.S. workers are living paycheck to paycheck. In 2019, JP Morgan Chase published a study based on administrative banking data to study the nature and trends of month-to-month fluctuations in income and spending of its U.S. account holders.9 The study found that over the prior six years, the median volatility in month-to-month income was 36% and that families experience large income swings five months per year on average. This study also determined that 65% of U.S. households had insufficient cash needed to sustain a simultaneous income dip and expenditure spike, which the study estimated should be roughly six weeks of take-home pay.

  

 

5 

Represents Net Income as reported in audited financial statements, as the Company does not have tax liability under current LLC pass-through structure.

6 

Brevoort, Kenneth P. Grimm, Philipp and Kambara, Michelle, “Data Point: Credit Invisibles,” Consumer Financial Protection Bureau, accessed July 15, 2016, http://files.consumerfinance.gov/f/201505_cfpb_data-point-credit-invisibles.pdf.

7 

Elkins, Kathleen. “Here’s how much money Americans have in their savings accounts.” CNBC.com, Sept 13, 2017.

8 

Friedman, Zack. “78% Of Workers Live Paycheck To Paycheck.” Forbes.com, January 11, 2019.

9 

Farrell, Diana, Greig, Fiona, Chenxi, Yu, “Weathering Volatility 2.0: A Monthly Stress Test to Guide Savings,” J.P. Morgan Chase & Co. Institute, October 2019, accessed March 12, 2021, https://www.jpmorganchase.com/content/dam/jpmc/jpmorgan-chase-and-co/institute/pdf/institute-volatility-cash-buffer-executive-summary.pdf.

 

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Additionally, the U.S. Federal Reserve reported in October 2019 that approximately three in 10 American adults said they were either unable to pay their monthly bills or would be unable to pay their bills given one modest financial setback. The report also found that roughly 22% of the U.S. population is unbanked or underbanked, with around 20% of adults having used alternative financial services in the prior year. Approximately 31% of respondents who applied for credit were denied credit or were offered less credit than they desired, and 3% of respondents desired credit but did not apply for fear of denial. Furthermore, according to a Federal Reserve Bank of New York 2019 study, 23.8% of U.S. adults, or about 60.4 million U.S. adults, lack access to credit at choice.

 

 

LOGO

Banks Must Adapt to an Increasingly Digitally Native Customer to Remain Competitive.

As this consumer segment has grown, a number of traditional financial services have become widely available online. According to the Consumer and Community Development Research Section of the Federal Reserve Board, roughly 50% of U.S. bank customers surveyed have used mobile banking services. Additionally, about half of the U.S. population would be comfortable buying financial products from technology companies based on a Bain survey from 2017. These figures highlight the extent to which consumers now accept the internet for conducting their financial transactions and are willing to entrust their financial information to online companies. OppFi believes the increased acceptance of online financial services has led to an increased demand for online lending and financing, the benefits of which include improved methods for evaluating creditworthiness, customer privacy, ease of access, security, 24/7 loan application availability, speed of funding and loan cost transparency.

Traditional Banks Have Been Slow to Adopt Digital Technology for Consumer Lending.

Traditional banks, who have historically played a substantial role in the consumer credit markets, have often been slow to adapt to this wave of digital adoption among consumers. There are roughly 5,200 FDIC insured institutions, many of which have legacy technology and lack sufficient mobile solutions in today’s digital era. Unlike larger institutions, these smaller players often lack many of the resources needed to fund and develop effective platform digitization. The COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated these issues for both consumers and the institutions they interact with, as the lack of access to physical banking services has necessitated digital capabilities to fully serve consumers. OppFi believes the performance of its platform through the COVID-19 pandemic has also given OppFi’s existing and prospective bank partners an important new data point to underpin their growing confidence in our solution.

Consumer Lenders Offering Small Personal Loans Require Higher APRs to Break Even.

Loan interest is inclusive of both compensation for forgoing current income for future income and the associated risk as well as compensation for expenses incurred to originate, service and collect the loans. While the former expenses are variable with the amount of the credit and the creditworthiness of the borrower, the latter are largely fixed. These fixed costs are tied to the loan application itself. In the case of smaller-sized consumer loans, these fixed costs are representatively large relative to loan amount; therefore, smaller loans require higher interest rates than larger loans. According to a report published by the Federal Reserve on August 12, 2020, break-even APRs are quite high for small loan amounts. Based on 2015 data in the report, a loan amount of $2,530 is necessary to break even at a 36% APR, and the trend is even more pronounced for smaller loan amounts. The required break-even APR shrinks and flattens for larger loans; however, the implication is that the loan comes with a longer period of indebtedness and a higher overall interest payment over the life of the loan, which is often far worse for OppFi’s target customers who either lack access to this larger loan or lack the willingness or ability to repay this larger loan. Additionally, break-even APRs tend to be much higher for small loan amounts than for large loan amounts, with a $594 loan requiring an APR of 103.54% for a lender to break even and a loan amount of $2,530 being necessary for a lender to break even at an APR of 36%, according to research by the U.S. Federal Reserve.10 As a result, such economics often result in credit-challenged consumers being unable to qualify for credit. OppFi loans have APRs ranging from 59-160%, with no material difference in APR between bank partner loans and non-bank originated loans. The average APR for an OppFi loan over the past three years has been approximately 150%, which percentage has not changed significantly from year to year.

 

10 

Lisa Chen and Gregory Elliehausen (2020). “The Cost Structure of Consumer Finance Companies and Its Implications for Interest Rates: Evidence from the Federal Reserve Board’s 2015 Survey of Finance Companies,” FEDS Notes. Washington: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, August 03, 2020, https://doi.org/10.17016/2380-7172.2610.

 

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OppFi’s Solution

 

 

LOGO

OppFi is facilitating financial inclusion to the Everyday Consumer through fair, transparent credit products and a commitment to exceptional customer service. OppFi and its bank-sponsored products are focused on median income consumers with a job and a bank account, who have been abandoned by the traditional mainstream credit players. Through an intelligent and efficient funding process, OppFi is able to create substantial value for its customers and banking partners with minimal complication and maximum transparency.

 

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OppFi has determined that alternative metrics outside of FICO scores can be reliably used to determine a consumer’s true ability and willingness to repay. This notion is supported by a 2019 study conducted by the Financial Health Network that found installment loans and loans issued by non-bank lenders in the U.S. grew at compound annual growth rates of 13.8% and 27.3%, respectively, from 2015 to 2018.11 Many of these non-bank lenders utilize non-FICO based alternative methods to determine creditworthiness. Instead, potential borrowers are evaluated based on metrics such as consistency of income, types of previous loans, previous repayment patterns and employment status, among many others. OppFi believes these nontraditional methods may more accurately identify those consumers who are willing and able to repay loans, while simultaneously avoiding the issuance of loans to those consumers who may have received a loan that they cannot afford or do not intend to repay.

 

 

LOGO

Loan Platform Highlights

 

   

Simple installment loans. OppFi facilitates the issuance of fair, transparent credit products structured to rebuild financial health for the approximately 60 million Americans that lack traditional credit access. Installment loans are free of fees, amortize, and accrue simple interest, so the total cost of the loan is known up front.

 

   

Easy, digital application and rapid approval. After the approximately 5-minute application process submitted through OppFi’s fully digital platform, consumers can receive quick credit decisions. In fact, approximately 75% of all credit decisions are automated.

 

   

Tech-driven decisioning. OppFi’s tech stack uses AI, machine learning and real-time data analytics to make credit decisions. As opposed to traditional credit providers, OppFi ignores traditional credit scores and instead uses alternative data to instantly identify borrowers who have the ability and willingness to repay.

 

11 

Graham, Karen and Golden, Elaine (2019). “Financially Underserved Market Size Study 2019,” https://s3.amazonaws.com/cfsi-innovation-files-2018/wp-content/uploads/2020/01/31170215/2019-Market-Size-Report.pdf.

 

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Hybrid funding model. Once a customer’s application has been submitted, OppFi’s “TurnUp” process voluntarily performs a search on the customer’s behalf to find superior credit offers from mainstream credit providers. If any lower cost products are identified, OppFi displays the offers from the applicable lenders and consumers can choose to click over to finish their application on the other lender’s website. At that point, the customer leaves OppFi’s website. If no mainstream credit options are available with an affordable APR of less than 36%, the application is processed through OppFi’s underwriting platform which utilizes AI-enabled, bank-approved, proprietary algorithms. This process ensures maximum value and benefit is realized by all parties. Approximately 90% of the time, no offers of lower credit are returned.

 

   

Loan flexibility. OppFi’s loans can be used to finance anything, such as car repairs, medical bills, housing costs, education expenses, and more. This flexibility, combined with regular reporting to the major credit bureaus, helps foster loyalty as these everyday consumers receive the help they need and a chance to rebuild their credit, with the goal of ultimately graduating on to more mainstream financial products.

 

   

Product pipeline. As the financial health of OppFi’s consumers improves, OppFi has positioned itself to capitalize on the loyalty its platform has created. Salary Tap, OppFi’s new payroll deduction secured installment loan, as well as forthcoming credit card and near-prime loan products will provide more options and even greater savings to everyday consumers. Consumers will also benefit from OppU, OppFi’s financial education platform.

