Form 10-K Summit Materials, LLC For: Jan 01 Filed by: Summit Materials, Inc.

February 24, 2022 2:45 PM EST

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sum-20220101
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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
(Mark One)
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 
For the fiscal year ended January 1, 2022
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 
For the transition period from                      to                      
Commission file numbers:
001-36873 (Summit Materials, Inc.)
333-187556 (Summit Materials, LLC) 
SUMMIT MATERIALS, INC.
SUMMIT MATERIALS, LLC
(exact name of registrants as specified in their charters)
Delaware (Summit Materials, Inc.)
Delaware (Summit Materials, LLC)
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
1550 Wynkoop Street, 3rd Floor
Denver, Colorado
(Address of principal executive offices)
47-1984212
26-4138486
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
80202
(Zip Code)
Registrants’ telephone number, including area code: (303893-0012
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class 
   Trading Symbol(s)
Name of each exchange on which registered 
Class A Common Stock (par value $.01 per share) SUMNew York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.
Summit Materials, Inc.YesNoSummit Materials, LLCYesNo
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. 
Summit Materials, Inc.YesNoSummit Materials, LLCYesNo
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.
Summit Materials, Inc.YesNoSummit Materials, LLCYesNo
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).
Summit Materials, Inc.     YesNoSummit Materials, LLCYesNo
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Summit Materials, Inc.
Large accelerated filer Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filerSmaller reporting company
  Emerging growth company
Summit Materials, LLC
Large accelerated filer Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filerSmaller reporting company
  Emerging growth company
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C.7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
Summit Materials, Inc.YesNoSummit Materials, LLCYesNo
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Summit Materials, Inc.YesNoSummit Materials, LLCYesNo
The aggregate market value of the Summit Materials, Inc. voting stock held by non-affiliates of the Registrants as of July 3, 2021 was approximately $4.1 billion.
As of February 21, 2022, the number of shares of Summit Materials, Inc.’s outstanding Class A and Class B common stock, par value $0.01 per share for each class, was 118,730,256 and 99, respectively.
As of February 21, 2022, 100% of Summit Materials, LLC’s outstanding limited liability company interests were held by Summit Materials Intermediate Holdings, LLC, its sole member and an indirect subsidiary of Summit Materials, Inc.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Certain information required by Items 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14 of Part III incorporate information by reference from Summit Materials, Inc.’s definitive proxy statement relating to its 2022 annual meeting of stockholders to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission within 120 days after the close of Summit Materials, Inc.’s most recent fiscal year.
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PARTITEM PAGE
 
 
 
 
 
  
II 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
III 
 
 
 
 
 
  









 

 


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EXPLANATORY NOTE
 
This annual report on Form 10-K (this “report”) is a combined annual report being filed separately by two registrants: Summit Materials, Inc. and Summit Materials, LLC. Each registrant hereto is filing on its own behalf all of the information contained in this report that relates to such registrant. Each registrant hereto is not filing any information that does not relate to such registrant, and therefore makes no representation as to any such information. We believe that combining the annual reports on Form 10-K of Summit Materials, Inc. and Summit Materials, LLC into this single report eliminates duplicative and potentially confusing disclosure and provides a more streamlined presentation since a substantial amount of the disclosure applies to both registrants.
 
Unless stated otherwise or the context requires otherwise, references to “Summit Inc.” mean Summit Materials, Inc., a Delaware corporation, and references to “Summit LLC” mean Summit Materials, LLC, a Delaware limited liability company. The references to Summit Inc. and Summit LLC are used in cases where it is important to distinguish between them. We use the terms “we,” “our,” “Summit Materials” or “the Company” to refer to Summit Inc. and Summit LLC together with their respective subsidiaries, unless otherwise noted or the context otherwise requires.
 
Summit Inc. was formed on September 23, 2014 to be a holding company. As of January 1, 2022, its sole material asset was a 98.9% economic interest in Summit Materials Holdings L.P. (“Summit Holdings”). Summit Inc. has 100% of the voting rights of Summit Holdings, which is the indirect parent of Summit LLC. Summit LLC is a co-issuer of our outstanding 6 1/2 % senior notes due 2027 (“2027 Notes”) and our 5 1/4% senior notes due 2029 (“2029 Notes” and collectively with the 2027 Notes, the “Senior Notes”). Summit Inc.’s only revenue for the year ended January 1, 2022 is that generated by Summit LLC and its consolidated subsidiaries. Summit Inc. controls all of the business and affairs of Summit Holdings and, in turn, Summit LLC.

DISCLOSURE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
 
This report includes “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the federal securities laws, which involve risks and uncertainties. Forward-looking statements include all statements that do not relate solely to historical or current facts, and you can identify forward-looking statements because they contain words such as “believes,” “expects,” “may,” “will,” “should,” “seeks,” “intends,” “trends,” “plans,” “estimates,” “projects” or “anticipates” or similar expressions that concern our strategy, plans, expectations or intentions. All statements made relating to our estimated and projected earnings, margins, costs, expenditures, cash flows, growth rates and financial results are forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements are subject to risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from future results, performance or achievements expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. We derive many of our forward-looking statements from our operating budgets and forecasts, which are based upon many detailed assumptions. While we believe that our assumptions are reasonable, it is very difficult to predict the effect of known factors, and, of course, it is impossible to anticipate all factors that could affect our actual results. 
 
Some of the important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from our expectations are disclosed under “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this report. All subsequent written and oral forward-looking statements attributable to us, or persons acting on our behalf, are expressly qualified in their entirety by these cautionary statements.
 
We undertake no obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statement as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as otherwise required by law.

CERTAIN DEFINITIONS
 
As used in this report, unless otherwise noted or the context otherwise requires:

“Continental Cement” refers to Continental Cement Company, L.L.C.;

“EBITDA” refers to net income (loss) before interest expense, income tax expense (benefit), depreciation, depletion and amortization expense;

“Finance Corp.” refers to Summit Materials Finance Corp., an indirect wholly-owned subsidiary of Summit LLC and the co-issuer of the Senior Notes;

“Issuers” refers to Summit LLC and Finance Corp. as co‑issuers of the Senior Notes;

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“LP Units” refers to the Class A limited partnership units of Summit Holdings;

“Mainland” refers to Mainland Construction Materials ULC, which is the surviving entity from the acquisition of Rock Head Holdings Ltd., B.I.M. Holdings Ltd., Carlson Ventures Ltd., Mainland Sand and Gravel Ltd. and Jamieson Quarries Ltd.;

“TRA” refers to a tax receivable agreement between Summit Inc. and holders of LP Units.

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Corporate Structure
The following chart summarizes our organizational structure, equity ownership and our principal indebtedness as of January 1, 2022. This chart is provided for illustrative purposes only and does not show all of our legal entities or all obligations of such entities.
sum-20220101_g1.jpg 
______________________
(1)U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) registrant.
(2)The shares of Class B Common Stock are currently held by pre-initial public offering investors, including certain members of management or their family trusts that directly hold LP Units. A holder of Class B Common Stock is entitled, without regard to the number of shares of Class B Common Stock held by such holder, to a number of votes that is equal to the aggregate number of LP Units held by such holder.
(3)Guarantor under the senior secured credit facilities, but not the Senior Notes.
(4)Summit LLC and Finance Corp are the issuers of the Senior Notes and Summit LLC is the borrower under our senior secured credit facilities. Finance Corp. was formed solely for the purpose of serving as co-issuer or guarantor of certain indebtedness, including the Senior Notes. Finance Corp. does not and will not have operations of any kind and does not and will not have revenue or assets other than as may be incidental to its activities as a co-issuer or guarantor of certain indebtedness.
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PART I 

ITEM 1.    BUSINESS.
 
Overview
 
Summit’s vision is to be the most socially responsible, integrated construction materials solution provider, collaborating with stakeholders to deliver differentiated innovations and solve our customers’ challenges. Within our markets, we strive to be a market leader by offering customers a single-source provider for construction materials and related downstream products through our vertical integration. Our materials include aggregates, which we supply across the United States, and in British Columbia, Canada, and cement, which we supply to surrounding states along the Mississippi River from Minnesota to Louisiana. In addition to supplying aggregates to customers, we use a portion of our materials internally to produce ready-mix concrete and asphalt paving mix, which may be sold externally or used in our paving and related services businesses. Our vertical integration creates opportunities to increase aggregates volumes, optimize margin at each stage of production and provide customers with efficiency gains, convenience and reliability, which we believe gives us a competitive advantage.
Since our inception in 2009, we have become a major participant in the U.S. construction materials industry. We believe that, by volume, we are a top 10 aggregates supplier, a top 15 cement producer and a major producer of ready‑mix concrete and asphalt paving mix. Our aggregates reserves and resources were 5.9 billion tons as of January 1, 2022. In the year ended January 1, 2022 we sold 64.2 million tons of aggregates, 2.4 million tons of cement, 5.8 million cubic yards of ready-mix concrete and 5.1 million tons of asphalt paving mix across our more than 400 sites and plants.
 
