Form 10-Q Centessa Pharmaceuticals For: Mar 31

May 16, 2022 7:43 AM EDT

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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-Q
(Mark One)
x
QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the quarterly period ended March 31, 2022
OR
o
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from   to
Commission file number 001-04321
CENTESSA PHARMACEUTICALS PLC
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
England and Wales98-1612294
(State or other jurisdiction of
 incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
3rd Floor
1 Ashley Road
Altrincham
Cheshire WA14 2DT
United Kingdom
(Address of principal executive offices and zip code)

+44 7391 789784
Registrant's telephone number, including area code
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Ordinary shares, nominal value £0.002 per share
CNTA
Nasdaq Stock Market, LLC*
American Depositary Shares, each representing one ordinary share, nominal value £0.002 per share
CNTANasdaq Stock Market, LLC
*Not for trading, but only in connection with the listing of the American Depositary Shares on The Nasdaq Stock Market, LLC.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports); and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes  x    No  o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).     Yes  x   No  o 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
o
Accelerated filer
o
Non-accelerated filer  
x
Smaller reporting company
o
Emerging growth company
x
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).     Yes   o     No  x

The registrant had outstanding 94,041,029 ordinary shares as of May 3, 2022.




Summary of the Material Risks Associated with Our Business
Our business is subject to numerous risks and uncertainties that you should be aware of in evaluating our business. These risks are described more fully in Item 1A - Risk Factors, and include, but are not limited to, the following:
We may not be successful in our efforts to use our differentiated asset-centric business model to build a pipeline of product candidates with commercial value.
A single or limited number of programs or product candidates may comprise a large proportion of our value.
We face challenges, risks and expenses related to the integration of the operations of our asset-centric Centessa Subsidiaries, as well as the management of the expected growth in the scale and complexity of our operations.
We, and our subsidiaries have incurred net losses since inception, and we expect to continue to incur losses for the foreseeable future and may never achieve or maintain profitability.
We will need substantial additional funds to advance development of our product candidates, and we cannot guarantee that we will have sufficient funds available in the future to develop and commercialize our current or future product candidates.
Our credit facility and payment obligations under the Note Purchase Agreement with Cocoon SA LLC, an affiliate of Oberland Capital as agent for the Purchasers, contain operating and financial covenants that restrict our business and financing activities, are subject to acceleration in specified circumstances and may adversely affect our financial position or results of operations and our ability to raise additional capital which in turn may increase our vulnerability to adverse clinical or regulatory developments or economic or business downturns or which may result in Oberland Capital taking possession of our assets and disposing of any collateral.
Our product candidates are in various stages of development, including many in preclinical stages, and may fail in development or suffer delays that materially adversely affect their commercial viability.
We may not be successful in our efforts to identify, discover, in-license or otherwise acquire additional product candidates and may fail to capitalize on programs or product candidates that may represent a greater commercial opportunity or for which there is a greater likelihood of success.
Success in preclinical studies or early clinical trials may not be indicative of results obtained in later trials.
We may encounter substantial delays or challenges in the initiation, conduct or completion of our clinical trials, and the results of clinical development are uncertain.
Even if we complete the necessary preclinical studies and clinical trials, the marketing approval process is expensive, time-consuming and uncertain and may prevent us from obtaining approvals for the commercialization of our product candidates.
We may be unable to obtain U.S. or foreign regulatory approval and, as a result, unable to commercialize our product candidates.
We rely, and expect to continue to rely, on third parties to conduct our preclinical studies, clinical trials, and manufacturing activities and if these third parties perform in an unsatisfactory manner, our business could be substantially harmed.
Preclinical and clinical development is a long, expensive and uncertain process, and we may terminate one or more of our current preclinical and/or clinical development programs.
2

Summary of the Material Risks Associated with Our Business (continued)
We could experience manufacturing problems that result in delays in our development or commercialization of our programs or otherwise harm our business.
Business interruptions resulting from the ongoing COVID-19 outbreak or similar public health crises or the Russia-Ukraine war could cause a disruption of the development of our product candidates and adversely impact our business.
If we are unable to obtain and maintain sufficient patent and other intellectual property protection for our product candidates and technology or other product candidates that may be identified, or if the scope of the intellectual property protection obtained is not sufficiently broad, our competitors could develop and commercialize product candidates similar or identical to the product candidates, and our ability to successfully commercialize the product candidates and other product candidates that we may pursue may be impaired.
The patent protection we obtain for our product candidates and technology may be challenged or not sufficient enough to provide us with any competitive advantage.
A number of our programs and associated product candidates are heavily dependent on licensed intellectual property. If we were to lose our rights to licensed intellectual property, we may not be able to continue developing or commercializing our product candidates, if approved. If we breach any of the agreements under which we license the use, development and commercialization rights to our product candidates or technology from third parties or, in certain cases, we fail to meet certain development deadlines, we could lose license rights that are important to our business.
We have never commercialized a product candidate and we may lack the necessary expertise, personnel and resources to successfully commercialize any of our products that receive regulatory approval on our own or together with collaborators.
Our international operations may expose us to business, regulatory, legal, political, operational, financial, pricing and reimbursement risks associated with doing business across multiple jurisdictions outside of the United States.
We are an emerging growth company and we cannot be certain if the reduced reporting requirements applicable to emerging growth companies will make our ADSs less attractive to investors.
We have previously had material weaknesses in our internal control systems over financial reporting, which have been remediated. We may identify new material weaknesses in the future that may cause us to fail to meet our reporting obligations or result in material misstatements in our financial statements. If we fail to remediate any new material weaknesses, we may not be able to report our financial results accurately or to prevent fraud.
If we fail to develop or maintain an effective system of disclosure controls and internal control over financial reporting, our ability to produce timely and accurate financial statements or comply with applicable regulations could be impaired.
Holders of ADSs may be subject to limitations on the transfer of their ADSs and the withdrawal of the underlying ordinary shares.
While we do not believe we were a “passive foreign investment company” (“PFIC”) in 2021, there is substantial uncertainty as to whether we are or will be a PFIC in the past or in the future. If we are a PFIC, there could be material adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences to U.S. holders.
3

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Item 6.


SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, or 10-Q, contains express or implied forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, that involve substantial risks and uncertainties. In some cases, forward-looking statements may be identified by the words “may,” “might,” “will,” “could,” “would,” “should,” “expect,” “intend,” “plan,” “objective,” “anticipate,” “believe,” “estimate,” “predict,” “potential,” “continue,” “ongoing,” “aim,” “seek,” “strive,” or the negative of these terms, or other comparable terminology intended to identify statements about the future. These statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other important factors that may cause our actual results, levels of activity, performance or achievements to be materially different from the information expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements. The forward-looking statements and opinions contained in this 10-Q are based upon information available to our management as of the date of this 10-Q, and while we believe such information forms a reasonable basis for such statements, such information may be limited or incomplete, and our statements should not be read to indicate that we have conducted an exhaustive inquiry into, or review of, all potentially available relevant information. Forward-looking statements contained in this 10-Q include, but are not limited to, statements about:
the initiation, timing, progress and results (preliminary, interim or final) of our preclinical studies and clinical trials, and our research and development programs;
our ability to advance our product candidates into, and successfully complete, clinical trials;
our reliance on the success of our product candidates and our pipeline programs;
our ability to utilize our screening platform to identify and advance additional product candidates into clinical development;
our ability to become the partner of choice to attract founder-subject matter experts with high conviction programs;
the timing or likelihood of regulatory filings and approvals;
the impact of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, including the impact of the delta and other variants, and the impact of the Russia-Ukraine war on our business and operations;
the commercialization of our product candidates, if approved;
our ability to develop sales and marketing capabilities;
4

the pricing, coverage and reimbursement of our product candidates, if approved;
the implementation of our business model, strategic plans for our business, product candidates and technology;
the scope of protection we are able to establish and maintain for intellectual property rights covering our product candidates and technology;
our ability to operate our business without infringing the intellectual property rights and proprietary technology of third parties;
cost associated with prosecuting and maintaining our intellectual property and with defending intellectual property infringement, product liability and other claims;
legal and regulatory development in the United States, the European Union, the United Kingdom and other jurisdictions;
estimates of our expenses, future revenues, capital requirements and our needs for additional financing;
the potential benefits of strategic collaboration agreements and our ability to negotiate and enter into strategic arrangements;
our ability to identify collaboration opportunities and to establish and maintain collaborations;
our ability to obtain additional funding;
our ability to fulfill our obligations under the Note Purchase Agreement, as amended, with Oberland Capital;
the rate and degree of market acceptance of any approved products;
developments relating to our competitors and our industry, including competing therapies and our ability to respond to such developments;
our ability to effectively manage our anticipated growth;
our ability to attract and retain qualified employees and key personnel;
our expectations regarding the period during which we qualify as an emerging growth company under the JOBS Act;
statements regarding future revenue, hiring plans, expenses, capital expenditures, capital requirements and share performance;
our expected use of proceeds of our IPO;
the future trading price of the ADSs and impact of securities analysts’ reports on these prices; and
other risks and uncertainties, including those listed under the caption “Risk Factors.”
You should refer to the section titled “Item 1A. Risk Factors” in this 10-Q for a discussion of important factors that may cause our actual results to differ materially from those expressed or implied by our forward-looking statements. As a result of these factors, we cannot be assured that the forward-looking statements in this 10-Q will prove to be accurate. Furthermore, if our forward-looking statements prove to be inaccurate, the inaccuracy may be material. In light of the significant uncertainties in these forward-looking statements, these statements should not be regarded as a representation or warranty by us or any other person that we will achieve our objectives and plans in any specified time frame, or at all. We undertake no obligation to publicly update any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as required by law.
You should read this 10-Q and the documents that we reference in this 10-Q and have filed as exhibits to this 10-Q completely and with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from what we expect. We qualify all of our forward-looking statements by these cautionary statements.
5

PART I. FINANCIAL INFORMATION
Item 1. Financial Statements
Centessa Pharmaceuticals plc (Successor)
Consolidated Balance Sheets
(unaudited)
(amounts in thousands except share and per share data)
March 31, 2022December 31, 2021
Assets
Current assets:
Cash and cash equivalents$544,465 $595,082 
Tax incentive receivable20,605 15,392 
Prepaid expenses and other current assets16,125 18,300 
Total current assets
581,195 628,774 
Property and equipment, net374 162 
Other, net619 699 
Total assets
$582,188 $629,635 
Liabilities and shareholders’ equity
Current liabilities:
Accounts payable$6,689 $8,065 
Accrued expenses and other current liabilities20,505 16,573 
Total current liabilities27,194 24,638 
Long term debt74,800 75,700 
Contingent value rights 37,700 
Other, net43 43 
Total liabilities
102,037 138,081 
Commitments and contingencies (Note 6)
Shareholders’ equity:
Ordinary shares: £0.002 nominal value: 152,500,000 shares authorized, 94,021,968 issued and outstanding at March 31, 2022; 152,500,000 shares authorized, 89,988,228 issued and outstanding at December 31, 2021
262 252 
Additional paid-in capital920,058 876,267 
Accumulated other comprehensive (loss) income(18)688 
Accumulated deficit(440,151)(385,653)
Total shareholders' equity
480,151 491,554 
Total liabilities and shareholders' equity
$582,188 $629,635 


The accompanying notes are an integral part of these unaudited interim consolidated financial statements.
6

Centessa Pharmaceuticals plc (Successor) and Centessa Predecessor Group (Predecessor)
Consolidated and Combined Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Loss
(unaudited)
(amounts in thousands except share and per share data)
SuccessorPredecessor
Three months ended March 31, 2022Period from
January 30, 2021
through March 31,
2021
Period from
January 1, 2021
through
January 29,
2021
Operating expenses:
Research and development$36,853 $10,142 $662 
General and administrative14,385 5,595 121 
Change in fair value of contingent value rights1,980   
Acquired in-process research and development 220,454  
Loss from operations(53,218)(236,191)(783)
Interest (expense) income, net(1,396)8 (9)
Amortization of debt discount  (37)
Other income (expense), net196 (2,508) 
Loss before income taxes(54,418)(238,691)(829)
Income taxes80   
Net loss(54,498)(238,691)(829)
Other comprehensive loss:
Foreign currency translation adjustment(706)2,221 107 
Total comprehensive loss$(55,204)$(236,470)$(722)
Net loss per ordinary share - basic and diluted$(0.60)$(4.97)
Weighted average ordinary shares outstanding - basic and diluted90,505,345 48,050,083 


The accompanying notes are an integral part of these unaudited interim consolidated and combined financial statements.
7

Centessa Pharmaceuticals plc (Successor)
Consolidated Statements of Shareholders' Equity
(unaudited)
(amounts in thousands except share data)
Series A PreferredOrdinary SharesAdditional
paid-in
capital
Accumulated
Other
Comprehensive
Income (Loss)
Accumulated
Deficit
Total
SharesAmountSharesAmount
Balance at January 1, 2022 $ 89,988,228 $252 $876,267 $688 $(385,653)$491,554 
Issuance of ordinary shares to settle
   outstanding contingent value rights, net
   of employee withholding taxes
— — 3,938,423 10 37,738 — — 37,748 
Stock option exercises— — 59,541 — 335 — — 335 
Vesting of ordinary shares— — 35,776 — — — — — 
Share-based compensation expense— — — — 5,718 — — 5,718 
Foreign currency translation adjustments— — — — — (706)— (706)
Net loss— — — — — — (54,498)(54,498)
Balance at March 31, 2022
 $ 94,021,968 $262 $920,058 $(18)$(440,151)$480,151 
Balance at January 30, 2021 $ 7,500,000 $21 $ $(90)$(4,582)$(4,651)
Sale of Series A convertible preferred shares, net of issuance costs of $3,403
22,272,721 241,597 — — — — — 241,597 
Issuance of Series A convertible preferred shares upon conversion of debt568,181 6,250 — — — — — 6,250 
Acquisition of Centessa Subsidiaries— — 44,758,079 123 262,575 — — 262,698 
Forgiveness of convertible term loan— — — — 6,199 — — 6,199 
Repurchase of ordinary shares concurrent with acquisition of Centessa Subsidiaries— — (4,450,000)(12)— — — (12)
Stock option exercises— — 50,000 — 292 — — 292 
Share-based compensation expense— — — — 2,731 — — 2,731 
Vesting of ordinary shares— — 225,438 1 (1)— —  
Foreign currency translation adjustments— — — — — 2,221 — 2,221 
Net loss— — — — — — (238,691)(238,691)
Balance at March 31, 202122,840,902 $247,847 48,083,517 $133 $271,796 $2,131 $(243,273)$278,634 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these unaudited interim consolidated financial statements.
8