 

   

Unit economic model. Installment loans facilitated by OppFi have delivered a strong return on invested capital of two times. The average installment loan facilitated by OppFi’s platform is $1,500, payable in monthly installments and with an average contractual term of 11 months. Approximately 25% of a customer’s profitability is derived from the customer’s first loan and approximately 75% of a customer’s profitability is derived from refinanced loans due to the lack of acquisition cost after the first loan. For loans originated in 2018 and 2019, 27% and 33% of loans were paid off without being refinanced, respectively. The increase from 27% in 2018 to 33% in 2019 can be attributed to the impact of government stimulus in 2020. OppFi generates interest revenue via facilitation of bank partner originated loans as well as to a lesser extent through loans it directly originates on its platform over the lifetime of the loan and any associated refinancings. OppFi’s most significant cost drivers are customer acquisition, credit, servicing and financing. OppFi’s customer acquisition model of focusing on variable cost channels tied directly to loans funded has kept these costs stable over time. OppFi’s AI driven underwriting model has allowed its loss rates to remain stable while OppFi has been able to approve a higher percentage of applications over time. Via automation, OppFi has been able to optimize its servicing costs per loan. Finally, OppFi’s cost of financing has fallen as it has been able to improve its credit profile driven by consistency in operating performance and portfolio quality.

 

 

LOGO

 

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Customer Advocates and Collections Arrangements. OppFi’s Customer Advocate team marries customer service with collections. Customer Advocates serve customers by providing easy-to-understand information so that customers can make informed, financially responsible decisions. Customer Advocates are rewarded for both their outstanding customer service as well as their collections. The department leadership team has over 30 years of experience in loan servicing and collections, and the average Customer Advocate tenure at OppFi is 22 months. OppFi’s standard operating procedures, outbound dialer/email/SMS solutions, and associated controls ensure compliance with unfair, deceptive or abusive acts or practices, or UDAAPs, fair lending laws, the Telephone Consumer Protection Act, or TCPA, the federal Fair Debt Collection Practices Act, or FDCPA, and the Federal Controlling the Assault of Non-Solicited Pornography and Marketing, or CAN-SPAM, Act. The Customer Advocate team works with delinquent customers to quickly re-establish a positive payment history by providing flexible pathways out of delinquency for customers who are willing to pay. Proactive outreach via email and text messages encourages delinquent customers to visit OppFi’s online portal or to call the Customer Advocate team. These inbound calls are prioritized and routed to the appropriate team member based on delinquency status and customer request. When capacity exists, OppFi also outbound dials delinquent customers. The dialing strategy and pace prioritizes customers who are most likely to cure while also maximizing Customer Advocate efficiency to ensure high service levels for inbound calls. Once a customer is written off, OppFi continues to contact the customer via email, SMS, and outbound dialing to resolve their account. Customers can still pay off their balance in full directly with OppFi by working with our Customer Advocates to create customized payment arrangements. Written off customers who are unable or unwilling to pay off their balance in full are offered targeted settlements based on stage of delinquency and outstanding balance amounts. There are a variety of programs in place in order to prevent customers from entering delinquency at all, including:

 

   

no prepayment penalties;

 

   

borrower’s assistance program allowing customers to remain in good standing regardless of payment status and reduce accrued interest if they are affected by natural and/or manmade disasters, pandemics (including COVID-19), or other acts of god;

 

   

temporary and permanent hardship programs for customers experiencing longer-term inability to pay, such as job loss; and

 

   

partnerships with like-minded organizations to offer customers additional resources that build and support overall financial health.

OppFi’s Strategy

 

   

Marketing platform. An increased focus on non-direct mail marketing channels, such as Search Engine Optimization (“SEO”), email remarketing, customer referrals, and strategic partnerships, has reduced OppFi’s cost per funded loan by approximately 42% since 2017. Over 50 marketing partners help drive reliably efficient customer acquisition.

 

   

Scalable technology stack. OppFi’s origination and funding platform is built on a modern, proprietary technology stack. Using Snowflake data warehousing, microservice infrastructure, and advanced, proprietary data analytics, OppFi’s tech platform is built to scale quickly, easily, and in stride with the business.

 

   

Customer success. Since day one, OppFi has maintained a focus on superior customer satisfaction. By allowing the customer to choose how they prefer to interact, whether digitally on their own or live with a Loan Advocate, OppFi ensures each customer gets the attention they want and deserve. OppFi’s phone number is displayed prominently on the website, making it easy for customers to get in touch at any time, for any issue. This has resulted in an exceptional Net Promoter Score of 83 as well as over 14,000 online reviews with a 4.8 / 5.0 average rating and an A+ rating with the Better Business Bureau.

 

   

Employee satisfaction. OppFi has cultivated an exceptional employee culture and received numerous awards for both employee satisfaction and growth, including inclusion on the Inc. 5000 list of America’s fastest growing companies each year since 2016. OppFi believes this culture drives greater customer satisfaction and the continued success of OppFi.

 

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LOGO

OppFi’s Competitive Advantages

Digitally-native solution

Consumers are increasingly shifting towards digital products and services, which has led brick-and-mortar credit providers to suffer from the same headwinds as traditional retail stores. Contrarily, OppFi has successfully captured the non-prime consumer with its fully digital platform. OppFi offers a fully digital platform driven by a scalable and modern technology stack, as well as proprietary risk models that are continually developed through iterative data collection and analytics. This platform provides OppFi with exceptional scalability, cost efficiency, marketing effectiveness, customization, and a best in class customer experience. OppFi believes that this digital foundation creates a significant and durable advantage over traditional banks and credit providers who have been slow to adapt legacy technology into modern digitally native solutions.

Also due to OppFi’s digital nature, as its bank partners’ originations grow, OppFi achieves greater operating leverage. OppFi’s model is primarily driven by a technology platform that does not require significant increases in operating overhead to support its bank partners’ originations growth. Additionally, as OppFi serves consumers across the United States without brick-and-mortar stores, OppFi does not have any costs associated with physical stores and the personnel needed to operate them. This has been of particular value throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, as some brick-and-mortar services have suffered and digital capabilities have become paramount.

Bank partner model

OppFi employs both a bank partner origination model and direct origination model. In its bank partner origination model, applicants who apply and obtain a loan through OppFi’s online platform are underwritten, approved, and funded by the applicable bank partner. In the direct origination model, applicants who apply and obtain a loan through OppFi’s online platform are underwritten, approved, and funded directly by OppFi.

OppFi’s bank lending product leverages its marketing and servicing expertise and its partner bank’s broad national presence to enable improved credit access to 37 states or approximately 74% of the U.S. population. This relationship operates much akin to the “Managing General Agent” relationship with an insurance carrier; additionally, this model has been tested in the credit card and mortgage industries and is a key growth enabler for the business. Similar to the Managing General Agent insurance relationship, OppFi manages many aspects of the loan life cycle on behalf of its bank partners, including customer acquisition, underwriting and loan servicing. This relationship allows OppFi’s bank partners to leverage OppFi’s digital acquisition, AI-powered underwriting and highly rated customer service capabilities, which they would otherwise need to develop in-house. OppFi’s bank partners use their own capital to originate loans. OppFi’s bank partners are Finwise, FEB and CCB.

In the six months ended June 30, 2021, approximately 86% of OppFi’s net originations were generated from loans originated by its bank partners and facilitated by the OppFi platform, approximately 79% of which was generated by OppFi’s bank partner FinWise. OppFi’s bank partner FEB began originating loans on the OppFi platform in May 2020 and OppFi’s bank partner CCB began originating loans on the OppFi platform in October 2020.

OppFi has entered into separate agreements with each of its three bank partners. OppFi’s agreements with its bank partners are nonexclusive, generally have 60-month terms and certain agreements automatically renew, subject to certain early termination provisions and minimum fee amounts, and do not include any minimum origination obligations or origination limits. OppFi’s agreement with FinWise began on October 31, 2017 and will continue until February 1, 2023, with an automatic renewal provision for two additional three-year terms following the initial term, unless earlier terminated pursuant to the terms of the agreement. OppFi’s bank partners generally retain approval rights on all aspects of the program and are primarily responsible for regulatory and compliance oversight.

 

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Under the bank partner model, OppFi is compensated by the bank partner as a service provider for OppFi’s role in delivering the technology and services to the bank partner to facilitate origination and servicing of loans throughout each loan’s lifecycle. Customers who meet the underwriting criteria for multiple bank partners are referred to a specific bank partner randomly based on a computer algorithm and volume targets set with each bank partner. OppFi’s bank partners generally hold loans originated on our platform; typically two to three days following origination OppFi acquires participation rights in such loans ranging from 95 to 100% of the loan. OppFi and its bank partners each pay or reimburse each other for certain fees and costs that are immaterial in amount.

The economic difference to OppFi in loans originated via the bank partnership model as compared to the direct origination model are immaterial and generally result from a minimal program fee paid to OppFi for each origination as well as increased compliance costs for OppFi, which collectively have an insignificant impact on OppFi’s customer lifetime value. OppFi has shifted towards the bank partner model as the percentage of Total Net Originations by OppFi’s bank partners has increased from 63.9% for the six months ended June 30, 2020 to 86.1% for the six months ended June 31, 2021. OppFi has shifted to the bank partner model because its bank partners operate under federal law, which allows them to lend nationally based on their state domicile and facilitates a national product offering for the consumer while also streamlining regulatory requirements and compliance infrastructure.

Technology, engineering talent and product architecture

OppFi’s proprietary technology platform is essential to OppFi’s core operations. OppFi utilizes modern technology solutions including sophisticated analytics tools, machine learning models and cloud-based computing to offer a smooth and engaging digital experience on the front end and a constantly evolving real time decisioning engine on the back end. In order to build and maintain these proprietary, innovative and secure products, OppFi commits substantial resources to identifying, employing, and retaining talented and mission-driven technology-focused professionals and engineers. This is highlighted by the fact that in 2020, OppFi spent approximately $18 million on technology-focused employees and third-party vendors. OppFi believes that its platform architecture and the talent OppFi retains to continually evolve provides OppFi with a competitive edge over its more traditional credit competitors.

