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Form 424B2 ROYAL BANK OF CANADA

July 5, 2022 5:16 PM EDT

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Filed Pursuant to Rule 424(b)(2)
Registration Statement No. 333-259205








 

Pricing Supplement
Dated June 30, 2022
to the Product Prospectus Supplement ERN-EI-1, the Prospectus Supplement and the Prospectus, Each Dated September 14, 2021

$7,635,000
Geared Buffered Notes due September 1,
2023 Linked to the Lesser Performing of
Two Equity Indices
Royal Bank of Canada





Royal Bank of Canada is offering Geared Buffered Notes (the “Notes”) linked to the Lesser Performing of two equity indices (each, a “Reference Asset” and collectively, the “Reference Assets”). The Notes offered are senior unsecured obligations of Royal Bank of Canada, will pay a monthly coupon at the interest rate specified below, and will have the terms described in the documents described above, as supplemented or modified by this pricing supplement, as set forth below.
The Notes do not guarantee any return of principal at maturity. All payments on the Notes are subject to our credit risk.
Investing in the Notes involves a number of risks. See “Selected Risk Considerations” beginning on page P7 of this pricing supplement, “Additional Risk Factors Specific to the Notes” beginning on page PS-4 of the product prospectus supplement dated September 14, 2021, and “Risk Factors” on page S-2 of the prospectus supplement dated September 14, 2021.
The Notes will not constitute deposits insured by the Canada Deposit Insurance Corporation, the U.S. Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation or any other Canadian or U.S. government agency or instrumentality. The Notes are not subject to conversion into our common shares under subsection 39.2(2.3) of the Canada Deposit Insurance Corporation Act.
Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of the Notes or determined that this pricing supplement is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.
Issuer:
Royal Bank of Canada
Stock Exchange Listing:
None
Trade Date:
June 30, 2022
Principal Amount:
$1,000 per Note
Issue Date:
July 6, 2022
Coupon Payments:
The coupon will be paid in monthly installments at the rate of 9.15% per annum
Reference Assets
 
Initial Level*
 
Buffer Level
Russell 2000® Index (“RTY”)
 
1,719.370
 
1,375.496 (80.00% of the Initial Level)
Nasdaq-100 Index® (“NDX”)
 
11,658.26
 
9,326.61 (80.00% of the Initial Level, rounded to two decimal places)
*For each Reference Asset, the Initial Level is its closing level on June 29, 2022.
Final Level:
For each Reference Asset, its closing level on the Valuation Date.
Payment at Maturity (if held to
maturity):
For each $1,000 principal amount, $1,000 plus any accrued and unpaid interest at maturity, unless the Final Level of either Reference Asset is less than its respective Buffer Level.
If the Final Level of either Reference Asset is less than its Buffer Level, then the investor will receive at maturity, instead of the principal amount, in addition to accrued and unpaid interest, an amount in cash equal to the sum of:
(a) $1,000 plus (b) the product of (i) $1,000 times (ii) the sum of the Percentage Change of the Lesser Performing Reference Asset plus 20.00% times (iii) the Downside Multiplier:
$1,000 + [$1,000 x (Percentage Change of the Lesser Performing Reference Asset + 20.00%) x (100/80.00)]
Investors could lose some or all of their investment at maturity if there has been a decline in the level of either Reference Asset below its Buffer Level.
CUSIP/ISIN
 
Coupon Rate
 
Principal
Amount
 
Price to
Public
 
Agent’s
Commission
 
Proceeds to Royal Bank of
Canada
78016FN59/
US78016FN591
 
9.15% per
annum
 
$7,635,000
 
100%
 
$0
0%
 
$7,635,000
100%

The initial estimated value of the Notes as of the Trade Date is $991.44 per $1,000 in principal amount, which is less than the price to public. The actual value of the Notes at any time will reflect many factors, cannot be predicted with accuracy, and may be less than this amount. We describe our determination of the initial estimated value in more detail below.

RBC Capital Markets, LLC


 

 
Geared Buffered Notes Linked to the Lesser Performing of Two Equity Indices
 
SUMMARY
The information in this “Summary” section is qualified by the more detailed information set forth in this pricing supplement, the product prospectus supplement, the prospectus supplement, and the prospectus.

General:
This pricing supplement relates to an offering of Geared Buffered Notes (the “Notes”) linked to the lesser performing of the Reference Assets listed on the cover page of this document.
Issuer:
Royal Bank of Canada (“Royal Bank”)
Trade Date (Pricing
Date):
June 30, 2022
Issue Date:
July 6, 2022
Valuation Date:
August 29, 2023
Maturity Date:
September 1, 2023
Denominations:
Minimum denomination of $1,000, and integral multiples of $1,000 thereafter.
Designated Currency:
U.S. Dollars
Coupon Payment
Dates:
The coupon will be paid in monthly installments on August 3, 2022, September 1, 2022, October 4, 2022, November 3, 2022, December 2, 2022, January 4, 2023, February 2, 2023, March 3, 2023, April 3, 2023, May 3, 2023, June 2, 2023, July 5, 2023, August 3, 2023 and the Maturity Date, subject to postponement as set forth in the product supplement.
Record Dates:
The record date for each Coupon Payment Date will be the date one business day prior to that scheduled Coupon Payment Date; provided, however, that any coupon payable at maturity will be payable to the person to whom the payment at maturity will be payable.
Lesser Performing
Reference Asset:
The Reference Asset which has the lowest Percentage Change.
Percentage Change:
Expressed as a percentage, an amount equal to:

Initial Levels:
For each Reference Asset, its closing level on June 29, 2022, as set forth on the cover page of this document.
Buffer Levels:
For each Reference Asset, 80.00% of its Initial Level, as set forth on the cover page of this document.
Final Levels:
For each Underlying Asset, its closing level on the Valuation Date.
Downside Multiplier:
100/80.00, which is 1.25.

P2
RBC Capital Markets, LLC


 

 
Geared Buffered Notes Linked to the Lesser Performing of Two Equity Indices
 
Payment at Maturity (if
held to maturity):
For each $1,000 in principal amount of the Notes, the investor will receive $1,000 plus any accrued and unpaid interest at maturity, unless the Final Level of either Reference Asset is less than its Buffer Level.
If the Final Level of either Reference Asset is less than its Buffer Level, then the investor will receive at maturity, instead of the principal amount of the Notes, in addition to any accrued and unpaid interest, an amount in cash equal to the sum of:
(a) $1,000 plus (b) the product of (i) $1,000 times (ii) the sum of the Percentage Change of the Lesser Performing Reference Asset plus 20.00% times (iii) the Downside Multiplier:
$1,000 + [$1,000 x (Percentage Change of the Lesser Performing Reference Asset + 20.00%) x (100/80.00)]
Investors in the Notes could lose some or all of their investment at maturity if the Final Level of the Lesser Performing Reference Asset is less than its Buffer Level.
Market Disruption
Events:
The occurrence of a market disruption event (or a non-trading day) as to either of the Reference Assets will result in the postponement of the Valuation Date as to that Reference Asset, as described in the product prospectus supplement, but not to a non-affected Reference Asset.
Calculation Agent:
RBC Capital Markets, LLC
Secondary Market:
RBC Capital Markets, LLC (or one of its affiliates), though not obligated to do so, may maintain a secondary market in the Notes after the issue date. The amount that an investor may receive upon sale of the Notes prior to maturity may be less than the principal amount.
Listing:
None
Settlement:
DTC global notes
Terms Incorporated in
the Master Note:
All of the terms appearing above the item captioned “Secondary Market” on the cover page and on pages P2 and P3 of this pricing supplement and the terms appearing under the caption “General Terms of the Notes” in the product prospectus supplement.