Centessa Predecessor Group (Predecessor)
Combined Statement of Convertible Preferred Shares and Combined Deficit
(unaudited)
(amounts in thousands except share data)
Convertible Preferred SharesCombined
Deficit
Series ASeries BSeries Seed
SharesAmountSharesAmountSharesAmount
Balance at January 1, 20214,337,282 $13,329 1,111,923 $10,840 1,100,000 $1,352 $(22,423)
Foreign currency translation adjustments— — — — — — 107 
Net loss— — — — — — (829)
Balance at January 29, 20214,337,282 $13,329 1,111,923 $10,840 1,100,000 $1,352 $(23,145)



The accompanying notes are an integral part of these unaudited interim combined financial statements.
9

Centessa Pharmaceuticals plc (Successor) and Centessa Predecessor Group (Predecessor)
Consolidated and Combined Statements of Cash Flows
(unaudited)
(amounts in thousands)
SuccessorPredecessor
Three Months Ended March 31, 2022Period from
January 30, 2021
through March 31,
2021
Period from
January 1, 2021
through
January 29, 2021
Cash flows from operating activities:
Net loss$(54,498)$(238,691)$(829)
Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash used in operating activities:
Acquired in-process research and development220,454
Share-based compensation expense5,7182,731
Depreciation and amortization282
Change in fair value of financial instruments1,080
Changes in operating assets and liabilities:
Tax incentive receivable(5,728)(1,924)74
Prepaid expenses and other assets2,014(1,760)681
Accounts payable(1,220)6,548(358)
Accrued expenses and other liabilities2,589998(589)
Other, net7(28)
Net cash used in operating activities(50,017)(11,635)(1,049)
 
Cash flows from investing activities:
Cash acquired upon acquisition of Centessa Subsidiaries68,038
Cash paid to acquire in-process research and development(4,484)
Purchase of property and equipment(240)(37)
Net cash (used in) provided by investing activities(240)63,517
Cash flows from financing activities:
Proceeds from the sale of Series A convertible preferred shares, net of issuance costs241,597
Debt issuance costs(261)
Proceeds from option exercises335292
Net cash provided by financing activities74241,889
Effect of exchange rate on cash and cash equivalents(434)(124)80
Net (decrease) increase in cash and cash equivalents(50,617)293,647(969)
Cash and cash equivalents at beginning of period595,0824,9657,227
Cash and cash equivalents at end of period$544,465$298,612$6,258
Supplemental disclosure:
Interest paid$1,500$$
Non-cash investing and financing activities:
Issuance of ordinary shares to settle outstanding contingent value rights$39,680$$
Issuance of ordinary shares upon acquisition of Centessa Subsidiaries$$262,698$
Issuance of contingent value rights upon acquisition of Centessa Subsidiaries$$22,618
Issuance of Series A convertible preferred shares upon conversion of debt$$6,250$
Forgiveness of convertible term loan$$6,199$

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these unaudited interim consolidated and combined financial statements.
10

Centessa Pharmaceuticals plc (Successor) and Centessa Predecessor Group (Predecessor)
Notes to the Unaudited Interim Consolidated and Combined Financial Statements
1. Organization and Description of Business
Centessa Pharmaceuticals plc (“Centessa” or “the Company”) is a clinical-stage pharmaceutical company with a Research & Development (“R&D”) innovation engine that aims to discover, develop and ultimately deliver impactful medicines to patients. Centessa was incorporated on October 26, 2020 as a limited liability company under the laws of England and Wales. In connection with the IPO, we re-registered Centessa Pharmaceuticals Limited as an English public limited company and renamed it as Centessa Pharmaceuticals plc.
In January 2021, the management and equity holders of ApcinteX Limited, Capella Biosciences Limited, Inexia Limited, Janpix Limited, LockBody Therapeutics Ltd, Morphogen-IX Limited, Orexia Limited, Palladio Biosciences, Inc., PearlRiver Bio GmbH, Pega-One S.A.S., and Z Factor Limited (together, the “Centessa Subsidiaries”), contributed the Centessa Subsidiaries to Centessa, in a share for share exchange, after which these companies became wholly-owned subsidiaries of Centessa.
As the Company had no significant operations prior to the contribution of the Centessa Subsidiaries, and the registrant was required to present two years of historical financial statements in its prospectus filed with the SEC on June 2, 2021, the Company’s management (“Management”) sought to identify a predecessor, for which it could include audited historical financial statements, to satisfy the filing requirement. As such, Management sought to identify the predecessor from the population of portfolio companies, which would represent a sizable portion of the historical results of the entities later contributed to Centessa.
Entities affiliated with Medicxi manage multiple investment funds, including – Medicxi Ventures I LP, Medicxi Growth I LP, and Medicxi Secondary I LP. In addition, entities affiliated with Medicxi act as sub advisors to Index Ventures Life VI (Jersey) Limited which advises the managing general partner of Index Ventures Life VI (Jersey), L.P. (all funds collectively are referred to as the “Funds”). Management determined the companies owned by Index Ventures Life VI (Jersey), LP individually represent some of the earliest investments by the Funds. These companies (together, the “Centessa Predecessor Group” or the “Group”) are:
Z Factor Limited (“Z Factor”)
LockBody Therapeutics Ltd (“LockBody”)
Morphogen-IX Limited (“Morphogen-IX”)
As the above entities that comprise the Centessa Predecessor Group were historically under the common control of Index Ventures Life VI (Jersey), LP, the financial statements of the Group are being presented on a combined basis and are denoted as “Predecessor” within these unaudited interim financial statements.
Subsequent to the contribution of the Centessa Subsidiaries to Centessa, the financial activities of Centessa and all Centessa Subsidiaries are being presented on a consolidated basis and are denoted as “Successor” within these unaudited interim financial statements.
Initial Public Offering
In June 2021, the Company completed an initial public offering (“IPO”) of its ordinary shares through the sale and issuance of 16,500,000 American Depositary Shares (“ADSs”), at an initial price of $20.00 per ADS. Each ADS represents one ordinary share with a nominal value of £0.002 per ordinary share. Following the close of the IPO, the underwriters fully exercised their option to purchase an additional 2,475,000 ADSs at the initial public offering price of $20.00 per ADS. The Company received aggregate net proceeds of $344.1 million in connection with the IPO and subsequent exercise of the underwriter’s options after deducting underwriting discounts, commissions and other offering expenses paid or to be paid.
Risks and Liquidity
The Company is subject to risks common to other life science companies in various stages of development including, but not limited to, uncertainty of product development and commercialization, lack of marketing and sales history, development by its competitors of new technological innovations, dependence on key personnel, market acceptance of products, product liability, protection of proprietary technology, ability to raise additional financing and compliance with government regulations,
11

Centessa Pharmaceuticals plc (Successor) and Centessa Predecessor Group (Predecessor)
Notes to the Unaudited Interim Consolidated and Combined Financial Statements
in the markets in which the Company is seeking approvals, including U.S. Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”) regulations. If the Company does not successfully advance its programs, including the Centessa Subsidiaries’ programs, into and through human clinical trials and/or enter into collaborations for its programs and commercialize any of its product candidates, it may be unable to produce product revenue or achieve profitability.
The Company has incurred losses and negative cash flows from operations since inception and the Company had an accumulated deficit of $(440.2) million as of March 31, 2022. The Company anticipates incurring additional losses until such time, if ever, that it can generate significant sales of the product candidates currently in development. Substantial additional capital will be needed by the Company to fund its operations and to develop its product candidates.
The Company expects its existing cash and cash equivalents as of March 31, 2022 of $544.5 million will be sufficient to fund its expected operating expenses and capital expenditure requirements for at least the next 12 months from the date of issuance of these unaudited interim financial statements.
Global Pandemic – COVID-19
On March 10, 2020, the World Health Organization characterized the novel COVID-19 virus as a global pandemic. The Company is continuing to proactively monitor the ongoing COVID-19 global pandemic, to assess the potential impact on the business, and to seek to avoid any unnecessary potential delays to the Company’s programs. As of March 31, 2022, the clinical programs and research activities remain largely on track, with some modest delays in clinical trial enrollment rates and supply chain activities. While we are unable to fully quantify the potential effects of this pandemic on our future operations, including potential delays to our preclinical and clinical programs, management continues to evaluate and to seek to mitigate risks. The safety and well-being of employees, patients and partners remains our highest priority.
2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
References to the combined financial statements of the Centessa Predecessor Group refer to three of the eleven direct acquired Centessa Subsidiaries that were deemed to represent the predecessor entity prior to the Company’s acquisition of the Centessa Subsidiaries in January 2021. The Centessa Predecessor Group includes the combined financial information of Z Factor, Morphogen-IX and LockBody. The successor includes the consolidated financial information of Centessa and all Centessa Subsidiaries subsequent to the acquisition.
Accordingly, the accompanying unaudited interim consolidated and combined financial statements are presented in accordance with Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) requirements for predecessor and successor financial statements, which include the financial results of both the Company and the Centessa Predecessor Group. The results of operations contained in the unaudited interim consolidated and combined financial statements include the Centessa Predecessor Group’s combined financial results for the period from January 1, 2021 through January 29, 2021 and the Company (Successor)’s consolidated financial results for the three months ended March 31, 2022 and for period from January 30, 2021 through March 31, 2021. The unaudited interim consolidated balance sheet presents the consolidated financial position of the Company on March 31, 2022.
The accompanying unaudited interim consolidated and combined financial statements should be read in conjunction with the annual audited consolidated financial statements of Centessa Pharmaceuticals plc (Successor) and related notes as of and for the year ended December 31, 2021 which can be found in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021 (the “2021 Annual Report”). The Summary of Significant Accounting Policies included in the Company’s annual financial statements have not materially changed, except as set forth below.

Basis of Presentation and Consolidation/Combination
The accompanying unaudited interim consolidated and combined financial statements have been prepared in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“GAAP”). Any reference in these notes to applicable guidance is meant to refer to GAAP as found in the Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) and Accounting Standards Updates (“ASUs”) promulgated by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”).
In the opinion of management, the accompanying unaudited interim consolidated and combined financial statements include all normal and recurring adjustments (which consist primarily of accruals, estimates and assumptions that impact the financial statements) considered necessary to present fairly:
12

Centessa Pharmaceuticals plc (Successor) and Centessa Predecessor Group (Predecessor)
Notes to the Unaudited Interim Consolidated and Combined Financial Statements

the Company’s financial position as of March 31, 2022 and as of December 31, 2021;
the Company’s results of operations and cash flows for the three months ended March 31, 2022 and the period from January 30, 2021 through March 31, 2021; and
the Predecessor’s results of operations and cash flows for the period from January 1, 2021 through January 29, 2021.

Operating results for the Company for the three months ended March 31, 2022 are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for the full year. The unaudited interim consolidated and combined financial statements, presented herein, do not contain all of the required disclosures under U.S. GAAP for annual financial statements. Notes to the financial statements which would substantially duplicate the disclosure contained in the audited financial statements for fiscal 2021 as reported in the 2021 Annual Report have been omitted. Therefore, these unaudited interim consolidated and combined financial statements should be read in conjunction with the annual audited consolidated and combined financial statements and related notes for Centessa Pharmaceuticals plc (Successor) and Centessa Predecessor Group found in the Form 10-K filed with the SEC.
The Company’s unaudited interim consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Centessa Pharmaceuticals plc, its wholly-owned subsidiary, Centessa Pharmaceuticals, Inc. and the wholly-owned Centessa Subsidiaries. The Centessa Predecessor Group’s unaudited interim combined financial statements included the accounts of Z Factor, Morphogen-IX and LockBody. All intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation and combination.

Reclassifications
Certain amounts in the prior period financial statements have been reclassified to conform to the presentation of the current period financial statements. These reclassifications had no effect on previously reported net loss or comprehensive loss.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of unaudited interim financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities as of the date of the unaudited interim consolidated and combined financial statements and the reported amounts of expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Estimates and assumptions are periodically reviewed and the effects of revisions are reflected in the unaudited interim consolidated and combined financial statements in the period they are determined to be necessary. Significant areas that require management’s estimates include share-based compensation assumptions, note purchase agreement assumptions, and accrued research and development expenses.
Property and Equipment, net
Property and equipment are recorded at cost and are depreciated using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the respective assets. Property and equipment includes computer equipment, which has a useful life of three years, as well as leasehold improvements, which have a useful life of the lesser of the lease term or their useful life. The costs of maintenance and repairs are expensed as incurred. Improvements and betterment that add new functionality or extend the useful life of the asset are capitalized. Depreciation expense was $28 thousand for the three month period ending March 31, 2022 and $2 thousand for the period from January 30, 2021 through March 31, 2021.
Note Purchase Agreement
In October 2021, the Company entered into a Note Purchase Agreement with Oberland Capital Management LLC (“Oberland Capital”). Under the terms of the Note Purchase Agreement, Oberland Capital will purchase up to $300.0 million of 6-year, interest-only (initial interest rate is 8.0% per annum), senior secured notes (the “Notes”) from the Company including $75.0 million, funded on October 4, 2021, $125.0 million available within 24 months at the Company’s option, and $100.0 million available to fund Mergers and Acquisitions (“M&A”), in-licensing, or other strategic transactions, at the option of the Company and Oberland Capital. In addition to interest payments on the principal, the Company is obligated to pay certain
13

Centessa Pharmaceuticals plc (Successor) and Centessa Predecessor Group (Predecessor)
Notes to the Unaudited Interim Consolidated and Combined Financial Statements
revenue participation payments, starting on the date of the first commercial sale of lixivaptan, currently a product candidate under development by the Company, and ending on the tenth anniversary of the First Purchase Date; and is obligated to pay a one-time milestone payment upon the Company’s first product to obtain regulatory approval.