Proprietary, data driven decisioning and risk models

OppFi’s underwriting takes a holistic view of the consumer across traditional, nontraditional, banking history, and income/employment data to make decisions on each credit application. The models ignore traditional credit scores, instead relying on internally developed scoring and analytics to identify the creditworthiness of each application. Machine learning-based risk models are custom built to effectively evaluate risk and provide customized credit product solutions for each credit application. The platform considers data such as customer available bank balance trends, volatility of income and proprietary fraud scores amongst others to predict repayment ability, and leverages this with real-time Instant Bank Verification, or IBV, response data. Additionally, OppFi’s flexible origination process to adapt and adjust to changing risk profiles and underwrite accordingly. Further, the verification process is risk calibrated and provides a differentiated, smooth process for low risk customers while having risk calibrated verification processes for the rest. The final product determination makes sure the product fits the affordability criteria and provides payments that are aligned with the customer’s income.

Secure data collection, accumulation and analysis provides OppFi with meaningful insights. OppFi’s models evaluate more than 500 attributes and have learned from loan performance data of more than 1.5 million loans. As additional data from new customers and new loans are continuously incorporated into the decisioning models and business practices, both credit and business performance improve over time. More data drives higher approval rates and lower interest rates at the same loss rates, as well as better financial performance across the platform. Model and data improvements have increased our conversion rate from initial application to funded loan by more than two times since inception.

 

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OppFi’s decisioning models outperform traditional FICO-based decision models. OppFi has validated internal models and rules against external data provided by third parties to demonstrate that OppFi decisions on approvals and denials are appropriate from a risk and profitability perspective. OppFi has conducted a retroactive analysis of loss rates by risk segment against a Vantage 4.0 credit score model and was able to conclude the internal model had better risk adjusted losses over a twelve-month period. In fact, OppFi’s internal model recommended the approval of 29% additional loans at the same default rate. OppFi’s sophisticated machine learning models also mitigate risks around affordability, verification and fraud. OppFi has an industry leading fraud mitigation strategy that uses a combination of data, verification processes and customer service agents.

Multi-sided ecosystem

Through its hybrid funding model, OppFi is able to generate value for all potential parties to a credit product offering. Consumers receive fair, transparent credit that is structured to rebuild financial health, OppFi’s bank partners benefit from OppFi’s turn-key, outsourced marketing and digital acquisition and servicing, data, and proprietary technology, and OppFi benefits through either underwriting the loan itself or through the referral to the funding bank partner and subsequent loan servicing rights that OppFi maintains.

OppFi’s nationwide presence allows it to increase awareness, directly contributing to its own growth, as well as the growth and success of its bank partners. With an expanding list of bank partners and products, OppFi can solve the borrowing needs of an increasingly diverse array of consumers. As banks leverage the OppFi platform for additional products, consumers benefit from better offers of credit, while experiencing a consistently high-quality servicing experience. OppFi’s customers have proven to be loyal and highly satisfied, which in turn drives additional growth through referrals.

Integrated and efficient multi-channel marketing approach

OppFi uses an integrated multi-channel marketing strategy to reach potential customers, of which approximately 25% leads with search engine optimization, email marketing, and customer referrals. In addition, approximately 55% of OppFi’s business is derived through key strategic partners who are compensated with a negotiated fixed unit price per loan funded or fixed percent of principal dollars funded. OppFi has created unique capabilities to effectively identify and attract qualified customers, which supports its long-term growth objectives at target customer acquisition costs. OppFi’s strategies have driven decreasing average cost per funded loan over time from approximately $103 per funded loan in 2017 to approximately $60 per funded loan in 2020. Marketing costs from OppFi’s bank partner channel are known based on fixed price agreements, while marketing costs for direct mail and other direct channels can vary based on the number of customers that ultimately apply and obtain loans. OppFi’s mix of new and refinanced loans also impacts its average acquisition cost. Approximately 84% of OppFi’s customers for the year ended December 31, 2020 were sourced from non-direct mail marketing channels. OppFi believes this approach allows it to focus on higher quality, lower cost customer acquisition while maximizing reach and enhancing awareness of OppFi’s platform. OppFi continues to invest in new marketing channels, which it believes will provide OppFi with further competitive advantages and support its ongoing growth.

Commitment to customer service

OppFi is nationally recognized and awarded for its exceptional customer service. OppFi maintains an A+ rating from the Better Business Bureau and a 4.8/5 star rating with more than 14,000 online customer reviews, making its platform one of the top customer-rated financial platforms online with a Net Promoter Score in the mid-80s. OppFi’s customer-focused business practices include a willingness to pick up the phone—since its phone number is clearly displayed on its website—and a willingness to help customers in an urgent situation. OppFi takes a transparent hand-holding approach to make sure customers understand and choose the right products for them. Financial education is also important, which is why OppFi launched its own online University—OppU. Customers and non-customers can use OppU to learn about building credit and budgeting, as well as how to better manage finances. OppFi continuously works to improve customer satisfaction by evaluating information from website analytics, customer surveys and Loan Advocate feedback. OppFi’s teams receive training on a regular basis and are monitored for quality assurance. OppFi believes customers who wish to access credit again or who refer OppFi to another potential customer often do so because of OppFi’s dedication to customer service and the transparency of OppFi’s products.

 

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OppFi’s Growth Strategies

OppFi maintains several channels for growth, including for its core bank partner lending product and adjacent product areas, leveraging its deep knowledge of the Everyday Consumer. With OppFi’s current product offering and qualified, target credit population, OppFi has currently penetrated approximately 1% of potential annual loan originations in the United States.12 There is significant opportunity to expand within this current population with the installment product, offer adjacent financial services products and reach near-prime customers with an installment product.

Substantial growth in core installment business

 

   

Everyday consumers face credit challenges with inadequate savings. With 57% of Americans lacking more than $1,000 in savings, unforeseen events such as car repair, medical bills and other unexpected events result in credit challenges.13 Using an illustrative $1,500 installment principal loan balance, OppFi estimates that there are approximately $27 billion of potential annual loan originations based on 30% on OppFi’s target credit population of U.S. adults. This represents less than 1% current penetration and immense opportunity for growth.

 

   

Strong tailwinds in post-COVID-19 environment. Building upon more than 70% annual receivable growth prior to COVID-19, OppFi expects growth in its traditional installment business, especially given tailwinds associated with the resumption of normal course domestic economic activity. The typical OppFi customer borrows to finance a car repair or an unexpected healthcare deductible expense; these demand drivers, partially slowed by COVID-19-related effects, are expected to return over the upcoming years.

New product expansion opportunities

 

   

Salary Tap product. Launched in December 2020, OppFi’s Salary Tap product features partnerships with leading employers and employee benefit providers to offer a lending product linked to an employee’s salary. This product facilitates credit access at lower rates secured by payment through payroll deduction. Enabled by advancements in payroll verification technologies, this product can target the same core demographic as OppFi’s current base, but with a more secured borrowing rate. When a customer is able to use the deduction as a repayment mechanism, they are able to dramatically improve the security of the repayments and obtain a lower rate. This product can be sold direct, through employers and through financial wellness brokers.

 

   

OppFi credit card. Possessing a deep understanding of the Everyday Consumer, OppFi is a natural entrant to the credit card market. Today, the marketplace for credit cards looks similar to the market for installment loans before OppFi penetrated the market; there are a small number of incumbents with relatively low limits and high fees as a percentage of the credit line, mired by a poor user experience and low customer satisfaction. OppFi believes it can offer credit cards as a graduation product for existing customers and as expansion into new consumer segments, leveraging OppFi’s outstanding tradition of customer service and deep knowledge of credit. OppFi launched this product in August 2021. Further, a virtual credit card with immediate issuance serves as a potential entryway into point of sale products.

 

12 

Based on U.S. Census Bureau estimates and Hard, Kausar. et. al. “UNEQUAL ACCESS TO CREDIT: The Hidden Impact of Credit Constraints.” NewYorkFed.org, 2019. Assumes $1,500 installment principal.

13 

Elkins, Kathleen, “Here’s how much money Americans have in their savings accounts,” CNBC.com, Sept 13, 2017

 

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Near prime lending. Near prime lending offers a logical extension of OppFi’s core installment product. Tailoring to a near-prime audience, an installment product offered by OppFi would include a lower interest rate to match the enhanced credit profile, while potentially increasing the size of the principal.

 

   

Adjacent financial products. OppFi has identified adjacent opportunities in mobile banking & debit cards, point of sale lending and mortgage products that we may pursue in the future. Our flexible technology platform allows for a relatively straightforward and less time intensive implementation of these products.

Competition

Consumer lending is a vast and competitive market, and OppFi competes in varying degrees with all other sources of unsecured consumer credit, including banks, non-bank lenders (including retail-based lenders) and other financial technology lending platforms. Because personal loans often serve as a replacement for credit cards, OppFi also competes with the convenience and ubiquity that credit cards represent.

On the bank partnership side, OppFi competes with a variety of technology companies that aim to help banks with the digital transformation of their business, particularly with respect to all-digital lending. This includes new products from legacy bank technology providers as well as newer companies focused entirely on lending software infrastructure for banks. OppFi may also face competition from banks or companies that have not previously competed in the consumer lending market, including companies with large and experienced data science teams and access to vast amounts of consumer-related information that could be used in the development of their own credit risk models.