P3
RBC Capital Markets, LLC


 

 
Geared Buffered Notes Linked to the Lesser Performing of Two Equity Indices
 
ADDITIONAL TERMS OF YOUR NOTES
You should read this pricing supplement together with the prospectus dated September 14, 2021, as supplemented by the prospectus supplement dated September 14, 2021 and the product prospectus supplement dated September 14, 2021, relating to our Senior Global Medium-Term Notes, Series I, of which these Notes are a part. Capitalized terms used but not defined in this pricing supplement will have the meanings given to them in the product prospectus supplement. In the event of any conflict, this pricing supplement will control. The Notes vary from the terms described in the product prospectus supplement in several important ways. You should read this pricing supplement carefully.
This pricing supplement, together with the documents listed below, contains the terms of the Notes and supersedes all prior or contemporaneous oral statements as well as any other written materials including preliminary or indicative pricing terms, correspondence, trade ideas, structures for implementation, sample structures, brochures or other educational materials of ours. You should carefully consider, among other things, the matters set forth in “Risk Factors” in the prospectus supplement dated September 14, 2021 and “Additional Risk Factors Specific to the Notes” in the product prospectus supplement dated September 14, 2021, as the Notes involve risks not associated with conventional debt securities. We urge you to consult your investment, legal, tax, accounting and other advisors before you invest in the Notes. You may access these documents on the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) website at www.sec.gov as follows (or if that address has changed, by reviewing our filings for the relevant date on the SEC website):
Prospectus dated September 14, 2021:
Prospectus Supplement dated September 14, 2021:
Product Prospectus Supplement ERN-EI-1 dated September 14, 2021:
Our Central Index Key, or CIK, on the SEC website is 1000275. As used in this pricing supplement, “we,” “us,” or “our” refers to Royal Bank of Canada.

P4
RBC Capital Markets, LLC


 

 
Geared Buffered Notes Linked to the Lesser Performing of Two Equity Indices
 
HYPOTHETICAL EXAMPLES OF AMOUNTS PAYABLE AT MATURITY
The examples set forth below are provided for illustration purposes only. The assumptions in each of the examples are purely hypothetical and do not relate to the actual performance of either Reference Asset. The hypothetical terms do not purport to be representative of every possible scenario concerning increases or decreases in the Final Level of each Reference Asset relative to its Initial Level. We cannot predict the actual performance of each Reference Asset.
The table below illustrates the Payment at Maturity of the Notes (excluding the final Coupon Payment) for a hypothetical range of performance for the Lesser Performing Reference Asset, assuming an Initial Level of 100, a Buffer Level of 80.00 and an initial investment of $1,000. For this purpose, we have assumed that there will be no market disruption events. Hypothetical Final Levels of the Lesser Performing Reference Asset are shown in the first column on the left. The second column shows the Percentage Change for the Lesser Performing Reference Asset. The third column shows the Payment at Maturity as a percentage of the principal amount. The last column shows the hypothetical Payment at Maturity per $1,000 in principal amount of the Notes. The amounts in the table have been rounded for ease of analysis.
We make no representation or warranty as to which of the Reference Assets will be the Lesser Performing Reference Asset for purposes of calculating the payment, if any, we will deliver or pay on the Maturity Date.
Hypothetical Final
Level of the Lesser
Performing
Reference Asset
Percentage Change
Payment at Maturity
as Percentage of
Principal Amount
Hypothetical
Payment at Maturity
150.00
50.00%
100.00%
$1,000.00
130.00
30.00%
100.00%
$1,000.00
120.00
20.00%
100.00%
$1,000.00
110.00
10.00%
100.00%
$1,000.00
100.00
0.00%
100.00%
$1,000.00
90.00
-10.00%
100.00%
$1,000.00
80.00
-20.00%
100.00%
$1,000.00
70.00
-30.00%
87.50%
$875.00
60.00
-40.00%
75.00%
$750.00
50.00
-50.00%
62.50%
$625.00
30.00
-70.00%
37.50%
$375.00
0.00
-100.00%
0.00%
$0.00

P5
RBC Capital Markets, LLC


 

 
Geared Buffered Notes Linked to the Lesser Performing of Two Equity Indices
 
Hypothetical Examples of Amounts Payable at Maturity
The following hypothetical examples illustrate how the payments set forth in the table above are calculated.
Example 1: The level of the Lesser Performing Reference Asset increases by 25% from the Initial Level of 100.00 to the Final Level of 125.00. Because the Final Level of the Lesser Performing Reference Asset on the Valuation Date is greater than the Buffer Level, the investor receives at maturity, in addition to any accrued and unpaid Coupon Payments on the Notes, a cash payment of $1,000 per security, despite the 25% appreciation in the level of the Lesser Performing Reference Asset.
Example 2: The level of the Lesser Performing Reference Asset decreases by 10% from the Initial Level of 100.00 to the Final Level of 90.00. Because the Final Level of the Lesser Performing Reference Asset is greater than the Buffer Level, the investor receives at maturity, in addition to any accrued and unpaid Coupon Payments on the Notes, a cash payment of $1,000 per security, despite the 10% decline in the level of the Lesser Performing Reference Asset.
Example 3: The level of the Lesser Performing Reference Asset decreases by 50% from the Initial Level of $100.00 to the Final Level of 50.00. Because the Final Level of the Lesser Performing Reference Asset is less than the Buffer Level, we will pay an amount in cash that will be calculated as follows:
$1,000 + [$1,000 x (-50% + 20.00%) x (100/80.00)] = $625.00
* * *
The Payments at Maturity shown above are entirely hypothetical; they are based on market values for the Reference Assets that may not be achieved on the Valuation Date and on assumptions that may prove to be erroneous. The actual market value of your Notes on the Maturity Date or at any other time, including any time you may wish to sell your Notes, may bear little relation to the hypothetical Payments at Maturity shown above, and those amounts should not be viewed as an indication of the financial return on an investment in the Notes or on an investment in either Reference Asset. Please read “Additional Risk Factors Specific to Your Notes” and “Hypothetical Returns on Your Notes” in the accompanying product prospectus supplement.

P6
RBC Capital Markets, LLC


 

 
Geared Buffered Notes Linked to the Lesser Performing of Two Equity Indices
 
SELECTED RISK CONSIDERATIONS
An investment in the Notes involves significant risks. Investing in the Notes is not equivalent to investing directly in the Reference Assets. These risks are explained in more detail in the section “Additional Risk Factors Specific to Your Notes” in the product prospectus supplement. In addition to the risks described in the prospectus supplement and the product prospectus supplement, you should consider the following:
Risks Relating to the Terms and Structure of the Notes

You May Lose Some or All of the Principal Amount at Maturity — Investors in the Notes could lose some or all of their principal amount if there is a decline in the level in either Reference Asset between the Trade Date and the Valuation Date. If the Final Level is less than the Buffer Level, you will lose 1.25% of the principal amount for each 1% that the Final Level is less than the Buffer Level. The rate of interest payable on the Notes may not be sufficient to compensate for any such loss.

The Payments on the Notes Are Limited  The payments on the Notes will be limited to the Coupon Payments. Accordingly, your return on the Notes may be less than your return would be if you made an investment in the Reference Assets, the securities included in the Reference Assets, or in a security directly linked to the positive performance of the Reference Assets.

The Amount Payable at Maturity Will Be Determined Solely by Reference to the Lesser Performing Reference Asset Even if the Other Reference Asset Performs Better — The payment at maturity will be determined solely by reference to the performance of the Lesser Performing Reference Asset. Even if the Final Level of the other Reference Asset has increased compared to its Initial Level, or has experienced a decrease that is less than that of the Lesser Performing Reference Asset, your return will only be determined by reference to the performance of the Lesser Performing Reference Asset, regardless of the performance of the other Reference Asset. The Notes are not linked to a weighted basket, in which the risk may be mitigated and diversified among each of the basket components. For example, in the case of notes linked to a weighted basket, the return would depend on the weighted aggregate performance of the basket components reflected as the basket return. As a result, the depreciation of one basket component could be mitigated by the appreciation of the other basket component, as scaled by the weighting of that basket component. However, in the case of the Notes, the individual performance of each of the Reference Assets would not be combined, and the depreciation of one Reference Asset would not be mitigated by any appreciation of the other Reference Asset. Instead your return will depend solely on the Final Level of the Lesser Performing Reference Asset. Because each Reference Asset tracks a different segment of the U.S. equities market, they may both decrease in a comparable manner.

Your Return May Be Lower than the Return on a Conventional Debt Security of Comparable Maturity —The return that you will receive on the Notes, which could be negative, may be less than the return you could earn on other investments. Your return may be less than the return you would earn if you bought one of our conventional senior interest bearing debt securities.