The Company evaluated the Notes and determined that the Notes include embedded derivatives that would otherwise require bifurcation as derivative liabilities. Neither the debt instrument nor any embedded features are required to be classified as equity. Therefore, the hybrid financial instrument comprised of the debt host and the embedded derivative liability may be accounted for under the fair value option. The Company elected to carry the Notes at fair value, and the debt instrument is outside the scope of ASC 480, Distinguishing Liabilities from Equity, and thus will be classified as a liability under ASC 470, Debt, in the Company’s financial statements. As the Company has elected to account for the Notes under the fair value option, debt issuance costs were immediately expensed.
The fair value of the Note Purchase Agreement represents the present value of estimated future payments, including interest, principal as well as estimated payments that are contingent upon the achievement of specified milestones. The fair value of the Notes is based on the cumulative probability of the various estimated payments. The fair value measurement is based on significant Level 3 unobservable inputs such as the probability of achieving the milestones, anticipated timelines, probability and timing of an early redemption of all obligations under the Note Purchase Agreement and the discount rate. Any changes in the fair value of the liability in each reporting period are recognized in the consolidated statement of operations and comprehensive loss until it is settled.
Net Loss Per Ordinary Share
Basic loss per ordinary share is computed by dividing net loss by the aggregate weighted-average number of ordinary shares outstanding. Diluted loss per ordinary share includes the effect, if any, from the potential exercise or conversion of securities, such as convertible preferred shares, stock options, unvested restricted ordinary shares and convertible debt which would result in the issuance of incremental ordinary shares. For diluted net loss per ordinary share, the weighted-average number of ordinary shares is the same for basic net loss per ordinary share due to the fact that when a net loss exists, dilutive securities are not included in the calculation as the impact is anti-dilutive.

The following potentially dilutive securities have been excluded from the computation of diluted weighted-average ordinary shares outstanding for the three months ended March 31, 2022, as they would be anti-dilutive.

Unvested ordinary shares960,991 
Stock options13,737,383 
14,698,374 
Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements
On January 1, 2022, the Company adopted ASU No. 2016-02, Leases (“ASC 842”), which requires a lessee to record a right-of-use asset and a corresponding lease liability on the balance sheet for all leases with terms longer than 12 months. As of January 1, 2022, the Company was not party to any significant leases and therefore the adoption of this standard did not have a significant impact as of this adoption date. As permitted in the standards, the Company intends to reflect the adoption of ASC 842 in its annual report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022, and in interim periods within the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023.
On February 7, 2022, the Company entered into a 10-year office lease (the “Boston Lease”) for its new corporate headquarters in Boston, Massachusetts. The Boston Lease contains 18,922 square footage with a fixed annual rent of approximately $1.6 million in 2023 and escalates to approximately $1.9 million in Year 10. The Company may, at its discretion, extend the Boston Lease for one extension term of five years. The Company will recognize an operating lease right-of-use asset and lease liability for this facility upon lease commencement, expected later in 2022 after the design and construction of the leased space.
3. Fair Value Measurement
14

Centessa Pharmaceuticals plc (Successor) and Centessa Predecessor Group (Predecessor)
Notes to the Unaudited Interim Consolidated and Combined Financial Statements
Fair value is the price that could be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants. Fair value determination in accordance with applicable accounting guidance requires that a number of significant judgments be made. Additionally, fair value is used on a nonrecurring basis to evaluate assets for impairment or as required for disclosure purposes by applicable accounting guidance on disclosures about fair value of financial instruments. Depending on the nature of the assets and liabilities, various valuation techniques and assumptions are used when estimating fair value. The carrying amounts of certain of the Company’s financial instruments, including cash and cash equivalents, prepaid expense and accounts payable, are shown at cost, which approximates fair value due to the short-term nature of these instruments.
The Company follows the provisions of FASB ASC Topic 820, Fair Value Measurement, for financial assets and liabilities measured on a recurring basis. The guidance requires fair value measurements be classified and disclosed in one of the following three categories:
Level 1:    Unadjusted quoted prices in active markets that are accessible at the measurement date for identical, unrestricted assets or liabilities.
Level 2:    Quoted prices in markets that are not active, or inputs which are observable, either directly or indirectly, for substantially the full term of the asset or liabilities.
Level 3:    Prices or valuation techniques that require inputs that are both significant to the fair value measurement and unobservable (i.e., supported by little or no market activity).
The following fair value hierarchy table presents information about the Company’s assets and liabilities measured at fair value on a recurring basis (amounts in thousands):
Fair value measurement at reporting date using
Quoted prices
in active markets for
identical assets
(Level 1)
Significant
other
observable inputs (Level 2)
Significant
unobservable inputs
(Level 3)
March 31, 2022
Liabilities
Note Purchase Agreement$ $ $74,800 
The reconciliation of the redemption feature measured at fair value on a recurring basis using significant unobservable inputs (Level 3) is as follows (amounts in thousands):
Contingent Value RightsNote Purchase Agreement
Balance at January 1, 2022
$37,700 $75,700 
Change in fair value1,980 (900)
Settlement(39,680) 
Balance at March 31, 2022
$ $74,800 
On February 18, 2022, the Company commenced dosing in its Phase 3 clinical trial evaluating lixivaptan as a potential treatment for Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (“ADPKD”). Such event was the milestone trigger for payment of contingent value rights originally issued to the former shareholders and option holders of the Company’s subsidiary, Palladio Biosciences, Inc., in connection with its acquisition by Centessa in January 2021. The contingent value rights entitled such holders to a number of ordinary shares of the Company (including in the form of ADSs) in an aggregate amount of approximately $39.7 million based on the Volume Weighted Average Price of the Company’s ADSs over the five day trading period ending on the date of the milestone trigger. The aggregate number of ordinary shares, issued as ADSs, in satisfaction of such contingent value rights, to the former shareholders and option holders of Palladio Biosciences, Inc was 3,938,423. The number of ADSs issued to employee recipients reflected in this figure is net of tax withholding, which the Company satisfied with cash payments to tax authorities. The ADSs were issued in exchange for the previously-issued contingent value rights of the Company. The Company recognized a remaining adjustment of fair value $2.0 million in its consolidated statement of operations and comprehensive loss in its first quarter of 2022.
15

Centessa Pharmaceuticals plc (Successor) and Centessa Predecessor Group (Predecessor)
Notes to the Unaudited Interim Consolidated and Combined Financial Statements
The fair value of the Note Purchase Agreement represents the present value of estimated future payments, including interest, principal as well as estimated payments that are contingent upon the achievement of specified milestones. The fair value of the notes is based on the cumulative probability of the various estimated payments. The fair value measurement is based on significant Level 3 unobservable inputs such as the probability of achieving the milestones, anticipated timelines, probability and timing of an early redemption of all obligations under the agreement and discount rate. Any changes in the fair value of the liability are recognized in the consolidated statement of operations and comprehensive loss until it is settled. For the three months ended March 31, 2022, the Company recorded a gain of $0.9 million for the estimated change in fair value of the Note Purchase Agreement, which was recorded in Other Income (Expense), net in the consolidated statement of operations and comprehensive loss.
4. Balance Sheet Components
Prepaid expenses and other current assets consist of the following (amounts in thousands):
Successor
March 31,
2022
December 31,
2021
Research and development costs$10,046 $11,224 
Insurance related costs2,421 4,661 
Value added tax receivable2,538 1,422 
Other1,120 993 
$16,125 $18,300 
Accrued expenses and other current liabilities consist of the following (amounts in thousands):
Successor
March 31,
2022
December 31,
2021
Research and development expenses$13,930 $9,323 
Personnel related expenses2,727 4,865 
Professional fees2,386 1,514 
Income tax liability769 769 
Other693 102 
$20,505 $16,573 
Property and equipment, net consisted of the following (amounts in thousands):
Successor
March 31,
2022
December 31,
2021
Computer equipment$371 $196 
Other65  
Property and equipment, at cost436 196 
Less: Accumulated depreciation(62)(34)
Property and equipment, net$374 $162 
5. Debt
In October 2021, the Company entered into a Note Purchase Agreement with Oberland Capital Management LLC (“Oberland Capital”). Under the terms of the Note Purchase Agreement, Oberland Capital will purchase up to $300.0 million of 6-year, interest-only, senior secured notes (the “Notes”) from the Company including $75.0 million, funded on October 4, 2021, $125.0 million available within 24 months at the Company’s option, and $100.0 million available to fund Mergers and Acquisitions (“M&A”), in-licensing, or other strategic transactions, at the option of the Company and Oberland Capital. In
16

Centessa Pharmaceuticals plc (Successor) and Centessa Predecessor Group (Predecessor)
Notes to the Unaudited Interim Consolidated and Combined Financial Statements
addition to interest payments on the principal, the Company is obligated to pay certain revenue participation payments, starting on the date of the first commercial sale of lixivaptan, currently a product candidate under development by the Company, and ending on the tenth anniversary of the First Purchase Date; and is obligated to pay a one-time milestone payment upon the Company’s first product to obtain regulatory approval.
The Notes will mature on the six-year anniversary of the First Purchase Date, unless earlier accelerated under the terms of the Note Purchase Agreement. At maturity, the Company must repay the outstanding principal amount of the Notes, together with any accrued and unpaid interest thereon and other outstanding obligations thereunder. Interest is payable quarterly during the term of the Notes at a rate per annum equal to the sum of (a) the greater of (i) LIBOR (which may be subject to replacement as contemplated by the Note Purchase Agreement) and (ii) 0.25% and (b) 7.75% (which percentage is subject to adjustment as described in the Note Purchase Agreement); provided that the interest rate shall never be less than 8.00%. The interest rate of the Notes during the first quarter of 2022 was 8.00% per annum.
On February 11, 2022, Centessa Pharmaceuticals plc, as issuer, and certain of the Company’s wholly owned subsidiaries, as guarantors (the “Guarantors”), entered into an Amendment to Note Purchase Agreement (the “Amendment”) with Three Peaks Capital Solutions Aggregator Fund (the “Purchaser”), and Cocoon SA LLC (the “Purchaser Agent”), an affiliate of Oberland Capital Management LLC, as agent for the Purchaser to modify the Note Purchase Agreement (the “Note Purchase Agreement”), dated as of October 1, 2021 by and among the Company, the Guarantors, the Purchaser and the Purchaser Agent.
Under the terms of the Amendment, the Company acknowledged the existence of certain Events of Default, including the delivery by the Company of a landlord consent after the required delivery date of October 31, 2021 and the entry by a subsidiary of the Company into a Research Collaboration and License Agreement without the prior consent of Purchaser Agent; as well as other non-financial, administrative-related defaults. Under the Note Purchase Agreement, Events of Default may entitle the lenders to default interest, penalties and the ability to terminate the facility and to accelerate repayment of any outstanding loans in full. Pursuant to the Amendment, the lenders agreed to waive such Events of Default.
Pursuant to the Amendment, the Purchaser and the Purchaser Agent have also agreed to waive the requirement to obtain the consent of a certain licensee and waive certain of the insurance requirements contained in the Note Purchase Agreement. The Amendment also provides that the Company is required to maintain a cash balance in an amount equal to 75% of the aggregate outstanding principal amount of all issued Notes, as defined in the Note Purchase Agreement, that have been issued on and from February 11, 2022. Also pursuant to the Amendment, the date for the Third Purchase Date, as defined in the Note Purchase Agreement, and the Commitment Termination Date were extended to December 31, 2023. The Amendment also provides that upon the sale of any of the Company’s or any of its subsidiary’s assets, if the Purchaser Agent elects to have the Company repurchase the notes, such repurchase amounts will be subject to a $100 million deductible such that the Purchaser Agent will not collect any repurchase amounts until $100 million has been received by the Company from such sale event. In addition, the reduced payment cap that is triggered by the Purchaser Agent opting into a repayment in the event of an asset sale, extends to the second loan tranche, if drawn. The effectiveness of the Amendment is subject to certain conditions precedent and conditions subsequent.
6. Commitments and Contingencies
Commitments
As of March 31, 2022, the Company had non-cancellable commitments for purchase of clinical materials, contract manufacturing, maintenance, and committed funding of up to $20.7 million, of which the Company expects to pay $19.4 million within one year and $1.3 million over one to five years. The amount and timing of these payments vary depending on the rate of progress of development. Future clinical trial expenses have not been included within the purchase commitments because they are contingent on enrollment in clinical trials and the activities required to be performed by the clinical sites.
On February 7, 2022, the Company entered into a 10-year office lease for its new corporate headquarters in Boston, Massachusetts, which required the issuance of a letter of credit of $0.7 million. The fixed annual rent will be approximately $1.6 million in 2023 and will escalate each subsequent year to approximately $1.9 million in Year 10. The Company expects to have a right of use of the office space later in 2022.
Licensing and Collaborative Arrangements
17