Our growth over the years has been due in large part to our acquisitions. Over the past decade, the U.S. economy witnessed a cyclical decline followed by a gradual recovery in the private construction market and modest growth in public infrastructure spending. The U.S. private construction market has grown in recent years both nationally and in our markets. We believe we are well positioned to capitalize on growth in the construction market to continue to expand our business, particularly in light of the $1.2 trillion Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act passed in November 2021.

Our revenue in 2021 was $2.4 billion with net income of $154.3 million. As of January 1, 2022, our total indebtedness outstanding was approximately $1.6 billion.
 
We anticipate continued demand growth in our primary end markets, public infrastructure and the private construction market. Public infrastructure, which includes spending by federal, state and local governments for roads, highways, bridges, airports and other public infrastructure projects, has been a relatively stable portion of government budgets providing consistent demand to our industry and is projected by the Portland Cement Association (“PCA”) to grow approximately 41% in the U.S. from 2022 to 2026. The Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act provides $45.5 billion in funding to Texas, Utah, Kansas and Missouri, our top four states by revenue in 2021. We believe states will continue to institute state and local level funding initiatives dedicated towards increased infrastructure spending. Historically, growth in infrastructure spending has not been consistent across the United States, but has varied across different geographies. Economic conditions in our markets do vary by state, and public infrastructure funding is expected to differ as a result. The public infrastructure market represented approximately 36% of our revenue in 2021.
 
The private construction market includes residential and nonresidential new construction and the repair and remodel market. According to the PCA, the number of total housing starts in the United States, a leading indicator for our residential business, is expected to remain at historically high levels. Residential activity in our key markets remains strong, particularly in the Houston and Salt Lake City areas, two of the largest metro areas where we operate. We believe residential activity in our key markets will continue to be a driver for volumes in future periods. The PCA projects that spending in private nonresidential construction will grow 10% from 2022 to 2026. Growth in private construction spending is influenced by changes in population, employment and general economic activity, among other factors which vary by geography across the United States. The private construction market represented approximately 64% of our revenue in 2021.
 
In addition to anticipated demand growth in our end markets, we expect continued improvement in pricing, especially in our materials businesses. The United States Geological Survey ("USGS") reports that aggregates pricing has increased in 70 of the last 75 years. Accordingly, we believe that this trend will continue in the future. The PCA estimates that cement consumption will increase approximately 11% in the U.S. from 2022 to 2026, reflecting rising demand in the major end markets. We believe that the increased demand will support higher cement pricing as production capacity in the United States tightens and the cost of imported cement remains high.

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Historically, we have supplemented organic growth with acquisitions by strategically targeting attractive, new markets and expanding in existing markets. We consider population trends, employment rates, competitive landscape, private and public construction outlook, public funding and various other factors prior to entering a new market. In addition to considering macroeconomic data, we seek to establish, and believe that we have, a top three position in our local markets, which we believe supports improving profit margins and sustainable organic growth. This positioning provides local economies of scale and synergies, which benefits our profitability. In addition, we also focus on developing greenfield and brownfield sites in our existing markets.
 
We believe that significant opportunities remain for growth through acquisitions. We estimate that approximately 65% of the U.S. construction materials market is privately owned. Our management team maintains contact with hundreds of private companies. These long‑standing relationships, cultivated over decades, have been the primary source for our past acquisitions and, we believe, will continue to be an important source for future acquisitions. We believe we offer a compelling value proposition for private company sellers, including secure ongoing stewardship of their legacy businesses and brands.

We also seek greenfield development opportunities, particularly in our current geographies where we have been unable to identify additional acquisition opportunities at reasonable values. While greenfield development opportunities generally take longer to reach positive cash flows, the return on investment can equal or exceed those of business acquisitions.

In 2021, our management team undertook a portfolio review, and began an optimization process whereby 10-12 operational assets or businesses have been identified for possible divestiture. In the year ended January 1, 2022, we divested of 8 businesses, resulting in net proceeds of $128.3 million. We expect to divest of additional businesses in 2022.

Our Business Segments
 
We operate in 21 U.S. states and in British Columbia, Canada and have assets in 21 U.S. states and in British Columbia, Canada through our platforms that make up our operating segments: West; East; and Cement. The 10 platform businesses in the West and East segments have their own management teams. The platform management teams are responsible for overseeing the operating platforms, implementing best practices, developing growth opportunities and integrating acquired businesses. We seek to enhance value through increased scale, efficiencies and cost savings within local markets.
 
West Segment:  Our West segment includes operations in Texas, Utah, Colorado, Idaho, Wyoming, Oklahoma, Nevada and British Columbia, Canada. We supply aggregates, ready‑mix concrete, asphalt paving mix and paving and related services in the West segment. As of January 1, 2022, the West segment controlled approximately 1.6 billion tons of aggregates reserves and resources and $702.1 million of net property, plant and equipment and inventories (“hard assets”). During the year ended January 1, 2022, approximately 52% of our revenue was generated in the West segment.

East Segment:  Our East segment serves markets extending across the Midwestern and Eastern United States, most notably in Kansas, Missouri, Virginia, Kentucky, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Arkansas and Nebraska where we supply aggregates, ready‑mix concrete, asphalt paving mix and paving and related services. As of January 1, 2022, the East segment controlled approximately 3.7 billion tons of aggregates reserves and resources and $743.3 million of hard assets. During the year ended January 1, 2022, approximately 35% of our revenue was generated in the East segment.

Cement Segment:  Our Cement segment consists of our Hannibal, Missouri and Davenport, Iowa cement plants and nine distribution terminals along the Mississippi River from Minnesota to Louisiana. Our highly efficient plants are complemented by our integrated distribution system that spans the Mississippi River. We process solid and liquid waste into fuel for the plants, which can reduce the plants’ fuel costs by up to 50%. The Hannibal, Missouri plant is one of very few cement facilities in the United States that can process both hazardous and non-hazardous solid and liquid waste into fuel. As of January 1, 2022, the Cement segment controlled approximately 0.6 billion tons of aggregates reserves and resources, which serve its cement business, and $568.2 million of hard assets. During the year ended January 1, 2022, approximately 12% of our revenue was generated in the Cement segment.
 
Our End Markets
 
Public Infrastructure.  Public infrastructure construction includes spending by federal, state and local governments for highways, bridges, airports, schools, public buildings and other public infrastructure projects. Public infrastructure spending has historically been more stable than private sector construction. We believe that public infrastructure spending is less sensitive to interest rate changes and economic cycles and often is supported by multi-year federal and state legislation and programs. A
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significant portion of our revenue is derived from public infrastructure projects. As a result, the supply of federal and state funding for public infrastructure highway construction significantly affects our public infrastructure end-use business.
 
In the past, public infrastructure sector funding was underpinned by a series of six‑year federal highway authorization bills. Federal funds are allocated to the states, which are required to match a portion of the federal funds they receive. Federal highway spending uses funds predominantly from the Federal Highway Trust Fund, which derives its revenue from taxes on diesel fuel, gasoline and other user fees. The dependability of federal funding allows the state departments of transportation to plan for their long-term highway construction and maintenance needs. The Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act (the “IIJA”) was signed into law on November 15, 2021. The IIJA legislation provides $1.2 trillion in funding over five years from 2022 through 2026, including $550 billion in new investments for all modes of transportation, water, power and energy, environmental remediation, public lands, broadband and resilience.
 
Residential Construction.  Residential construction includes single family homes and multi‑family units such as apartments and condominiums. Demand for residential construction is influenced primarily by employment prospects, new household formation and mortgage interest rates. In recent years, residential construction demand has been growing, although the rate of growth has varied across the U.S. As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, migration trends towards rural and exurban U.S. markets has begun, notably in our Texas and Utah markets.
 
Nonresidential Construction.  Nonresidential construction encompasses all privately financed construction other than residential structures. Demand for nonresidential construction is customarily driven primarily by population and economic growth, and activity tends to follow residential activity by 12-24 months. Population growth generally spurs demand for stores, shopping centers and restaurants. Economic growth typically creates demand for projects such as hotels, office buildings, warehouses and factories, although growth rates vary across the U.S. The supply of nonresidential construction projects is also affected by other variables, interest rates and the availability of credit to finance these projects.
 
Our Competitive Strengths
 
Leading market positions.  We believe each of our operating companies has a top three market share position in its local market area achieved through their respective, extensive operating histories, averaging over 30 years. We believe we are a top 10 supplier of aggregates, a top 15 producer of cement and a major producer of ready‑mix concrete and asphalt paving mix in the United States by volume. We focus on acquiring aggregate-based companies that have leading local market positions, which we seek to enhance by building scale through additional bolt-on acquisitions. The construction materials industry is highly local in nature due to transportation costs from the high weight‑to‑value ratio of the products. Given this dynamic, we believe achieving local market scale provides a competitive advantage that drives growth and profitability for our business. We believe that our ability to prudently acquire, rapidly integrate and improve multiple businesses has enabled, and will continue to enable, our market leadership.
 