Owning the Notes Is Not the Same as Owning the Securities Represented by the Reference Assets — The return on your Notes is unlikely to reflect the return you would realize if you actually owned the securities represented by the Reference Assets. For instance, you will not receive or be entitled to receive any dividend payments or other distributions on those securities during the term of your Notes. As an owner of the Notes, you will not have voting rights or any other rights that holders of the Reference Assets may have. Further, the level of one or both of the Reference Assets may increase substantially during the term of the Notes, while your return on the Notes is limited to the Coupon Payments.

Payments on the Notes Are Subject to Our Credit Risk, and Changes in Our Credit Ratings Are Expected to Affect the Market Value of the Notes — The Notes are our senior unsecured debt securities. As a result, your receipt of the payments due on the Notes is dependent upon our ability to repay our obligations on the applicable payment date. This will be the case even if the levels of the Reference Assets increase after

P7
RBC Capital Markets, LLC


 

 
Geared Buffered Notes Linked to the Lesser Performing of Two Equity Indices
 
the date that their Initial Levels were determined. No assurance can be given as to what our financial condition will be at any time during the term of the Notes.

The Payments on the Notes Are Subject to Postponement Due to Market Disruption Events and Adjustments — The Maturity Date and the Valuation Date are subject to adjustment as to each Reference Asset as described in the product prospectus supplement. For a description of what constitutes a market disruption event as well as the consequences of that market disruption event, see “General Terms of the Notes—Market Disruption Events” in the product prospectus supplement.

The Tax Treatment of the Notes Is Uncertain — The U.S. federal income tax treatment of an investment in the Notes is uncertain. We do not plan to request a ruling from the Internal Revenue Service (the “IRS”) regarding the tax treatment of an investment in the Notes, and the IRS or a court may not agree with the tax treatment described in this document.
Risks Relating to the Secondary Market for the Notes

There May Not Be an Active Trading Market for the NotesSales in the Secondary Market May Result in Significant Losses — There may be little or no secondary market for the Notes. The Notes will not be listed on any securities exchange. RBCCM and our other affiliates may make a market for the Notes; however, they are not required to do so. RBCCM or any of our other affiliates may stop any market-making activities at any time. Even if a secondary market for the Notes develops, it may not provide significant liquidity or trade at prices advantageous to you. We expect that transaction costs in any secondary market would be high. As a result, the difference between bid and asked prices for your Notes in any secondary market could be substantial.
Risks Relating to the Initial Estimated Value of the Notes

The Initial Estimated Value of the Notes Is Less than the Price to the Public  The initial estimated value that is set forth on the cover page of this pricing supplement does not represent a minimum price at which we, RBCCM or any of our affiliates would be willing to purchase the Notes in any secondary market (if any exists) at any time. If you attempt to sell the Notes prior to maturity, their market value may be lower than the price you paid for them and the initial estimated value. This is due to, among other things, changes in the levels of the Reference Assets, the borrowing rate we pay to issue securities of this kind, and the inclusion in the price to the public of the estimated costs relating to our hedging of the Notes. These factors, together with various credit, market and economic factors over the term of the Notes, are expected to reduce the price at which you may be able to sell the Notes in any secondary market and will affect the value of the Notes in complex and unpredictable ways. Assuming no change in market conditions or any other relevant factors, the price, if any, at which you may be able to sell your Notes prior to maturity may be less than your original purchase price, as any such sale price would not be expected to include the hedging costs relating to the Notes. In addition to bid-ask spreads, the value of the Notes determined by RBCCM for any secondary market price is expected to be based on the secondary rate rather than the internal funding rate used to price the Notes and determine the initial estimated value. As a result, the secondary price will be less than if the internal funding rate was used. The Notes are not designed to be short-term trading instruments. Accordingly, you should be able and willing to hold your Notes to maturity.

The Initial Estimated Value of the Notes on the Cover Page of this Pricing Supplement Is an Estimate Only, Calculated as of the Time the Terms of the Notes Were Set — The initial estimated value of the Notes is based on the value of our obligation to make the payments on the Notes, together with the mid-market value of the derivative embedded in the terms of the Notes. See “Structuring the Notes” below. Our estimate is based on a variety of assumptions, including our credit spreads, expectations as to dividends, interest rates and volatility, and the expected term of the Notes. These assumptions are based on certain forecasts about future events, which may prove to be incorrect. Other entities may value the Notes or similar securities at a price that is significantly different than we do.

P8
RBC Capital Markets, LLC


 

 
Geared Buffered Notes Linked to the Lesser Performing of Two Equity Indices
 
The value of the Notes at any time after the Trade Date will vary based on many factors, including changes in market conditions, and cannot be predicted with accuracy. As a result, the actual value you would receive if you sold the Notes in any secondary market, if any, should be expected to differ materially from the initial estimated value of your Notes.
Risks Relating to the Reference Assets

An Investment in the Notes Is Subject to Risks Associated in Investing in Stocks With a Small Market Capitalization  The Russell 2000® Index consists of stocks issued by companies with relatively small market capitalizations.  These companies often have greater stock price volatility, lower trading volume and less liquidity than large-capitalization companies. As a result, the level of the Russell 2000® Index may be more volatile than that of a market measure that does not track solely small-capitalization stocks. Stock prices of small-capitalization companies are also generally more vulnerable than those of large-capitalization companies to adverse business and economic developments, and the stocks of small-capitalization companies may be thinly traded, and be less attractive to many investors if they do not pay dividends. In addition, small capitalization companies are often less well-established and less stable financially than large-capitalization companies and may depend on a small number of key personnel, making them more vulnerable to loss of those individuals.  Small capitalization companies tend to have lower revenues, less diverse product lines, smaller shares of their target markets, fewer financial resources and fewer competitive strengths than large-capitalization companies. These companies may also be more susceptible to adverse developments related to their products or services.

An Investment in the Notes Is Subject to Risks Relating to Non-U.S. Securities Markets  Because certain securities included in the NDX are issued by non-U.S. issuers and/or are traded outside of the U.S., an investment in the Notes involves particular risks. For example, the relevant non-U.S. securities markets may be more volatile than the U.S. securities markets, and market developments may affect these markets differently from the U.S. or other securities markets.
Risks Relating to Conflicts of Interest

We May Issue Research Reports that Are Inconsistent with an Investment in the Notes — We or our affiliates may issue research reports on securities that are, or may become, components of the Reference Assets. We may also publish research from time to time on financial markets and other matters that may influence the levels of the Reference Assets or the value of the Notes, or express opinions or provide recommendations that may be inconsistent with purchasing or holding the Notes or with the investment view implicit in the Notes or the Reference Assets. You should make your own independent investigation of the merits of investing in the Notes and the Reference Assets.

P9
RBC Capital Markets, LLC


 