Centessa Pharmaceuticals plc (Successor) and Centessa Predecessor Group (Predecessor)
Notes to the Unaudited Interim Consolidated and Combined Financial Statements
As of March 31, 2022, the Company had no milestone obligations recorded on its balance sheet under its license and collaborative arrangements. Included in research and development expenses in the Company’s consolidated statement of operations and comprehensive loss for the three months ended March 31, 2022 was aggregate incurred expenses of $0.7 million, reflecting the amortization of upfront costs. The Company does not expect payments related to its licensing arrangements in 2022 to be material to the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
Contingencies
From time to time, the Company may have certain contingent liabilities that arise in the ordinary course of its business activities. The Company accrues a liability for such matters when it is probable that future expenditures will be made, and such expenditures can be reasonably estimated.
Litigation
The Company is not a party to any litigation as of March 31, 2022, that, if determined adversely, would have a material adverse effect on its business and operations.
7. Share-based Compensation
The Company and the Centessa Predecessor Group recorded share-based compensation expense in the following expense categories in the unaudited interim consolidated and combined statements of operations and comprehensive loss (amounts in thousands):
SuccessorPredecessor
Three Months Ended
March 31, 2022
Period from January 30, 2021 through
March 31, 2021
Period from January 1, 2021 through
January 29, 2021
Research and development$2,833 $1,117 $ 
General and administrative2,885 1,614  
$5,718 $2,731 $ 
Centessa Pharmaceuticals plc (Successor) Stock Options
The following table summarizes stock option activity for the three months ended March 31, 2022:
Number of SharesWeighted-Average Exercise Price Per ShareWeighted-Average Remaining Contractual Term
Balance at January 1, 202211,730,382 $8.07 9.2 years
Granted3,199,184 $9.51 
Exercised(59,541)$5.63 
Forfeited(156,356)$5.84 
Balance at March 31, 2022
14,713,669 $8.42 9.1 years
Exercisable at March 31, 2022
2,516,395 $6.14 8.6 years
Vested and expected to vest at March 31, 202214,713,669 
The weighted-average grant date fair value of options granted was $6.33 per share for the three months ended March 31, 2022. As of March 31, 2022, the total unrecognized compensation expense related to unvested stock option awards was $63.0 million, which the Company expects to recognize over a weighted-average period of 3.2 years.
18

Centessa Pharmaceuticals plc (Successor) and Centessa Predecessor Group (Predecessor)
Notes to the Unaudited Interim Consolidated and Combined Financial Statements
Based on the trading price of $8.97 per ADS, which is the closing price as of March 31, 2022, the aggregate intrinsic value of options as of March 31, 2022 was $23.7 million, of which $8.3 million is related to vested options.
During the three months ended March 31, 2022, the fair value of each option was estimated on the date of grant using the weighted average assumptions in the table below:
Expected term6.0 years
Expected stock price volatility75.8 %
Risk-free interest rate1.7 %
Expected dividend yield0 %
Restricted Share Awards
The following table summarizes ordinary share activity for the three months ended March 31, 2022:
Number of Shares
Unvested at January 1, 2022982,944 
Vested(35,776)
Unvested at March 31, 2022
947,168 
As of March 31, 2022, the total unrecognized compensation expense related to unvested ordinary shares was $13.4 million, which the Company expects to recognize over a weighted-average period of 3.2 years.

8. Related Party Transactions
Master Services agreements with drug discovery companies affiliated with David Grainger
Certain Centessa subsidiaries entered into Master Services agreements with certain drug discovery companies affiliated with David Grainger, who was appointed as the Company’s Chief Innovation Officer in October 2021. These companies include RxCelerate Limited, RxBiologics Limited and The Foundry (Cambridge) Limited, of which David Grainger is a director and shareholder. The Company and the Centessa Predecessor Group incurred research and development costs associated with these contracts as follows in the consolidated and combined statements of operations and comprehensive loss (amounts in thousands):
SuccessorPredecessor
Three Months Ended
March 31, 2022
Period from January 30, 2021 through
March 31, 2021
Period from January 1, 2021 through
January 29, 2021
Research and development$1,699 $1,126 $418 
19


Item 2. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
The following discussion and analysis should be read in conjunction with the unaudited interim consolidated and combined financial statements and related notes thereto, included elsewhere herein and the audited financial statements and notes thereto for the year ended December 31, 2021 and the related Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operation, all of which are contained in our Annual Report on Form 10-K (the “2021 Annual Report”) filed with the SEC. In addition to historical financial information, some of the information contained in the following discussion and analysis contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. All statements other than statements of historical facts, including statements regarding our future results of operations and financial position, business strategy, current and prospective products, product approvals, research and development costs, current and prospective collaborations, timing and likelihood of success, plans and objectives of management for future operations and future results of current and anticipated products, are forward-looking statements. These statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties, assumptions and other important factors that may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from any future results, performance or achievements expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements.
Overview and Format of Presentation
Centessa Pharmaceuticals plc was formed in October 2020 with the purpose of bringing impactful new medicines to patients by combining the primary strengths of the asset-centric venture capital model with the benefits of diversification and scale typically attributed to traditional large R&D organizations. Medicxi formed Centessa with a view to ultimately acquiring several pre-revenue, development stage biotech companies, each of which was either controlled by and/or invested in by a fund affiliated with Medicxi or Index Ventures. On January 29, 2021, we acquired 11 biotechnology companies as direct subsidiaries (together referred to as the “Centessa Subsidiaries”) and simultaneously closed a Series A funding round of $250 million. Prior to the acquisition, our activities were limited mainly to engaging advisors and recruitment efforts. We commenced active operations after the consummation of the acquisitions.
In June 2021, we completed an initial public offering (“IPO”) of the ordinary shares through the sale and issuance of 16,500,000 American Depositary Shares (“ADSs”), at an initial price of $20.00 per ADS. Each ADS represents one ordinary share with a nominal value of £0.002 per ordinary share. Following the close of the IPO, the underwriters fully exercised their option to purchase an additional 2,475,000 ADSs at the initial public offering price of $20.00 per ADS.
We operate as a clinical-stage pharmaceutical company with a Research & Development (“R&D”) innovation engine that aims to discover, develop and ultimately deliver impactful medicines to patients. Our model seeks to minimize infrastructure investment and fixed costs by incorporating extensive outsourced resources into our research and development model to optimize deployment of funds for discovery and development. We are led by a management team with extensive R&D experience from leading biotech and pharmaceutical companies. Our management team provides direct guidance to rapidly advance our programs from research through all stages of development through the integrated one-team structure of our operating model. The management team is also responsible for judicious capital and resource allocation decisions for discovery and development efforts across the portfolio and aims to expeditiously evaluate and potentially terminate programs when the data do not support advancing a program.
Our programs span discovery-stage to late-stage development and cover a range of high-value indications in rare diseases and immuno-oncology. Our management team continuously evaluates our asset portfolio. We currently have two programs which have established clinical proof of concept, with registrational trials ongoing for lixivaptan in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (“ADPKD”) and registrational trials planned for SerpinPC in Hemophilia B (“HB”) this year; four emerging programs with clinical proof of concept anticipated in the next 18 months with LB101 in solid tumors, ZF874 in Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency (“AATD”), MGX292 in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (“PAH”), and orexin agonists in Narcolepsy; and several exploratory programs including CBS001 in inflammatory / fibrotic diseases and CBS004 in autoimmune conditions. We aim to pursue programs we believe could be first-in-class / best-in-class in areas of significant unmet need. Where appropriate, we are also pursuing opportunities for agile, lean and potentially rapid development, including orphan drug designation, fast track designation, and other regulatory and developmental avenues. Based on our internal epidemiological-based market models, we believe each of our current programs, if approved, has the potential to compete in multi-billion dollar markets.
Pipeline

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The pipeline chart below represents our current programs, including each program’s disease area, mechanism of action, next milestone, and stage of development. In March, we announced our ‘4x24’ goal with the aim of having four registrational programs in 2024.
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Recent Highlights and Program Updates
Leadership Team
In March 2022, we further strengthened our leadership team with the promotion of Antoine Yver, MD, MSc, to Executive Vice President and Chairman of Development and the appointment of Javad Shahidi, MD, MSc, as our Chief Medical Officer. Dr. Shahidi joined from Daiichi Sankyo, Inc., where he was Vice President, Clinical Development and led the development of ENHERTU®. In addition, we appointed Josh Hamermesh, MBA, as Senior Vice President, Business Development. Prior to joining Centessa, he served as Chief Business Officer at Gamida Cell, Ltd. and Senior Vice President at Locust Walk Partners.
Lixivaptan:
In February 2022, the Company commenced dosing in its global, registrational Phase 3 clinical trial (“ACTION Study”) designed to evaluate the benefit and safety of lixivaptan subjects with ADPKD. Such event was the milestone trigger for payment of contingent value rights originally issued to the former shareholders and option holders of the Company’s subsidiary, Palladio Biosciences, Inc. (“Palladio”), in connection with its acquisition by Centessa in January 2021. The contingent value rights entitled such holders to a number of ordinary shares of the Company (including in the form of ADSs) in an aggregate amount of approximately $39.7 million based on the Volume Weighted Average Price of the Company’s ADSs over the five day trading period ending on the date of the milestone trigger. The aggregate number of ordinary shares, issued as ADSs, in satisfaction of such contingent value rights, to the former shareholders and option holders of Palladio was 3,938,423. The number of ADSs issued to employee recipients reflected in this figure is net of tax withholding, which the Company satisfied with cash payments to tax authorities.
On February 8, 2022, the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office issued a patent to Palladio entitled “Formulations of Lixivaptan for the Treatment of Polycystic Disease,” which has claims drawn to using a divided dose regimen of lixivaptan in treating ADPKD. The patent term expires June 8, 2038, before consideration of any applicable patent term extensions or adjustments.
Prior to the Russia-Ukraine war, we had planned to utilize clinical trial sites in Russia, Ukraine and Belarus as part of the ACTION Study. We have now determined not to proceed with clinical sites in these countries and are in the process of identifying alternative sites to replace the sites previously identified in Russia, Ukraine and Belarus. We have not yet determined the potential impact, if any, of these planned site changes on our enrollment timelines, and for now still anticipate completing enrollment in the second half of 2023.
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SerpinPC:
In February 2022, the Company completed pre-IND interactions with the FDA. The FDA considered these to be very consistent with an end of Phase 2 meeting, and based on the FDA feedback, we are proceeding with a streamlined, integrated registrational development plan for SerpinPC in HB with fewer than 200 total subjects. If results based on this plan are positive, we intend to seek marketing approval in adults and adolescents with HB, with and without inhibitors, as the initial indication. As we are preparing to enter registrational trials sooner than previously anticipated, we are working with the FDA on our plans to accelerate product process development and qualification activities.
CBS001:
The Company recently commenced dosing CBS001, a high affinity anti-LIGHT monoclonal antibody, in a Phase 1 study. The Phase 1 study is a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study to evaluate the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and immunogenicity of single- and multiple-ascending doses of intravenously administered CBS001 in healthy volunteers.
Previously Disclosed Discontinued or Deprioritized Programs:
In our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021, we announced our plans to discontinue the small molecule epidermal growth factor receptor (“EGFR”) Exon20 insertion mutation inhibitor program and C797S mutation inhibitor program for the treatment of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (“NSCLC”), the two programs being advanced by PearlRiver Bio; discontinue internal funding for the lead dual-STAT3/5 degrader program in Acute Myeloid Leukemia (“AML”) being developed by our subsidiary Janpix Limited; and evaluate strategic options including potential divestment for imgatuzumab, an anti-EGFR mAb. We have also progressed in winding down the operations of PearlRiver Bio. Additionally, we have decided to discontinue all Janpix Limited programs, and are taking steps to wind down these operations. We continue to evaluate strategic options for imgatuzumab.
2022 Program Milestones
LB101 in Solid Tumors: LB101 is a PD-L1xCD47 LockBody® for the treatment of solid tumors. Preclinical data will be presented in a poster at ASCO 2022 evaluating the activity and tolerability of LB101 monotherapy in a hPD-L1+ syngeneic model in mice, in comparison with atezolizumab. We plan to submit an IND for LB101 in late 2022.
ZF874 in AATD: ZF874 is a small molecule pharmacological chaperone folding corrector of the Z variant of alpha-1-antitrypsin for the treatment of AATD. We expect to share data from the ongoing Phase 1 study in the second half of 2022. This interim data will include multiple dose cohorts with PiMZ and PiZZ subjects.
SerpinPC in Hemophilia: SerpinPC is an activated protein C inhibitor for the treatment of Hemophilia A and Hemophilia B. We expect to initiate HB registrational studies in the second half of 2022. We also expect to report data from the 48-week flat dose OLE study and interim results from the following 24 week high-dose OLE study in the fourth quarter of 2022.
CBS004 in Systemic Sclerosis, Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Other Autoimmune Diseases: CBS004 is a humanized mAb specific to BDCA2 for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. An IND is planned for late 2022.
COVID-19 Update
The Company is continuing to proactively monitor the ongoing COVID-19 global pandemic, including the mutating omicron variants, to assess the potential impact on our business, and to seek to avoid any unnecessary potential delays to our programs. At this time, the clinical programs and research activities remain largely on track, with some modest delays in clinical trial enrollment rates and supply chain activities for investigational clinical trial material. While we are unable to fully quantify the potential effects of this pandemic on our future operations, including any further delays to our preclinical and clinical programs, management continues to evaluate and to seek to mitigate risks. The safety and well-being of employees, patients and partners remains our highest priority.
Liquidity and Capital Resources
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As of March 31, 2022, we had cash and cash equivalents of $544.5 million. Since inception, Centessa has devoted substantially all of its resources to acquiring and developing product and technology rights, conducting research and development in its discovery and enabling stages, in its clinical and preclinical trials and raising capital. The Company has incurred recurring losses and negative cash flows from operations since inception and has funded operations primarily through the sale and issuance of its common stock and convertible preferred stock. The ability to generate product revenue sufficient to achieve profitability will depend heavily on the successful development and eventual commercialization of current or future product candidates. The Company expects to continue to incur significant expenses and increasing operating losses for the foreseeable future in connection with ongoing development activities related to the portfolio of programs as Centessa Subsidiaries advance the preclinical and clinical development of product candidates; perform research activities as Centessa seeks to discover and develop additional programs and product candidates; carry out maintenance, expansion enforcement, defense, and protection of its intellectual property portfolio; and hires additional research and development, clinical and commercial personnel. Further, inflation may affect our use of capital resources by increasing our cost of labor, research and clinical trial expenses. Based on continued refinement of our operating model and development plans, the Company expects the cash and cash equivalents as of March 31, 2022 of $544.5 million, to fund its operations to mid-2024 without drawing on the remaining available tranches under the Note Purchase Agreement with Oberland Capital (as defined below).
Components of Results of Operations
Subsequent to the contribution of the Centessa Subsidiaries to Centessa, the financial activities of Centessa and all Centessa Subsidiaries are being presented on a consolidated basis and are denoted as “Successor” within management’s discussion and analysis of the financial statements. The historical financial condition and results of operations for the periods presented may not be comparable due to the difference in basis of accounting for the Centessa Predecessor Group and Centessa Pharmaceuticals plc (previously Centessa Pharmaceuticals Limited). Prior to the acquisition of the Centessa Subsidiaries on January 29, 2021, the Centessa Predecessor Group consisted of three of the acquired companies (Z Factor Limited, LockBody Therapeutics Ltd and Morphogen-IX Limited). Following the acquisition of the Centessa Subsidiaries, Centessa Pharmaceuticals plc consisted of 20 legal entities, inclusive of the parent company and all indirect subsidiaries.
Revenues
The Company has not generated any revenue. The ability to generate product revenue and to become profitable will depend upon the ability to successfully develop, obtain regulatory approval and commercialize any current and future product candidates. Because of the numerous risks and uncertainties associated with product development and regulatory approval, the Company (Successor) is unable to predict the amount or timing of product revenue.
Research and Development Expense
Research and development expenses consist primarily of costs incurred in connection with the discovery and development of the Company’s clinical and preclinical programs, net of reimbursements. Research and development costs are expensed as incurred. These expenses include:
expenses incurred to conduct the necessary preclinical studies and clinical trials required to obtain regulatory approval;
milestone payments pursuant to the license agreements;
personnel expenses, including salaries, benefits and share-based compensation expense for employees engaged in research and development functions;
costs of funding research performed by third parties, including pursuant to agreements with contract research organizations ("CROs"), as well as investigative sites and consultants that conduct preclinical studies and clinical trials;
expenses incurred under agreements with contract manufacturing organizations ("CMOs"), including manufacturing scale-up expenses and the cost of acquiring and manufacturing preclinical study and clinical trial materials;
fees paid to consultants who assist with research and development activities;
expenses related to regulatory activities, including filing fees paid to regulatory agencies; and
allocated expenses for facility costs, including rent, utilities, depreciation and maintenance.
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Research and development activities are central to the Company’s business model. Product candidates in later stages of clinical development will generally have higher development costs than those in earlier stages of clinical development, primarily due to the increased size and duration of later-stage clinical trials. The Company expects research and development expenses to increase significantly over the next several years due to increases in personnel costs, including share-based compensation, increases in costs to conduct clinical trials for current product candidates and other clinical trials for future product candidates and prepare regulatory filings for any product candidates.
The successful development of the Company’s current or future product candidates is highly uncertain. At this time, the Company cannot reasonably estimate or know the nature, timing and costs of the efforts that will be necessary to complete the remainder of the development of current or future product candidates, or when, if ever, material net cash inflows may commence from product candidates. This uncertainty is due to the numerous risks and uncertainties associated with the duration and cost of clinical trials, which vary significantly over the life of a project as a result of many factors, including:
delays in regulators or institutional review boards authorizing the Company or its investigators to commence our clinical trials, or in the Company’s ability to negotiate agreements with clinical trial sites or CROs;
the ability to secure adequate supply of product candidates for trials;
the number of clinical sites included in the trials;
the ability and the length of time required to enroll suitable patients;
the number of patients that ultimately participate in the trials;
the number of doses patients receive;
any side effects associated with product candidates;
the duration of patient follow-up;
the results of clinical trials;
significant and changing government regulations; and
launching commercial sales of product candidates, if and when approved, whether alone or in collaboration with others.