OppFi believes it competes favorably based on the following competitive factors:

 

   

Constantly improving AI models;

 

   

Compelling loan offers from bank partners to consumers that improve regularly;

 

   

Automated and user-friendly loan application process;

 

   

Consistent and predictable loan performance;

 

   

Cloud-native, multi-tenant architecture;

 

   

Combination of technology and customer acquisition for bank partners;

 

   

Robust and diverse loan funding program; and

 

   

Brand recognition and trust.

Government Regulation

OppFi and the loans made through its platform by its bank partners are subject to extensive and complex rules and regulations and examination by various federal, state and local government authorities. Failure to comply with any of the applicable rules and regulations may result in, among other things, revocation of required licenses or registration, loss of approved status, effective voiding or rescission of the loan contracts, reduction of allowable interest, class action lawsuits, administrative enforcement actions and civil and criminal liability. While compliance with such requirements is at times complicated by OppFi’s novel business model and an evolving regulatory environment, OppFi believes it is, at a minimum, in substantial compliance with these rules and regulations.

 

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OppFi is, and expects in the future to be, regulated by the CFPB. In addition to the CFPB, other state and federal agencies have the ability to regulate aspects of its business. For example, the Dodd-Frank Act, as well as many state statutes, provide a mechanism for state attorneys general to investigate OppFi. In addition, as a result of OppFi’s relationships with its current bank partners, OppFi is subject to oversight by federal banking agencies, including the FDIC, and the Federal Trade Commission has jurisdiction to investigate aspects of its business, including with respect to marketing practices. Further, OppFi is subject to inspections, examinations, supervision and regulation by applicable agencies in each state in which OppFi is licensed or in which our borrowers reside. Regulatory oversight of OppFi’s business may change over time. By way of example, California has enacted legislation to create a “mini-CFPB” agency, which seeks to emulate the CFPB with respect to its enforcement and supervisory capabilities as well as require additional state registration for certain covered persons. OppFi expects that regulatory examinations by both federal and state agencies will continue, and there can be no assurance that the results of such examinations will not have a material adverse effect on OppFi.

Below, OppFi summarizes several of the material federal lending, servicing and related laws applicable to its business. Many states have laws and regulations that are similar to the federal consumer protection laws referred to below, but the degree and nature of such laws and regulations, and their applicability to us and our products, vary from state to state.

Federal Lending and Related Laws

Truth in Lending Act

The Truth in Lending Act, or TILA, and Regulation Z, which implements it, require creditors to provide consumers with uniform, understandable information concerning certain terms and conditions of their loan and credit transactions, and to comply with certain lending practice requirements and restrictions. These rules apply to loans facilitated through OppFi’s platform, and OppFi assists with compliance as part of the services OppFi provides to its bank partners. For closed-end credit transactions, required disclosures include, among others, providing the annual percentage rate, the finance charge, the amount financed, the number of payments, the amount of the monthly payment, the presence and amount of certain fees, and the presence of certain contractual terms. TILA also regulates the advertising of credit and gives borrowers, among other things, certain rights regarding updated disclosures and the treatment of credit balances. OppFi, on behalf of the applicable bank partner, provides applicants with a TILA disclosure when applicants complete their loan applications on its platform. If the applicant’s request is not fully funded and the applicant chooses to accept a lesser amount offered, OppFi provides an updated TILA disclosure on behalf of the applicable bank partner. OppFi also seeks to comply with TILA’s disclosure requirements related to credit advertising and, to the extent that OppFi holds or services loans, TILA’s requirements related to treatment of credit balances for closed-end loans. OppFi also can facilitate the origination of a limited number of credit card accounts through its platform. In connection with such accounts, TILA requires the provision of certain solicitation and account-opening disclosures. TILA also imposes requirements on the terms of credit card accounts, and the process of originating and servicing such accounts.

Equal Credit Opportunity Act

The Equal Credit Opportunity Act, or ECOA, prohibits creditors from discriminating against credit applicants on the basis of race, color, sex, age (provided that the applicant has the capacity to enter into a binding contract), religion, national origin, marital status, the fact that all or part of the applicant’s income derives from any public assistance program, or the fact that the applicant has in good faith exercised any right under the federal Consumer Credit Protection Act or certain state laws. Regulation B, which implements ECOA, restricts creditors from requesting certain types of information from loan applicants or engaging in certain loan-related practices, and from using advertising or making statements that would discourage on a prohibited basis a reasonable person from making or pursuing an application. These requirements apply to bank partners for loans facilitated through its platform as well as to OppFi as a service provider that assists in the process. OppFi abides by policies and procedures implemented by its bank partners to comply with ECOA’s provisions prohibiting discouragement and discrimination. ECOA also requires creditors to provide applicants with timely notices of adverse action taken on credit applications, including disclosing to applicants who have been declined their rights and the reason for their having been declined. On behalf of its bank partners, OppFi provides prospective borrowers who apply for a loan through its platform but are denied credit with an adverse action notice in compliance with applicable requirements. Early commentary from the recently changed Presidential Administration has indicated an increased focus (likely through the CFPB and its enforcement of ECOA and Regulation B) on equality in credit availability and pricing, as compared to the prior Administration. It is unclear at this point how or if such increased focus will impact OppFi’s business or operations or those of its bank partners.

 

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Fair Credit Reporting Act

The federal Fair Credit Reporting Act, or FCRA, as amended by the Fair and Accurate Credit Transactions Act, and administered by the CFPB, promotes the accuracy, fairness, and privacy of information in the files of consumer reporting agencies. FCRA requires consent or a permissible purpose to obtain a consumer credit report and requires that persons who report loan payment information to credit bureaus do so accurately and resolve disputes regarding reported information timely. FCRA also imposes disclosure requirements on creditors who take adverse action on credit applications based on information contained in a credit report.

Under FCRA, certain information must be provided to applicants whose credit applications are not approved or who are offered credit at an interest rate higher than other borrowers on the basis of a report obtained from a consumer reporting agency, promptly update any credit information reported to a credit reporting agency about a customer and have a process by which customers may inquire about credit information furnished by OppFi to a consumer reporting agency. OppFi and its bank partners have a permissible purpose for obtaining credit reports on potential borrowers, and OppFi also obtains explicit consent from borrowers to obtain such reports. As part of its loan servicing activities, OppFi accurately reports loan payment and delinquency information to appropriate consumer reporting agencies. OppFi provides timely adverse action notices when required on behalf of each bank partner on its platform that includes all the required disclosures. OppFi also has processes in place to ensure that consumers are given “opt-out” opportunities, as required by the FCRA, regarding the sharing of their personal information. OppFi has also implemented an identity theft prevention program, as required by FCRA and its implementing regulations.

Fair Debt Collection Practices Act

The federal Fair Debt Collection Practices Act, or FDCPA, provides guidelines and limitations on the conduct of certain debt collectors in connection with the collection of consumer debts. The FDCPA limits certain communications with third parties, imposes notice and debt validation requirements, and prohibits threatening, harassing or abusive conduct in the course of debt collection. The FDCPA primarily applies to third-party debt collectors, meaning parties collecting on behalf of another, and debt collection laws of certain states also impose similar requirements more broadly on creditors who collect their own debts. In addition, the CFPB prohibits unfair, deceptive or abusive acts or practices, or UDAAPs in debt collection, including first-party debt collection. In addition, on October 30, 2020, the CFPB issued a final rule implementing requirements of the FDCPA and a second final rule on debt collection focused on consumer disclosures on December 18, 2020, which rules are scheduled to take effect on November 30, 2021. The CFPB also issued a second final rule on debt collection focused on consumer disclosures on December 18, 2020, which will also take effect on November 30, 2021. OppFi uses its internal collection team and professional third-party debt collection agents to collect delinquent accounts. Any third-party debt collection agents OppFi uses are required to comply with the FDCPA and all other applicable laws in collecting delinquent accounts of borrowers. While its internal servicing team is not subject to the formal requirements of the FDCPA in most cases, OppFi has established policies intended to substantially comply with the collection practice requirements under the FDCPA as a means of complying with more general UDAAP standards.

Privacy and Data Security Laws

 

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The federal Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act, or GLBA, includes limitations on financial institutions’ disclosure of nonpublic personal information about a consumer to nonaffiliated third parties, in certain circumstances requires financial institutions to limit the use and further disclosure of nonpublic personal information by nonaffiliated third parties to whom they disclose such information and requires financial institutions to disclose certain privacy policies and practices with respect to information sharing with affiliated and unaffiliated entities as well as to safeguard personal customer information. OppFi collects and uses a wide variety of information to help ensure the integrity of its services and to provide features and functionality to its customers. This aspect of OppFi’s business, including the collection, use, and protection of the information OppFi acquires from its own services as well as from third-party sources, is subject to laws and regulations in the United States. Accordingly, OppFi publishes its privacy policies and terms of service, which describe its practices concerning the use, transmission, and disclosure of information. OppFi has a detailed privacy policy, which complies with GLBA and is accessible from every page of its website. OppFi maintains consumers’ personal information securely, and OppFi does not sell, rent or share such information with third parties for marketing purposes unless previously agreed to by the consumer. In addition, OppFi takes measures to safeguard the personal information of borrowers and investors and protect against unauthorized access to this information. As OppFi’s business continues to expand, and as state and federal laws and regulations continue to be passed and their interpretations continue to evolve, additional laws and regulations may become relevant to OppFi.

Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act

In response to the prior financial crisis, the Dodd-Frank Act was enacted as extensive and significant legislation with consumer protection provisions. Among other things, the Dodd-Frank Act created the CFPB, which commenced operations in July 2011 and has significant authority to implement and enforce federal consumer financial laws, such as the TILA and ECOA. The CFPB is authorized to prevent “unfair, deceptive or abusive acts or practices” through its regulatory, supervisory and enforcement authority. The CFPB also engages in consumer financial education, requests data and promotes the availability of financial services to underserved customers and communities. The CFPB has regulatory and enforcement powers over most providers of consumer financial products and services, including OppFi. It also has supervisory and examination powers over certain providers of consumer financial products and services, including large banks, payday lenders, “larger participants” in certain financial services markets defined by CFPB regulation, and non-bank entities determined to present a risk to consumers after notice and an opportunity to respond.