Operations positioned to benefit from attractive industry fundamentals.  We believe the construction materials industry has attractive fundamentals, characterized by high barriers to entry and a stable competitive environment in the majority of markets. Barriers to entry are created by scarcity of raw material resources, limited efficient distribution range, asset intensity of equipment, land required for quarry operations and a time‑consuming and complex regulatory and permitting process. According to a January 2021 U.S. Geological Survey, aggregates pricing in the United States had increased in 70 of the previous 75 years, with growth accelerating since 2002 as continuing resource scarcity in the industry has led companies to focus increasingly on improved pricing strategies.
 
One contributing factor that supports pricing growth through the economic cycles is that aggregates and asphalt paving mix have significant exposure to public road construction, which has demonstrated growth over the past 30 years, even during times of broader economic weakness. The majority of public road construction spending is funded at the state level through the states’ respective departments of transportation. Texas, Utah, Kansas and Missouri, four of the states in which we have had our highest revenues, have funds with certain constitutional protections for revenue sources dedicated for transportation projects. These dedicated, earmarked funding sources limit the negative effect state deficits may have on public spending. As a result, we believe our business’ profitability is significantly more stable than most other building product subsectors.
 
Vertically‑integrated business model.  We generate revenue across a spectrum of related products and services. Approximately 19% of the aggregates used in our products and services are internally supplied. Our vertically‑integrated business model enables us to operate as a single source provider of materials and paving and related services, creating cost, convenience and reliability advantages for our customers, while at the same time creating significant cross‑marketing opportunities among our interrelated businesses. We believe this creates opportunities to increase aggregates volumes, optimize margin at each stage of production, foster more stable demand for aggregates through a captive demand outlet, create a
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competitive advantage through the efficiency gains, convenience and reliability provided to customers and enhance our acquisition strategy by providing a greater population of target companies.
 
Attractive diversity, scale and product portfolio.  We operate in dozens of metropolitan statistical areas across 21 U.S. states and in British Columbia, Canada. In the year ended January 1, 2022, 52% of our operating income increase came from the West segment, 28% from East segment and 20% from the Cement segment, excluding corporate charges. As of January 1, 2022, we had 3.9 billion tons of proven and probable mineral reserves and 1.8 billion measured and indicated mineral resources. We estimate that the useful life of our reserves serving our aggregates and cement businesses are approximately 55 years and 170 years, respectively, based on the average production rates in 2021 and 2020.
 
Our dry process cement plants in Hannibal, Missouri and Davenport, Iowa were commissioned in 2008 and 1981, respectively. These low-cost cement plants have efficient manufacturing capabilities and are strategically located on the Mississippi River and complemented by an extensive network of river and rail fed distribution terminals. Our terminal network can accept imported cement to supplement our internal production capacity as demand and market conditions dictate. Due to the location of our Hannibal and Davenport plants on the Mississippi River, in 2021, we shipped approximately 65-75% of our cement by barge, which is significantly more cost‑effective than truck or rail transport.
 
Proven ability to incorporate new acquisitions and grow businesses.  Since our inception, we have acquired dozens of businesses, successfully integrating them into three segments through the implementation of operational improvements, industry‑proven information technology systems, comprehensive safety and management programs. A typical acquisition and subsequent integration generally involves implementing common safety and financial back office systems, driving best practices in pricing and productivity. In addition, we seek to leverage scale while maintaining local branding and management decision-making and providing management support, strategic direction and financial capital for investment.
 
Experienced and proven leadership driving organic growth, acquisition and optimization strategy. Our management team, including corporate and segment managers, corporate development, finance executives and other heavy side industry operators, has extensive experience in the industry. Our management team has successfully enhanced the operations of acquired companies, focusing on scale advantages, cost efficiencies and price optimization to improve profitability and cash flow. Our management team has undertaken an optimization process whereby we are disposing of certain assets and businesses that are not core to our business, helping our management teams narrow their focus to the highest returning components of our business and serve our broader goal of increasing our return on invested capital.

Our Business Strategy
 
We believe our integrated business model creates a distinct competitive advantage to support our growth ambitions. In March 2021, we unveiled our Elevate Summit Strategy, which has four key themes:

Market Leadership. We expect to create sustainable advantages in suburban and exurban communities that enhance total shareholder value. We believe that our vertical integration of construction materials, products and services is a significant competitive advantage that will drive share growth in existing markets and enable entry into new markets. A significant portion of materials used to produce our products and provide services to our customers is internally supplied, which enables us to operate as a single source provider of materials, products and paving and related services. This creates cost, convenience and reliability advantages for our customers and enables us to capture additional value throughout the supply chain, while at the same time creating significant cross‑marketing opportunities among our interrelated businesses.

Asset Light Approach. We seek to maximize aggregates pull through in order to improve capital efficiency, and reduce volatility. Our growth has been a result of the successful execution of our aggregates-led acquisition strategy and implementation of best practices to drive organic growth. We believe we have opportunity for further growth through strategic acquisitions in markets adjacent to our existing markets within the states where we currently operate, as well as into additional states as market and competitive conditions permit. We also believe we can enhance our return on investment by partnering with our customers in asset light partnerships by providing aggregates.

Social Responsibility. We strive to build differentiated, heavy materials solutions to enhance returns and maximize social impact. As our customers focus on their own social responsibility goals, we plan to provide innovative solutions to meet those goals. We view social responsibility, which includes human capital, land use, water and addressing carbon emissions impacts, as a strategic imperative essential to serving the needs of our employees, customers, and communities where we operate. We publish an annual sustainability report aligned with the Sustainability Accounting Standards Board Construction Materials Standard. Our sustainability report describes our safety performance as well as water usage, waste production, and
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carbon emissions impacts. We seek to proactively address those impacts to align our business activities with the interests of our external stakeholders.

Innovation Focus. We seek to make investments to address tomorrow's customer challenges with new products and solutions. We seek to enhance margins through proven profit optimization plans, managed working capital and achieved scale‑driven purchasing synergies and fixed overhead control and reduction. Our management team, supported by our operations, development, risk management, information technology and finance teams, drive the implementation of detailed and thorough profit optimization plans for each acquisition post close. These integration and improvement plans typically include, among other things, implementation of a common pricing strategy, safety and financial systems, systematic commercial strategies, operational benefits, efficiency improvement plans and business-wide cost reduction techniques. In addition, through our portfolio optimization program, we are also evaluating and executing on divestitures of certain assets and businesses that are not core to our business or have underperformed our investment expectations.

Our Industry
 
The U.S. construction materials industry is composed of four primary sectors: aggregates; cement; ready‑mix concrete; and asphalt paving mix. Each of these materials is widely used in most forms of construction activity. Participants in these sectors typically range from small, privately‑held companies focused on a single material, product or market to publicly traded multinational corporations that offer a wide array of construction materials and services. Competition is constrained in part by the distance materials can be transported efficiently, resulting in predominantly local or regional operations. Due to the lack of product differentiation, competition for all of our products is predominantly based on price and, to a lesser extent, quality of products and service. As a result, the prices we charge our customers are not likely to be materially different from the prices charged by other producers in the same markets. Accordingly, our profitability is generally dependent on the level of demand for our materials and products and our ability to control operating costs.
 
Transportation infrastructure projects, driven by both federal and state funding programs, represent a significant share of the U.S. construction materials market. Federal funds are allocated to the states, which are required to match a portion of the federal funds they receive. Federal highway spending uses funds predominantly from the Federal Highway Trust Fund, which derives its revenue from taxes on diesel fuel, gasoline and other user fees. The dependability of federal funding allows the state departments of transportation to plan for their long-term highway construction and maintenance needs. Funding for the existing federal transportation funding program extends through February 2022. The IIJA passed in November 2021 provides $1.2 trillion in funding over five years from 2022 through 2026, including $550 billion in new investments for all modes of transportation, water, power and energy, environmental remediation, public lands, broadband and resilience.
 
In addition to federal funding, state, county and local agencies provide highway construction and maintenance funding. Our four largest states by revenue, Texas, Utah, Kansas and Missouri, represented approximately 23%, 15%, 12% and 9%, respectively, of our total revenue in 2021.
 
Our Industry and Operations
 
We do not believe that increases in our prices of materials or products are likely to affect the decision to undertake a construction project since these costs usually represent a small portion of total construction costs.
 
We operate our construction materials, products and paving and related services businesses through local management teams, which work closely with our end customers to deliver the materials, products and services that meet each customer’s specific needs for a project. We believe that this strong local presence gives us a competitive advantage by allowing us to obtain a unique understanding for the evolving needs of our customers.
 
We have operations in 21 U.S. states and in British Columbia, Canada. Our business in each region is vertically‑integrated. We supply aggregates internally for the production of cement, ready‑mix concrete and asphalt paving mix and a significant portion of our asphalt paving mix is used internally by our paving and related services businesses. In the year ended January 1, 2022, approximately 81% of our aggregates production was sold directly to outside customers with the remaining amount being further processed by us and sold as a downstream product. In addition, we operate a municipal waste landfill in our East segment, and have construction and demolition debris landfills and liquid asphalt terminal operations in our West and East segments.