The Company’s expenditures are subject to additional uncertainties, including the terms and timing of regulatory approvals. The Company may never succeed in achieving regulatory approval for their product candidates.

The Company may obtain unexpected results from clinical trials and may elect to discontinue, delay or modify clinical trials of product candidates. A change in the outcome of any of these variables with respect to the development of a product candidate could mean a significant change in the costs and timing associated with the development of that product candidate. For example, if the European Medicines Agency ("EMA"), FDA or other comparable regulatory authorities were to require the Company to conduct clinical trials beyond those that are currently anticipated, or if the Company experiences significant delays in enrollment in any clinical trials, the Company could be required to expend significant additional financial resources and time on the completion of clinical development. Product commercialization will take several years, and the Company expects to spend a significant amount in development costs.
Research and Development Tax Incentives
The Company participates in research tax incentive programs that are granted to companies by the United Kingdom and certain European tax authorities in order to encourage them to conduct technical and scientific research. Expenditures that meet the required criteria are eligible to receive a tax credit that is reimbursed in cash. Estimates of the amount of the cash refund expected to be received are determined at each reporting period and recorded as reductions to research and development expenses. We may not be able to continue to claim the most beneficial payable research and development tax credits in the future if we cease to qualify as a small or medium enterprise, based on size criteria concerning employee headcount, turnover and gross assets.
General and Administrative Expense
General and administrative expense consists primarily of personnel expenses, including salaries and benefits for employees in certain executive functions and share-based compensation. General and administrative expense also includes facility costs, including rent, utilities, depreciation and maintenance, not otherwise included in research and development
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expense, as well as legal fees related to intellectual property and corporate matters and fees for accounting and consulting services.
Change in Fair Value of Contingent Value Rights
On February 18, 2022, the Company commenced dosing in its Phase 3 clinical trial evaluating lixivaptan as a potential treatment for ADPKD. Such event was the milestone trigger for payment of contingent value rights originally issued to the former shareholders and option holders of Palladio, in connection with its acquisition by Centessa in January 2021. The contingent value rights entitled such holders to a number of ordinary shares of the Company (including in the form of ADSs) in an aggregate amount of approximately $39.7 million based on the Volume Weighted Average Price of the Company’s ADSs over the five day trading period ending on the date of the milestone trigger. The aggregate number of ordinary shares, issued as ADSs, in satisfaction of such contingent value rights, to the former shareholders and option holders of Palladio was 3,938,423. The number of ADSs issued to employee recipients reflected in this figure is net of tax withholding, which the Company satisfied with cash payments to tax authorities. The ADSs were issued in exchange for the previously-issued contingent value rights of the Company. The Company recognized the remaining $2.0 million adjustment of fair value in its consolidated statement of operations and comprehensive loss in its first quarter of 2022.
Interest (Expense) Income, net
Interest (expense) income primarily consists of interest costs related to the Note Purchase Agreement and interest costs related to Centessa Predecessor’s convertible term notes, partially offset by interest income earned from the Company’s cash and cash equivalents.

Other (Expense) Income, net
Other (expense) income, net consists primarily of foreign currency transaction gains and losses, franchise tax expense as well as the change in fair value of the Note Purchase Agreement.
Foreign Currency Translation
The Company’s financial statements are presented in U.S. dollars ("USD"), the reporting currency of the Company. The functional currency of the Centessa Pharmaceuticals plc is USD and the functional currency of the Centessa Subsidiaries is their respective local currency. Income and expenses have been translated into USD at average exchange rates prevailing during the period. Assets and liabilities have been translated at the rates of exchange on the balance sheets dates and equity accounts at their respective historical rates. The resulting translation gain and loss adjustments are recorded directly as a separate component of shareholders’ equity as other comprehensive income (loss). Transactions denominated in a currency other than the functional currency are remeasured based upon the exchange rate at the date of remeasurement with the resulting gain or loss included in the accompanying unaudited interim consolidated and combined statements of operations and comprehensive loss within Other income (expense), net.
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Results of Operations
Company (Successor) and Predecessor Group
The following table sets forth the Company (Successor) results of operations for the three months ended March 31, 2022 and for the period from January 30, 2021 through March 31, 2021 as well as the Predecessor Group for the period January 1, 2021 through January 29, 2021 (amounts in thousands):
SuccessorPredecessor
Three Months Ended
March 31, 2022
Period from January 30, 2021 through
March 31, 2021
Period from January 1, 2021 through
January 29, 2021
Operating expenses:
Research and development$36,853 $10,142 $662 
General and administrative14,385 5,595 121 
Change in fair value of contingent value rights1,980 — — 
Acquired in-process research and development— 220,454 — 
Loss from operations(53,218)(236,191)(783)
Interest (expense) income, net(1,396)(9)
Amortization of debt discount— — (37)
Other income (expense), net196 (2,508)— 
Loss before income taxes(54,418)(238,691)(829)
Income taxes80 — — 
Net loss$(54,498)$(238,691)$(829)
Research and Development Expenses
We categorize our current programs as registrational, emerging, or exploratory. Our R&D spend is commensurate with these three stages, with the highest spend on the programs that have already established clinical proof of concept. For programs in the earlier stages, we aim to implement capital-efficient plans to reach the next set of catalysts, gating more significant spending until after we obtain clinical proof of concept.
Direct research and development costs are tracked on a program-by-program basis and consist primarily of external costs, such as fees paid to consultants, contractors, CMOs and CROs in connection with preclinical and clinical development activities. License fees and other costs incurred after a product candidate has been designated and that are directly related to the
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product candidate are included in direct research and development expenses for that program. License fees and other costs incurred prior to designating a product candidate are included in early stage research programs.
The following table summarizes research and development expenses by program incurred for the following periods (amounts in thousands):
SuccessorPredecessor
Three Months Ended
March 31, 2022
Period from January 30, 2021 through
March 31, 2021
Period from January 1, 2021 through
January 29, 2021
Registrational
Lixivaptan (Palladio)$8,457 $509 $— 
SerpinPC (ApcinteX)3,869 426 — 
Emerging
OX2R (Orexia)4,923 2,070 — 
ZF874 (Z Factor)2,676 1,074 323 
LB101/LB201 (LockBody)2,610 648 241 
MGX292 (Morphogen-IX)2,585 1,242 187 
Exploratory
CBS001/CBS004 (Capella)2,797 565 — 
Other deprioritized programs
Imgatuzumab (Pega-One)1,355 154 — 
Dual-STAT3/5 (Janpix)2,447 652 — 
EGFR Exon20/C797S (PearlRiver)407 285 — 
Non-program specific costs:
Personnel expenses10,073 4,173 98 
Research tax incentives(5,694)(1,919)(222)
Other preclinical and clinical development expenses348 263 35 
$36,853 $10,142 $662 
Research and development expenses for the Company (Successor) for the three months ended March 31, 2022 were $36.9 million, compared to $10.1 million for the period from January 30, 2021 through March 31, 2021 and $0.7 million for the Centessa Predecessor Group the period of January 1, 2021 through January 29, 2021. The increase primarily reflected higher development costs for Lixivaptan ($8.0 million), which began a Phase III registrational trial in the first quarter of 2022; increased personnel costs ($5.9 million), higher development costs for SerpinPC ($3.5 million); as well as growth in the portfolio of product candidates under development following the acquisition of the Centessa Subsidiaries in January 2021; partially offset by higher research tax incentives in 2022. The increase in personnel related expenses includes an increase in headcount and higher share-based compensation expense of $1.7 million, which is primarily attributable to the equity awards issued at the time of the acquisition and the subsequent issuances of awards through March 31, 2022.

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General and Administrative Expense
The following table summarizes the general and administrative expenses for the following periods (amounts in thousands):

