Form 424B2 BANK OF MONTREAL /CAN/
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Registration Statement No.333-264388
Filed Pursuant to Rule 424(b)(2)
Pricing Supplement dated June 28, 2022 to the Prospectus dated May 26, 2022,
the Prospectus Supplement dated May 26, 2022 and the Product Supplement dated May 26, 2022
Senior Medium-Term Notes, Series I
Autocallable Barrier Notes with Contingent Coupons due October 01, 2024
Linked to the shares of VanEck® Gold Miners ETF
|·||The notes are designed for investors who are seeking monthly contingent periodic interest payments (as described in more detail below), as well as a return of principal if the closing level of the shares of VanEck® Gold Miners ETF (the “Reference Asset”) on any monthly Observation Date beginning in December 2022 is greater than 100% of its Initial Level (the “Call Level”). Investors should be willing to have their notes automatically redeemed prior to maturity, be willing to forego any potential to participate in the appreciation of the shares of the Reference Asset and be willing to lose some or all of their principal at maturity.|
|·||The notes will pay a Contingent Coupon on each Contingent Coupon Payment Date at the Contingent Interest Rate of 0.958% per month (approximately 11.50% per annum) if the closing level of the Reference Asset on the applicable monthly Observation Date is greater than its Coupon Barrier Level. However, if the closing level of the Reference Asset is less than or equal to its Coupon Barrier Level on an Observation Date, the notes will not pay the Contingent Coupon for that Observation Date.|
|·||Beginning on December 28, 2022, if on any Observation Date, the closing level of the Reference Asset is greater than its Call Level, the notes will be automatically redeemed. On the following Contingent Coupon Payment Date (the “Call Settlement Date"), investors will receive their principal amount plus the Contingent Coupon otherwise due. After the notes are redeemed, investors will not receive any additional payments in respect of the notes.|
|·||The notes do not guarantee any return of principal at maturity. Instead, if the notes are not automatically redeemed, the payment at maturity will be based on the Final Level of the Reference Asset and whether the Final Level of that Reference Asset has declined from its Initial Level to below its Trigger Level on the Valuation Date (a “Trigger Event”), as described below.|
|·||If the notes are not automatically redeemed and a Trigger Event has occurred, investors will lose 1% of the principal amount for each 1% decrease in the level of the Reference Asset from its Initial Level to its Final Level. In such a case, you will receive a cash amount at maturity that is less than the principal amount, together with the final Contingent Coupon, if payable.|
|·||Investing in the notes is not equivalent to a direct investment in the Reference Asset.|
|·||The notes will not be listed on any securities exchange.|
|·||All payments on the notes are subject to the credit risk of Bank of Montreal.|
|·||The notes will be issued in minimum denominations of $1,000 and integral multiples of $1,000.|
|·||Our subsidiary, BMO Capital Markets Corp. (“BMOCM”), is the agent for this offering. See “Supplemental Plan of Distribution (Conflicts of Interest)” below.|
|·||The notes will not be subject to conversion into our common shares or the common shares of any of our affiliates under subsection 39.2(2.3) of the Canada Deposit Insurance Corporation Act (the “CDIC Act”).|
Terms of the Notes:
|Pricing Date:||June 28, 2022||Valuation Date:||September 26, 2024|
|Settlement Date:||July 01, 2022||Maturity Date:||October 01, 2024|
Specific Terms of the Notes:
|Proceeds to |
|2439||The shares of VanEck® Gold Miners ETF||GDX||$28.87||0.958% per month (approximately 11.50% per annum)||$20.21, 70.00% of its Initial Level||$20.21, 70.00% of its Initial Level||06368GVF1||$41,000.00||100%||
1 The total “Agent’s Commission” and “Proceeds to Bank of Montreal” specified above reflect the aggregate amounts at the time Bank of Montreal established its hedge positions on or prior to the Pricing Date, which may have been variable and fluctuated depending on market conditions at such times. Certain dealers who purchased the notes for sale to certain fee-based advisory accounts may have foregone some or all of their selling concessions, fees or commissions. The public offering price for investors purchasing the notes in these accounts was between $986.50 and $1,000 per $1,000 in principal amount.
* Rounded to two decimal places.
Investing in the notes involves risks, including those described in the “Selected Risk Considerations” section beginning on page P-5 hereof, the “Additional Risk Factors Relating to the Notes” section beginning on page PS-6 of the product supplement, and the “Risk Factors” section beginning on page S-1 of the prospectus supplement and on page 8 of the prospectus.
Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these notes or passed upon the accuracy of this document, the product supplement, the prospectus supplement or the prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense. The notes will be our unsecured obligations and will not be savings accounts or deposits that are insured by the United States Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, the Deposit Insurance Fund, the Canada Deposit Insurance Corporation or any other governmental agency or instrumentality or other entity.
On the date hereof, based on the terms set forth above, the estimated initial value of the notes is $944.97 per $1,000 in principal amount. However, as discussed in more detail below, the actual value of the notes at any time will reflect many factors and cannot be predicted with accuracy.
BMO CAPITAL MARKETS
Key Terms of the Notes:
|Reference Asset:||The shares of VanEck® Gold Miners ETF (ticker symbol "GDX") . See "The Reference Asset" below for additional information.|
|Underlying Index:||NYSE® Arca Gold Miners Index®|
|Contingent Coupons:||If the closing level of the Reference Asset on an Observation Date is greater than its Coupon Barrier Level, a Contingent Coupon will be paid on the corresponding Contingent Coupon Payment Date at the Contingent Interest Rate, subject to the automatic redemption feature.|
|Contingent Interest Rate:||0.958% per month (approximately 11.50% per annum), if payable. Accordingly, each Contingent Coupon, if payable, will equal $9.58 for each $1,000 in principal amount.|
|Observation Dates:1||Three trading days prior to each scheduled Contingent Coupon Payment Date.|
|Contingent Coupon Payment
|Interest, if payable, will be paid on the 1st day of each month (or, if such day is not a business day, the next following business day), beginning on August 01, 2022 and ending on the Maturity Date, subject to the automatic redemption feature.|
|Automatic Redemption:||Beginning on December 28, 2022, if, on any Observation Date, the closing level of the Reference Asset is greater than its Call Level, the notes will be automatically redeemed. No further amounts will be owed to you under the Notes.|
|Payment upon Automatic
|If the notes are automatically redeemed, then, on the Call Settlement Date, investors will receive their principal amount plus the Contingent Coupon otherwise due.|
|Call Settlement Date:1||If the notes are automatically redeemed, the Contingent Coupon Payment Date immediately following the relevant Observation Date.|
|Payment at Maturity:||
If the notes are not automatically redeemed, the payment at maturity for the notes is based on the performance of the Reference Asset.