Approximately 70% of our asphalt paving mix was installed by our paving and related services businesses in the year ended January 1, 2022. We charge a market price and competitive margin at each stage of the production process in order to optimize profitability across our operations. Our production value chain is illustrated as follows:
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Aggregates
 
Aggregates are key material components used in the production of cement, ready‑mix concrete and asphalt paving mixes for the public infrastructure, residential and nonresidential end markets and are also widely used for various applications and products, such as road and building foundations, railroad ballast, erosion control, filtration, roofing granules and in solutions for snow and ice control. Generally extracted from the earth using surface or underground mining methods, aggregates are produced from natural deposits of various materials such as limestone, sand and gravel, granite and trap rock. Aggregates are produced mainly from blasting hard rock from quarries and then crushing and screening it to various sizes to meet our customers’ needs. The production of aggregates also involves the extraction of sand and gravel, which requires less crushing, but still requires screening for different sizes. Aggregate production utilizes capital intensive heavy equipment which includes the use of loaders, large haul trucks, crushers, screens and other heavy equipment at quarries and sand and gravel pits. Once extracted, processed and/or crushed and graded on-site into crushed stone, concrete and masonry sand, specialized sand, pulverized lime or agricultural lime, they are supplied directly to their end use or incorporated for further processing into construction materials and products, such as cement, ready‑mix concrete and asphalt paving mix. The minerals are processed to meet customer specifications or to meet industry standard sizes. Crushed stone is used primarily in ready‑mix concrete, asphalt paving mix, and the construction of road base for highways.
 
We mine limestone, gravel, and other natural resources from 131 crushed stone quarries and 115 sand and gravel deposits throughout the United States and in British Columbia, Canada. Our extensive network of quarries, plants and facilities, located throughout the regions in which we operate, enables us to have a nearby operation to meet the needs of customers in each of our markets. As of January 1, 2022, we had approximately 5.9 billion tons of reserves and resources of recoverable stone, and sand and gravel of suitable quality for economic extraction. Our estimate is based on drilling and studies by geologists and engineers, recognizing reasonable economic and operating restraints as to maximum depth of extraction and permit or other restrictions. Reported proven and probable reserves include only quantities that are owned or under lease, and for which all required zoning and permitting have been obtained. Of the 5.9 billion tons of aggregates reserves and resources, 2.9 billion, or 49%, are located on owned land and 3.0 billion are located on leased land.
 
Transportation costs are a major variable in determining the marketing radius for our products. The cost of transporting aggregate products from the plant to the market often equates to or exceeds the sale price of the product at the plant. As a result of the high transportation costs and the large quantities of bulk material that have to be shipped, finished products are typically marketed locally. High transportation costs are responsible for the wide dispersion of production sites. Our transportation costs are also increasing, primarily due to driver shortages and increased fuel costs. Where possible, construction material producers maintain operations adjacent to highly populated areas to reduce transportation costs and enhance margins. However, more recently, rising land values combined with local environmental concerns have been forcing production sites to move further away from the end‑use locations.
 
Each of our aggregates operations is responsible for the sale and marketing of its aggregates products. Approximately 81% of our aggregates production is sold directly to outside customers and the remaining amount is further processed by us and
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sold as a downstream product. Even though aggregates are a commodity product, we work to optimize pricing depending on the site location, availability of a particular product, customer type, project type and haul cost. We sell aggregates to internal downstream operations at market prices.
 
Our competitors in aggregates supply include large vertically‑integrated companies, that have a combined estimated market share of approximately 30%, in addition to various local suppliers.
 
We believe we have a strong competitive advantage in aggregates through our well located reserves and assets in key markets, high quality reserves and our logistic networks. We further share and implement best practices relating to safety, strategy, sales and marketing, production, and environmental and land management. Our vertical integration and local market knowledge enable us to maintain a strong understanding of the needs of our aggregates customers. In addition, our companies have a reputation for responsible environmental stewardship and land restoration, which assists us in obtaining new permits and new reserves.
 
Cement
 
Portland cement, an industry term for the common cement in general use around the world, is made from a combination of limestone, shale, clay, silica and iron ore. It is a fundamental building material consumed in several stages throughout the construction cycle of public infrastructure, residential and nonresidential projects. It is a binding agent that, when mixed with sand or aggregates and water, produces either ready‑mix concrete or mortar and is an important component of other essential construction materials. Few construction projects can take place without utilizing cement somewhere in the design, making it a key ingredient used in the construction industry. The majority of all cement shipments are sent to ready‑mix concrete operators. Sales are made on the basis of competitive terms and prices in each market. Nearly two‑thirds of U.S. consumption occurs between May and November, coinciding with end‑market construction activity.
  
Cement production in the United States is distributed from over 90 production facilities located across a majority of the states and is a capital‑intensive business with variable costs dominated by raw materials and energy required to fuel the kiln. Most U.S. cement producers are owned by large foreign companies operating in multiple international markets. Our largest competitors include large vertically integrated companies. Construction of cement production facilities is highly capital intensive and requires long lead times to complete engineering design, obtain regulatory permits, acquire equipment and construct a plant.
 
We operate a highly‑efficient, low-cost integrated cement manufacturing and distribution network through our cement plants in Hannibal, Missouri, and Davenport, Iowa and our nine distribution terminals along the Mississippi River from Minnesota to Louisiana. The combined potential capacity at our Hannibal and Davenport cement plants is approximately 2.4 million short tons per annum. We also operate on‑site waste fuel processing facilities at the plants, which can reduce plant fuel costs by up to 50%. Our Hannibal plant is one of very few with hazardous waste fuel facilities permitted and operating out of over 90 cement plants in the United States. Competitive factors include price, reliability of deliveries, location, quality of cement and support services. Aligned with our core strategy of sustainability, we expect to convert our cement plant’s production from general use Portland cement to Portland Limestone Cement (PLC). Portland Limestone Cement is accepted in all major specifications, can be used in all applications in lieu of Portland cement while reducing cement’s embodied CO2 content by up to 10%. With two cement plants, on‑site raw material supply, a network of cement terminals, and longstanding customer relationships, we believe we are well positioned to serve our customers.
 
Cement is a product that is costly to transport. Consequently, the radius within which a typical cement plant is competitive with truck transportation is typically limited to 150 miles from any shipping/distribution point. However, access to rail and barge can extend the distribution radius significantly. With both of our plants located on the Mississippi River, we are able to cost effectively distribute cement from both of our plants by truck, rail and barge directly to customers or to our nine storage and distribution terminals along the Mississippi River. Our Hannibal and Davenport plants are located on the Mississippi River and, consequently, we ship approximately 65-75% of our cement by barge, which is significantly more cost‑effective than truck or rail transport.
 
The majority of U.S. cement plants are subject to the Portland Cement – Maximum Achievable Control Technology (“PC‑MACT”). Our Hannibal and Davenport cement plants utilize alternative fuels, hazardous and non‑hazardous at Hannibal and non‑hazardous at Davenport, as well as coal, natural gas and petroleum coke and, as a result, are subject to the Hazardous Waste Combustor – Maximum Achievable Control Technology (“HWC-MACT”) and Commercial/Industrial Solid Waste Incinerators (“CISWI”) standards, respectively, rather than PC‑MACT standards.


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Ready‑mix Concrete
 
Ready‑mix concrete is one of the most versatile and widely used materials in construction today. Its flexible recipe characteristics allow for an end product that can assume almost any color, shape, texture and strength to meet the many requirements of end users that range from bridges, foundations, skyscrapers, pavements, dams, houses, parking garages, water treatment facilities, airports, tunnels, power plants, hospitals and schools. The versatility of ready‑mix concrete gives engineers significant flexibility when designing these projects.
 
Cement, coarse aggregate, fine aggregate, water and admixtures are the primary ingredients in ready‑mix concrete. Other materials commonly used in the production of ready‑mix concrete include fly‑ash, a waste by‑product from coal burning power plants, silica fume, a waste by‑product generated from the manufacture of silicon and ferro‑silicon metals, and ground granulated blast furnace slag, a by‑product of the iron and steel manufacturing process. These materials are available directly from the producer or via specialist distributors who intermediate between the ready‑mix concrete producers and the users.
 
We believe our West and East segments are leaders in the supply of ready‑mix concrete in their respective markets. The West segment has ready‑mix concrete operations in the Texas, Utah, Nevada, Idaho and Colorado markets. Our East segment supplies ready‑mix concrete in the Kansas, Missouri, Arkansas, North Carolina, South Carolina, Kentucky and Virginia markets and surrounding areas. We operated 70 ready-mix concrete plants and over 700 concrete delivery trucks in the West segment and 49 ready-mix concrete plants and almost 300 concrete delivery trucks in the East segment as of January 1, 2022. Our aggregates business serves as the primary source of the raw materials for our concrete production, functioning essentially as a supplier to our ready‑mix concrete operations.