SuccessorPredecessor
Three Months Ended
March 31, 2022
Period from January 30, 2021 through
March 31, 2021
Period from January 1, 2021 through
January 29, 2021
Personnel expenses$6,498 $2,851 $— 
Legal and professional fees3,351 2,289 117 
Other expenses4,228 417 
Facilities and supplies308 38 — 
$14,385 $5,595 $121 
General and administrative expenses for the Company (Successor) for the three months ended March 31, 2022 was $14.4 million, compared to $5.6 million for the period from January 30, 2021 through March 31, 2021 and $0.1 million for the Centessa Predecessor Group for the period January 1, 2021 through January 29, 2021. The increase is primarily attributable to higher public company costs as well as higher personnel costs. The increase in personnel related expenses includes an increase in headcount and higher share-based compensation expense of $1.3 million which is primarily attributable to the equity awards issued at the time of the acquisition and the subsequent issuances of awards through March 31, 2022.
Interest (Expense) Income, net
Interest (expense) income, net for the Company for the three months ended March 31, 2022 was $(1.4) million and is primarily attributable to interest expense from the issuance of the Note Purchase Agreement in October 2021, partially offset by interest earned on cash balances.
Other Income (Expense), net
Other income (expense), net for the Company (Successor) for the three months ended March 31, 2022 was $0.2 million, primarily reflecting a $0.9 million gain related to remeasuring the Note Purchase agreement at fair value at March 31, 2022, partially offset by foreign currency transaction losses. Other (expense) income, net for the Company during the period from January 30, 2021 through March 31, 2021 was $(2.5) million, largely reflecting foreign currency transaction losses.
Liquidity and Capital Resources
Sources of Liquidity
As of March 31, 2022, the Company had cash and cash equivalents of $544.5 million. Concurrent with the acquisition of the Centessa Subsidiaries by the Company (Successor) in January 2021, the Company (Successor) completed a $250.0 million Series A convertible preferred financing that was comprised of $245.0 million in proceeds and the $5.0 million conversion of a convertible debt instrument. In June 2021, the Company (Successor) completed its IPO and shortly after the close of the IPO, the underwriters exercised their option in full to purchase an additional 2,475,000 ADSs at the initial public offering price of $20.00 per ADS. The Company (Successor) received aggregate net proceeds of $344.1 million, which includes the full exercise of the underwriters’ option.
In October 2021, the Company entered into a financing agreement with funds managed by Oberland Capital, which provides the Company additional funds to further scale up our development activities and to enhance balance sheet flexibility for potential pipeline extension. Under the terms of the agreement, Oberland Capital will purchase up to $300.0 million of 6-year, interest-only (initial interest rate is 8.0% per annum), senior secured notes from us including $75.0 million, funded on October 4, 2021, $125.0 million available in tranches of $75 million and $50 million within 24 months at the Company's option, and $100.0 million available to fund M&A, in-licensing, or other strategic transactions, at the option of the Company and Oberland Capital.
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The Company (Successor) has no ongoing material financing commitments, such as lines of credit or guarantees, that are expected to affect liquidity over the next five years. The maturity date of the Oberland Capital Notes is October 4, 2027.
Cash Flows
Company (Successor) and Centessa Predecessor Group
The following table shows a summary of cash flows for the periods indicated (amounts in thousands):
SuccessorPredecessor
Three Months Ended
March 31, 2022
Period from January 30, 2021 through
March 31, 2021
Period from January 1, 2021 through
January 29, 2021
Net cash (used in) provided by:
Operating activities$(50,017)$(11,635)$(1,049)
Investing activities(240)63,517 — 
Financing activities74 241,889 — 
Exchange rate effect on cash and cash equivalents(434)(124)80 
Net increase (decrease) in cash and cash equivalents$(50,617)$293,647 $(969)
Operating Activities
During the three months ended March 31, 2022, the Company (Successor) used $50.0 million of net cash in operating activities. Cash used in operating activities reflected a net loss of $54.5 million, offset by noncash net charges of $6.8 million for share-based compensation, depreciation expense and changes in the fair value of debt and the contingent value rights. Additionally, there was a $(2.3) million net change in operating assets and liabilities.
During the period from January 30, 2021 through March 31, 2021, the Company (Successor) used $11.6 million of net cash in operating activities. Cash used in operating activities reflected a net loss of $238.7 million, which included noncash charges of $2.7 million reflecting a $220.5 million non-cash charge for acquired in-process research and development in connection with the acquisition of the Centessa Subsidiaries and a non-cash share-based compensation expense of $2.7 million. For the period, there was a $3.9 million net change in operating assets and liabilities. During the period from January 1, 2021 through January 29, 2021, the Predecessor Group used $1.0 million of net cash in operating activities. Cash used in operating activities reflected the net loss of $0.8 million and $(0.2) million net change in operating assets and liabilities.
Investing Activities
During the three months ended March 31, 2022, net cash used in investing activities for the Company (Successor) was $(0.2) million, largely reflecting the purchase of property and equipment. During the period from January 30, 2021 through March 31, 2021, net cash provided by investing activities for the Company (Successor) was $63.5 million and was primarily attributable to $68.0 million of cash acquired in connection with the acquisition of the Centessa Subsidiaries, partially offset by the related $4.5 million of transaction costs paid during the period. There were no investing activities for the Group during the period from January 1, 2021 through January 29, 2021.
Financing Activities
During the three months ended March 31, 2022 financing activities for the Company (Successor) provided $0.1 million in net cash, as cash received from the exercise of stock options were partially offset by the payment of debt issuance costs. During the period from January 30, 2021 through March 31, 2021, financing activities for the Company (Successor) provided $241.9 million net proceeds reflecting the sale of the Company (Successor)’s Series A preferred shares in January 2021 as well as proceeds from the exercise of stock options. There were no financing activities for the Group for the period from January 1, 2021 through January 29, 2021.
Funding Requirements
Following the acquisition of the Centessa Subsidiaries in January 2021, the Company (Successor) expects expenses to increase in connection with ongoing activities, particularly as the Company (Successor) continues the research and development of, continues or initiates clinical trials of, and seeks marketing approval for any current and future product candidates. In
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addition, if marketing approval is obtained for any product candidates, the Company (Successor) expects to incur significant commercialization expenses related to product sales, marketing, manufacturing and distribution. Furthermore, following the completion of our IPO, additional costs associated with operating as a public company are expected. In addition, inflation may affect our use of capital resources by increasing our cost of labor, research and clinical trial expenses. Accordingly, there will be a need to obtain substantial additional funding in connection with the continuing operations. For the foreseeable future, the Centessa Subsidiaries expect the significant majority of their funding to come from the Company (Successor). If the Company (Successor) is unable to raise capital when needed or on attractive terms, it would be forced to delay, reduce or eliminate research and development programs or future commercialization efforts.
The Company (Successor) anticipates that its expenses will increase substantially as it:
seeks to discover and develop current and future clinical and preclinical product candidates;
scales up clinical and regulatory capabilities;
adapts regulatory compliance efforts to incorporate requirements applicable to marketed products;
establishes a sales, marketing and distribution infrastructure and scale up external manufacturing capabilities to commercialize any product candidates for which regulatory approval may be obtained;
maintains, expands and protects the intellectual property portfolio;
hires additional internal or external clinical, manufacturing and scientific personnel or consultants;
adds operational, financial and management information systems and personnel, including personnel to support product development efforts; and
incurs additional legal, accounting and other expenses in operating as a public company.
Because of the numerous risks and uncertainties associated research, development and commercialization of product candidates, the Company (Successor) is unable to estimate the exact amount of its working capital requirements. Future funding requirements will depend on and could increase significantly as a result of many factors, including:
the scope, progress, results and costs of preclinical studies and clinical trials;
the scope, prioritization and number of research and development programs;
the costs, timing and outcome of regulatory review of product candidates;
the ability to establish and maintain collaborations on favorable terms, if at all;
the extent to which obligations to reimburse exist, or entitled to reimbursement of, clinical trial costs under collaboration agreements, if any;
the costs of preparing, filing and prosecuting patent applications, maintaining and enforcing intellectual property rights and defending intellectual property-related claims;
the costs of securing manufacturing arrangements for commercial production; and
the costs of establishing or contracting for sales and marketing capabilities if regulatory approvals are obtained to market product candidates.
Identifying potential product candidates and conducting preclinical studies and clinical trials is a time- consuming, expensive and uncertain process that takes many years to complete, and may never generate the necessary data or results required to obtain marketing approval and achieve product sales. In addition, product candidates, if approved, may not achieve commercial success. Commercial revenues, if any, will be derived from sales of product candidates that do not expect to be commercially available for the next couple of years, if at all. Accordingly, the need to continue to rely on additional financing to achieve our business objectives will exist. Adequate additional financing may not be available on acceptable terms, or at all.
Critical Accounting Policies
Management’s discussion and analysis of its financial condition and results of operations is based on the unaudited interim consolidated and combined financial statements of the Company (Successor) and Centessa Predecessor Group which have been prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles. The preparation of these financial statements requires estimates and judgments be made that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, and expenses and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities in the combined financial statements. On an ongoing basis, an evaluation of estimates and judgments are required, including those related to share-based compensation, the note purchase agreement, and
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accrued expenses. Estimates are based on historical experience, known trends and events, and various other factors that are believed to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions.
While the significant accounting policies are described in more detail in Note 2 to the Company (Successor)’s and the Group’s unaudited interim consolidated financial statements, the following accounting policies are the most critical to the judgments and estimates used in the preparation of the unaudited interim consolidated financial statements.
Research and Development Accruals
Research and development expenses consist primarily of costs incurred in connection with the development of product candidates. Research and development costs are expensed as incurred.
Expenses for preclinical studies and clinical trial activities performed by third parties are accrued based upon estimates of the proportion of work completed over the term of the individual trial and patient enrollment rates in accordance with agreements with CROs and clinical trial sites. Estimates are determined by reviewing external service providers as to the progress or stage of completion of trials or services and the agreed-upon fee to be paid for such services. However, actual costs and timing of clinical trials are highly uncertain, subject to risks and may change depending upon a number of factors, including the clinical development plan.
Estimates of accrued expenses are made as of each balance sheet date in the financial statements based on facts and circumstances known at that time. If the actual timing of the performance of services or the level of effort varies from the estimate, an adjustment to the accrual will be made accordingly. Nonrefundable advance payments for goods and services, including fees for process development or manufacturing and distribution of clinical supplies that will be used in future research and development activities, are recognized as expense in the period that the related goods are consumed or services are performed.
Milestone payments within the Company (Successor)’s licensing arrangements are recognized when achievement of the milestone is deemed probable to occur. To the extent products are commercialized and future economic benefit has been established, commercial milestones that become probable are capitalized and amortized over the estimated remaining useful life of the intellectual property. In addition, royalty expenses are accrued and sublicense non-royalty payments, as applicable, for the amount it is obligated to pay, with adjustments as sales are made.
Note Purchase Agreement
In October 2021, the Company entered into a Note Purchase Agreement with Oberland Capital Management LLC (“Oberland Capital”). Under the terms of the agreement, as amended, Oberland Capital will purchase up to $300.0 million of 6-year, interest-only (initial interest rate is 8.0% per annum), senior secured notes (the “Notes”) from the Company including $75.0 million, funded on October 4, 2021, $125.0 million available within 24 months at the Company’s option, and $100.0 million available to fund Mergers and Acquisitions (“M&A”), in-licensing, or other strategic transactions, at the option of the Company and Oberland Capital. In addition to interest payments on the principal, the Company is obligated to pay certain Revenue Participation payments, starting on the date of the first commercial sale of lixivaptan, currently a product candidate under development by the Company, and ending on the tenth anniversary of the First Purchase Date; as well as obligated to pay a Milestone payment equal to 30% of the aggregate principal amount issued under the Notes by the Company upon regulatory approval of any drug candidate.

The Company evaluated the notes and determined that the notes include embedded derivatives that would otherwise require bifurcation as derivative liabilities. Neither the debt instrument nor any embedded features are required to be classified as equity. Therefore, the hybrid financial instrument comprised of the debt host and the embedded derivative liability may be accounted for under the fair value option. The Company elected to carry the Notes at fair value, and the debt instrument is outside the scope of ASC 480, Distinguishing Liabilities from Equity, and thus will be classified as a liability under ASC 470, Debt, in the Company’s financial statements. As the Company has elected to account for the Notes under the fair value option, debt issuance costs were immediately expensed.
The fair value of the Note Purchase Agreement represents the present value of estimated future payments, including interest, principal as well as estimated payments that are contingent upon the achievement of specified milestones. The fair value of the notes is based on the cumulative probability of the various estimated payments. The fair value measurement is based on significant Level 3 unobservable inputs such as the probability of achieving the milestones, anticipated timelines,
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probability and timing of an early redemption of all obligations under the agreement and discount rate. Any changes in the fair value of the liability are recognized in the consolidated statement of operations and comprehensive loss until it is settled.
Share-Based Compensation
The Company (Successor) and the Predecessor measure share-based awards at their grant-date fair value and record compensation expense on a straight-line basis over the vesting period of the awards. Following the completion of our IPO, the fair value of our ordinary shares was determined based on the quoted market price of our ADSs representing our ordinary shares. The Company (Successor) and the Predecessor Group account for forfeitures of stock option awards as they occur.
The Company uses the Black-Scholes option pricing model to value its stock option awards. The expected life of the stock options is estimated using the “simplified method,” as the Company has limited historical information from which to develop reasonable expectations about future exercise patterns and post-vesting employment termination behavior for its stock option grants. The simplified method is the midpoint between the vesting period and the contractual term of the option. For share price volatility, the Company uses comparable public companies as a basis for its expected volatility to calculate the fair value of option grants. The risk-free rate is based on the U.S. Treasury yield curve commensurate with the expected life of the option. Forfeitures of stock options are recognized in the period the forfeiture occurs.
Contractual Obligations and Other Commitments
As of March 31, 2022, other than what has been disclosed in Note 6 – Commitment and contingencies, we had no material contractual obligations and other commitments associated with contracts that are enforceable and legally binding and that specify all significant terms, including fixed or minimum services to be used, fixed, minimum or variable price provisions, and the approximate timing of the actions under the contracts.
Item 3. Qualitative and Quantitative Disclosures About Market Risk
We are and will be exposed to a variety of market risks, which include the following:
Interest rate risk
Interest-earning assets consist of cash and cash equivalents. Interest income earned on these assets was $0.1 million for the three months ended March 31, 2022. A hypothetical 10% change in market interest rates would not have a material impact on our financial statements.