The CFPB has imposed, and will continue to impose, restrictions on lending practices, including with respect to the terms of certain loans. OppFi and its bank partners are subject to the CFPB’s enforcement authority, which could increase under new CFPB leadership. The CFPB may request reports concerning OppFi’s organization, business conduct, markets and activities. In addition, the CFPB may, in connection with its supervisory authority, also conduct on-site examinations of its and its bank partners’ businesses on a periodic basis, subject to whether the applicable bank partner satisfies the assets threshold for CFPB supervision. If the CFPB were to conclude that OppFi’s loan origination assistance or servicing activities, or any loans originated by its bank partners on its platform, violate applicable consumer protection laws or regulations, OppFi could be subject to a formal or informal inquiry, investigation and/or enforcement action. Formal enforcement actions are generally made public, which carries reputational risk. In addition, the market price of the Class A Common Stock could decline as a result of the initiation of a CFPB investigation of OppFi or even the perception that such an investigation could occur, even in the absence of any finding by the CFPB that OppFi has violated any state or federal law. As of the date hereof, OppFi is not subject to any enforcement actions by the CFPB.

For more information regarding the CFPB and the CFPB rules to which OppFi is subject or may become subject, see “Risk Factors” included elsewhere in this prospectus.

Federal Trade Commission Act

Under Section 5 of the Federal Trade Commission Act, OppFi and its bank partners are prohibited from engaging in unfair and deceptive acts and practices. For nonbank financial institutions, the FTC is the primary regulator enforcing this prohibition, and in recent years the FTC has been focused on practices of financial technology companies. Based on publicly available actions, the FTC’s primary focus has been with respect to financial technology company marketing and disclosure practices. For instance, in September 2020, the FTC filed a complaint against a collection firm for illegal debt collection practices including use of deceptive robocalling and misrepresenting their association with a law firm. The FTC also is currently engaged in litigation with a major online lender regarding, among other things, the adequacy of its disclosures of an origination fee associated with a product, though this litigation is paused pending Supreme Court determination of certain FTC authorities.

 

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Electronic Fund Transfer Act and NACHA Rules

The federal Electronic Fund Transfer Act, or EFTA, provides guidelines and restrictions on the electronic transfer of funds from consumers’ bank accounts. Under EFTA, and Regulation E that implements it, OppFi must obtain consumer consents prior to receiving electronic transfer of funds from consumers’ bank accounts, and its bank partners may not condition an extension of credit on the borrower’s agreement to repay the loan through preauthorized (recurring) electronic fund transfers. In addition to compliance with federal laws, transfers performed by ACH electronic transfers are subject to detailed timing and notification rules and guidelines administered by the National Automated Clearinghouse Association, or NACHA. While NACHA guidelines are not laws, failure to comply with them may nevertheless result in commercial harm to its business. All transfers of funds related to its operations conform to the EFTA, its regulations and NACHA guidelines. As part of OppFi’s servicing activities, OppFi obtains necessary electronic authorization from borrowers and investors for such transfers in compliance with such rules. The loans offered on OppFi’s platform by its bank partners must also comply with the requirement that a loan cannot be conditioned on the borrower’s agreement to repay the loan through recurring electronic fund transfers.

Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act

The federal Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act, or ESIGN, and similar state laws, particularly the Uniform Electronic Transactions Act, or UETA, authorize the creation of legally binding and enforceable agreements utilizing electronic records and signatures. ESIGN and UETA require businesses that want to use electronic records or signatures in consumer transactions and provide disclosures to consumers (otherwise required to be “in writing” in electronic form), to obtain the consumer’s consent to receive information electronically. When a consumer registers on its platform, OppFi obtains his or her consent to transact business electronically, receive electronic disclosures and maintain electronic records in compliance with ESIGN and UETA requirements, and OppFi maintains electronic signatures and records in a manner intended to support enforceability of relevant consumer agreements and consents.

Federal Marketing Regulations

The Telephone Consumer Protection Act, or TCPA, generally prohibits robocalls, including those calls made using an auto-dialer or prerecorded or artificial voice calls made to a wireless telephone without the prior express consent of the called party (or prior express written consent, if messages constitute telemarketing). In addition, the FTC Telemarketing Sales Rule implements the FTC’s Do-Not-Call Registry and imposes numerous other requirements and limitations in connection with telemarketing. OppFi’s policies address the requirements of the TCPA as well as FTC Telemarketing Sales Rule and other laws limiting telephone outreach. Furthermore, OppFi does not engage in certain activities covered by the TCPA, such as using an automated dialer.

The Federal Controlling the Assault of Non-Solicited Pornography and Marketing, or CAN-SPAM, Act makes it unlawful to send certain electronic mail messages that contain false or deceptive information and provide other protections for email users. CAN-SPAM also requires the need to provide a functioning mechanism that allows the recipient to opt-out of receiving future commercial e-mail messages from the sender of such messages. OppFi’s email communications with all consumers are formulated to comply with the CAN-SPAM Act.

Servicemembers Civil Relief Act

 

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Under the Servicemembers Civil Relief Act, or SCRA, there are limits on interest rates chargeable to military personnel and civil judicial proceedings against them, and there are limitations on its ability to collect on a loan to servicemembers on active duty originated prior to the servicemember entering active duty status and, in certain cases, for a period of time thereafter. The SCRA allows military members to suspend or postpone certain civil obligations so that the military member can devote his or her full attention to military duties. The SCRA requires OppFi to adjust the interest rate charged on loans to borrowers who qualify for and request relief. If a borrower with an outstanding loan qualifies for SCRA protection the interest rate on their loan (including certain fees) will be reduced to 6% for the duration of the borrower’s active duty. During this period, any interest holder in the loan will not receive the difference between 6% and the loan’s original interest rate. As part of the services OppFi provides, OppFi requires the borrower to send it a written request and a copy of the borrower’s mobilization orders to obtain an interest rate reduction on a loan due to military service. Other protections offered to servicemembers under the SCRA, including protections related to the collection of loans, do not require the servicemember to take any particular action, such as submitting military orders, to claim benefits.

Military Lending Act

Under the Military Lending Act, certain members of the armed forces serving on active duty and their dependents must be identified and be provided with certain protections when becoming obligated on a consumer credit transaction. These protections include: a limit on the Military Annual Percentage Rate (an all-in cost-of-credit measure which is the same as the APR for loans facilitated on its platform) of 36%, certain required disclosures before origination, a prohibition on charging prepayment penalties and a prohibition on arbitration agreements and certain other loan agreement terms. As part of the services OppFi provides, OppFi ensures compliance with the requirements of the Military Lending Act.

Bank Secrecy Act, USA PATRIOT Act, and U.S. Sanctions Laws

Under the Bank Secrecy Act, the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act, or USA PATRIOT ACT, and certain U.S. sanctions laws, its bank partners are required to maintain anti-money laundering, customer due diligence and record-keeping policies and procedures, which OppFi performs on behalf of its bank partners, and to avoid doing business with sanctioned persons or entities or engaging in types of sanctioned activity in certain jurisdictions. OppFi has implemented an AML program designed to prevent its platform from being used to facilitate money laundering, terrorist financing, and other illicit activity. OppFi’s AML program is designed to prevent its platform from being used to facilitate business in countries, or with persons or entities, included on designated lists promulgated by the U.S. Department of the Treasury’s Office of Foreign Assets Controls and equivalent foreign authorities. OppFi’s AML compliance program includes policies, procedures, reporting protocols, and internal controls, including the designation of an AML compliance officer, and is designed to address these legal and regulatory requirements and to assist in managing risk associated with money laundering and terrorist financing. With respect to new borrowers, OppFi applies the customer identification and verification program rules and screen names against the list of specially designated nationals maintained by the U.S. Department of the Treasury and OFAC.

Bankruptcy Code

Under the Bankruptcy Code, OppFi is in certain circumstances prohibited by the automatic stay, reorganization plan and discharge provisions, among others, in seeking enforcement of debts against parties who have filed for bankruptcy protection. OppFi’s policies are designed to support compliance with the Bankruptcy Code as OppFi services and collects loans.

Small Dollar Loan Rule

In 2017, the CFPB proposed a rule regulating small dollar loans which applies to lenders (such as our bank partners) making covered loans, defined as: (i) consumer loans with a term of 45 days or less; (ii) longer-term consumer balloon payment loans; and (iii) consumer loans that exceed 45 days in term with a “cost of credit” that exceeds 36% APR in which the lender obtains a leveraged payment mechanism (i.e., the lender has the right to transfer money from a consumer’s account). As proposed, the rule (a) included fairly significant requirements for lenders to undertake specific underwriting processes referred to as ability-to-pay determinations before making a loan; (b) made it an unfair and abusive practice for a lender to make a third attempt to withdraw payment from a consumer’s account in connection with loans that have terms of 45 days or less where two consecutive attempts to withdraw payments from the account failed due to a lack of sufficient funds, unless the lender obtains new and specific authorization from the consumer; and (c) required lenders to provide consumers with written notice before making their first attempt to withdraw payment from a borrower’s account and before subsequent attempts that involve different dates, amounts, or payment channels.