You will receive $1,000 for each $1,000 in principal amount of the note, unless a Trigger Event has occurred.
If a Trigger Event has occurred, you will receive at maturity, for each $1,000 in principal amount of your notes, a cash amount equal to:
$1,000 + [$1,000 x Percentage Change]
This amount will be less than the principal amount of your note, and may be zero.
You will also receive the final Contingent Coupon, if payable.
|Trigger Event:2||A Trigger Event will be deemed to occur if the Final Level of the Reference Asset is less than its Trigger Level on the Valuation Date.|
The quotient, expressed as a percentage, of the following formula:
(Final Level - Initial Level)
|Initial Level:2||As set forth on the cover hereof.|
|Coupon Barrier Level:2||$20.21 with respect to GDX, which is 70.00% of the Initial Level (rounded to two decimal places).|
|Trigger Level:2||$20.21 with respect to GDX, which is 70.00% of the Initial Level (rounded to two decimal places).|
|Call Level:2||100% of the Initial Level.|
|Final Level:||The closing level of the Reference Asset on the Valuation Date.|
|Pricing Date:||June 28, 2022|
|Settlement Date:||July 01, 2022|
|Valuation Date:1||September 26, 2024|
|Maturity Date:1||October 01, 2024|
|Physical Delivery Amount:||We will only pay cash on the Maturity Date, and you will have no right to receive any shares of the Reference Asset.|
1 Subject to the occurrence of a market disruption event, as described in the accompanying product supplement.
2As determined by the calculation agent and subject to adjustment in certain circumstances. See “General Terms of the Notes — Anti-dilution Adjustments to a Reference Asset that Is an Equity Security (Including Any ETF)” and “— Adjustments to a Reference Asset that Is an ETF” in the product supplement for additional information.
Additional Terms of the Notes
You should read this document together with the product supplement dated May 26, 2022, the prospectus supplement dated May 26, 2022 and the prospectus dated May 26, 2022. This document, together with the documents listed below, contains the terms of the notes and supersedes all other prior or contemporaneous oral statements as well as any other written materials including preliminary or indicative pricing terms, correspondence, trade ideas, structures for implementation, sample structures, fact sheets, brochures or other educational materials of ours or the agent. You should carefully consider, among other things, the matters set forth in Additional Risk Factors Relating to the Notes in the product supplement, as the notes involve risks not associated with conventional debt securities. We urge you to consult your investment, legal, tax, accounting and other advisers before you invest in the notes.
You may access these documents on the SEC website at www.sec.gov as follows (or if such address has changed, by reviewing our filings for the relevant date on the SEC website):
Product supplement dated May 26, 2022:
Prospectus supplement dated May 26, 2022 and prospectus dated May 26, 2022:
Our Central Index Key, or CIK, on the SEC website is 927971. As used in this document, "we", "us" or "our" refers to Bank of Montreal.
Selected Risk Considerations
An investment in the notes involves significant risks. Investing in the notes is not equivalent to investing directly in the Reference Asset. These risks are explained in more detail in the “Additional Risk Factors Relating to the Notes” section of the product supplement.
Risks Related to the Structure or Features of the Notes
|·||Your investment in the notes may result in a loss. — The notes do not guarantee any return of principal. If the notes are not automatically redeemed, the payment at maturity will be based on the Final Level and whether a Trigger Event has occurred. If the Final Level is less than its Trigger Level, a Trigger Event will occur, and you will lose 1% of the principal amount for each 1% that the Final Level is less than the Initial Level. In such a case, you will receive at maturity a cash payment that is less than the principal amount of the notes and may be zero. Accordingly, you could lose your entire investment in the notes.|
|·||You may not receive any Contingent Coupons with respect to your notes. — We will not necessarily make periodic interest payments on the notes. If the closing level of the Reference Asset on an Observation Date is less than its Coupon Barrier Level, we will not pay you the Contingent Coupon applicable to that Observation Date. If the closing level of the Reference Asset is less than its Coupon Barrier Level on each of the Observation Dates, we will not pay you any Contingent Coupons during the term of the notes, and you will not receive a positive return on the notes. Generally, this non-payment of any Contingent Coupons will coincide with a greater risk of principal loss on your notes.|
|·||Your notes are subject to automatic early redemption. — We will redeem the notes if the closing level of the Reference Asset on any Observation Date is greater than its Call Level. Following an automatic redemption, you will not receive any additional Contingent Coupons and may not be able to reinvest your proceeds in an investment with returns that are comparable to the notes. Furthermore, to the extent you are able to reinvest such proceeds in an investment with a comparable return for a similar level of risk, you may incur transaction costs such as dealer discounts and hedging costs built into the price of the new notes.|
|·||Your return on the notes is limited to the Contingent Coupons, if any, regardless of any appreciation in the value of any Reference Asset. — You will not receive a payment at maturity with a value greater than your principal amount plus the final Contingent Coupon, if payable. In addition, if the notes are automatically redeemed, you will not receive a payment greater than the principal amount plus the applicable Contingent Coupon, even if the Final Level exceeds the Call Level by a substantial amount. Accordingly, your maximum return on the applicable notes is limited to the potential return represented by the Contingent Coupons.|
|·||Your return on the notes may be lower than the return on a conventional debt security of comparable maturity. — The return that you will receive on your notes, which could be negative, may be less than the return you could earn on other investments. The notes do not provide for fixed interest payments and you may not receive any Contingent Coupons over the term of the notes. Even if you do receive one or more Contingent Coupons and your return on the notes is positive, your return may be less than the return you would earn if you bought a conventional senior interest bearing debt security of ours with the same maturity or if you invested directly in the Reference Asset. Your investment may not reflect the full opportunity cost to you when you take into account factors that affect the time value of money.|
|·||A higher Contingent Interest Rate or lower Trigger Level or Coupon Barrier Level may reflect greater expected volatility of the Reference Asset, and greater expected volatility generally indicates an increased risk of loss at maturity. — The economic terms for the notes, including the Contingent Interest Rate, Coupon Barrier Level and Trigger Level, are based, in part, on the expected volatility of the Reference Asset at the time the terms of the notes are set. “Volatility” refers to the frequency and magnitude of changes in the level of the Reference Asset. The greater the expected volatility of the Reference Asset as of the Pricing Date, the greater the expectation is as of that date that the closing level of the Reference Asset could be less than its Coupon Barrier Level on any Observation Date and that a Trigger Event could occur and, as a consequence, indicates an increased risk of not receiving a Contingent Coupon and an increased risk of loss, respectively. All things being equal, this greater expected volatility will generally be reflected in a higher Contingent Interest Rate than the yield payable on our conventional debt securities with a similar maturity or on otherwise comparable securities, and/or lower Trigger Level and/or Coupon Barrier Level than those terms on otherwise comparable securities. Therefore, a relatively higher Contingent Interest Rate may indicate an increased risk of loss. Further, a relatively lower Trigger Level and/or Coupon Barrier may not necessarily indicate that the notes have a greater likelihood of a return of principal at maturity and/or paying Contingent Coupons. You should be willing to accept the downside market risk of the Reference Asset and the potential to lose a significant portion or all of your initial investment.|