We also have interest rate exposure as a result of the Oberland Facility. As of March 31, 2022, we had $75 million in debt principal outstanding under the Oberland Facility. Interest on this debt is payable quarterly during the term of the Notes at a rate per annum equal to the sum of (a) the greater of (i) LIBOR (which may be subject to replacement as contemplated by the Note Purchase Agreement) and (ii) 0.25% and (b) 7.75% (which percentage is subject to adjustment as described in the Note Purchase Agreement); provided that the interest rate shall never be less than 8.00%. The interest rate for the Notes was 8.00% per annum in the first quarter of 2022. Changes in the LIBOR rate (or its replacement) may therefore affect our interest expense associated with the loans. An increase of 100 basis points from the initial interest rate would increase expense by approximately $750k annually based on the amounts currently outstanding and would not materially affect our results of operations.
Other Market risks
The Company is also subject to both foreign currency risk and inflation risk, which could result in higher costs for its research and development efforts. Foreign currency exposures arise from transactions denominated in a currency other than our functional currency, US dollars. Approximately 48% of our cash-based costs are denominated in a currency other than the US dollar, predominately denominated in GBP and in the Euro.
Item 4. Controls and Procedures
Our management, with the participation of our Chief Executive Officer, Chief Accounting Officer and Chief Financial Officer (our principal executive officer, principal accounting officer and principal financial officer, respectively), evaluated the effectiveness of our disclosure controls and procedures as of March 31, 2022. The term “disclosure controls and procedures,” as defined in Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e) under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (“Exchange Act”), means controls and other procedures of a company that are designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by a company
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in the reports that it files or submits under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized and reported, within the time periods specified in the SEC’s rules and forms.
Based on the evaluation of our disclosure controls and procedures as of March 31, 2022, our Chief Executive Officer, Chief Accounting Officer and Chief Financial Officer concluded that our disclosure controls and procedures were effective as of March 31, 2022. Our management has concluded that the financial statements included in this report present fairly, in all material respects, our financial position, results of operations and cash flows in conformity with GAAP.
Changes in Internal Control over Financial Reporting
No changes in our internal control over financial reporting (as defined in Rules 13a-15(f) and 15d-15(f) under the Exchange Act) have occurred during the three months ended March 31, 2022 that have materially affected, or are reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting.
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PART II - OTHER INFORMATION
Item 1. Legal Proceedings
From time to time, we may become involved in litigation or other legal proceedings. We are not currently a party to any litigation or legal proceedings that, in the opinion of our management, are probable to have a material adverse effect on our business. Regardless of outcome, litigation can have an adverse impact on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects because of defense and settlement costs, diversion of management resources and other factors.
Item 1A. Risk Factors
Our business involves significant risks, some of which are described below. You should carefully consider the risks described below, as well as the other information in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q and in other documents we file with the SEC, including our financial statements and the related notes and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.” The occurrence of any of the events or developments described below could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, growth prospects and stock price. In such an event, the market price of our ADSs could decline, and you may lose all or part of your investment. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial may also impair our business operations and the market price of our ADSs.
Risks Related to our Business Model and Structure
We may not be successful in our efforts to use our differentiated asset-centric business model to build a pipeline of product candidates with commercial value.
A key element of Centessa’s strategy is to use our differentiated asset-centric business model to build, from the bottom-up, a research and development engine to source and develop high conviction programs, product candidates, technologies or intellectual property that we believe are novel, employ differentiated mechanisms of action, are more advanced in development than competitors, or have a combination of these attributes to ultimately deliver impactful medicines to patients. We face significant competition in sourcing such high conviction programs, product candidates, technologies or intellectual property, partnering with founder-subject matter experts with high conviction assets that follow well elucidated biological pathways, seeking appropriate strategic partners (including founder-subject matter experts) and licensing and acquisition opportunities, and the negotiation process is time-consuming and complex. We may not be successful in our efforts in building a pipeline of high conviction product candidates for the treatment of various diseases and disorders through acquisitions, licensing or through internal development or in progressing these product candidates through clinical development. Although we have initially combined a portfolio of ten asset-centric companies, each a Centessa Subsidiary, that are developing high conviction programs with clear biological rationale and, through our Centessa Subsidiaries, our research and development efforts to date have resulted in our identification, discovery and preclinical and clinical development of certain of our product candidates, these product candidates may not be safe or effective treatments or therapies in humans, and we may not be able to develop any other product candidates. Although we analyze whether we can replicate scientific results observed prior to our acquisition or investment in a product candidate, we may not be successful in doing so after our investment. Our asset-centric business model is evolving and may not succeed in building a pipeline of product candidates. Even if we are successful in building our pipeline of product candidates, the potential product candidates that we identify may not be suitable for clinical development or generate acceptable clinical data in humans, including as a result of unacceptable toxicity or other characteristics that indicate that they are unlikely to receive marketing approval from the FDA, or other regulatory authorities or achieve market acceptance. If we do not successfully develop and commercialize product candidates, we will not be able to generate product revenue in the future, which likely would result in significant harm to our financial position and adversely affect the price of our ADSs.
As part of our business strategy, we may expand our product candidate pipeline through in-licenses or acquisitions of discovery or development-stage assets or programs, which entails additional risk to us. While we believe our asset-centric model offers an attractive platform for these transactions and for founder subject-matter experts and potential partners, our model is unique and we may not be able to attract or execute transactions with founder-subject matter experts, sellers, licensors or collaborators who may choose to divest to or grant license to companies that employ more traditional licensing and collaboration approaches. Identifying, selecting, and acquiring promising product candidates requires substantial technical, financial and human resources expertise. Efforts to do so may not result in the actual acquisition or license of a successful product candidate, potentially resulting in a diversion of our management’s time and the expenditure of our resources with no resulting benefit. For example, if we are unable to identify programs that ultimately result in approved products, we may spend material amounts of our capital and other resources evaluating, acquiring, and developing product candidates that ultimately do
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not provide a return on our investment. We may terminate programs in the future if they do not meet our criteria for advancement.
A single or limited number of subsidiaries, developmental assets or product candidates may comprise a large proportion of our value.
A large proportion of our value may at any time reside in a limited number of our subsidiaries and/or developmental assets or product candidates. Our consolidated financial condition and prospects may be materially diminished if the clinical development or potential commercialization prospects of one of our product candidates or programs or one or more of the intellectual property rights held by us become impaired. Furthermore, a large proportion of our consolidated revenue may at any time be derived from one, or a small number of, licensed technologies, and termination or expiration of licenses to these technologies would likely have a material adverse effect on our consolidated revenue. Any material adverse impact on the value of intellectual property rights or the clinical development of product candidates or programs, could have a material adverse effect on our consolidated business, financial condition, results of operations or prospects.
We may expend our limited resources to pursue a particular product candidate or indication and fail to capitalize on product candidates or indications that may be more profitable or for which there is a greater likelihood of success.
Because we have limited financial and managerial resources, we must focus on a limited number of research programs and product candidates and on specific indications. As a result, we may forego or delay pursuit of opportunities with other product candidates or for other indications that later prove to have greater commercial potential, or we may fail to recognize or acquire assets that may be more promising than those we acquire. Our resource allocation decisions may cause us to fail to capitalize on viable commercial products or profitable market opportunities. Our spending on current and future identification, discovery, and preclinical development programs and product candidates for specific indications may not yield any commercially viable products.
We face challenges, risks and expenses related to the integration of the operations of our asset-centric Centessa Subsidiaries, as well as the management of the expected growth in the scale and complexity of our operations.
In January 2021, we acquired the ownership interests of our Centessa Subsidiaries where our current development programs reside. These Centessa Subsidiaries have historically operated as independent entities with generally separate management and operational teams. As a result, we will need to expend significant resources and efforts in integrating the operations of these Centessa Subsidiaries into our larger organization, and such integration activities may be challenging due to the number of Centessa Subsidiaries acquired and the heterogeneity of their historical operations. For example, these Centessa Subsidiaries’ programs span a range of therapeutic modalities and are designed to address a variety of disease areas. In addition, the Centessa Subsidiaries have conducted their business in a variety of jurisdictions in the U.S. and Europe. All of our Centessa Subsidiaries have had historical relationships with different licensors, contract organizations and other third-party vendors.
Each Centessa Subsidiary has historically had its own operational, legal, financial and management controls, reporting systems and procedures and integrating such controls, reporting systems and procedures may be challenging and we may not be successful in doing so. We believe certain synergies may be achieved by harmonizing the operational, legal, financial and management controls, reporting systems and procedures but we may not be successful in our harmonization efforts and this may result in not only being unable to take advantage of synergies but expose us to additional operational, legal and financial risks and exposures associated with several levels of disparate systems and procedures. With limited resources, historically the Centessa Subsidiaries may not have dedicated sufficient resources to ensure its operational, legal, financial and management controls, reporting systems, compliance and other procedures meet required standards and this may expose us to historical non-compliance investigations and liabilities, which may have a material adverse effect on our operations. We also may face difficulties with the integration of our Centessa Subsidiaries if there is disagreement between the founder-subject matter experts and management of Centessa with respect to the development of the Centessa Subsidiary programs.
As of March 1, 2022, we had an aggregate of 90 employees and 109 contractors. We may not be successful in integrating and retaining such employees and consultants or find replacements which could have a material adverse effect on our ability to develop and commercialize our programs and product candidates. As our development and commercialization plans and strategies develop, and as we refine our operations as a public company, we expect to need additional managerial, operational, sales, marketing, legal, financial and other personnel. Future growth would impose significant added responsibilities on members of management, including:
identifying, recruiting, integrating, maintaining and motivating additional employees;
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managing our internal development efforts effectively, including the clinical and FDA review process for our product candidates, while complying with our contractual obligations to contractors and other third parties; and
improving our operational, legal, financial and management controls, reporting systems and procedures.
Our future financial performance and our ability to commercialize any product candidates that are approved for marketing will depend, in part, on our ability to effectively manage any future growth, and our management may also have to divert a disproportionate amount of its attention away from day-to-day activities in order to devote a substantial amount of time to managing these growth activities.
We currently rely, and for the foreseeable future will continue to rely, in substantial part on certain independent organizations, advisors and consultants to provide certain services, including substantially all aspects of regulatory approval, clinical trial management and manufacturing. There can be no assurance that the services of independent organizations, advisors and consultants will continue to be available to us on a timely basis when needed, or that we can find qualified replacements. In addition, if we are unable to effectively manage our outsourced activities or if the quality or accuracy of the services provided by consultants is compromised for any reason, our clinical trials may be extended, delayed or terminated, and we may not be able to obtain regulatory approval of our product candidates or otherwise advance our business. There can be no assurance that we will be able to manage our existing consultants or find other competent outside contractors and consultants on economically reasonable terms, or at all.
If we are not able to effectively expand our organization by hiring new employees and expanding our groups of consultants and contractors, we may not be able to successfully implement the tasks necessary to further develop and potentially commercialize our product candidates and, accordingly, may not achieve our research, development and commercialization goals. We may not have sufficient funding to support our expansion.
Our reliance on a central team consisting of a limited number of employees who provide various administrative, research and development, and other services across our organization presents operational challenges that may adversely affect our business.
As of March 1, 2022, our central team consisted of 54 full-time equivalent employees, upon whom we rely for various operational, administrative, research and development, and other support services shared among our other operating subsidiaries. We also have consultants who we rely on for research and development, business development, and other services. While we believe this structure enables us to reduce certain infrastructure costs, the small size of our centralized team may limit our ability to devote adequate personnel, time, and resources to support the operations of all of our subsidiaries, including their operational, research and development activities, and the management of compliance, financial, accounting, and reporting matters. If our centralized team fails to provide adequate operational, administrative, research and development, or other services across our entire organization, our business, financial condition, and results of operations could be harmed.
Some of our officers currently serve, and in the future may serve, as directors or officers of our Centessa Subsidiaries, and, as a result, have and may continue to have, statutory, fiduciary and other duties to our subsidiaries causing conflicts of interest with respect to their duties to us and their duties to our subsidiaries and in determining how to devote themselves to our affairs and the affairs of our subsidiaries. Our subsidiaries’ partners may also disagree with the sufficiency of resources that we provide to each Centessa Subsidiary.
Certain of our officers, including Saurabh Saha, M.D., Ph.D., our Chief Executive Officer, Marella Thorell, our Chief Accounting Officer, Iqbal Hussain, our General Counsel, David Grainger, PhD, our Chief Innovation Officer and David Chao, PhD, our Chief Administrative Officer are directors and/or officers of certain Centessa Subsidiaries and, as a result, have fiduciary or other duties both to us and our subsidiaries. Dr. Saha, Ms. Thorell, Mr. Hussain, Dr. Grainger and Dr Chao do not receive any additional compensation for their service as directors of our Centessa Subsidiaries. The conflicts of interest that arise from such duties could interfere with the management of our subsidiaries and their programs and product candidates, or result in disagreements with our subsidiaries’ partners. For example, an individual who is both a director of one of our subsidiaries and an officer of Centessa owes statutory and fiduciary duties to the Centessa Subsidiary and to us, and such individual may encounter circumstances in which his or her decision or action may benefit the Centessa Subsidiary while having a detrimental impact on Centessa, or vice versa, or on another Centessa Subsidiary, including one for which he or she also serves as a director. Further, in the future, certain of our officers may serve as officers and directors of our Centessa Subsidiaries. Any such individual would need to allocate his or her time to responsibilities owed to Centessa and each of the Centessa Subsidiaries for which he or she serves as an officer or director, and would make decisions on behalf of one entity that may negatively impact others. In addition, disputes could arise between us and our Centessa Subsidiary’s partners regarding a conflict of interest or perceived conflict of interest arising from the overlap between the officers and directors of the Centessa
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Subsidiary and those of Centessa. These partners also may disagree with the amount and quality of resources that are devoted to the Centessa Subsidiary they are invested in. Any such disputes or disagreements could distract our management, interfere with our relations with our partners, and take significant time to resolve, which could disrupt the development of our product candidates, delay our potential commercialization efforts, result in increased costs or make it less likely that other third parties will choose to partner with us in the future.
Our Centessa Subsidiaries are party to certain agreements that provide our licensors and/or collaborators with rights that could delay or impact the ability of our Centessa Subsidiaries to sell assets, or enter into strategic alliances, collaborations or licensing arrangements with other third parties or the potential sale of our Centessa Subsidiaries.
Each of our Centessa Subsidiaries licenses intellectual property from third parties and we expect such practice to continue in the future. These third parties have certain rights that could delay collaboration, licensing or other arrangements with another third party, and the existence of these rights may adversely impact our ability to attract an acquirer or partner. These rights include rights of negotiation and fees payable upon a sale of assets or change of control of a Centessa Subsidiary that are contained in license agreements.
For example, each of Palladio, Pega-One, ApcinteX, Z Factor and Morphogen-IX, is party to certain license agreements that provide for payments upon satisfaction of milestones, royalty payments, diligence obligations and other customary terms contained in agreements for the in-license of programs and their intellectual property.