 
Geared Buffered Notes Linked to the Lesser Performing of Two Equity Indices
 
U.S. FEDERAL TAX INFORMATION
The following section supplements the discussion of U.S. federal income taxation in the accompanying prospectus and prospectus supplement, and supersedes the discussion in the product supplement under the caption “Supplemental Discussion of U.S. Federal Income Tax Consequences.” It applies only to those holders who are not excluded from the discussion of U.S. federal income taxation in the accompanying prospectus. This discussion applies only to U.S. holders and non-U.S. holders that will purchase the Notes upon original issuance and will hold the Notes as capital assets for U.S. federal income tax purposes. This discussion does not apply to holders subject to special rules including accrual method taxpayers subject to special tax accounting rules under Section 451(b) of the Code.
You should consult your tax advisor concerning the U.S. federal income tax and other tax consequences of your investment in the Notes in your particular circumstances, including the application of state, local or other tax laws and the possible effects of changes in federal or other tax laws.
We will not attempt to ascertain whether the issuer of any of the component stocks included in the Reference Assets would be treated as a “passive foreign investment company” within the meaning of Section 1297 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), or a “U.S. real property holding corporation” within the meaning of Section 897 of the Code. If the issuer of one or more of such stocks were so treated, certain adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences could possibly apply to a holder. You should refer to any available information filed with the SEC and other authorities by the issuers of the component stock included in the Reference Assets and consult your tax advisor regarding the possible consequences to you in this regard, if any.
NO STATUTORY, JUDICIAL OR ADMINISTRATIVE AUTHORITY DIRECTLY DISCUSSES HOW THE NOTES SHOULD BE TREATED FOR U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX PURPOSES. AS A RESULT, THE U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSEQUENCES OF AN INVESTMENT IN THE NOTES ARE UNCERTAIN. BECAUSE OF THE UNCERTAINTY, YOU SHOULD CONSULT YOUR TAX ADVISOR IN DETERMINING THE U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX AND OTHER TAX CONSEQUENCES OF YOUR INVESTMENT IN THE NOTES, INCLUDING THE APPLICATION OF STATE, LOCAL OR OTHER TAX LAWS AND THE POSSIBLE EFFECTS OF CHANGES IN FEDERAL OR OTHER TAX LAWS.
In the opinion of our counsel, Ashurst LLP, it would generally be reasonable to treat your Notes as an investment unit consisting of (i) a non-contingent debt instrument issued by us to you (the “Debt Portion”) and (ii) a put option with respect to the Reference Assets written by you and purchased by us (the “Put Option”). The balance of this disclosure assumes this treatment is proper and will be respected for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Pursuant to this treatment, 3.75% of each 9.15% Coupon Payment will be treated as an interest payment and 5.40% of each 9.15% Coupon Payment will be treated as payment for the Put Option for U.S. federal income tax purposes.
Treatment as an Investment Unit
If your Notes are properly treated as an investment unit consisting of a Debt Portion and Put Option, it is likely that the Debt Portion of your Notes would be treated as having been issued for the principal amount of the Notes (if you are an initial purchaser) and that Coupon Payments on the Notes would be treated in part as payments of interest and in part as payments for the Put Option. Amounts treated as interest would be included in income in accordance with your regular method of accounting for interest for U.S. federal income tax purposes (as described under “Tax Consequences—United States Taxation—Payments of Interest” in the accompanying prospectus). Amounts treated as payment for the Put Option would be deferred and accounted for upon the sale, call, or maturity of the Notes, as discussed below.
If you were to receive a cash payment of the full principal amount of your Notes upon the call or maturity of your Notes, such payment would likely be treated as (i) payment in full of the principal amount of the Debt Portion (which would not result in the recognition of gain or loss if you are an initial purchaser of your Notes) and (ii) the lapse of the Put Option which would likely result in your recognition of short-term capital gain in an amount equal to the amount paid to you for the Put Option and deferred as described above. If you were to receive a cash payment upon the maturity of your Notes (excluding cash received as a Coupon Payment) of less than the full principal amount of your Notes, such

P10
RBC Capital Markets, LLC


 

 
Geared Buffered Notes Linked to the Lesser Performing of Two Equity Indices
 
payment would likely be treated as (i) payment in full of the principal amount of the Debt Portion (which would not result in the recognition of gain or loss if you are an initial purchaser of your Notes) and (ii) the cash settlement of the Put Option pursuant to which you paid to us an amount equal to the excess of the principal amount of your Notes over the amount that you received upon the maturity of your Notes (excluding cash received as a Coupon Payment) in order to settle the Put Option. If the aggregate amount paid to you for the Put Option and deferred as described above is greater than the amount you are deemed to have paid to us to settle the Put Option, you will likely recognize short-term capital gain in an amount that is equal to such excess. Conversely, if the amount paid to you for the Put Option and deferred as described above is less than the amount you are deemed to have paid to us to settle the Put Option, you will likely recognize short-term capital loss in an amount that is equal to such difference. The deductibility of capital losses is subject to limitations.
Upon the sale of your Notes, you would be required to apportion the value of the amount you receive between the Debt Portion and Put Option on the basis of the values thereof on the date of the sale. You would recognize gain or loss with respect to the Debt Portion in an amount equal to the difference between (i) the amount apportioned to the Debt Portion and (ii) your adjusted U.S. federal income tax basis in the Debt Portion (which would generally be equal to the principal amount of your Notes if you are an initial purchaser of your Notes). Except to the extent attributable to accrued but unpaid interest with respect to the Debt Portion, such gain or loss would be long-term capital gain or loss if your holding period is greater than one year. The amount of cash that you receive that is apportioned to the Put Option (together with any amount of premium received in respect thereof and deferred as described above) would be treated as short-term capital gain. If the value of the Debt Portion on the date of the sale of your Notes is in excess of the amount you receive upon such sale, you would likely be treated as having made a payment (to the purchaser in the case of a sale) equal to the amount of such excess in order to extinguish your rights and obligations under the Put Option. In such a case, you would likely recognize short-term capital gain or loss in an amount equal to the difference between the premium you previously received in respect of the Put Option and the amount of the deemed payment made by you to extinguish the Put Option. The deductibility of capital losses is subject to limitations.
If you are a secondary purchaser of your Notes, you would be required to allocate your purchase price for your Notes between the Debt Portion and Put Option based on the respective fair market values of each on the date of purchase. If, however, the portion of your purchase price allocated to the Debt Portion is at a discount from, or is in excess of, the principal amount of your Notes, you may be subject to the market discount or amortizable bond premium rules described in the accompanying prospectus under “Tax Consequences—United States Taxation—Market Discount” and “Tax Consequences—United States Taxation—Debt Securities Purchased at a Premium” with respect to the Debt Portion. The portion of your purchase price that is allocated to the Put Option would likely be offset for tax purposes against amounts you subsequently receive with respect to the Put Option (including amounts received upon a sale of the Notes that are attributable to the Put Option), thereby reducing the amount of gain or increasing the amount of loss you would recognize with respect to the Put Option or with respect to the sale of any Reference Assets you receive upon the exercise of the Put Option. If, however, the portion of your purchase price allocated to the Debt Portion as described above is in excess of your purchase price for your Notes, you would likely be treated for tax purposes as having received a payment for the Put Option (which will be deferred as described above) in an amount equal to such excess.
Alternative Characterizations
There is no judicial or administrative authority discussing how your Notes should be treated for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Therefore, other treatments would also be reasonable and the Internal Revenue Service might assert that treatment other than that described above is more appropriate.
For example, it is possible that your Note could be treated as a single debt instrument subject to the special tax rules governing contingent payment debt instruments. If your Note is so treated, you would be required to accrue interest income over the term of your Note based upon the yield at which we would issue a non-contingent fixed-rate debt instrument with other terms and conditions similar to your Note. You would recognize gain or loss upon the sale, call or maturity of your Note in an amount equal to the difference, if any, between the amount you receive at such time and your adjusted basis in your Note. In general, your adjusted basis in your Note would be equal to the amount you paid for your Note, increased by the amount of interest you previously accrued with respect to your Note. Any gain you