Risks Related to Reference Assets
|·||Owning the notes is not the same as owning shares of the Reference Asset or a security directly linked to the Reference Asset. — The return on your notes will not reflect the return you would realize if you actually owned shares of the Reference Asset or a security directly linked to the performance of the Reference Asset and held that investment for a similar period. Your notes may trade quite differently from the Reference Asset. Changes in the level of the Reference Asset may not result in comparable changes in the market value of your notes. Even if the level of the Reference Asset increases during the term of the notes, the market value of the notes prior to maturity may not increase to the same extent. It is also possible for the market value of the notes to decrease while the level of the Reference Asset increases. In addition, any dividends or other distributions paid on the Reference Asset will not be reflected in the amount payable on the notes.|
|·||You will not have any shareholder rights and will have no right to receive any shares of the Reference Asset (or any company included in the Reference Asset) at maturity. — Investing in your notes will not make you a holder of any shares of the Reference Asset or any securities held by the Reference Asset. Neither you nor any other holder or owner of the notes will have any voting rights, any right to receive dividends or other distributions, or any other rights with respect to the Reference Asset or such underlying securities.|
|·||No delivery of shares of the Reference Asset. — The notes will be payable only in cash. You should not invest in the notes if you seek to have the shares of the Reference Asset delivered to you at maturity.|
|·||Changes that affect the applicable Underlying Index will affect the market value of the notes, whether the notes will be automatically redeemed, and the amount you will receive at maturity. — The policies of the applicable index sponsor concerning the calculation of the applicable Underlying Index, additions, deletions or substitutions of the components of the applicable Underlying Index and the manner in which changes affecting those components, such as stock dividends, reorganizations or mergers, may be reflected in the applicable Reference Asset and, therefore, could affect the share price of the Reference Asset, the amounts payable on the notes, whether the notes are automatically redeemed, and the market value of the notes prior to maturity. The amount payable on the notes and their market value could also be affected if the applicable index sponsor changes these policies, for example, by changing the manner in which it calculates the applicable Underlying Index, or if the applicable index sponsor discontinues or suspends the calculation or publication of the applicable Underlying Index.|
|·||We have no affiliation with the index sponsor of the applicable Underlying Index and will not be responsible for its actions. — The sponsor of the applicable Underlying Index is not our affiliate and will not be involved in the offering of the notes in any way. Consequently, we have no control over the actions of the index sponsor of the applicable Underlying Index, including any actions of the type that would require the calculation agent to adjust the payment to you at maturity. The index sponsors have no obligation of any sort with respect to the notes. Thus, the applicable index sponsor has no obligation to take your interests into consideration for any reason, including in taking any actions that might affect the value of the notes. None of our proceeds from the issuance of the notes will be delivered to the index sponsor of the applicable Underlying Index.|
|·||Adjustments to the Reference Asset could adversely affect the notes. — The sponsor and advisor of the Reference Asset is responsible for calculating and maintaining the Reference Asset. The sponsor and advisor of the Reference Asset can add, delete or substitute the stocks comprising the Reference Asset or make other methodological changes that could change the share price of the Reference Asset at any time. If one or more of these events occurs, the calculation of the amount payable at maturity may be adjusted to reflect such event or events. Consequently, any of these actions could adversely affect the amount payable at maturity and/or the market value of the notes.|
|·||We and our affiliates do not have any affiliation with the applicable investment advisor or the Reference Asset Issuer and are not responsible for their public disclosure of information. — The investment advisor of the Reference Asset advises the issuer of the Reference Asset (the “Reference Asset Issuer” ) on various matters, including matters relating to the policies, maintenance and calculation of the Reference Asset. We and our affiliates are not affiliated with the applicable investment advisor or the Reference Asset Issuer in any way and have no ability to control or predict its actions, including any errors in or discontinuance of disclosure regarding the methods or policies relating to the Reference Asset. Neither the applicable investment advisor nor the Reference Asset Issuer is involved in the offerings of the notes in any way and has no obligation to consider your interests as an owner of the notes in taking any actions relating to the Reference Asset that might affect the value of the notes. Neither we nor any of our affiliates has independently verified the adequacy or accuracy of the information about the applicable investment advisor or the Reference Asset contained in any public disclosure of information. You, as an investor in the notes, should make your own investigation into the Reference Asset Issuer.|
|·||The correlation between the performance of the Reference Asset and the performance of the applicable Underlying Index may be imperfect. — The performance of the Reference Asset is linked principally to the performance of the applicable Underlying Index. However, because of the potential discrepancies identified in more detail in the product supplement, the return on the Reference Asset may correlate imperfectly with the return on the applicable Underlying Index.|
|·||The Reference Asset is subject to management risks. — The Reference Asset is subject to management risk, which is the risk that the applicable investment advisor’s investment strategy, the implementation of which is subject to a number of constraints, may not produce the intended results. For example, the applicable investment advisor may invest a portion of the Reference Asset Issuer’s assets in securities not included in the relevant industry or sector but which the applicable investment advisor believes will help the Reference Asset track the relevant industry or sector.|
|·||You must rely on your own evaluation of the merits of an investment linked to the Reference Asset. — In the ordinary
course of their businesses, our affiliates from time to time may express views on expected movements in the prices of the Reference Asset
or the prices of the securities held by the Reference Asset. One or more of our affiliates have published, and in the future may publish,
research reports that express views on the Reference Asset or these securities. However, these views are subject to change from time to
time. Moreover, other professionals who deal in the markets relating to the Reference Asset at any time may have significantly different
views from those of our affiliates. You are encouraged to derive information concerning the Reference Asset from multiple sources, and
you should not rely on the views expressed by our affiliates.|
Neither the offering of the notes nor any views which our affiliates from time to time may express in the ordinary course of their businesses constitutes a recommendation as to the merits of an investment in the notes.