 

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Enforcement of the rule is stayed, pending resolution of an ongoing legal challenge primarily focused on the ability-to-pay determination mandate. The CFPB rescinded portions of the rule requiring an ability-to-pay determination and finalized the balance of the rule in 2020; however, the stay on enforcement remains pending resolution of the litigation.

OppFi believes the rule is common sense legislation and good for the industry. It is possible the rule, when enforced, could impact OppFi’s business or require it to obtain additional borrower consents or make additional disclosures on behalf of its bank partners. Also, if the ability-to-pay determination is re-inserted by the CFPB, OppFi could be required to take additional actions in connection with loan transactions made on behalf of its bank partners.

State Lending Regulations

State Usury Limitations

With respect to bank partners that are FDIC-insured, state banks originating loans on our platform, which represent the vast majority of loans originated or national banks or federal savings banks originating loans on our platform, federal case law and relevant regulatory guidance (including FDIC advisory opinion 92-47) permit depository institutions to “export” requirements regarding interest rates and certain fees considered to be “interest” under federal law from the state or U.S. territory where the bank is located for all loans originated from such state, regardless of the usury limitations imposed by the state law of the borrower’s residence or other states with which the loan may have a geographic nexus, unless the state has chosen to opt out of the exportation regime. OppFi believes, however, if a state or U.S. territory in which one of our bank partners operate opted out of rate exportation, judicial interpretations support the view that such opt outs would apply only to loans “made” in those states. OppFi believes that the “opt-out” of any state would not affect the ability of its platform to benefit from the exportation of rates. If a loan made through OppFi’s platform by a bank partner were deemed to be subject to the usury laws of a state or U.S. territory that had opted-out of the exportation regime, if the loan were not originated in a manner that permitted exportation of interest rate requirements from the state OppFi and its bank partners believed applied at the time of origination, if the loan bore interest or certain fees in excess of the amounts permitted by the state in which the loan was “made” for exportation purposes (or was otherwise in violation of such state’s relevant usury and fee laws) or if the interest exportation authority were determined not to apply to a loan under any particular circumstances, OppFi, its bank partners, or subsequent holders of such loans could become subject to fines, penalties and possible forfeiture of amounts charged to borrowers, and OppFi could decide not to permit bank partners to originate loans in that jurisdiction through its platform or its bank partners or loan investors could choose not to continue doing business with OppFi in such jurisdiction or more broadly, which could adversely impact its growth.

There have also been recent judicial decisions that could affect the collectability of loans sold by its bank partners after origination and the exposure of loan purchasers to potential fines or other penalties for usury violations. See the section titled “Risk Factors” for more information about recent case law developments.

State Disclosure and Lending Practice Requirements

The loans originated on OppFi’s platform by its bank partners may be subject to state laws and regulations that impose requirements related to loan disclosures and terms, credit discrimination, credit reporting, debt collection, and unfair or deceptive business practices. OppFi’s ongoing compliance program seeks to comply with these requirements.

State Licensing/Registration

 

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OppFi holds licenses, registrations, and similar filings so that OppFi can conduct business, including providing referral services and origination assistance to lenders on its platform and servicing and collecting loans, in all states and the District of Columbia where its activities require such licensure, registration or filing. Licenses granted by the regulatory agencies in various states are subject to periodic renewal and may be revoked or suspended for failure to comply with applicable state and federal laws and regulations. In addition, as the product offerings of OppFi or its bank partners change, as states enact new licensing requirements or amend existing licensing laws or regulations, or as states regulators or courts adjust their interpretations of licensing statutes and regulations, OppFi may be required to obtain additional licenses. OppFi is also typically required to complete an annual report (or its equivalent) to each state’s regulator. The statutes also typically subject OppFi to the supervisory and examination authority of state regulators.

State licensing statutes impose a variety of requirements and restrictions, including:

 

   

record-keeping requirements;

 

   

collection and servicing practices;

 

   

requirements governing electronic payments, transactions, signatures and disclosures;

 

   

examination requirements;

 

   

surety bond and minimum net worth requirements;

 

   

financial reporting requirements;

 

   

notification requirements for changes in principal officers, stock ownership or corporate control; and

 

   

restrictions on advertising and other loan solicitation activity, as well as restrictions on loan referral or similar practices.

Compliance

OppFi reviews its policies and procedures to ensure compliance with applicable regulatory laws and regulations applicable to OppFi and its bank partners. OppFi has built its systems and processes with controls in place in order to permit its policies and procedures to be followed on a consistent basis. For example, to ensure proper controls are in place to maintain compliance with the consumer protection related laws and regulations, OppFi has developed a compliance management system consistent with the regulatory expectations published by governmental agencies. While no compliance program can assure that there will never be violations, or alleged violations, of applicable laws, OppFi believes that its compliance management system is reasonably designed and managed to minimize compliance-related risks.

Intellectual Property

OppFi protects its intellectual property through a combination of trademarks, domain names and trade secrets, as well as through confidentiality agreements, its information security infrastructure and restrictions on access to or use of its proprietary technology.

OppFi has trademark registrations in the United States in its names and its logo. OppFi will pursue additional trademark registrations to the extent OppFi believes it will be beneficial. OppFi also has registered domain names for websites that OppFi uses in its business. OppFi may be subject to third party claims from time to time with respect to its intellectual property.

 

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Additionally, OppFi relies upon unpatented trade secrets and confidential know-how and continuing technological innovation to develop and maintain its competitive position. OppFi also enters into confidentiality and intellectual property rights agreements with its employees, consultants, contractors and bank partners. Under such agreements, OppFi’s employees, consultants and contractors are subject to invention assignment provisions designed to protect its proprietary information and ensure its ownership in intellectual property developed pursuant to such agreements.

For additional information about its intellectual property and associated risks, see the section titled “Risk Factors—Risks Related to OppFi’s Business and Industry.”

Employees and Human Capital

OppFi believes it has built something very special in terms of its company culture. Building a great place to work for the best talent was a priority for OppFi from day one. It is not an accident that OppFi has received numerous best place to work awards in its Chicago headquarters.

OppFi has brought together a remarkable diversity of thinkers. The members of OppFi’s management team come from diverse backgrounds with varying ethnicities, education backgrounds, genders and ages. As the focal point of its human capital strategy, OppFi attracts and recruits diverse, exceptionally talented, highly educated, experienced and motivated employees.

As of June 30, 2021, OppFi had approximately 554 full-time employees. OppFi also engages contractors and consultants as needed to support its operations. None of OppFi’s employees are represented by a labor union or subject to a collective bargaining agreement. OppFi has not experienced any work stoppages, and OppFi considers its relations with its employees to be good.

Facilities

OppFi’s corporate headquarters is located in Chicago, Illinois and consists of approximately 79,928 square feet under a lease that expires in 2030. OppFi believes that its facilities are adequate for its current needs and that, if necessary, additional facilities will be available to accommodate the expansion of its business.

Legal Proceedings

From time to time, OppFi and certain of its subsidiaries may be subject to legal proceedings and claims that arise in the ordinary course of business. Additionally, OppFi is, and has been, and from time to time may be, subject to inquiries or investigations by state and federal regulatory agencies and bodies, such as the CFPB, state attorneys general, state financial regulatory agencies and other state or federal agencies or bodies regarding the OppFi platform, including the marketing of loans for lenders, underwriting and pricing of consumer loans for OppFi’s bank partners, OppFi’s fair lending compliance program and licensing and registration requirements. OppFi has addressed these inquiries directly and engaged in open dialogue with regulators. For example, the CFPB has issued a civil investigative demand, or CID, to OppFi, as a result of a consumer complaint, the stated purpose of which was to determine whether OppFi’s lending practices violated any consumer financial laws with respect to the Military Lending Act. OppFi responded to the CFPB to refute the number of affected consumers, and on August 25, 2021, OppFi received notification from the staff of the CFPB that the CFPB had completed its investigation and does not intend to recommend that the CFPB take enforcement action against OppFi. See “Risk Factors—We have been in the past and may in the future be subject to federal and state regulatory inquiries regarding our business, which may cause significant harm to our reputation, lead to investigations and enforcement actions from other agencies or litigants, and divert management attention and resources from the operation of our business for further information about this matter.

 

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On April 5, 2021, the Washington, DC Attorney General filed a lawsuit against OppFi for allegedly deceptively marketing high-cost loans with interest rates above the Washington, DC usury cap. The usury claim is based on an allegation that OppFi, which is not licensed in Washington, DC because a license is not required to service bank loans in the district, and not its partner bank, FinWise, originated these loans, and is therefore in violation of the district’s usury laws. While OppFi denies such allegations and intends to vigorously defend the matter, FinWise has ceased originating loans in Washington D.C. and as a result, OppFi has ceased doing business in Washington, DC with FinWise and there can be no assurance as to the ultimate disposition of the action. OppFi has also been the subject of state attorneys general inquires of a similar nature in other states, including Montana and Washington state, as well as the California Department of Business Oversight, and the subject of litigation filed on behalf of putative classes of customers in California and Washington. See “Risk Factors—If loans facilitated through our platform for one or more bank partners were subject to successful challenge that the bank partner was not the “true lender,” such loans may be unenforceable, subject to rescission or otherwise impaired, we or other program participants may be subject to fines, judgments and penalties, and/or our commercial relationships may suffer, each of which would adversely affect our business and results of operations” for further information about these matters.

OppFi has also received inquiries from state regulatory agencies regarding requirements to obtain licenses from or register with those states, including in states where OppFi has determined that it is not required to obtain such a license or be registered with the state, and OppFi expects to continue to receive such inquiries.