Asphalt Paving Mix
 
Asphalt paving mix is the most common roadway material used today. It is a versatile and essential building material that has been used to surface 94% of the more than 2.7 million miles of paved roadways in the United States, according to the National Asphalt Pavement Association (“NAPA”).
 
Typically, asphalt paving mix is placed in three distinct layers to create a flexible pavement structure. These layers consist of a base course, an intermediate or binder course, and a surface or wearing course. These layers vary in thicknesses.
  
Asphalt pavement is generally 100% recyclable and reusable and is the most reused and recycled pavement material in the United States. Reclaimed asphalt pavement can be incorporated into new pavement at replacement rates in excess of 30% depending upon the mix and the application of the product. We actively engage in the recycling of previously used asphalt pavement and concrete. This material is crushed and repurposed in the construction cycle. As of January 1, 2022, we operated 25 and 22 asphalt paving mix plants in the West and East segments, respectively. Nearly all of our plants can utilize recycled asphalt pavement.
 
The use of warm mix asphalt (“WMA”) or “green” asphalt is gaining popularity. The immediate benefit to producing WMA is the reduction in energy consumption required by burning fuels to heat traditional hot mix asphalt (“HMA”) to temperatures in excess of 300°F at the production plant. These high production temperatures are needed to allow the asphalt binder to become viscous enough to completely coat the aggregate in the HMA, have good workability during laying and compaction, and durability during traffic exposure. According to the Federal Highway Administration, WMA can reduce the mixing temperature by 50°F to 70°F, resulting in lower emissions, fumes and odors generated at the plant and the paving site.
 
Approximately 70% of the asphalt paving mix we produce is installed by our own paving crews. The rest is sold on a per ton basis to road contractors, state departments of transportation and local agencies. Asphalt paving mix is used by our paving crews and by our customers primarily for the construction of roads, driveways and parking lots.
 
As part of our vertical integration strategy, we provide asphalt paving and related services to both the private and public infrastructure sectors as either a prime or sub‑contractor. These services complement our construction materials and products businesses by providing a reliable downstream outlet, in addition to our external distribution channels.

Our asphalt paving and related services businesses bid on both private construction and public infrastructure projects in their respective local markets. We only provide paving and related services operations as a complement to our aggregates operations, which we believe is a major competitive strength. Factors affecting competitiveness in this business segment include price, estimating abilities, knowledge of local markets and conditions, project management, financial strength, reputation for quality and the availability of machinery and equipment.
 
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Contracts with our customers are primarily fixed price or fixed unit price. Under fixed unit price contracts, we provide materials or services at fixed unit prices (for example, dollars per ton of asphalt placed). While the fixed unit price contract shifts the risk of estimating the quantity of units required for a particular project to the customer, any increase in our unit cost over the bid amount, whether due to inflation, inefficiency, errors in our estimates or other factors, is borne by us unless otherwise provided in the contract. Most of our contracts contain adjustment provisions to account for changes in liquid asphalt prices.
 
Customers
 
Our business is not dependent on any single customer or a few customers. Therefore, the loss of any single or small number of customers would not have a material adverse effect on any individual respective market in which we operate or on us as a whole. No individual customer accounted for more than 10% of our 2021 revenue.
 
Seasonality
 
Use and consumption of our products fluctuate due to seasonality. Nearly all of the products used by us, and by our customers, in the private construction or public infrastructure industries are used outdoors. Our highway operations and production and distribution facilities are also located outdoors. Therefore, seasonal changes and other weather‑related conditions, in particular extended rainy and cold weather in the spring and fall and major weather events, such as hurricanes, tornadoes, tropical storms, heavy snows and flooding, can adversely affect our business and operations through a decline in both the use of our products and demand for our services. In addition, construction materials production and shipment levels follow activity in the construction industry, which typically occurs in the spring, summer and fall. Warmer and drier weather during the second and third quarters of our fiscal year typically result in higher activity and revenue levels during those quarters. The first quarter of our fiscal year typically has lower levels of activity due to weather conditions.
 
Backlog
 
Our products are generally delivered upon receipt of orders or requests from customers, or shortly thereafter. Accordingly, the backlog associated with product sales is converted into revenue within a relatively short period of time. Inventory for products is generally maintained in sufficient quantities to meet rapid delivery requirements of customers. Therefore, a period over period increase or decrease of backlog does not necessarily result in an improvement or a deterioration of our business. Our backlog includes only those products and projects for which we have obtained a purchase order or a signed contract with the customer and does not include products purchased and sold or services awarded and provided within the period.
 
Subject to applicable contract terms, substantially all contracts in our backlog may be canceled or modified by our customers. Historically, we have not been materially adversely affected by significant contract cancellations or modifications.
 
Intellectual Property
 
We do not own or have a license or other rights under any patents that are material to our business.

Corporate Information
 
Summit Materials, Inc. and Summit Materials, LLC were formed under the laws of the State of Delaware on September 23, 2014 and September 24, 2008, respectively. Our principal executive office is located at 1550 Wynkoop Street, 3rd Floor, Denver, Colorado 80202. Through its predecessor, Summit Inc. commenced operations in 2009 when Summit Holdings was formed. Our telephone number is (303) 893-0012.
 
Human Capital Resources
    
As of January 1, 2022, we employed approximately 5,500 employees, of which approximately 5,200 were employed in the United States with the remainder being employed in Canada. Approximately 80% of our employees are hourly workers, with the remainder being salaried. Approximately 8% of our employees are union members, substantially all in our cement division and at our Canadian operations, with whom we believe we enjoy a satisfactory working relationship. Our collective bargaining agreements for employees who are union members generally expire between 2022 and 2026. Because of the seasonal nature of our industry, many of our hourly and certain of our salaried employees are subject to seasonal layoffs. The scope of layoffs varies greatly from season to season as they are predominantly a function of the type of projects in process and the weather during the late fall through early spring.
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Health and Safety: We maintain a safety culture grounded on the premise of striving to eliminate workplace incidents, risks and hazards. We have created and implemented processes to help eliminate safety events by reducing their frequency and severity. We also review and monitor our performance closely. Our goal is to reduce Occupational Safety and Health Administration ("OSHA") recordable incidents each year. During fiscal 2021, our recordable incident rate declined 9% compared to fiscal 2020.

As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, we have implemented safety protocols to protect our employees, contractors and customers. These protocols include complying with social distancing and other health and safety standards as required by federal, state and local government agencies, taking into consideration guidelines of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and other public health authorities. We continue to provide personal protective equipment and additional cleaning supplies. Many of our administrative and operational functions during this time have required modification, including some of our workforce working remotely. Our experienced employees adapted to the changes in our work environment and continued to successfully manage our business successfully during this challenging time.

Inclusion and Diversity: We embrace the diversity of our team members, customers, stakeholders and consumers, including their unique backgrounds, experiences, thoughts and talents. Everyone is valued and appreciated for their distinct contributions to the growth and sustainability of our business. We strive to cultivate a culture and vision that supports and enhances our ability to recruit, develop and retain diverse talent at every level. We have a goal to build a highly engaged team by increasing retention year over year. In 2021, we achieved gender parity at the Board and executive officer level with over 50% female Board directors and executive officers.

Talent Development: We prioritize and invest in creating opportunities to help employees grow and build their careers, through various training and development programs. These include on-the-job learning formats as well as executive talent and succession planning paired with an individualized development approach.

Compensation and Benefits: In addition to competitive-base compensation, we offer incentive plans for both safety and operational results, stock awards, a 401(k) plan, healthcare and insurance benefits, health savings and flexible spending accounts, paid time off, family leave programs, employee assistance programs, among others. Our 401(k) plan covers all U.S. employees, and provides for matching contributions to the plan, including 100% of pre‑tax employee contributions, up to 4% of eligible compensation. Employer contributions vest immediately. During 2021, we implemented an Employee Stock Purchase Plan in which the majority of our employees are eligible to participate.
 
Legal Proceedings
 
We are party to certain legal actions arising from the ordinary course of business activities. While the ultimate results of claims and litigation cannot be predicted with certainty, management expects that the ultimate resolution of all current pending or threatened claims and litigation will not have a material effect on our consolidated financial condition, results of operations or liquidity.

In March 2018, we were notified of an investigation by the Canadian Competition Bureau (the “CCB”) into pricing practices by certain asphalt paving contractors in British Columbia, including Winvan Paving, Ltd. (“Winvan”). We believe the investigation is focused on time periods prior to our April 2017 acquisition of Winvan and we are cooperating with the CCB. Although we currently do not believe this matter will have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations, we are currently not able to predict the ultimate outcome or cost of the investigation.
 
Environmental and Government Regulation
 
We are subject to federal, state, provincial and local laws and regulations relating to the environment and to health and safety, including noise, discharges to air and water, waste management including the management of hazardous waste used as a fuel substitute in our cement plants, remediation of contaminated sites, mine reclamation, operation and closure of landfills and dust control and zoning, land use and permitting. Our failure to comply with such laws and regulations can result in sanctions such as fines or the cessation of part or all of our operations. From time to time, we may also be required to conduct investigation or remediation activities. There also can be no assurance that our compliance costs or liabilities associated with such laws and regulations or activities will not be significant.
 