Risks Relating to VanEck® Gold Miners ETF
|·||The VanEck® Gold Miners ETF, and therefore an investment in the notes, is subject to foreign currency exchange rate risk. — The share price of the VanEck® Gold Miners ETF will fluctuate based upon its net asset value, which will in turn depend in part upon changes in the value of the currencies in which the stocks held by the VanEck® Gold Miners ETF are traded. Accordingly, investors in the notes will be exposed to currency exchange rate risk with respect to each of these currencies. An investor’s net exposure will depend on the extent to which these currencies strengthen or weaken against the U.S. dollar. If the dollar strengthens against these currencies, the net asset value of the VanEck® Gold Miners ETF will be adversely affected and the price of its shares may decrease.|
|·||The VanEck® Gold Miners ETF, and therefore an investment in the notes, is subject to risks associated with foreign securities
markets. — The Underlying Index of the VanEck® Gold Miners ETF tracks the value of certain foreign equity securities. You
should be aware that investments in securities linked to the value of foreign equity securities involve particular risks. The foreign
securities markets comprising the Underlying Index of the VanEck® Gold Miners ETF may have less liquidity and may be more volatile
than U.S. or other securities markets and market developments may affect foreign markets differently from U.S. or other securities markets.
Direct or indirect government intervention to stabilize these foreign securities markets, as well as cross-shareholdings in foreign companies,
may affect trading prices and volumes in these markets. Also, there is generally less publicly available information about foreign companies
than about those U.S. companies that are subject to the reporting requirements of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, and foreign
companies are subject to accounting, auditing and financial reporting standards and requirements that differ from those applicable to
U.S. reporting companies.|
Prices of securities in foreign countries are subject to political, economic, financial and social factors that apply in those geographical regions. These factors, which could negatively affect those securities markets, include the possibility of recent or future changes in a foreign government’s economic and fiscal policies, the possible imposition of, or changes in, currency exchange laws or other laws or restrictions applicable to foreign companies or investments in foreign equity securities and the possibility of fluctuations in the rate of exchange between currencies, the possibility of outbreaks of hostility and political instability and the possibility of natural disaster or adverse public health developments in the region. Moreover, foreign economies may differ favorably or unfavorably from the U.S. economy in important respects such as growth of gross national product, rate of inflation, capital reinvestment, resources and self-sufficiency.
|·||The VanEck® Gold Miners ETF, and therefore an investment in the notes, is subject to risks associated with emerging markets.
— The Underlying Index of the VanEck® Gold Miners ETF consists of stocks issued by companies in countries with emerging
markets. Countries with emerging markets may have relatively unstable governments, may present the risks of nationalization of businesses,
restrictions on foreign ownership and prohibitions on the repatriation of assets, and may have less protection of property rights than
more developed countries. The economies of countries with emerging markets may be based on only a few industries, may be highly vulnerable
to changes in local or global trade conditions (due to economic dependence upon commodity prices and international trade), and may suffer
from extreme and volatile debt burdens, currency devaluations or inflation rates. Local securities markets may trade a small number of
securities and may be unable to respond effectively to increases in trading volume, potentially making prompt liquidation of holdings
difficult or impossible at times.|
The shares tracked by the Underlying Index of the VanEck® Gold Miners ETF may be listed on a foreign stock exchange. A foreign stock exchange may impose trading limitations intended to prevent extreme fluctuations in individual security prices and may suspend trading in certain circumstances. These actions could limit variations in the levels of the of the VanEck® Gold Miners ETF, which could, in turn, adversely affect the value of, and amount payable on, the notes.
|·||The VanEck® Gold Miners ETF, and therefore an investment in the notes, is subject to risks associated with concentration in
the gold and silver mining industries. — All or substantially all of the equity securities held by the VanEck® Gold Miners
ETF are issued by gold or silver mining companies. An investment in the notes will be exposed to risks in the gold and silver mining industries.