Finally, third parties may from time to time assert claims against OppFi in the form of letters and other communications. OppFi is not currently subject to any legal proceedings that, if determined adversely to OppFi, OppFi believes would have a material adverse effect on its business, results of operations or financial condition. However, regardless of the final outcome, defending lawsuits, claims, government investigations, and proceedings in which OppFi is involved is costly and can impose a significant burden on management and employees, and there can be no assurances that favorable final outcomes will be obtained.

 

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OPPFI MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF

FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

Unless the context otherwise requires, all references in this section to “OppFi” refer to Opportunity Financial, LLC and subsidiaries prior to the consummation of the business combination. You should read the following discussion and analysis of OppFi’s financial condition and results of operations together with the OppFi’s audited consolidated financial statements and the related notes appearing elsewhere in this prospectus. This discussion contains forward-looking statements that reflect OppFi’s plans, estimates, and beliefs that involve risks and uncertainties. In addition, OppFi’s business is subject to a high degree of uncertainty and risk due to a variety of factors, including those described in the section titled “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this prospectus. As a result of these factors, such as those set forth under the headings “Risk Factors” and “Forward-Looking Statements” and and elsewhere in this prospectus, OppFi’s actual results may differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements.

Overview

OppFi is a leading mission-driven financial technology platform that powers banks to offer accessible lending products and a top-rated experience to everyday consumers. Through OppFi’s unwavering commitment to customer service, OppFi helps consumers who are turned away by traditional providers build a better financial path. Consumers on OppFi’s platform benefit from higher approval rates and a highly automated, efficient, all-digital experience. OppFi’s bank partners benefit from access to new customers and increased automation throughout the lending process.

Recent Developments

Key recent events impacting OppFi’s business are as follows:

 

   

Business Combination — On February 9, 2021, OppFi announced that it had entered into a definitive business combination agreement with FG New America Acquisition Corp., a special purpose acquisition corporation, that would result in OppFi becoming a public company. The business combination was closed on July 20, 2021. Upon the close of the transaction, the combined company had 84,464,783 shares outstanding excluding 25,500,000 earnout units. OppFi also had 15,339,437 warrants outstanding with exercise prices at $11.50 and $15.00 per share.

 

   

Hiring of Neville Crawley as President — OppFi is pleased to welcome Neville Crawley in the newly created role of President. Crawley will help formulate OppFi’s technology and go-to-market strategies, and work to aggressively expand OppFi’s products and services. Crawley will additionally oversee OppFi’s social impact commitments. Prior to joining OppFi, Crawley served as CEO of the global fintech platform, Kiva, from 2017 to 2021. Kiva had funded more than $1.5 billion in loans to some of the world’s most financially excluded populations. Previously, Crawley served as CEO of Quid, an artificial intelligence company, as Senior Vice President of strategy and corporate development at GLG, the world’s largest expert network, and as a strategy and M&A consultant to fintech companies at McKinsey & Company.

 

   

COVID-19 — In March 2020, the World Health Organization recognized a global pandemic known as the coronavirus or COVID-19. Due to the economic uncertainty that this has caused, and can continue to cause, there is added risk to OppFi’s overall future outlook. OppFi has implemented cost containment and cash management initiatives to mitigate the potential impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on its business and liquidity. The full extent of any impact cannot be determined at this time. OppFi did see a slowdown in growth during the year ended December 31, 2020 and the first quarter ended March 31, 2021 due to the government stimulus program, which also had a positive impact on OppFi’s credit performance even while the credit risk of OppFi loan applicants remained flat during this period. Management will continue to monitor any changes to the business as the pandemic continues throughout 2021.

 

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Year Ended December 31, 2020

Key Performance Metrics

OppFi regularly reviews the following key metrics, to evaluate its business, measure its performance, identify trends affecting its business, formulate financial projections and make strategic decisions, which may also be useful to an investor.

Total Net Originations

We measure originations to assess the growth trajectory and overall size of our loan portfolio. There is a direct correlation between origination growth and revenue growth. We include both bank partner originations as well as those originated by us directly. Originations may be useful to an investor because it helps understand the growth trajectory of revenues.

The following tables present total net originations (defined as gross originations net of refinancing transferred balance on refinanced loans) for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 as well as for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018. Originations in 2020 were flat due to the short-term impact on our customers demand for our product due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Originations grew from the year ended December 31, 2018 to the year ended December 31, 2019 by 81% as we increased our state coverage and made enhancements to our AI underwriting model.

OppFi’s originations model has shifted towards a facilitation model from a direct origination model as the percentage of Total Net Originations by OppFi’s bank partners has more than doubled since 2018.

In addition, OppFi’s net originations have shifted from a majority of originations being new loans to refinanced loans.

 

     Year Ended December 31,     Change  
     2020
    2019     $      %  
     (In thousands, except for % change)         

Total Net Originations

   $ 483,350     $ 496,530     $ (13,180      (2.7 %) 

% of Net Originations by Bank Partners

     65.0     53.2     N/A        11.9

% of Net Originations by New Loans

     42.8     56.9     N/A        (14.0 %) 

 

     Year Ended December 31,     Change  
     2019     2018     $      %  
     (In thousands, except for % change)         

Total Net Originations

   $ 496,530     $ 273,797     $ 223,733        81.3

% of Net Originations by Bank Partners

     53.2     29.8     N/A        23.3

% of Net Originations by New Loans

     56.9     61.9     N/A        (5.1 %) 

Average Yield

Average yield represents interest income from the period as a percent of average receivables.

 

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The following tables present average yield for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 as well as for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018. Year over year improvements were driven by our state mix and lower delinquencies.

 

     Year Ended December 31,        Change  
             2020                     2019                %  

Average Yield

     128.1     127.6        0.5

 

     Year Ended December 31,        Change  
             2019                     2018                %  

Average Yield

     127.6     125.5        2.1

Net Charge-Offs as a Percentage of Average Receivables

Net charge-offs as a percentage of average receivables represents total charge offs from the period less recoveries as a percent of average receivables. OppFi charges off loans after they are more than 90 days delinquent on a recency basis.

The following tables present net charge-offs as a percentage of average receivables for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 as well as for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018.

Net charge-offs as a percentage of average receivables improved from the year ended December 31, 2019 to the year ended December 31, 2020 as a result of OppFi implementing more stringent underwriting parameters during the COVID-19 pandemic as well as the impact from government stimulus programs. Net charge-offs increased from the year ended December 31, 2018 to the year ended December 31, 2019, which was driven by a higher age of our loan portfolio.

 

     Year Ended December 31,        Change  
     2020     2019        %  

Net Charge-Offs as % of Avg. Receivables

     35.6     42.2        (6.7 %) 
     Year Ended December 31,        Change  
     2019     2018        %  

Net Charge-Offs as % of Avg. Receivables

     42.2     37.2        5.1

Marketing Cost per Funded Loan

Marketing cost per funded loan represents marketing cost per funded loan for new and refinance loans. This metric is the amount of direct marketing costs incurred during a period divided by the number loans originated during that same period.

The following tables present marketing cost per funded loan for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 as well as for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018.

OppFi’s marketing cost per funded loan has decreased from $79 in 2018 to $62 in 2020 driven by OppFi’s shift in customer acquisition channels away from direct mail to more cost-effective channels including strategic third-party referrals and re-marketing to existing customers. Strategic third-party referrals are more cost effective than direct mail with costs typically 20% lower. However, cost per funded loan of strategic third-party referrals are typically 5% to 10% higher than the overall cost per funded loan of OppFi’s entire portfolio due to the impact of other lower cost channels (including search engine optimization and e-mail). OppFi currently expects any changes in channel mix of strategic third-party referrals to be offset by direct mail and other channels such that the overall cost per funded loan remains consistent over time.

 

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     Year Ended December 31,     Change  
     2020      2019     $      %  

Marketing Cost per Funded Loan

   $ 62      $ 71     $ (11      (15.5 %) 
     Year Ended December 31,     Change  
     2019      2018     $      %  

Marketing Cost per Funded Loan

   $ 71      $ 79     $ (8      (10.1 %) 

Marketing Cost per New Funded Loan

Marketing cost per new funded loan represents the amount of direct marketing costs incurred during a period divided by the number of new loans originated during that same period.

The following tables present marketing cost per funded loan (new) for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 as well as for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018.

OppFi’s marketing cost per new funded loan was stable from 2018 to 2019, and increased in 2020 due to impact on direct mail performance from COVID-19.

 

     Year Ended December 31,     Change  
     2020      2019     $      %  

Marketing Cost per New Funded Loan

   $ 211      $ 183     $ 28        15.3
     Year Ended December 31,     Change  
     2019      2018     $      %  

Marketing Cost per New Funded Loan

   $ 183      $ 177     $ 6        3.4

Auto-Approval Rate

Auto-approval rate is calculated by taking the number of approved loans that are not decisioned by a loan advocate or underwriter (auto-approval) divided by the total number of loans approved.

Overall auto decisioning, which also takes into account those applications that were denied which are not decisioned by a loan advocate or underwriter (auto-denial) plus auto-approval divided by the total number of applications, was 75% for 2020.

The following tables present auto approval rate for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 as well as for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018. Year over year improvements are driven by the launch and expansion of algorithmic automation projects that streamline steps of the origination process.

 

     Year Ended December 31,     Change  
     2020     2019     %  

Auto-Approval Rate

     25.7     18.3     7.4
     Year Ended December 31,     Change  
     2019     2018     %  

Auto-Approval Rate

     18.3     6.5     11.8

 

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Sales and Servicing Cost per Loan

Sales and servicing cost per loan is calculated by taking the total sales and servicing costs, which include customer center salaries, underwriting and reporting costs, and payment processing fees, divided by the average amount of outstanding loans during that period.