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recognize upon the sale, call or maturity of your Note would generally be ordinary income and any loss recognized by you at such time would generally be ordinary loss to the extent of interest you included in income in the current or previous taxable years with respect to your Note, and thereafter would be capital loss. The deductibility of capital losses is subject to limitations.
If your Note is treated as a contingent payment debt instrument and you purchase your Note in the secondary market at a price that is at a discount from, or in excess of, the adjusted issue price of your Note, such excess or discount would not be subject to the generally applicable market discount or amortizable bond premium rules described in the accompanying prospectus but rather would be subject to special rules set forth in U.S. Treasury Department regulations governing contingent payment debt instruments. Accordingly, if you purchase your Note in the secondary market, you should consult your tax advisor as to the possible application of such rules to you.
In addition, the Internal Revenue Service has released a notice that may affect the taxation of holders of “prepaid forward contracts” and similar instruments. According to the notice, the Internal Revenue Service and the U.S. Treasury Department are actively considering whether the holder of such instruments should be required to accrue ordinary income on a current basis. While it is not clear whether the Notes would be viewed as similar to such instruments, it is possible that any future guidance could materially and adversely affect the tax consequences of an investment in the Notes, possibly with retroactive effect. Further, future legislation, including legislation based on bills previously introduced in Congress, may tax all derivative instruments on a mark-to-market basis, requiring holders of such derivative instruments to take into account annually gains and losses on such instruments as ordinary income. The adoption of such legislation or similar proposals may significantly impact the tax consequences from an investment in the Notes, including the timing and character of income and gain on the Notes. You should consult your tax advisor as to the tax consequences of possible alternative characterizations of your Note for U.S. federal income tax purposes and proposals to change the taxation of certain derivative instruments.
Because of the absence of authority regarding the appropriate tax characterization of your Note, it is possible that the Internal Revenue Service could seek to characterize your Note in a manner that results in tax consequences to you that are different from those described above. For example, it is possible that you may be required to include the entire Coupon Payment into income when it is received. It is also possible that your note may be characterized in whole or in part as a notional principal contract or as a different type of derivative contract. You should consult your tax advisor as to the tax consequences of possible alternative characterizations of your note for U.S. federal income tax purposes.
Backup Withholding and Information Reporting
Payments made with respect to the Notes and proceeds from the call, sale or maturity of the Notes may be subject to a backup withholding tax unless, in general, the holder complies with certain procedures or is an exempt recipient. Any amounts so withheld generally will be refunded by the IRS or allowed as a credit against the holder’s U.S. federal income tax liability, provided the holder makes a timely filing of an appropriate tax return or refund claim to the IRS.
Reports will be made to the IRS and to holders that are not exempted from the reporting requirements.
Individual holders that own “specified foreign financial assets” may be required to include certain information with respect to such assets with their U.S. federal income tax return. You are urged to consult your own tax advisor regarding such requirements with respect to the Notes.
Non-U.S. Holders
The following discussion applies to non-U.S. holders of the Notes. You are a non-U.S. holder if you are a beneficial owner of the Notes and are for U.S. federal income tax purposes a non-resident alien individual, a foreign corporation, or a foreign estate or trust.
The U.S. federal income tax treatment of the Notes is uncertain. We intend to withhold (or expect the applicable withholding agent will withhold) U.S. federal income tax at a 30% rate (or at a lower rate under an applicable income tax treaty) in respect of Coupon Payments made on the Notes to a non-U.S. holder unless such payments are effectively connected with the conduct by the non-U.S. holder of a trade or business in the United States (in which

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case, to avoid withholding, the non-U.S. holder will be required to provide a Form W-8ECI). We will not pay any additional amounts in respect of such withholding.
To claim benefits under an income tax treaty, a non-U.S. holder must obtain a taxpayer identification number and certify as to its eligibility under the appropriate treaty’s limitations on benefits article, if applicable (which certification may generally be made on a Form W-8BEN or W-8BEN-E, or a substitute or successor form). In addition, special rules may apply to claims for treaty benefits made by corporate non-U.S. holders. A non-U.S. holder that is eligible for a reduced rate of U.S. federal withholding tax pursuant to an income tax treaty may obtain a refund of any excess amounts withheld by filing an appropriate claim for refund with the IRS. The availability of a lower rate of withholding or an exemption from withholding under an applicable income tax treaty will depend on the proper characterization of the Coupon Payments under U.S. federal income tax laws and whether such treaty rate or exemption applies to such Coupon Payments. No assurance can be provided on the proper characterization of the Coupon Payments for U.S. federal income tax purposes and, accordingly, no assurance can be provided on the availability of benefits under any income tax treaty. Non-U.S. holders must consult their tax advisors in this regard.
Except as discussed below, you will generally not be subject to U.S. federal income or withholding tax on any gain upon the sale or maturity of the Notes, provided that (i) you comply with applicable certification requirements, which certification may be made on Form W-8BEN or W-8BEN-E (or a substitute or successor form) on which you certify, under penalties of perjury, that you are not a U.S. person and provide your name and address, (ii) your gain is not effectively connected with your conduct of a U.S. trade or business, and (iii) if you are a non-resident alien individual, you are not present in the U.S. for 183 days or more during the taxable year of the sale or maturity of the Notes. In the case of (ii) above, you generally would be subject to U.S. federal income tax with respect to any income or gain in the same manner as if you were a U.S. holder and, if you are a corporation, you may also be subject to a branch profits tax equal to 30% (or such lower rate provided by an applicable U.S. income tax treaty) of a portion of your earnings and profits for the taxable year that are effectively connected with its conduct of a trade or business in the U.S., subject to certain adjustments. Payments made to you may be subject to information reporting and to backup withholding unless you comply with applicable certification and identification requirements as to your foreign status.
Under Section 871(m) of the Code, a “dividend equivalent” payment is treated as a dividend from sources within the United States. Such payments generally would be subject to a 30% U.S. withholding tax if paid to a non-U.S. holder. Under U.S. Treasury Department regulations, payments (including deemed payments) with respect to equity-linked instruments (“ELIs”) that are “specified ELIs” may be treated as dividend equivalents if such specified ELIs, directly or indirectly, reference an interest in an “underlying security,” which is generally any interest in an entity taxable as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes if a payment with respect to such interest could give rise to a U.S. source dividend. However, the IRS has issued guidance that states that the U.S. Treasury Department and the IRS intend to amend the effective dates of the U.S. Treasury Department regulations to provide that withholding on dividend equivalent payments will not apply to specified ELIs that are not delta-one instruments and that are issued before January 1, 2023. Based on our determination that the Notes are not delta-one instruments, non-U.S. holders should not be subject to withholding on dividend equivalent payments, if any, under the Notes. However, it is possible that the Notes could be treated as deemed reissued for U.S. federal income tax purposes upon the occurrence of certain events affecting the Reference Assets or the Notes (for example, upon a Reference Asset rebalancing), and following such occurrence the Notes could be treated as subject to withholding on dividend equivalent payments. Non-U.S. holders that enter, or have entered, into other transactions in respect of a Reference Asset or the Notes should consult their tax advisors as to the application of the dividend equivalent withholding tax in the context of the Notes and their other transactions. If any payments are treated as dividend equivalents subject to withholding, we (or the applicable withholding agent) would be entitled to withhold taxes without being required to pay any additional amounts with respect to amounts so withheld.
As discussed above, alternative characterizations of the Notes for U.S. federal income tax purposes are possible. Should an alternative characterization, by reason of change or clarification of the law, by regulation or otherwise, cause payments as to the Notes to become subject to withholding tax, or if we or the institution through which you hold the Notes determine withholding is appropriate under current law, we or such institution will withhold tax at the applicable statutory rate. We will not be required to pay any additional amounts in respect of such withholding. Prospective investors should consult their own tax advisors in this regard.

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Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act
The Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act (“FATCA”) imposes a 30% U.S. withholding tax on certain U.S. source payments, including interest (and original issue discount), dividends, and other fixed or determinable annual or periodical gain, profits, and income (“Withholdable Payments”), if paid to a foreign financial institution (including amounts paid to a foreign financial institution on behalf of a holder), unless such institution enters into an agreement with the U.S. Treasury Department to collect and provide to the U.S. Treasury Department certain information regarding U.S. financial account holders, including certain account holders that are foreign entities with U.S. owners, with such institution, or otherwise complies with the legislation. In addition, the Notes may constitute a “financial account” for these purposes and, thus, be subject to information reporting requirements pursuant to FATCA. FATCA also generally imposes a withholding tax of 30% on Withholdable Payments made to a non-financial foreign entity unless such entity provides the withholding agent with a certification that it does not have any substantial U.S. owners or a certification identifying the direct and indirect substantial U.S. owners of the entity. Under certain circumstances, a holder may be eligible for refunds or credits of such taxes.
The U.S. Treasury Department has proposed regulations that eliminate the requirement of FATCA withholding on payments of gross proceeds upon the sale or disposition of financial instruments of a type which can produce U.S. source interest or dividends. The U.S. Treasury Department has indicated that taxpayers may rely on these proposed regulations pending their finalization, and the discussion above assumes the proposed regulations will be finalized in their proposed form with retroactive effect.
If we (or the applicable withholding agent) determine withholding is appropriate with respect to the Notes, tax will be withheld at the applicable statutory rate, and we (or the applicable withholding agent) will not pay any additional amounts in respect of such withholding. Therefore, if such withholding applies, any payments on the Notes will be significantly less than what you would have otherwise received. Depending on your circumstances, these amounts withheld may be creditable or refundable to you. Foreign financial institutions and non-financial foreign entities located in jurisdictions that have an intergovernmental agreement with the United States governing FATCA may be subject to different rules. Prospective investors are urged to consult with their own tax advisors regarding the possible implications of FATCA on their investment in the Notes.