In addition, our operations require numerous governmental approvals and permits. Environmental operating permits are subject to modification, renewal and revocation and can require us to make capital, maintenance and operational expenditures to comply with the applicable requirements. Stricter laws and regulations, or more stringent interpretations of existing laws or regulations, may impose new liabilities on us, reduce operating hours, require additional investment by us in
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pollution control equipment or impede our opening new, expanding or maintaining existing plants or facilities. We regularly monitor and review our operations, procedures and policies for compliance with environmental laws and regulations, changes in interpretations of existing laws and enforcement policies, new laws that are adopted, and new requirements that we anticipate will be adopted that could affect our operations.
 
Multiple permits are required for our operations, including those required to operate our cement plants. Applicable permits may include conditional use permits to allow us to operate in certain areas absent zoning approval and operational permits governing, among other matters, air and water emissions, dust, particulate matter and storm water management and control. In addition, we are often required to obtain bonding for future reclamation costs, most commonly specific to restorative grading and seeding of disturbed surface areas.

Like others in our industry, we expend substantial amounts to comply with applicable environmental laws and regulations and permit limitations, which include amounts for pollution control equipment required to monitor and regulate emissions into the environment. The Hannibal and Davenport cement plants are subject to HWC-MACT and CISWI standards, respectively, for which we do not expect any material incremental costs to maintain compliance. Since many environmental requirements are likely to be affected by future legislation or rule making by government agencies, and are therefore not quantifiable, it is not possible to accurately predict the aggregate future costs of compliance and their effect on our future financial condition, results of operations and liquidity.
 
At most of our quarries, we incur reclamation obligations as part of our mining activities. Reclamation methods and requirements can vary depending on the individual site and state regulations. Generally, we are required to grade the mined properties to a certain slope and seed the property to prevent erosion. We record a mining reclamation liability in our consolidated financial statements to reflect the estimated fair value of the cost to reclaim each property including active and closed sites.
 
Our operations in Kansas include one municipal waste landfill and four construction and demolition debris landfills, one of which has been closed and in Colorado, we have a construction and demolition debris landfill. In Vancouver, British Columbia, we operate a landfill site that accepts environmentally clean soil deposits. Among other environmental, health and safety requirements, we are subject to obligations to appropriately close those landfills at the end of their useful lives and provide for appropriate post‑closure care. Asset retirement obligations relating to these landfills are recorded in our consolidated financial statements.
 
Health and Safety
 
Our facilities and operations are subject to a variety of worker health and safety requirements, particularly those administered by the federal Occupational Safety and Health Administration (“OSHA”) and Mine Safety and Health Administration (“MSHA”). Throughout our organization, we strive for a zero‑incident safety culture and full compliance with safety regulations. Failure to comply with these requirements can result in sanctions such as fines and penalties and claims for personal injury and property damage. These requirements may also result in increased operating and capital costs in the future.
 
Worker safety and health matters are overseen by our corporate risk management and safety department as well as operations level safety managers. We provide our operations level safety managers leadership and support, comprehensive training, and other tools designed to accomplish health and safety goals, reduce risk, eliminate hazards, and ultimately make our work places safer.
 
Where You Can Find More Information
 
We file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. Our SEC filings are available to the public over the internet at the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov. Our SEC filings are also available on our website, free of charge, at http://www.summit-materials.com as soon as reasonably practicable after they are filed with or furnished to the SEC.
 
We maintain an internet site at http://www.summit-materials.com. Our website and the information contained on or connected to that site are not incorporated into this report.

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ITEM  1A.    RISK FACTORS

Risks Related to Our Industry and Our Business

Industry Risks
 
Our business depends on activity within the construction industry and the strength of the economies in which we operate.
 
We sell most of our construction materials and products and provide all of our paving and related services to the construction industry, so our results are significantly affected by the strength of the construction industry. The strength of the construction industry in turn can be substantially affected by macroeconomic and other factors beyond our control, including changes in general economic conditions, political or social trends and unrest, terrorism or war, and natural, climate-related or man-made disasters and extreme weather conditions. In addition, federal and state budget issues may negatively affect the amount of funding available for infrastructure spending, particularly highway construction, which constitutes a significant portion of our business. Demand for our products, particularly in the residential and nonresidential construction markets, could decline if companies and consumers cannot obtain funding for construction projects, or due to other market factors such as labor shortages. In addition, a slow pace of economic activity typically results in delays or cancellations of capital projects.
 
While our business operations cover a wide geographic area, our earnings depend on the strength of the local economies in which we operate because of the high cost to transport our products relative to their price. If economic and construction activity diminishes in one or more areas, particularly in our top revenue‑generating markets of Texas, Utah, Kansas and Missouri, our financial condition, results of operations and liquidity could be materially adversely affected.
 
Our industry is cyclical and requires significant working capital to fund operations.
 
Our industry is cyclical and requires that we maintain significant working capital to fund our operations. Our ability to generate sufficient cash flow depends on future performance, which will be subject to general economic conditions, industry cycles and financial, business and other factors affecting our operations, many of which are beyond our control. If we are unable to generate sufficient cash to operate our business and service our outstanding debt and other obligations, we may be required, among other things, to further reduce or delay planned capital or operating expenditures, sell assets or take other measures, including the restructuring of all or a portion of our debt, which may only be available, if at all, on unsatisfactory terms.
 
Weather can materially affect our business and we are subject to seasonality.
 
The products we sell and the services we provide are used or performed outdoors. Therefore, seasonal changes and other weather‑related conditions can adversely affect our business and operations through a decline in both the use and production of our products and demand for our services. Adverse weather conditions such as heavy or sustained rainy and cold weather in the spring and fall can reduce demand for our products and reduce sales, render our contracting operations less efficient or restrict our ability to ship our products. For example, unusually severe flooding conditions on the Mississippi River during the first half of 2019, negatively impacted our operations which affected our financial results. Major weather events such as hurricanes, tornadoes, tropical storms and heavy snows have adversely affected and could adversely affect sales in the near term and may be more severe due to climate change. In particular, our operations in the southeastern and Gulf Coast regions of the United States are at risk for hurricane activity, most notably in August, September and October. For example, in 2017, Hurricane Harvey adversely affected our operations not only during the days immediately before and after the storm, but also in the weeks and months after the storm as our customers recovered and reallocated resources in response to damage caused by the storm.
 
Construction materials production and shipment levels follow activity in the construction industry, which typically occurs in the spring, summer and fall. Warmer and drier weather during the second and third quarters of our fiscal year typically result in higher activity and revenue levels during those quarters. The first quarter of our fiscal year has typically lower levels of activity due to the weather conditions. Our second quarter varies greatly with spring rains and wide temperature variations. A cool wet spring increases drying time on projects, which can delay sales in the second quarter, while a warm dry spring may enable earlier project startup. Such adverse weather conditions can adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations if they occur with unusual intensity, during abnormal periods or last longer than usual in our major markets, especially during peak construction periods.


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Our industry is capital intensive and we have significant fixed and semi‑fixed costs. Therefore, our profitability is sensitive to changes in volume.
 
The property and machinery needed to produce our materials and products can be very expensive. Therefore, we need to spend a substantial amount of capital to purchase and maintain the equipment necessary to operate our business. Although we believe that our current cash balance, along with our projected internal cash flows and our available financing resources, will provide sufficient cash to support our currently anticipated operating and capital needs, if we are unable to generate sufficient cash to purchase and maintain the property and machinery necessary to operate our business, we may be required to reduce or delay planned capital expenditures or incur additional debt. In addition, given the level of fixed and semi‑fixed costs within our business, particularly at our cement production facilities, decreases in volumes could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and liquidity.
 
Within our local markets, we operate in a highly competitive industry.
 
The U.S. construction aggregates industry is highly fragmented with a large number of independent local producers in a number of our markets. Additionally, in most markets, we also compete against large private and public companies, some of which are also vertically‑integrated. Therefore, there is intense competition in a number of the markets in which we operate. This significant competition could lead to lower prices, higher wages, lower sales volumes and higher costs in some markets, negatively affecting our financial condition, results of operations and liquidity.
 
Growth and Portfolio Optimization Risks
 
The success of our business depends in part on our ability to execute on our acquisition and portfolio optimization strategy.
 
A significant portion of our historical growth has occurred through acquisitions, and we will likely execute acquisition transactions in the future. Acquisitions involve risks that, among other things, the businesses acquired will not perform as expected. We are presently evaluating, and we expect to continue to evaluate on an ongoing basis, possible acquisition transactions. We are presently engaged, and at any time in the future we may be engaged, in discussions or negotiations with respect to possible acquisitions, including larger transactions that would be significant to us. We regularly make, and we expect to continue to make, non‑binding acquisition proposals, and we may enter into letters of intent, in each case allowing us to conduct due diligence on a confidential basis. In addition, we have recently disposed of a number of assets and businesses that we did not believe met our long-term investment criteria and through our portfolio optimization program, we are also evaluating additional divestiture opportunities of certain assets and businesses that are not core to our business. There can be no assurances that we will be able to recover the current carrying amount of our investments, and in some circumstances, assets or businesses may result in additional impairment expenses or other losses. In addition, we may become subject to certain contractual indemnity or other obligations or may fail to successfully deploy sale proceeds. We cannot predict the timing of any contemplated transactions. To successfully acquire a significant target, we may need to raise additional capital through additional equity issuances, additional indebtedness, or a combination of equity and debt issuances. There can be no assurance that we will enter into definitive agreements with respect to any contemplated transactions or that they will be completed. Our acquisitions and portfolio optimization efforts have placed, and may continue to place, significant demands on our management and operational and financial resources.
 