The following tables present sales and servicing cost per loan for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 as well as for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018.

OppFi’s sales and servicing cost per loan decreased from 2018 to 2019 due to enhanced automation and efficiency. OppFi’s sales and servicing cost per loan remained flat in 2020 from 2019 as enhanced automation was offset by slower loan growth due to the impact on demand from COVID in 2020.

 

     Year Ended December 31,      Change      Change  
     2020      2019      $      %  

Sales and Servicing Cost per Loan

   $ 148      $ 149      $ (1      (0.9 %) 

 

     Year Ended December 31,      Change      Change  
     2019      2018      $      %  

Sales and Servicing Cost per Loan

   $ 149      $ 166      $ (17      (10.4 %) 

Results of Operations

Comparison of the Years Ended December 31, 2020 and 2019

The following table presents OppFi’s consolidated results of operations for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019:

 

     Years Ended December 31,     Change  
     2020     2019     $     %  
     (In thousands, except % change)        

Interest and Loan Related Income, Gross (a)

   $ 322,165     $ 267,166     $ 54,999       20.6

Other Income

     789       924       (135     (14.6 %) 
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Interest, Loan Related, and Other Income

   $ 322,954     $ 268,090     $ 54,864       20.5
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Amortization of Loan Origination Costs

     (31,940     (38,968     7,028       (18.0 %) 
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total Revenue

   $ 291,014     $ 229,122     $ 61,892       27.0
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total Provision

     90,787       114,254       (23,467     (20.5 %) 
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net Revenue

   $ 200,227     $ 114,868     $ 85,359       74.3
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Expenses

     122,711       81,873       40,838       49.9
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

EBT (b)

   $ 77,516     $ 32,995     $ 44,521       134.9
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

  (a)

Loan Related Income primarily consists of NSF fees, which are immaterial. Interest income related to finance receivables accounted for under the fair value option is included in “Interest and loan related income, gross” in the consolidated statements of operations.

  (b)

Represents Net Income as reported in audited financial statements, as OppFi does not have tax provision under its pass-through structure as a limited liability company.

Total Revenue

 

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Total revenue consists mainly of revenue earned from interest on receivables from outstanding loans based only on the interest method, as well as amortization of loan origination costs. OppFi does not earn interest in any state on an accelerated basis. OppFi also earns revenues from referral fees, which represented less than 0.25% of total revenues in 2020. Total revenue increased by $61.9 million, or 27.0%, to $291.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2020 from $229.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2019. This was primarily due to the increase of average receivables by 19.9% due to higher balances in the first part of the year before the start of the COVID-19 pandemic.

The economics of the bank partner model and the direct model are similar, and we do not expect a material change to our financials based on the mix of bank partner originations. The economic difference in the bank partnership model is a minimal program fee paid by OppFi for each origination as well increased compliance costs for OppFi, which collectively have an insignificant impact on customer lifetime value.

Total Provision

Total provision consists of gross charge-offs incurred in the year, net of recoveries, plus the change in the allowance for credit losses. OppFi’s provisions for future losses is based on incurred credit loss application whereby it reserves for life of loan losses due to the short-term nature of the contracts.

Total provision decreased by $23.5 million, or 20.5%, to $90.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2020 from $114.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2019. Much of the change was driven by a decrease in the allowance as a result of slightly lower receivables year over year. Net charge-offs as a percentage of receivables improved due to OppFi’s implementing more stringent underwriting parameters during the COVID-19 pandemic as well as impact from the government stimulus programs.

Net Revenue

Net revenue is the difference between total revenue and provision costs. Total net revenue increased by $85.3 million, or 74.3%, to $200.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2020 from $114.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2019.

Expenses

Total expenses consist of salaries and employee benefits, interest expenses and amortized debt issuance costs, servicing costs, direct marketing costs, technology costs, depreciation and amortization, professional fees and other expenses. Total expenses increased by $40.8 million, or 49.9%, to $122.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2020 from $81.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2019. This was primarily due to an investment in personnel, including Compliance, Information Security and Software Development, as well as increased collections costs and payment processing fees driven by higher recoveries of past due accounts. In addition, OppFi invested in technology infrastructure to enhance automation in its loan origination processes.

Earnings Before Tax (“EBT”)

EBT is the difference between net revenue and expenses. EBT represents Net Income as reported in OppFi’s audited financial statements, as OppFi does not have a tax provision under its current pass-through structure as a limited liability company. Total EBT increased by $44.5 million, or 134.9%, to $77.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2020 from $33.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2019.

 

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Comparison of the Years Ended December 31, 2019 and 2018

The following table presents our consolidated results of operations for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018:

 

     Years Ended December 31,     Change  
     2019     2018     $     %  
     (In thousands, except % change)  

Interest and Loan Related Income, Gross (a)

   $ 267,166     $ 133,399     $ 133,767       100.3
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Other Income

     924       849       75       8.8
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Interest, Loan Related, and Other Income

   $ 268,090     $ 134,248     $ 133,842       99.7
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Amortization of Loan Origination Costs

     (38,968     (19,999     (18,969     94.8
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total Revenue

   $ 229,122     $ 114,249     $ 114,873       100.5
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total Provision

     114,254       58,416       55,838       95.6
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net Revenue

   $ 114,868     $ 55,833     $ 59,035       105.7
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Expenses

     81,873       46,100       35,773       77.6
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

EBT (b)

   $ 32,995     $ 9,733     $ 23,262       239.0
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

  (a)

Loan Related Income primarily consists of NSF fees, which are immaterial.

  (b)

Represents Net Income as reported in audited financial statements, as OppFi does not have tax provision under its pass-through structure as a limited liability company.

Total Revenue

Total revenue consists mainly of revenue earned from interest on receivables from outstanding loans, as well as amortization of loan origination costs. OppFi also earns revenues from referral fees, which represented less than 0.25% of total revenues in 2020. Total revenue increased by $114.9 million, or 100.5%, to $229.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2019 from $114.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2018. This was primarily due to the increase of average receivables of 96.5%. The economics of the bank partner model and the direct model are similar, and we do not expect a material change to our financials based on the mix of bank partner originations

Total Provision

Total provision consists of gross charge-offs incurred in the year, net of recoveries, plus the change in the allowance for credit losses. OppFi’s provisions for future losses is based on incurred credit loss application whereby it reserves for life of loan losses due to the short-term nature of the contracts.

Total provision increased by $55.8 million, or 95.6%, to $114.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2019 from $58.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2018. Of the $55.8 million increase, 13.1% was due to the increase in allowance and 86.9% was from net-charge-offs due to the increase in receivables.

Net Revenue

Net revenue is the difference between total revenue and provision costs. Total net revenue increased by $59.1 million, or 105.7%, to $114.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2019 from $55.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2018.

Expenses

 

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Total expenses consist of salaries and employee benefits, interest expenses and amortized debt issuance costs, direct marketing costs, technology costs, servicing costs, depreciation and amortization, professional fees and other expenses. Total expenses increased by $35.8 million, or 77.6%, to $81.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2019 from $46.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2018. This was primarily due to an increase in salary and employment benefits as well as increases in interest expenses and amortized debt issuance costs, technology infrastructure costs, and professional fees.

Earnings Before Tax (“EBT”)

EBT is the difference between net revenue and expenses. EBT represents Net Income as reported in OppFi’s audited financial statements, as OppFi does not have a tax provision under its current pass-through structure as a limited liability company. Total EBT increased by $23.3 million, or 239.0%, to $33.0 million for the years ended December 31, 2019 from $9.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2018.

Liquidity and Capital Resources

To date, the funds received from operating income and OppFi’s ability to obtain lending commitments, have provided the liquidity necessary for OppFi to fund its operations.

OppFi’s liquidity profile has improved each period due to growth in operating cash flows and increased liquidity from debt providers. Maturities of OppFi’s facilities are staggered over three year to help minimize refinance risk.

The following table presents OppFi’s unrestricted cash and undrawn debt as of the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018:

 

     Year Ended December 31,  
     2020      2019      2018  
     (In thousands)  

Unrestricted cash

   $ 25,601      $ 16,789      $ 8,785  

Undrawn debt

     338,108        139,598        51,844  

As of December 31, 2018, OppFi had $13.4 million of available capacity under its secured borrowings payable agreement. Overall, including the secured borrowing payable, OppFi had $177.4 million of available debt capacity of which $125.6 million had been drawn and $51.8 million was available (29% of capacity undrawn).

As of December 31, 2019, OppFi had $32.6 million of available capacity under its secured borrowings payable agreement. Overall, including the secured borrowing payable, OppFi had $346.6 million of available debt capacity of which $207.0 million had been drawn and $139.6 million was available (40% of capacity undrawn).

As of December 31, 2020, OppFi had $85.2 million of available capacity under its secured borrowings payable agreement. Overall, including the secured borrowing payable, OppFi had $480.5 million of available debt capacity of which $142.4 million had been drawn and $338.1 million remains available (70% of capacity undrawn).

OppFi believes that its unrestricted cash, undrawn debt and funds from operating income will be sufficient to meet its liquidity needs for at least the next 12 months. OppFi’s future capital requirements will depend on multiple factors, including its revenue growth, working capital requirements, cash provided by and used in operating, investing and financing activities and capital expenditures.

To the extent OppFi’s unrestricted cash balances, funds from operating income and funds from undrawn debt are insufficient to satisfy its liquidity needs in the future, OppFi may need to raise additional capital through equity or debt financing and may not be able to do so on terms acceptable to it, if at all. If OppFi is unable to raise additional capital when needed, its results of operations and financial condition would be materially and adversely impacted.

 

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OppFi expects aggregate capital expenditures f