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INFORMATION REGARDING THE REFERENCE ASSETS
We have derived the following information regarding each of the Reference Assets from publicly available documents. We have not independently verified the accuracy or completeness of the following information. Neither we nor our affiliates participate in the preparation of the publicly available documents described below. Neither we nor our affiliates have made any due diligence inquiry with respect to either of the Reference Assets in connection with the offering of the Notes.
The selection of the Reference Assets is not a recommendation to invest in either Reference Asset. Neither we nor any of our affiliates make any representation to you as to the performance of the Reference Assets.
Russell 2000® Index (“RTY”)
The RTY was developed by Russell Investments (“Russell”) before FTSE International Limited and Russell combined in 2015 to create FTSE Russell, which is wholly owned by London Stock Exchange Group.  Russell began dissemination of the RTY (Bloomberg L.P. index symbol “RTY”) on January 1, 1984.  FTSE Russell calculates and publishes the RTY.  The RTY was set to 135 as of the close of business on December 31, 1986. The RTY is designed to track the performance of the small capitalization segment of the U.S. equity market.  As a subset of the Russell 3000® Index, the RTY consists of the smallest 2,000 companies included in the Russell 3000® Index.  The Russell 3000® Index measures the performance of the largest 3,000 U.S. companies, representing approximately 98% of the investable U.S. equity market.  The RTY is determined, comprised, and calculated by FTSE Russell without regard to the Notes.
Selection of Stocks Underlying the RTY
All companies eligible for inclusion in the RTY must be classified as a U.S. company under FTSE Russell’s country-assignment methodology.  If a company is incorporated, has a stated headquarters location, and trades in the same country (American Depositary Receipts and American Depositary Shares are not eligible), then the company is assigned to its country of incorporation.  If any of the three factors are not the same, FTSE Russell defines three Home Country Indicators (“HCIs”): country of incorporation, country of headquarters, and country of the most liquid exchange (as defined by a two-year average daily dollar trading volume) (“ADDTV”) from all exchanges within a country.  Using the HCIs, FTSE Russell compares the primary location of the company’s assets with the three HCIs.  If the primary location of its assets matches any of the HCIs, then the company is assigned to the primary location of its assets.  If there is insufficient information to determine the country in which the company’s assets are primarily located, FTSE Russell will use the primary country from which the company’s revenues are primarily derived for the comparison with the three HCIs in a similar manner.  FTSE Russell uses the average of two years of assets or revenues data to reduce potential turnover.  If conclusive country details cannot be derived from assets or revenues data, FTSE Russell will assign the company to the country of its headquarters, which is defined as the address of the company’s principal executive offices, unless that country is a Benefit Driven Incorporation “BDI” country, in which case the company will be assigned to the country of its most liquid stock exchange.  BDI countries include: Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Aruba, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bermuda, Bonaire, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Channel Islands, Cook Islands, Curacao, Faroe Islands, Gibraltar, Guernsey, Isle of Man, Jersey, Liberia, Marshall Islands, Panama, Saba, Sint Eustatius, Sint Maarten, and Turks and Caicos Islands.  For any companies incorporated or headquartered in a U.S. territory, including countries such as Puerto Rico, Guam, and U.S. Virgin Islands, a U.S. HCI is assigned.  “N-shares” of companies controlled by individuals or entities in mainland China are not eligible for inclusion.
All securities eligible for inclusion in the RTY must trade on a major U.S. exchange.  Stocks must have a closing price at or above $1.00 on their primary exchange on the last trading day in May to be eligible for inclusion during annual reconstitution.  However, in order to reduce unnecessary turnover, if an existing member’s closing price is less than $1.00 on the last day of May, it will be considered eligible if the average of the daily closing prices (from its primary exchange) during the month of May is equal to or greater than $1.00. Initial public offerings are added each quarter and must have a closing price at or above $1.00 on the last day of their eligibility period in order to qualify for index inclusion.  If an existing stock does not trade on the “rank day” (typically the last trading day in May, but a confirmed timetable is announced each spring), but does have a closing price at or above $1.00 on another eligible U.S. exchange, that stock will be eligible for inclusion.
An important criterion used to determine the list of securities eligible for the RTY is total market capitalization, which is defined as the market price as of the rank day in May for those securities being considered at annual reconstitution times the total number of shares outstanding.  Where applicable, common stock, non-restricted exchangeable shares and partnership

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units/membership interests are used to determine market capitalization.  Any other form of shares such as preferred stock, convertible preferred stock, redeemable shares, participating preferred stock, warrants, rights, installment receipts or trust receipts, are excluded from the calculation.  If multiple share classes of common stock exist, they are combined to determine total shares outstanding. In cases where the common stock share classes act independently of each other (e.g., tracking stocks), each class is considered for inclusion separately. If multiple share classes exist, the pricing vehicle will be designated as the share class with the highest two-year trading volume as of the rank day in May.
Companies with a total market capitalization of less than $30 million are not eligible for the RTY.  Similarly, companies with only 5% or less of their shares available in the marketplace are not eligible for the RTY. Royalty trusts, limited liability companies, closed-end investment companies (companies that are required to report Acquired Fund Fees and Expenses, as defined by the SEC, including business development companies), blank check companies, special purpose acquisition companies, and limited partnerships are also ineligible for inclusion. Exchange traded funds and mutual funds are also excluded. Bulletin board, pink sheets, and over-the-counter (“OTC”) traded securities are not eligible for inclusion.
Annual reconstitution is a process by which the RTY is completely rebuilt.  Based on closing levels of the company’s common stock on its primary exchange on the rank day of May of each year, FTSE Russell reconstitutes the composition of the RTY using the then existing market capitalizations of eligible companies.  Reconstitution of the RTY occurs on the last Friday in June or, when the last Friday in June is the 29th or 30th, reconstitution occurs on the prior Friday.  In addition, FTSE Russell adds initial public offerings to the RTY on a quarterly basis based on total market capitalization ranking within the market-adjusted capitalization breaks established during the most recent reconstitution.
After membership is determined, a security’s shares are adjusted to include only those shares available to the public.  This is often referred to as “free float.” The purpose of the adjustment is to exclude from market calculations the capitalization that is not available for purchase and is not part of the investable opportunity set.
License Agreement
FTSE Russell and Royal Bank have entered into a non-exclusive license agreement providing for the license to Royal Bank, and certain of its affiliates, in exchange for a fee, of the right to use indices owned and published by FTSE Russell in connection with some securities, including the Notes.
FTSE Russell does not guarantee the accuracy and/or the completeness of the RTY or any data included in the RTY and has no liability for any errors, omissions, or interruptions in the RTY. FTSE Russell makes no warranty, express or implied, as to results to be obtained by the calculation agent, holders of the Notes, or any other person or entity from the use of the RTY or any data included in the RTY in connection with the rights licensed under the license agreement described in this document or for any other use. FTSE Russell makes no express or implied warranties, and hereby expressly disclaims all warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose with respect to the RTY or any data included in the RTY. Without limiting any of the above information, in no event will FTSE Russell have any liability for any special, punitive, indirect or consequential damages, including lost profits, even if notified of the possibility of these damages.
The Notes are not sponsored, endorsed, sold or promoted by FTSE Russell. FTSE Russell makes no representation or warranty, express or implied, to the owners of the Notes or any member of the public regarding the advisability of investing in securities generally or in the Notes particularly or the ability of the RTY to track general stock market performance or a segment of the same. FTSE Russell’s publication of the RTY in no way suggests or implies an opinion by FTSE Russell as to the advisability of investment in any or all of the stocks upon which the RTY is based. FTSE Russell’s only relationship to Royal Bank is the licensing of certain trademarks and trade names of FTSE Russell and of the RTY, which is determined, composed and calculated by FTSE Russell without regard to Royal Bank or the Notes. FTSE Russell is not responsible for and has not reviewed the Notes nor any associated literature or publications and FTSE Russell makes no representation or warranty express or implied as to their accuracy or completeness, or otherwise. FTSE Russell reserves the right, at any time and without notice, to alter, amend, terminate or in any way change the RTY. FTSE Russell has no obligation or liability in connection with the administration, marketing or trading of the Notes.
“Russell 2000®” and “Russell 3000®” are registered trademarks of FTSE Russell in the U.S. and other countries.