As a result of being linked to a single industry or sector, the notes may have increased volatility as the share price of the VanEck®
Gold Miners ETF may be more susceptible to adverse factors that affect that industry or sector. Competitive pressures may have a significant
effect on the financial condition of companies in these industries.|
In addition, these companies are highly dependent on the price of gold or silver, as applicable. These prices fluctuate widely and may be affected by numerous factors. Factors affecting gold prices include economic factors, including, among other things, the structure of and confidence in the global monetary system, expectations of the future rate of inflation, the relative strength of, and confidence in, the U.S. dollar (the currency in which the price of gold is generally quoted), interest rates and gold borrowing and lending rates, and global or regional economic, financial, political, regulatory, judicial or other events. Gold prices may also be affected by industry factors such as industrial and jewelry demand, lending, sales and purchases of gold by the official sector, including central banks and other governmental agencies and multilateral institutions which hold gold, levels of gold production and production costs, and short-term changes in supply and demand because of trading activities in the gold market. Factors affecting silver prices include general economic trends, technical developments, substitution issues and regulation, as well as specific factors including industrial and jewelry demand, expectations with respect to the rate of inflation, the relative strength of the U.S. dollar (the currency in which the price of silver is generally quoted) and other currencies, interest rates, central bank sales, forward sales by producers, global or regional political or economic events, and production costs and disruptions in major silver producing countries.
|·||Relationship to gold and silver bullion. — The VanEck® Gold Miners ETF invests in shares of gold and silver mining companies, but not in gold bullion or silver bullion. The VanEck® Gold Miners ETF may under- or over-perform gold bullion and/or silver bullion over the term of the notes.|
General Risk Factors
|·||Your investment is subject to the credit risk of Bank of Montreal. — Our credit ratings and credit spreads may adversely affect the market value of the notes. Investors are dependent on our ability to pay any amounts due on the notes, and therefore investors are subject to our credit risk and to changes in the market’s view of our creditworthiness. Any decline in our credit ratings or increase in the credit spreads charged by the market for taking our credit risk is likely to adversely affect the value of the notes.|
|·||Potential conflicts. — We and our affiliates play a variety of roles in connection with the issuance of the notes, including acting as calculation agent. In performing these duties, the economic interests of the calculation agent and other affiliates of ours are potentially adverse to your interests as an investor in the notes. We or one or more of our affiliates may also engage in trading of shares of the Reference Asset or the securities held by the Reference Asset on a regular basis as part of our general broker-dealer and other businesses, for proprietary accounts, for other accounts under management or to facilitate transactions for our customers. Any of these activities could adversely affect the level of the Reference Asset and, therefore, the market value of, and the payments on, the notes. We or one or more of our affiliates may also issue or underwrite other securities or financial or derivative instruments with returns linked or related to changes in the performance of the Reference Asset. By introducing competing products into the marketplace in this manner, we or one or more of our affiliates could adversely affect the market value of the notes.|
|·||Our initial estimated value of the notes is lower than the price to public. — Our initial estimated value of the notes is only an estimate, and is based on a number of factors. The price to public of the notes exceeds our initial estimated value, because costs associated with offering, structuring and hedging the notes are included in the price to public, but are not included in the estimated value. These costs include any underwriting discount and selling concessions, the profits that we and our affiliates expect to realize for assuming the risks in hedging our obligations under the notes and the estimated cost of hedging these obligations.|
|·||Our initial estimated value does not represent any future value of the notes, and may also differ from the estimated value of any other party. — Our initial estimated value of the notes as of the date hereof is derived using our internal pricing models. This value is based on market conditions and other relevant factors, which include volatility of the Reference Asset, dividend rates and interest rates. Different pricing models and assumptions could provide values for the notes that are greater than or less than our initial estimated value. In addition, market conditions and other relevant factors after the Pricing Date are expected to change, possibly rapidly, and our assumptions may prove to be incorrect. After the Pricing Date, the value of the notes could change dramatically due to changes in market conditions, our creditworthiness, and the other factors set forth herein and in the product supplement. These changes are likely to impact the price, if any, at which we or BMOCM would be willing to purchase the notes from you in any secondary market transactions. Our initial estimated value does not represent a minimum price at which we or our affiliates would be willing to buy your notes in any secondary market at any time.|
|·||The terms of the notes were not determined by reference to the credit spreads for our conventional fixed-rate debt. — To determine the terms of the notes, we used an internal funding rate that represents a discount from the credit spreads for our conventional fixed-rate debt. As a result, the terms of the notes are less favorable to you than if we had used a higher funding rate.|
|·||Certain costs are likely to adversely affect the value of the notes. — Absent any changes in market conditions, any secondary market prices of the notes will likely be lower than the price to public. This is because any secondary market prices will likely take into account our then-current market credit spreads, and because any secondary market prices are likely to exclude all or a portion of any underwriting discount and selling concessions, and the hedging profits and estimated hedging costs that are included in the price to public of the notes and that may be reflected on your account statements. In addition, any such price is also likely to reflect a discount to account for costs associated with establishing or unwinding any related hedge transaction, such as dealer discounts, mark-ups and other transaction costs. As a result, the price, if any, at which BMOCM or any other party may be willing to purchase the notes from you in secondary market transactions, if at all, will likely be lower than the price to public. Any sale that you make prior to the Maturity Date could result in a substantial loss to you.|
|·||Lack of liquidity. — The notes will not be listed on any securities exchange. BMOCM may offer to purchase the notes in the secondary market, but is not required to do so. Even if there is a secondary market, it may not provide enough liquidity to allow you to trade or sell the notes easily. Because other dealers are not likely to make a secondary market for the notes, the price at which you may be able to trade the notes is likely to depend on the price, if any, at which BMOCM is willing to buy the notes.|
|·||Hedging and trading activities. — We or any of our affiliates have carried out or may carry out hedging activities related to the notes, including purchasing or selling shares of the Reference Asset or securities held by the Reference Asset, futures or options relating to the Reference Asset or securities held by the Reference Asset or other derivative instruments with return liked or related to changes in the performance on the Reference Asset or securities held by the Reference Asset. We or our affiliates may also trade in the Reference Asset, such securities, or instruments related to the Reference Asset or such securities from time to time. Any of these hedging or trading activities on or prior to the Pricing Date and during the term of the notes could adversely affect the payments on the notes.|
|·||Many economic and market factors will influence the value of the notes. — In addition to the level of the Reference Asset and interest rates on any trading day, the value of the notes will be affected by a number of economic and market factors that may either offset or magnify each other, and which are described in more detail in the product supplement.|
|·||Significant aspects of the tax treatment of the notes are uncertain. — The tax treatment of the notes is uncertain. We
do not plan to request a ruling from the Internal Revenue Service or from any Canadian authorities regarding the tax treatment of the
notes, and the Internal Revenue Service or a court may not agree with the tax treatment described herein.|
The Internal Revenue Service has released a notice that may affect the taxation of holders of “prepaid forward contracts” and similar instruments. According to the notice, the Internal Revenue Service and the U.S. Treasury are actively considering whether the holder of such instruments should be required to accrue ordinary income on a current basis. While it is not clear whether the notes would be viewed as similar to such instruments, it is possible that any future guidance could materially and adversely affect the tax consequences of an investment in the notes, possibly with retroactive effect.