We may incorporate, form or otherwise acquire additional subsidiaries and enter into similar agreements with future counterparties, or our Centessa Subsidiaries may enter into further agreements, that in each case may contain similar provisions or other terms that are not favorable to us.
Preclinical and clinical development is a long, expensive and uncertain process, and we may terminate one or more of our current preclinical and/or clinical development programs.
We may determine that certain product candidates or programs (preclinical and/or clinical) do not have sufficient potential to warrant the continued allocation of resources toward them. Accordingly, we may elect to terminate our programs for and, in certain cases, our licenses to, such product candidates or programs. If we terminate programs in which we have invested significant resources, we will have expended resources on a program that will not provide a full return on our investment and missed the opportunity to have allocated those resources to potentially more productive uses. In addition, program termination may result in significant additional wind-down related costs being incurred including penalties, redundancy and severance and professional fees and may expose us to additional risks including contractual breach and employment termination claims and may divert a disproportionate amount of management time. For example, we have recently determined to discontinue the small molecule EGFR Exon20 insertion mutation inhibitor program and C797S mutation inhibitor program for the treatment of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) and discontinue internal funding for the dual-STAT3/5 degrader program in Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML). We may not be able to terminate a clinical program with an ongoing clinical trial on medical and other grounds and such termination may expose us to additional risks including regulatory risk.
Risks Related to our Financial Position, Need for Additional Capital and Growth Strategy
We, and our Centessa Subsidiaries have incurred net losses since inception, and we expect to continue to incur losses for the foreseeable future and may never achieve or maintain profitability.
We and our Centessa Subsidiaries have incurred significant net losses since inception, have not generated any revenue from product sales to date, and financed operations primarily through private placements of preferred shares and debt. Centessa Pharmaceuticals plc is a newly incorporated holding company for all of the Centessa Subsidiaries in our organization, and we expect to incur significant losses for the foreseeable future. As an organization, we have devoted substantially all of our efforts to research and development, including clinical and preclinical development of our product candidates, as well as to building out our team. We expect that it could be several years, if ever, before we have a commercialized product candidate. We expect to continue to incur significant expenses and increasing operating losses for the foreseeable future. The net losses we incur may fluctuate significantly from quarter to quarter each financial year. We anticipate that our expenses will increase substantially if, and as, we:
continue our research and the preclinical and clinical development of our product candidates, including our ongoing and planned clinical trials;
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initiate additional clinical trials and preclinical studies for our other product candidates, including those in our pipeline that are expected to advance into the clinic in the near future; if any of our product candidates advance through and complete late-stage development, prepare and submit marketing applications with the FDA and comparable regulatory authorities;
experience any delays or encounter any issues with any of the above, including but not limited to failed studies, complex results, safety issues or other regulatory challenges;
seek to discover and develop additional product candidates;
establish a sales, marketing and distribution infrastructure to commercialize any product candidates for which we may obtain marketing approval;
maintain, expand and protect our intellectual property portfolio;
fulfill future potential payment obligations under our incentivization agreements with each Centessa Subsidiary; and
acquire or in-license other product candidates and technologies.
To become and remain profitable, we must develop and eventually commercialize product candidates with significant market potential. This will require us to be successful in a range of challenging activities, including completing preclinical testing and clinical trials of our product candidates, obtaining marketing approval for these product candidates, manufacturing, marketing and selling those products for which we may obtain marketing approval and satisfying any post-marketing requirements. We may never succeed in any or all of these activities and, even if we do, we may never generate revenues that are significant or large enough to achieve profitability. If we do achieve profitability, we may not be able to sustain or increase profitability on a quarterly or annual basis. Our failure to become and remain profitable would decrease the value of our company and could impair our ability to raise capital, maintain our research and development efforts and expand our business or continue our operations. A decline in the value of our company could cause you to lose all or part of your investment.
Our limited operating history may make it difficult for investors to evaluate our business, operations and prospects.
We are a newly incorporated holding company, incorporated in October 2020. Our wholly-owned Centessa Subsidiaries are each in the development stage and have had limited operating histories. Our operations to date have been limited to organizing and staffing our company, business planning, developing our operating model, raising capital, acquiring our technology, identifying potential product candidates, establishing collaborations and undertaking preclinical studies and clinical trials of our most advanced product candidates. As an organization, we have not yet demonstrated a track record of completing Phase 3 trials of our product candidates, obtaining marketing approvals, manufacturing a commercial-scale product or conducting sales and marketing activities necessary for successful commercialization. Consequently, any predictions made about our future success or viability may not be as accurate as they could be if we had a longer operating history.
In addition, as a new business, we may encounter unforeseen expenses, difficulties, complications, delays and other known and unknown factors. We will need to transition from a company with a research focus to a company that is also capable of supporting commercial activities. We may not be successful in such a transition.
We have never generated revenue from product sales and may never be profitable.
Our ability to generate revenue from product sales and achieve profitability depends on our ability, alone or with collaborative partners, to successfully complete the development of, and obtain the regulatory approvals necessary to commercialize, our product candidates. We do not anticipate generating revenues from product sales for the next several years, if ever. Our ability to generate future revenues from product sales depends heavily on our, or our collaborators’, success in:
completing research and preclinical and clinical development of our product candidates;
seeking and obtaining regulatory and marketing approvals for product candidates for which we complete clinical trials;
in-licensing, acquiring, discovering or otherwise expanding our pipeline of product candidates for clinical development;
launching and commercializing product candidates for which we obtain regulatory and marketing approval by establishing a sales force, marketing and distribution infrastructure or, alternatively, collaborating with a commercialization partner;
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qualifying for adequate coverage and reimbursement by government and third-party payors for our product candidates;
maintaining and enhancing a sustainable, scalable, reproducible and transferable manufacturing process for our product candidates;
establishing and maintaining supply and manufacturing relationships with third parties that can provide adequate, in both amount and quality, products and services to support clinical development and the market demand for our product candidates, if approved;
obtaining market acceptance of our product candidates as a viable treatment option;
addressing any competing technological and market developments;
implementing additional internal systems and infrastructure, as needed;
negotiating favorable terms in any collaboration, licensing or other arrangements into which we may enter and performing our obligations in such collaborations;
maintaining, protecting and expanding our portfolio of intellectual property rights, including patents, trade secrets and know-how;
avoiding and defending against third-party interference or infringement claims; and
attracting, hiring and retaining qualified personnel.
Even if one or more of the product candidates that we develop is approved for commercial sale, we anticipate incurring significant costs associated with commercializing any approved product candidate. Our expenses could increase beyond expectations if we are required by the FDA, the EMA, the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (“MHRA”), or other regulatory authorities to perform clinical and other studies in addition to those that we currently anticipate. Even if we are able to generate revenues from the sale of any approved products, we may not become profitable and may need to obtain additional funding to continue operations.
We will need substantial additional funds to advance development of our product candidates, and we cannot guarantee that we will have sufficient funds available in the future to develop and commercialize our current or future product candidates.
Developing pharmaceutical products, including conducting preclinical studies and clinical trials, is a very time-consuming, expensive and uncertain process that takes years to complete. We will need substantial additional funds to expand our development, regulatory, manufacturing, marketing and sales capabilities or contract with other organizations in order to enter and advance our product candidates through preclinical studies and clinical trials. For example, in October 2021 we entered into the Oberland Capital Financing Agreement (See Note 5 – “Debt” for more information). Our Centessa Subsidiaries have used substantial funds in their research and development programs and will continue to expend significant resources to advance their programs and product candidates.
As of March 31, 2022, we had $544.5 million in cash and cash equivalents. Based on continued refinement of our operating model and development plan, the Company expects cash and cash equivalents to fund its operations to mid-2024 without drawing on the remaining available tranches under the Oberland Capital financing agreement. Our future capital requirements and the period for which we expect our existing resources to support our operations may vary significantly from what we expect, and changing circumstances, some of which may be beyond our control, could cause us to consume capital significantly faster than we currently anticipate, and we may need to seek additional funds sooner than planned. Our monthly spending levels vary based on new and ongoing development and corporate activities. Because the length of time and activities associated with successful development of our product candidates is highly uncertain, we are unable to estimate the actual funds we will require for development and any approved marketing and commercialization activities.
We currently expect to use our cash resources to fund the continued development and pre-commercialization costs of our clinical-stage product candidates; to fund continued development of the other programs in our pipeline, including designing and conducting preclinical studies and clinical trials, as well as funding discovery, manufacturing, research and development; to fund the acquisition of and drug development activities related to new programs; although we have no material agreements, commitments or understandings with respect to any in-license or acquisition, we have and plan to continue to evaluate such opportunities and engage in related discussions with other business entities from time to time; and the remainder for working capital and other general corporate purposes.
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To execute our business plan, we will need, among other things, to:
obtain the human and financial resources necessary to develop, test, obtain regulatory approval for, manufacture and market our product candidates;
build and maintain a strong intellectual property portfolio and avoid infringing intellectual property of third parties;
establish and maintain successful licenses, collaborations and alliances;
satisfy the requirements of clinical trial protocols, including patient enrollment;
establish and demonstrate the clinical efficacy and safety of our product candidates;
obtain regulatory approvals;
manage our spending as costs and expenses increase due to preclinical studies and clinical trials, regulatory approvals, commercialization, legal and regulatory compliance, and increased operations;
obtain additional capital to support and expand our operations; and
market our products to achieve acceptance and use by the medical community in general.
We do not expect to realize revenue from product sales, milestone payments or royalties in the foreseeable future, if at all. Our revenue sources are, and will remain, extremely limited unless and until our product candidates are clinically tested, approved for commercialization and successfully marketed and/or we sell, out-license or otherwise divest certain of our assets.
We will be required to seek additional funding in the future and intend to do so through either public or private equity offerings or debt financings, credit or loan facilities or a combination of one or more of these funding sources. Attempting to secure additional financing may divert our management from our day-to-day activities, which may adversely affect our ability to develop our product candidates. Our ability to raise additional funds will depend on financial, economic and other factors, many of which are beyond our control. Additional funds may not be available to us on acceptable terms or at all. If we raise additional funds by issuing equity securities, our shareholders will suffer dilution and the terms of any financing may adversely affect the rights of our shareholders. In addition, as a condition to providing additional funds to us, future investors may demand, and may be granted, rights superior to those of existing shareholders. Debt financing, if available, may involve restrictive covenants limiting our flexibility in conducting future business activities, and, in the event of insolvency, debt holders would be repaid before holders of equity securities received any distribution of corporate assets.
If we raise additional funds through collaborations, strategic alliances or licensing arrangements with third parties, we may have to relinquish valuable rights to our technologies, future revenue streams, research programs or product candidates or to grant licenses on terms that may not be favorable to us. Certain amounts of such additional funds raised may need to be used to pay third parties in respect of obligations we owe to them including to our licensors, under Incentivization Agreements (see Contractual Obligations and Other Commitments) and Oberland Capital. If we are unable to raise additional funds through equity or debt financings when needed, we may be required to delay, reduce or terminate our product development or future commercialization efforts or grant rights to third parties to develop and market product candidates that we would otherwise prefer to develop and market ourselves.
Our credit facility and payment obligations under the Note Purchase Agreement, as amended (“NPA”), with Cocoon SA LLC, an affiliate of Oberland Capital (collectively, “Oberland Capital”) as agent for the Purchasers, contain operating and financial covenants that restrict our business and financing activities, are subject to acceleration in specified circumstances and may adversely affect our financial position or results of operations and our ability to raise additional capital which in turn may increase our vulnerability to adverse regulatory developments or economic or business downturns or which may result in Oberland Capital taking possession of our assets and disposing of any collateral.
Our credit facility with Oberland Capital contains restrictions that limit our flexibility in operating our business. Under the terms of the credit facility, we must maintain, and cause our subsidiaries to maintain, certain covenants, including with respect to limitations on new indebtedness, restrictions on the payment of dividends and maintenance of revenue levels. Our credit facility is collateralized by all of our assets including, among other things, our intellectual property.
Under the NPA, as amended, the Purchasers agreed to purchase, and the Company agreed to sell, tranches of secured notes in the aggregate principal amount of up to $300,000,000 as follows: (a) a secured note in the aggregate principal amount of $75,000,000 (the “First Purchase Note”), (b) on and after the Signing Date until September 30, 2023, at the Company’s option, a secured note in the aggregate principal amount of $75,000,000 (the “Second Purchase Note”), (c) on and after the
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Signing Date until December 31, 2023, at the Company’s option, a secured note in the aggregate principal amount of $50,000,000 (the “Third Purchase Note”), and (d) one or more secured notes in the aggregate principal amount of up to $100,000,000 at any time at the Company’s and Purchasers’ option, to be used to finance certain permitted acquisitions as described in the NPA (the “Fourth Purchase Notes” and collectively with the First Purchase Note, the Second Purchase Note and the Third Purchase Note, the “Notes”). The obligations of the Purchasers to purchase the Notes are subject to certain conditions precedent. On October 4, 2021 (the “First Purchase Date”), the Company issued the First Purchase Note. The Notes will mature on the six-year anniversary of the First Purchase Date, unless earlier accelerated under the terms of the NPA. At maturity, the Company must repay the outstanding principal amount of the Notes, together with any accrued and unpaid interest thereon and other outstanding obligations thereunder. Interest is payable quarterly during the term of the Notes at a rate per annum equal to the sum of (a) the greater of (i) LIBOR (which may be subject to replacement as contemplated by the NPA) and (ii) 0.25% and (b) 7.75% (which percentage is subject to adjustment as described in the NPA); provided that the interest rate shall never be less than 8.00%. The interest rate for the Notes in the first quarter of 2022 is 8.00% per annum. Given the floating interest rate, the Company is subject to volatility and additional expense in the current increasing interest rate environment. The Company’s obligations under the facility are secured by a first priority security interest in all assets of the Company and Guarantors, subject to variation in accordance with local law with respect to assets held by the Company and the Guarantors outside of the United States.
Starting on the date of the first commercial sale of lixivaptan, currently a product candidate under development by the Company, and ending on the tenth anniversary of the First Purchase Date, the Purchasers shall have the right to receive 1.00% (the “Revenue Participation Rate”) of the first $200.0 million of worldwide net sales of lixivaptan in each calendar year, payable quarterly (the “Revenue Participation Payments”). The Revenue Participation Rate is subject to pro-rata increase if the Second Purchase Notes and/or the Third Purchase Notes are issued and shall not exceed 2.67%.
In addition, upon the first regulatory approval of any of the Company’s product candidates by either the FDA or EMA, the Company is obligated to pay the Purchasers an amount equal to 30% of the aggregate principal amount issued under the Notes by the Company (the “Milestone Payment”). The Milestone Payment shall be paid in quarterly installments over five years beginning on the earlier of (i) the date of the first commercial sale following such regulatory approval; and (ii) the six month anniversary of such regulatory approval. The Milestone Payment is triggered one time only, and applies only to the Company’s first product to obtain regulatory approval.
The Company may redeem all, but not less than all, of the outstanding Notes (if any) and pay all other outstanding obligations under the NPA. On the applicable date, the Company shall repurchase the Notes by paying an amount of up to (i) 175% of the principal amount issued under the Notes if such repurchase occurs on or prior to the third anniversary of the First Purchase Date, (ii) 185% of the principal amount issued under the Notes if such repurchase occurs between the third and sixth anniversaries of the First Purchase Date, and (iii) 205% of the principal amount issued under the Notes if such repurchase occurs thereafter, in each case less specified deductions and exclusions described in the NPA, including amounts paid by the