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Nasdaq-100 Index® (“NDX”)
The NDX is a modified market capitalization-weighted index of the 100 largest stocks of both U.S. and non-U.S. non-financial companies listed on The Nasdaq Stock Market. It does not contain securities of financial companies, including investment companies. The Nasdaq-100 Index®, which includes companies across a variety of major industry groups, was launched on January 31, 1985, with a base index value of 250.00. On January 1, 1994, the base index value was reset to 125.00. The Nasdaq, Inc. (“Nasdaq”) publishes the NDX. Current information regarding the market value of the NDX is available from Nasdaq, as well as numerous market information services.
The share weights of the component securities of the NDX at any time are based upon the total shares outstanding in each of those securities and are additionally subject, in certain cases, to rebalancing. Accordingly, each underlying stock’s influence on the level of the NDX is directly proportional to the value of its share weight.
Index Calculation
At any moment in time, the level of the NDX equals the aggregate value of the then-current share weights of each of the component securities, which are based on the total shares outstanding of each such component security, multiplied by each such security’s respective last sale price on The Nasdaq Stock Market (which may be the official closing price published by The Nasdaq Stock Market), and divided by a scaling factor (the “divisor”), which becomes the basis for the reported level of the NDX. The divisor serves the purpose of scaling such aggregate value to a lower order of magnitude, which is more desirable for reporting purposes.
Underlying Stock Eligibility Criteria and Annual Ranking Review
Initial Eligibility Criteria
To be eligible for initial inclusion in the NDX, a security must be listed on The Nasdaq Stock Market and meet the following criteria:

the security’s U.S. listing must be exclusively on the Nasdaq Global Select Market or the Nasdaq Global Market;

the security must be issued by a non-financial company;

the security may not be issued by an issuer currently in bankruptcy proceedings;

the security must generally be a common stock, ordinary share, American Depositary Receipt, or tracking stock (closed-end funds, convertible debentures, exchange traded funds, limited liability companies, limited partnership interests, preferred stocks, rights, shares or units of beneficial interests, warrants, units and other derivative securities are not included in the NDX, nor are the securities of investment companies);

the security must have a three-month average daily trading volume of at least 200,000 shares;

if the security is issued by an issuer organized under the laws of a jurisdiction outside the United States, it must have listed options on a recognized market in the United States or be eligible for listed-options trading on a recognized options market in the United States;

the issuer of the security may not have entered into a definitive agreement or other arrangement which would likely result in the security no longer being eligible;

the issuer of the security may not have annual financial statements with an audit opinion that is currently withdrawn; and

the security must have traded for at least three full calendar months, not including the month of initial listing, on an “eligible exchange,” as determined under the index rules.

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Continued Eligibility Criteria
In addition, to be eligible for continued inclusion in the NDX the following criteria apply:

the security’s U.S. listing must be exclusively on the Nasdaq Global Select Market or the Nasdaq Global Market;

the security must be issued by a non-financial company;

the security may not be issued by an issuer currently in bankruptcy proceedings;

the security must have an average daily trading volume of at least 200,000 shares in the previous three‑month trading period as measured annually during the ranking review process described below;

if the issuer of the security is organized under the laws of a jurisdiction outside the United States, then such security must have listed options on a recognized market in the United States or be eligible for listed‑options trading on a recognized options market in the United States, as measured annually during the ranking review process;

the issuer of the security may not have entered into a definitive agreement or other arrangement that would likely result in the security no longer being eligible;

the security must have an adjusted market capitalization equal to or exceeding 0.10% of the aggregate adjusted market capitalization of the NDX at each month-end. In the event that a company does not meet this criterion for two consecutive month-ends, it will be removed from the NDX effective after the close of trading on the third Friday of the following month; and

the issuer of the security may not have annual financial statements with an audit opinion that is currently withdrawn.
These eligibility criteria may be revised from time to time by Nasdaq without regard to the Notes.
Annual Ranking Review
The component securities are evaluated on an annual basis (the “Ranking Review”), except under extraordinary circumstances, which may result in an interim evaluation, as follows. Securities that meet the applicable eligibility criteria are ranked by market value. Eligible securities that are already in the NDX and that are ranked in the top 100 eligible securities (based on market capitalization) are retained in the NDX. A security that is ranked 101 to 125 is also retained, provided that such security was ranked in the top 100 eligible securities as of the previous Ranking Review or was added to the NDX subsequent to the previous Ranking Review. Securities not meeting such criteria are replaced. The replacement securities chosen are those eligible securities not currently in the NDX that have the largest market capitalization. The data used in the ranking includes end of October market data and is updated for total shares outstanding submitted in a publicly filed SEC document via EDGAR through the end of November.
Replacements are made effective after the close of trading on the third Friday in December. Moreover, if at any time during the year other than the Ranking Review, a component security is determined by Nasdaq to become ineligible for continued inclusion in the NDX, the security will be replaced with the largest market capitalization security meeting the eligibility criteria listed above and not currently included in the NDX.
Index Maintenance
In addition to the Ranking Review, the securities in the NDX are monitored every day by Nasdaq with respect to changes in total shares outstanding arising from corporate events, such as stock dividends, stock splits and certain spin-offs and rights issuances. Nasdaq has adopted the following quarterly scheduled weight adjustment procedures with respect to those changes. If the change in total shares outstanding arising from a corporate action is greater than

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or equal to 10%, that change will be made to the NDX as soon as practical, normally within ten days of such corporate action. Otherwise, if the change in total shares outstanding is less than 10%, then all such changes are accumulated and made effective at one time on a quarterly basis after the close of trading on the third Friday in each of March, June, September and December.
In either case, the share weights for those component securities are adjusted by the same percentage amount by which the total shares outstanding have changed in those securities. Ordinarily, whenever there is a change in the share weights, a change in a component security, or a change to the price of a component security due to spin-off, rights issuances or special cash dividends, Nasdaq adjusts the divisor to ensure that there is no discontinuity in the level of the NDX that might otherwise be caused by any of those changes. All changes will be announced in advance.
Index Rebalancing
The NDX is rebalanced on a quarterly basis in March, June, September and December in accordance with Nasdaq’s rules. Rebalance changes become effective after the close of trading on the third Friday in March, June, September and December. A special rebalance may be conducted at any time based on specified weighting restrictions if it is determined to be necessary to maintain the integrity of the underlying index.
Ordinarily, new rebalanced weights will be determined by applying the above procedures to the current share weights. However, Nasdaq may from time to time determine rebalanced weights, if necessary, by instead applying the above procedure to the actual current market capitalization of the component securities. In those instances, Nasdaq would announce the different basis for rebalancing prior to its implementation.
License Agreement
The Notes are not sponsored, endorsed, sold or promoted by Nasdaq, Inc. or its affiliates (collectively, “Nasdaq”). Nasdaq has not passed on the legality or suitability of, or the accuracy or adequacy of descriptions and disclosures relating to, the Notes. Nasdaq makes no representation or warranty, express or implied to the owners of the Notes, or any member of the public regarding the advisability of investing in securities generally or in the Notes particularly, or the ability of the NDX to track general stock market performance. Nasdaq’s only relationship to us is in the licensing of the Nasdaq®, NDX trademarks or service marks, and certain trade names of Nasdaq and the use of the NDX which are determined, composed and calculated by Nasdaq without regard to us or the securities. Nasdaq has no obligation to take the needs of us or the owners of the Notes into consideration in determining, composing or calculating the NDX. Nasdaq is not responsible for and has not participated in the determination of the timing of, prices at, or quantities of the Notes to be issued or in the determination or calculation of the equation by which the Notes are to be converted into cash. Nasdaq has no liability in connection with the administration, marketing or trading of the Notes.
NASDAQ DOES NOT GUARANTEE THE ACCURACY AND/OR UNINTERRUPTED CALCULATION OF THE NDX OR ANY DATA INCLUDED THEREIN. NASDAQ MAKES NO WARRANTY, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, AS TO RESULTS TO BE OBTAINED BY LICENSEE, OWNERS OF THE NOTES, OR ANY OTHER PERSON OR ENTITY FROM THE USE OF THE NDX OR ANY DATA INCLUDED THEREIN. NASDAQ MAKES NO EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, AND EXPRESSLY DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE OR USE WITH RESPECT TO THE NDX OR ANY DATA INCLUDED THEREIN. WITHOUT LIMITING ANY OF THE FOREGOING, IN NO EVENT SHALL NASDAQ HAVE ANY LIABILITY FOR ANY LOST PROFITS OR SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL, PUNITIVE, INDIRECT, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES, EVEN IF NOTIFIED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES. NASDAQ®, NASDAQ 100® AND NASDAQ 100 INDEX® ARE TRADE OR SERVICE MARKS OF NASDAQ AND ARE INCENSED FOR USE BY US. THE NOTES HAVE NOT BEEN PASSED ON BY NASDAQ AS TO THEIR LEGALITY OR SUITABILITY. THE NOTES ARE NOT ISSUED, ENDORSED, SOLD OR PROMOTED BY NASDAQ. NASDAQ MAKES NO WARRANTIES AND BEARS NO LIABILITY WITH RESPECT TO THE NOTES.