Please read carefully the section entitled "U.S. Federal Tax Information" herein, the section entitled "Supplemental Tax Considerations–Supplemental U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations" in the accompanying product supplement, the section entitled "United States Federal Income Taxation" in the accompanying prospectus and the section entitled "Certain Income Tax Consequences" in the accompanying prospectus supplement. You should consult your tax advisor about your own tax situation.
Examples of the Hypothetical Payment at Maturity for a $1,000 Investment in the Notes
The following table illustrates the hypothetical payments on a note at maturity, assuming that the notes are not automatically redeemed. The hypothetical payments are based on a $1,000 investment in the note, a hypothetical Initial Level of $100.00, a hypothetical Trigger Level of $70.00 (70.00% of the hypothetical Initial Level), a hypothetical Call Level of $100.00 (100.00% of the hypothetical Initial Level), a range of hypothetical Final Levels and the effect on the payment at maturity .
The hypothetical examples shown below are intended to help you understand the terms of the notes. If the notes are not automatically redeemed, the actual cash amount that you will receive at maturity will depend upon the Final Level of the Reference Asset. If the notes are automatically redeemed prior to maturity, the hypothetical examples below will not be relevant, and you will receive on the applicable Call Settlement Date, for each $1,000 principal amount, the principal amount plus the applicable Contingent Coupon.
As discussed in more detail above, your total return on the notes will also depend on the number of Contingent Coupon Dates on which the Contingent Coupon is payable. It is possible that the only payments on your notes will be the payment, if any, due at maturity. The payment at maturity will not exceed the principal amount, and may be significantly less.
|Hypothetical Final Level||Hypothetical Final Level Expressed
as a Percentage of the Initial Level
|Payment at Maturity (Excluding |
U.S. Federal Tax Information
By purchasing the notes, each holder agrees (in the absence of a change in law, an administrative determination or a judicial ruling to the contrary) to treat each note as a pre-paid contingent income-bearing derivative contract for U.S. federal income tax purposes. However, the U.S. federal income tax consequences of your investment in the notes are uncertain and the Internal Revenue Service could assert that the notes should be taxed in a manner that is different from that described in the preceding sentence. Please see the discussion (including the opinion of our counsel Mayer Brown LLP) in the product supplement dated May 26, 2022 under “Supplemental Tax Considerations—Supplemental U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations,” which applies to the notes.
Supplemental Plan of Distribution (Conflicts of Interest)
BMOCM will purchase the notes from us at a purchase price reflecting the commission set forth on the cover hereof. BMOCM has informed us that, as part of its distribution of the notes, it will reoffer the notes to other dealers who will sell them. Each such dealer, or each additional dealer engaged by a dealer to whom BMOCM reoffers the notes, will receive a commission from BMOCM, which will not exceed the commission set forth on the cover page.
Certain dealers who purchase the notes for sale to certain fee-based advisory accounts may forego some or all of their selling concessions, fees or commissions. The public offering price for investors purchasing the notes in these accounts may be less than 100% of the principal amount, as set forth on the cover page of this document. Investors that hold their notes in these accounts may be charged fees by the investment advisor or manager of that account based on the amount of assets held in those accounts, including the notes.
We will deliver the notes on a date that is greater than two business days following the pricing date. Under Rule 15c6-1 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), trades in the secondary market generally are required to settle in two business days, unless the parties to any such trade expressly agree otherwise. Accordingly, purchasers who wish to trade the notes more than two business days prior to the issue date will be required to specify alternative settlement arrangements to prevent a failed settlement.
We own, directly or indirectly, all of the outstanding equity securities of BMOCM, the agent for this offering. In accordance with FINRA Rule 5121, BMOCM may not make sales in this offering to any of its discretionary accounts without the prior written approval of the customer.
You should not construe the offering of the notes as a recommendation of the merits of acquiring an investment linked to the Reference Asset or as to the suitability of an investment in the notes.
BMOCM may, but is not obligated to, make a market in the notes. BMOCM will determine any secondary market prices that it is prepared to offer in its sole discretion.
We may use this pricing supplement in the initial sale of the notes. In addition, BMOCM or another of our affiliates may use this pricing supplement in market-making transactions in any notes after their initial sale. Unless BMOCM or we inform you otherwise in the confirmation of sale, this pricing supplement is being used by BMOCM in a market-making transaction.
For a period of approximately three months following issuance of the notes, the price, if any, at which we or our affiliates would be willing to buy the notes from investors, and the value that BMOCM may also publish for the notes through one or more financial information vendors and which could be indicated for the notes on any brokerage account statements, will reflect a temporary upward adjustment from our estimated value of the notes that would otherwise be determined and applicable at that time. This temporary upward adjustment represents a portion of (a) the hedging profit that we or our affiliates expect to realize over the term of the notes and (b) any underwriting discount and the selling concessions paid in connection with this offering. The amount of this temporary upward adjustment will decline to zero on a straight-line basis over the three-month period.
Additional Information Relating to the Estimated Initial Value of the Notes
Our estimated initial value of the notes on the date hereof that is set forth on the cover hereof, equals the sum of the values of the following hypothetical components:
|·||a fixed-income debt component with the same tenor as the notes, valued using our internal funding rate for structured notes; and|
|·||one or more derivative transactions relating to the economic terms of the notes.|
The internal funding rate used in the determination of the initial estimated value generally represents a discount from the credit spreads for our conventional fixed-rate debt. The value of these derivative transactions is derived from our internal pricing models. These models are based on factors such as the traded market prices of comparable derivative instruments and on other inputs, which include volatility, dividend rates, interest rates and other factors. As a result, the estimated initial value of the notes on the Pricing Date was determined based on the market conditions on the Pricing Date.