Our results of operations from these acquisitions could, in the future, result in impairment charges for any of our intangible assets, including goodwill, or other long‑lived assets, particularly if economic conditions worsen unexpectedly. As a result of these changes, our financial condition, results of operations and liquidity could be materially adversely affected. In addition, many of the businesses that we have acquired and will acquire have unaudited financial statements that have been prepared by the management of such companies and have not been independently reviewed or audited. We cannot assure you that the financial statements of companies we have acquired or will acquire would not be materially different if such statements were independently reviewed or audited. If such statements were to be materially different, the tangible and intangible assets we acquire may be more susceptible to impairment charges, which could have a material adverse effect on us.
 
The success of our business depends on our ability to successfully integrate acquisitions.
 
Acquisitions may require integration of the acquired companies’ sales and marketing, distribution, production, purchasing, information technology, finance and administrative organizations. We may not be able to integrate successfully any business we may acquire or have acquired into our existing business and any acquired businesses may not be profitable or as profitable as we had expected. Our inability to complete the integration of new businesses in a timely and orderly manner could increase costs and lower profits. Factors affecting the successful integration of acquired businesses include, but are not limited to, the following:
 
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We may become liable for certain liabilities of any acquired business, whether or not known to us. These risks could include, among others, tax liabilities, product liabilities, environmental liabilities and liabilities for employment practices. These liabilities may be significant.

Substantial attention from our senior management and the management of the acquired business may be required, which could decrease the time that they have to service and attract customers.

Capital equipment at acquired businesses may require additional maintenance or need to be replaced sooner than we expected.

The complete integration of acquired companies depends, to a certain extent, on the full implementation of our financial systems and policies.

We may actively pursue a number of opportunities simultaneously and we may encounter unforeseen expenses, complications and delays, including difficulties in employing sufficient staff and maintaining operational and management oversight.

The success of our business depends on our ability to retain key employees of our acquired businesses.
 
We cannot assure you we will be able to retain local managers and employees who are important to the operations of our acquired businesses. The loss of key employees may have an adverse effect on the acquired business and on our business as a whole.
 
Our long‑term success is dependent upon securing and permitting aggregate reserves in strategically located areas. The inability to secure and permit such reserves could negatively affect our earnings in the future.
 
Aggregates are bulky and heavy and therefore difficult to transport efficiently. Because of the nature of the products, the freight costs can quickly surpass production costs. Therefore, except for geographic regions that do not possess commercially viable deposits of aggregates and are served by rail, barge or ship, the markets for our products tend to be localized around our quarry sites and are served by truck. New quarry sites often take a number of years to develop. Our strategic planning and new site development must stay ahead of actual growth. Additionally, in a number of urban and suburban areas in which we operate, it is increasingly difficult to permit new sites or expand existing sites due to community resistance. Therefore, our future success is dependent, in part, on our ability to accurately forecast future areas of high growth in order to locate optimal facility sites and on our ability to either acquire existing quarries or secure operating and environmental permits to open new quarries. If we are unable to accurately forecast areas of future growth, acquire existing quarries or secure the necessary permits to open new quarries, our financial condition, results of operations and liquidity could be materially adversely affected.
 
Economic Risks

The ongoing novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has caused severe disruptions in the U.S. and global economy and may continue to adversely impact the economy. While the full scale and long-term effects of the COVID-19 outbreak are unknown at this time, the overall impact on our business, operating results, cash flows and/or financial condition could be material.

The United States and other countries have reacted to the COVID-19 pandemic with unprecedented government intervention. The global impact of the outbreak continues to evolve, and many countries have reacted by re-instituting, or strongly encouraging quarantines and restrictions on travel, limiting operations of non-essential businesses, imposing vaccine or testing mandates and taking other restrictive measures designed to help slow the spread of COVID-19. While most economic activity has normalized or returned to near pre-pandemic levels, there have been longer lasting disruptions to global supply chains and employment trends that have adversely impacted many industries. The extent of the COVID-19 pandemic and its after effects on our future results of operations and overall financial performance remains uncertain.

The scale and scope of the COVID-19 pandemic may heighten the potential adverse effects on our business, operating results, cash flows and/or financial condition of the risks described in this report, including the impact of:

potentially unfavorable economic conditions for our clients and customers, particularly in the residential and non-residential sectors, and the construction industry generally;
delays or cancellation of projects and delays in collecting on certain of our accounts receivable from our customers;
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increased costs and potential labor shortages associated with compliance with new government regulations or restrictions, such as vaccine mandates and quarantines, which regulations or restrictions may adversely impact our normal operations in one or more of the markets in which we operate;
significant disruptions at one or more of our locations, which could disrupt our operations, raise costs and reduce revenue and earnings in the affected areas;
fluctuations in equity market prices (including that of our Class A common stock), interest rates and credit spreads limiting our ability to raise or deploy capital and affecting our overall liquidity: and
a sustained longer term reduction in cash flows may be an indication some or all of our goodwill may not be realizable.

In addition, the COVID-19 pandemic has to date and may further adversely impact our business and financial condition in other areas, including as a result of:

increased costs, including as a result of implementing health and safety protocols at our locations;
disruptions to our supply and distribution channels, including delivery trucks;
lower sales volumes due to reduced demand; and
reduced state and local transportation budgets, particularly if such are not augmented by federal funding.

The fluidity of this situation precludes any prediction as to the ultimate adverse impact of COVID-19 on economic and market conditions, and, as a result, present material uncertainty and risk with respect to our business. The duration and extent of the impact from the COVID-19 pandemic depends on future developments that cannot be accurately predicted at this time, such as the success of vaccination efforts, the impact of newer strains of the virus, the extent and effectiveness of containment actions, and the impact of these and other factors on our employees, customers, suppliers and partners. It is also possible that negative consequences of the pandemic may continue once the pandemic is controlled.

The adverse impact on our business, financial condition, operating results or liquidity or future results from the COVID-19 pandemic, or any similar future crisis, could be material. The inherent uncertainty surrounding COVID-19, and likewise any similar crisis, also makes it more challenging for our management to estimate the future performance of our business and develop strategies to generate growth or achieve our objectives for fiscal 2022.
 
A decline in public infrastructure construction and reductions in governmental funding could adversely affect our earnings in the future.
 
A significant portion of our revenue is generated from publicly‑funded construction projects. As a result, if publicly‑funded construction decreases due to reduced federal or state funding or otherwise, our financial condition, results of operations and liquidity could be materially adversely affected.
 
Under U.S. law, annual funding levels for highways is subject to yearly appropriation reviews. This annual review of funding increases the uncertainty of many state departments of transportation regarding funds for highway projects. This uncertainty could result in states being reluctant to undertake large multi‑year highway projects which could, in turn, negatively affect our sales. We cannot be assured of the existence, amount and timing of appropriations for spending on federal, state or local projects. Federal support for the cost of highway maintenance and construction is dependent on congressional action. In addition, each state funds its infrastructure spending from specially allocated amounts collected from various taxes, typically gasoline taxes and vehicle fees, along with voter‑approved bond programs. Shortages in state tax revenues can reduce the amounts spent on state infrastructure projects, even below amounts awarded under legislative bills. In recent years, certain states have experienced state‑level funding pressures caused by lower tax revenues and an inability to finance approved projects. Delays or cancellations of state infrastructure spending could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and liquidity.
 
Our business relies on private investment in infrastructure, and periods of economic stagnation or recession may adversely affect our earnings in the future.
 
A significant portion of our sales are for projects with non‑public owners whose construction spending is affected by developers’ ability to finance projects. Residential and nonresidential construction could decline if companies and consumers are unable to finance construction projects or in periods of economic stagnation or recession, which could result in delays or cancellations of capital projects. If housing starts and nonresidential projects stagnate or decline, sale of our construction materials, downstream products and paving and related services may decline and our financial condition, results of operations and liquidity could be materially adversely affected.
 
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Environmental, health and safety laws and regulations and any changes to, or liabilities or litigation arising under, such laws and regulations could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and liquidity.
 