P19
RBC Capital Markets, LLC


 

 
Geared Buffered Notes Linked to the Lesser Performing of Two Equity Indices
 
HISTORICAL INFORMATION
The graphs below set forth the information relating to the historical performance of the Reference Assets for the period from January 1, 2012 through June 29, 2022. We obtained the information in the graphs below from Bloomberg Financial Markets.
We have not independently verified the accuracy or completeness of the information obtained from Bloomberg Financial Markets. The historical performance of any Reference Asset should not be taken as an indication of its future performance, and no assurance can be given as to the levels of the Reference Assets at any time. We cannot give you assurance that the performance of the Reference Assets will not result in the loss of all or part of your investment.
Historical Information for the RTY

P20
RBC Capital Markets, LLC


 

 
Geared Buffered Notes Linked to the Lesser Performing of Two Equity Indices
 
Historical Information for the NDX


P21
RBC Capital Markets, LLC


 

 
Geared Buffered Notes Linked to the Lesser Performing of Two Equity Indices
 
SUPPLEMENTAL PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION (CONFLICTS OF INTEREST)
Delivery of the Notes will be made against payment for the Notes on July 6, 2022, which is the third (3rd) business day following the Trade Date (this settlement cycle being referred to as “T+3”). See “Plan of Distribution” in the prospectus dated September 14, 2021. For additional information as to the relationship between us and RBC Capital Markets, LLC, please see the section “Plan of Distribution—Conflicts of Interest” in the prospectus dated September 14, 2021.
We will deliver the Notes on a date that is greater than two business days following the Trade Date. Under Rule 15c6-1 of the Exchange Act, trades in the secondary market generally are required to settle in two business days, unless the parties to any such trade expressly agree otherwise. Accordingly, purchasers who wish to trade the Notes more than two business days prior to the original issue date will be required to specify alternative arrangements to prevent a failed settlement.
The value of the Notes shown on your account statement may be based on RBCCM’s estimate of the value of the Notes if RBCCM or another of our affiliates were to make a market in the Notes (which it is not obligated to do). That estimate will be based upon the price that RBCCM may pay for the Notes in light of then prevailing market conditions, our creditworthiness and transaction costs. For a period of approximately three months after the issue date of the Notes, the value of the Notes that may be shown on your account statement may be higher than RBCCM’s estimated value of the Notes at that time. This is because the estimated value of the Notes will not include our hedging costs and profits; however, the value of the Notes shown on your account statement during that period may initially be a higher amount, reflecting the addition of our estimated costs and profits from hedging the Notes. This excess is expected to decrease over time until the end of this period. After this period, if RBCCM repurchases your Notes, it expects to do so at prices that reflect their estimated value.
We may use this pricing supplement in the initial sale of the Notes. In addition, RBC Capital Markets, LLC or another of our affiliates may use this pricing supplement in a market-making transaction in the Notes after their initial sale. Unless we or our agent informs the purchaser otherwise in the confirmation of sale, this pricing supplement is being used in a market-making transaction.

P22
RBC Capital Markets, LLC


 

 
Geared Buffered Notes Linked to the Lesser Performing of Two Equity Indices
 
STRUCTURING THE NOTES
The Notes are our debt securities, the return on which is linked to the performance of the Reference Assets. As is the case for all of our debt securities, including our structured notes, the economic terms of the Notes reflect our actual or perceived creditworthiness at the time of pricing. In addition, because structured notes result in increased operational, funding and liability management costs to us, we typically borrow the funds under these Notes at a rate that is more favorable to us than the rate that we might pay for a conventional fixed or floating rate debt security of comparable maturity. Using this relatively lower implied borrowing rate rather than the secondary market rate, is a factor that reduced the initial estimated value of the Notes at the time their terms were set. Unlike the estimated value that is included on the cover page of this pricing supplement, any value of the Notes determined for purposes of a secondary market transaction may be based on a different funding rate, which may result in a lower value for the Notes than if our initial internal funding rate were used.
In order to satisfy our payment obligations under the Notes, we may choose to enter into certain hedging arrangements (which may include call options, put options or other derivatives) on the issue date with RBCCM or one of our other subsidiaries. The terms of these hedging arrangements take into account a number of factors, including our creditworthiness, interest rate movements, the volatility of the Reference Assets, and the tenor of the Notes. The economic terms of the Notes and their initial estimated value depend in part on the terms of these hedging arrangements.
The lower implied borrowing rate is a factor that reduced the economic terms of the Notes to you. The initial offering price of the Notes also reflects the underwriting commission and our estimated hedging costs. These factors resulted in the initial estimated value for the Notes on the Trade Date being less than their public offering price. See “Selected Risk Considerations—The Initial Estimated Value of the Notes Is Less than the Price to the Public” above.
VALIDITY OF THE NOTES
In the opinion of Norton Rose Fulbright Canada LLP, the issue and sale of the Notes has been duly authorized by all necessary corporate action of the Bank in conformity with the Indenture, and when the Notes have been duly executed, authenticated and issued in accordance with the Indenture and delivered against payment therefor, the Notes will be validly issued and, to the extent validity of the Notes is a matter governed by the laws of the Province of Ontario or Québec, or the laws of Canada applicable therein, will be valid obligations of the Bank, subject to equitable remedies which may only be granted at the discretion of a court of competent authority, subject to applicable bankruptcy, to rights to indemnity and contribution under the Notes or the Indenture which may be limited by applicable law; to insolvency and other laws of general application affecting creditors’ rights, to limitations under applicable limitations statutes, and to limitations as to the currency in which judgments in Canada may be rendered, as prescribed by the Currency Act (Canada). This opinion is given as of the date hereof and is limited to the laws of the Provinces of Ontario and Québec and the federal laws of Canada applicable thereto. In addition, this opinion is subject to customary assumptions about the Trustee’s authorization, execution and delivery of the Indenture and the genuineness of signatures and certain factual matters, all as stated in the letter of such counsel dated September 14, 2021, which has been filed as Exhibit 5.3 to the Bank’s Form 6-K filed with the SEC on September 14, 2021.
In the opinion of Ashurst LLP, when the Notes have been duly completed in accordance with the Indenture and issued and sold as contemplated by the prospectus supplement and the prospectus, the Notes will be valid, binding and enforceable obligations of the Bank, entitled to the benefits of the Indenture, subject to applicable bankruptcy, insolvency, fraudulent transfer, reorganization, moratorium and similar laws of general applicability relating to or affecting creditors’ rights and subject to general principles of equity, public policy considerations and the discretion of the court before which any suit or proceeding may be brought. This opinion is given as of the date hereof and is limited to the laws of the State of New York. This opinion is subject to customary assumptions about the Trustee’s authorization, execution and delivery of the Indenture and the genuineness of signatures and to such counsel’s reliance on the Bank and other sources as to certain factual matters, all as stated in the legal opinion dated September 14, 2021, which has been filed as Exhibit 5.4 to the Bank’s Form 6-K dated September 14, 2021.


P23
RBC Capital Markets, LLC


Exhibit 107.1
The pricing supplement to which this Exhibit is attached is a final prospectus for the related offering. The maximum aggregate offering price of the offering is $7,635,000.





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