The Reference Asset
We have derived the following information from publicly available documents. We have not independently verified the accuracy or completeness of the following information. We are not affiliated with the Reference Asset Issuer and the Reference Asset Issuer will have no obligations with respect to the notes. This document relates only to the notes and does not relate to the shares of the Reference Asset or any securities included in the Underlying Index. Neither we nor any of our affiliates participates in the preparation of the publicly available documents described below. Neither we nor any of our affiliates has made any due diligence inquiry with respect to the Reference Asset in connection with the offering of the notes. There can be no assurance that all events occurring prior to the date hereof, including events that would affect the accuracy or completeness of the publicly available documents described below and that would affect the trading price of the shares of the Reference Asset, have been or will be publicly disclosed. Subsequent disclosure of any events or the disclosure of or failure to disclose material future events concerning the Reference Asset could affect the price of the shares of the Reference Asset on each Observation Date and on the Valuation Date, and therefore could affect the payments on the notes.
The selection of the Reference Asset is not a recommendation to buy or sell the shares of the Reference Asset. Neither we nor any of our affiliates make any representation to you as to the performance of the shares of the Reference Asset. Information provided to or filed with the SEC under the Exchange Act and the Investment Company Act of 1940 relating to the Reference Asset may be obtained through the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov.
We encourage you to review recent levels of the Reference Asset prior to making an investment decision with respect to the notes.
VanEck® Gold Miners ETF
The VanEck® Gold Miners ETF is an investment portfolio maintained, managed and advised by Van Eck Associates Corporation. The VanEck® Gold Miners ETF is classified as a “non-diversified” fund under the Investment Company Act of 1940. .The VanEck® Gold Miners ETF seeks to provide investment results that correspond generally to the price and yield performance, before fees and expenses, of the NYSE® Arca Gold Miners Index®. Information about the VanEck® Gold Miners ETF filed with the SEC can be found by reference to its SEC file numbers: 333-123257 and 811-10325 or its CIK Code: 0001137360. Shares of the VanEck® Gold Miners ETF are listed on the NYSE Arca under ticker symbol "GDX."
The NYSE® Arca Gold Miners Index®
All information in this document regarding the NYSE® Arca Gold Miners Index®, including, without limitation, its make-up, method of calculation and changes in its components, is derived from publicly available information. Such information reflects the policies of, and is subject to change by, ICE Data Indices, LLC (“IDI”). Neither we nor any of our affiliates has undertaken any independent review or due diligence of such information. The NYSE Arca Gold Miners is maintained and published by IDI. IDI has no obligation to continue to publish, and may discontinue the publication of, the NYSE® Arca Gold Miners Index®.
The NYSE® Arca Gold Miners Index® is a rules-based index designed to measure the performance of highly capitalized companies in the gold mining industry. The NYSE® Arca Gold Miners Index® includes common stocks, ADRs and GDRs of selected companies that are involved primarily in mining for gold or silver ore and that are listed for trading and electronically quoted on a major stock market that is accessible by foreign investors. Generally, this will include exchanges in most developed markets and major emerging markets, and will include companies that are cross-listed, e.g., both U.S. and Canadian listings. IDI will use its discretion to avoid exchanges and markets that are considered “frontier” in nature or have major restrictions to foreign ownership. The NYSE® Arca Gold Miners Index® includes companies that derive at least 50% of their revenues from gold mining and related activities There will be a 10% buffer built in so that companies already existing in the index will only be removed from the index in the next review if their gold mining revenues fall below the 40% level. It should be noted that the NYSE® Arca Gold Miners Index® will maintain an exposure to companies with a significant revenue exposure to silver mining in addition to gold mining. The IDI will ensure, solely through the company selections in the index rebalances, that the percentage of the NYSE® Arca Gold Miners Index® weight that will consist of these “silver-tilted” companies will not exceed 20%.
Only companies with market capitalization greater than $750 million that have an average daily trading volume of at least 50,000 shares over the past three months and an average daily value traded of at least $1 million are eligible for inclusion in the NYSE® Arca Gold Miners Index®.
For reasons of practicality, IDI has the discretion to not include all companies that meet the minimum levels for inclusion. These include, but are not limited to, pending corporate actions, litigation or geo-political events that may affect a given stock. In addition, IDI has the discretion to include companies that do not meet the minimum levels for inclusion, if it determines that by doing so it maintains the quality and/or character of the index.
The NYSE® Arca Gold Miners Index® was assigned a base date of December 19, 2002 and a base value of 500.00.
Calculation of the NYSE® Arca Gold Miners Index®. The NYSE® Arca Gold Miners Index® is calculated using a modified market capitalization weighting methodology. The NYSE® Arca Gold Miners Index® is weighted based on the market capitalization of each of the component securities, modified to conform to the asset diversification requirements, which are applied in conjunction with the scheduled quarterly adjustments to the NYSE® Arca Gold Miners Index® and described below as Diversification Rule 1 and Diversification Rule 2.
The NYSE® Arca Gold Miners Index® is reviewed quarterly so that the NYSE® Arca Gold Miners Index® components continue to represent the index’s objective of measuring the performance of highly capitalized companies in the gold mining industry. The NYSE Arca may at any time and from time to time change the number of securities comprising the group by adding or deleting one or more securities, or replacing one or more securities contained in the group with one or more substitute securities of its choice, in the event of certain corporate actions or if, in the NYSE Arca’s discretion, such addition, deletion or substitution is necessary or appropriate to maintain the quality and/or character of the NYSE® Arca Gold Miners Index®. Changes to the NYSE® Arca Gold Miners Index® compositions and/or the component share weights in the NYSE® Arca Gold Miners Index® typically take effect after the close of trading on the third Friday of each calendar quarter month in connection with the quarterly index rebalance.
At the time of the quarterly rebalance, the weights for the components stocks (taking into account expected component changes and share adjustments), are modified in accordance with the following procedures.
Diversification Rule 1: If any component stock exceeds 20% of the total value of the NYSE® Arca Gold Miners Index®, then all stocks greater than 20% of the NYSE® Arca Gold Miners Index® are reduced to represent 20% of the value of the NYSE® Arca Gold Miners Index®. The aggregate amount by which all component stocks are reduced is redistributed proportionately across the remaining stocks that represent less than 20% of the index value. After this redistribution, if any other stock then exceeds 20%, the stock is set to 20% of the index value and the redistribution is repeated. If there is no component stock over 20% of the total value of the NYSE® Arca Gold Miners Index® to start, then this Diversification Rule 1 is not executed.
Diversification Rule 2: The components are sorted into two groups, large components have a starting index weight of 5% or greater (“large components”) and small components start at under 5% (“small components”)(after any adjustments for Diversification Rule 1). If, after Diversification Rule 1 above is run, there are no large components, this Diversification Rule 2 is not run. Alternatively, if the starting aggregate weight of the large components after Diversification Rule 1 is run is not greater than 45% of the starting index weight, then Diversification Rule 2 is not executed. If Diversification Rule 2 is indeed executed, then the (1) large group and (2) small group will represent 45% and 55%, respectively, of the final index weight. This will be adjusted for through the following process:
|(1)||The weight of each of the large stocks will be scaled down proportionately (with a floor of 5%) so that the aggregate weight of the large components will be reduced to represent 45% of the NYSE® Arca Gold Miners Index®. If any large component stock falls below a weight equal to the product of 5% and the proportion by which the stocks were scaled down following this distribution, then the weight of the stock is set equal to 5% and the components with weights greater than 5% will be reduced proportionately.|
|(2)||The weight of each of the small components will be scaled up proportionately from the redistribution of the large components. If any small component stock exceeds a weight equal to the product of 4.5% and the proportion by which the stocks were scaled down following this distribution, then the weight of the stock is set equal to 4.5%. The redistribution of weight to the remaining stocks is repeated until the entire amount has been redistributed.|
Components will be removed from the NYSE® Arca Gold Miners Index® during the quarterly review if (i) the market capitalization falls below $450 million, or (ii) the average daily trading volume for the previous three months is lower than 30,000 shares and the average daily value traded is lower than $600,000 for the past three months. In conjunction with the quarterly review, the share weights used in the calculation of the NYSE® Arca Gold Miners Index® are determined based upon current shares outstanding modified, if necessary, to provide greater index diversification, as described above. As ag general rule, the index components and their share weights are determined and announced prior to taking effect according to the timing set forth in the methodology, however emergency actions may require IDI to deviate from the normal scheduling. The share weight of each component stock in the index portfolio remains fixed between quarterly reviews except in the event of certain types of corporate actions. The NYSE Arca may substitute stocks or change the number of stocks included in the NYSE® Arca Gold Miners Index®, based on changing conditions in the industry or in the event of certain types of corporate actions. If changes are made, the index divisor may be adjusted to ensure that there are no changes to the index price as a result of non-market forces.
Validity of the Notes
In the opinion of Osler, Hoskin & Harcourt LLP, the issue and sale of the notes has been duly authorized by all necessary corporate action of the Bank in conformity with the Senior Indenture, and when this pricing supplement has been attached to, and duly notated on, the master note that represents the notes, the notes will have been validly executed and issued and, to the extent validity of the notes is a matter governed by the laws of the Province of Ontario, or the laws of Canada applicable therein, and will be valid obligations of the Bank, subject to the following limitations (i) the enforceability of the Senior Indenture may be limited by the Canada Deposit Insurance Corporation Act (Canada), the Winding-up and Restructuring Act (Canada) and bankruptcy, insolvency, reorganization, receivership, moratorium, arrangement or winding-up laws or other similar laws affecting the enforcement of creditors’ rights generally; (ii) the enforceability of the Senior Indenture may be limited by equitable principles, including the principle that equitable remedies such as specific performance and injunction may only be granted in the discretion of a court of competent jurisdiction; (iii) pursuant to the Currency Act (Canada) a judgment by a Canadian court must be awarded in Canadian currency and that such judgment may be based on a rate of exchange in existence on a day other than the day of payment; and (iv) the enforceability of the Senior Indenture will be subject to the limitations contained in the Limitations Act, 2002 (Ontario), and such counsel expresses no opinion as to whether a court may find any provision of the Senior Debt Indenture to be unenforceable as an attempt to vary or exclude a limitation period under that Act. This opinion is given as of the date hereof and is limited to the laws of the Provinces of Ontario and the federal laws of Canada applicable thereto. In addition, this opinion is subject to customary assumptions about the trustee’s authorization, execution and delivery of the Indenture and the genuineness of signatures and certain factual matters, all as stated in the letter of such counsel dated May 26, 2022, which has been filed as Exhibit 5.3 to Bank of Montreal’s Form 6-K filed with the SEC and dated May 26, 2022.
In the opinion of Mayer Brown LLP, when this pricing supplement has been attached to, and duly notated on, the master note that represents the notes, and the notes have been issued and sold as contemplated herein, the notes will be valid, binding and enforceable obligations of Bank of Montreal, entitled to the benefits of the Senior Indenture, subject to applicable bankruptcy, insolvency and similar laws affecting creditors’ rights generally, concepts of reasonableness and equitable principles of general applicability (including, without limitation, concepts of good faith, fair dealing and the lack of bad faith). This opinion is given as of the date hereof and is limited to the laws of the State of New York. Insofar as this opinion involves matters governed by the laws of the Province of Ontario, or the laws of Canada applicable therein, Mayer Brown LLP has assumed, without independent inquiry or investigation, the validity of the matters opined on by Osler, Hoskin & Harcourt LLP, Canadian legal counsel for the issuer, in its opinion expressed above. This opinion is subject to customary assumptions about the trustee’s authorization, execution and delivery of the Senior Indenture and the genuineness of signatures and to such counsel’s reliance on the Bank of Montreal and other sources as to certain factual matters, all as stated in the legal opinion of Mayer Brown LLP dated May 26, 2022, which has been filed with the SEC as an exhibit to a report on Form 6-K by the Bank of Montreal on May 26, 2022.
The pricing supplement to which this Exhibit is attached is a final prospectus for the related offering. The maximum aggregate offering price of that offering is $41,000.
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