We are subject to a variety of federal, state, provincial and local laws and regulations relating to, among other things: (i) the release or discharge of materials into the environment; (ii) the management, use, generation, treatment, processing, handling, storage, transport or disposal of hazardous materials, including the management of hazardous and non-hazardous waste used as a fuel substitute in our cement kiln in Hannibal, Missouri; (iii) the management, use, generation, treatment, processing, handling, storage, transport or disposal of non‑hazardous solid waste used as a fuel substitute in our cement kiln in Davenport, Iowa; and (iv) the protection of public and employee health and safety and the environment. These laws and regulations impose strict liability in some cases without regard to negligence or fault and expose us to liability for the environmental condition of our currently or formerly owned, leased or operated facilities or third‑party waste disposal sites, and may expose us to liability for the conduct of others or for our actions, even if such actions complied with all applicable laws at the time these actions were taken. In particular, we may incur remediation costs and other related expenses because our facilities were constructed and operated before the adoption of current environmental laws and the institution of compliance practices or because certain of our processes are regulated. These laws and regulations may also expose us to liability for claims of personal injury or property or natural resource damage related to alleged exposure to, or releases of, regulated or hazardous materials. The existence of contamination at properties we own, lease or operate could also result in increased operational costs or restrictions on our ability to use those properties as intended.
 
There is an inherent risk of liability in the operation of our business, and despite our compliance efforts, we may be in noncompliance with environmental, health and safety laws and regulations from time to time. These potential liabilities or events of noncompliance could have a material adverse effect on our operations and profitability. In many instances, we must have government approvals, certificates, permits or licenses in order to conduct our business, which could require us to make significant capital, operating and maintenance expenditures to comply with environmental, health and safety laws and regulations. Our failure to obtain and maintain required approvals, certificates, permits or licenses or to comply with applicable governmental requirements could result in sanctions, including substantial fines or possible revocation of our authority to conduct some or all of our operations. Governmental requirements that affect our operations also include those relating to air and water quality, waste management, asset reclamation, the operation and closure of municipal waste and construction and demolition debris landfills, remediation of contaminated sites and worker health and safety. These requirements are complex and subject to frequent change, often in connection with changes in the presidential administration. Stricter laws and regulations, more stringent interpretations of existing laws or regulations or the future discovery of environmental conditions may impose new liabilities on us, reduce operating hours, require additional investment by us in pollution control equipment or impede our opening new or expanding existing plants or facilities.
 
We have incurred, and may in the future incur, significant capital and operating expenditures to comply with such laws and regulations, and in some cases we have been or could be named as a defendant in litigation brought by governmental agencies or private parties. In addition, we have recorded liabilities in connection with our reclamation and landfill closure obligations, but there can be no assurances that the costs of our obligations will not exceed our estimates. The cost of complying with such laws and defending against any litigation could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and liquidity.

Shortages of, or increases in prices for, commodities, labor and other production and delivery inputs could restrict our ability to operate our business and could have significant impacts on our operating costs.

Shortages of, or increases in prices for, production and delivery inputs, including commodities and labor, and other inputs related to the production and delivery of our products, could adversely affect our business. Our cost of revenue consists of production and delivery inputs, which primarily include labor, utilities, raw materials, fuel, transportation, royalties and other direct costs incurred in the production and delivery of our products and services. Increases in these costs, as a result of general economic conditions, inflationary pressures or otherwise, may reduce our operating margin and adversely affect our financial position if we are unable to hedge or otherwise offset such increases. Specifically, significant increases or fluctuations in the prices of certain energy commodities, including diesel fuel, liquid asphalt and other petroleum-based resources, which we consume significant amounts of in our production and distribution processes, could negatively affect the results of our business operations or cause our results to suffer. Additionally, labor is a meaningful component in our ability to operate our business and can have a significant impact on the cost of operating our business. Labor shortages could restrict our ability to operate our business or result in increased labor costs as a result of wage increases due to competition for qualified workers. Increased labor costs, whether due to labor shortages, competition for labor from other industries, changing demographics of the overall work force or otherwise may reduce our operating margin and adversely affect our financial position.

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Availability of and pricing for raw materials and labor can be affected by various national, regional, local, economic and political factors. For example, government-imposed tariffs and trade regulations on imported raw materials could have significant impacts on our costs to operate our business, as well as the ongoing labor and supply shortage.
 
Financial Risks
 
Difficult and volatile conditions in the credit markets could affect our financial condition, results of operations and liquidity.
 
Demand for our products is primarily dependent on the overall health of the economy, and federal, state and local public infrastructure funding levels. A stagnant or declining economy tends to produce less tax revenue for public infrastructure agencies, thereby decreasing a source of funds available for spending on public infrastructure improvements, which constitute a significant part of our business.
 
There is a likelihood that we will not be able to collect on certain of our accounts receivable from our customers. If our customers are unable to obtain credit or unable to obtain credit in a timely manner, they may be unable to pay us, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and liquidity.
 
If we are unable to accurately estimate the overall risks, requirements or costs when we bid on or negotiate contracts that are ultimately awarded to us, we may achieve lower than anticipated profits or incur contract losses.
 
Even though the majority of our government contracts contain raw material escalators to protect us from certain input material price increases, a portion or all of the contracts are often on a fixed cost basis. Pricing on a contract with a fixed unit price is based on approved quantities irrespective of our actual costs and contracts with a fixed total price require that the total amount of work be performed for a single price irrespective of our actual costs. We realize profit on our contracts only if our revenue exceeds actual costs, which requires that we successfully estimate our costs and then successfully control actual costs and avoid cost overruns. If our cost estimates for a contract are inadequate, or if we do not execute the contract within our cost estimates, then cost overruns may cause us to incur a loss or cause the contract not to be as profitable as we expected. The costs incurred and profit realized, if any, on our contracts can vary, sometimes substantially, from our original projections due to a variety of factors, including, but not limited to:
 
failure to include materials or work in a bid, or the failure to estimate properly the quantities or costs needed to complete a lump sum contract;

delays caused by weather conditions or otherwise failing to meet scheduled acceptance dates;

contract or project modifications or conditions creating unanticipated costs that are not covered by change orders;

changes in availability, proximity and costs of materials, including liquid asphalt, cement, aggregates and other construction materials (such as stone, gravel, sand and oil for asphalt paving), as well as fuel and lubricants for our equipment;

to the extent not covered by contractual cost escalators, variability and inability to predict the costs of purchasing diesel, liquid asphalt and cement;

availability and skill level of workers;

failure by our suppliers, subcontractors, designers, engineers or customers to perform their obligations;

fraud, theft or other improper activities by our suppliers, subcontractors, designers, engineers, customers or our own personnel;

mechanical problems with our machinery or equipment;

citations issued by any governmental authority, including OSHA and MSHA;

difficulties in obtaining required governmental permits or approvals;

changes in applicable laws and regulations;
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uninsured claims or demands from third parties for alleged damages arising from the design, construction or use and operation of a project of which our work is part; and

public infrastructure customers may seek to impose contractual risk‑shifting provisions more aggressively which may result in us facing increased risks.

These factors, as well as others, may cause us to incur losses, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and liquidity.
 
We could incur material costs and losses as a result of claims that our products do not meet regulatory requirements or contractual specifications.
 
We provide our customers with products designed to meet building code or other regulatory requirements and contractual specifications for measurements such as durability, compressive strength, weight‑bearing capacity and other characteristics. If we fail or are unable to provide products meeting these requirements and specifications, material claims may arise against us and our reputation could be damaged. Additionally, if a significant uninsured, non‑indemnified or product‑related claim is resolved against us in the future, that resolution could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and liquidity.
 
The cancellation of a significant number of contracts or our disqualification from bidding for new contracts could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and liquidity.
 
We could be prohibited from bidding on certain government contracts if we fail to maintain qualifications required by the relevant government entities. In addition, contracts with governmental entities can usually be canceled at any time by them with payment only for the work completed. A cancellation of an unfinished contract or our disqualification from the bidding process could result in lost revenue and cause our equipment to be idled for a significant period of time until other comparable work becomes available, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and liquidity.
 
Our operations are subject to special hazards that may cause personal injury or property damage, subjecting us to liabilities and possible losses which may not be covered by insurance.
 
Operating hazards inherent in our business, some of which may be outside our control, can cause personal injury and loss of life, damage to or destruction of property, plant and equipment and environmental damage. We maintain insurance coverage in amounts and against the risks we believe are consistent with industry practice, but this insurance may not be adequate or available to cover all losses or liabilities we may incur in our operations. Our insurance policies are subject to varying levels of deductibles. However, liabilities subject to insurance are difficult to estimate due to unknown factors, including the severity of an injury, the determination of our liability in proportion to other parties, the number of incidents not reported and the effectiveness of our safety programs. If we were to experience insurance claims or costs above our estimates, our financial condition, results of operations and liquidity could be materially adversely affected.
 
Unexpected factors affecting self‑insurance claims and reserve estimates could adversely affect our business.
 
We use a combination of third‑party insurance and self‑insurance to provide for potential liabilities for workers’ compensation, general liability, vehicle accident, property and medical benefit claims. Although we seek to minimize our exposure on individual claims, for the benefit of costs savings we have accepted the risk of multiple independent material claims arising. We estimate the projected losses and liabilities associated with the risks retained by us, in part, by considering historical claims experience, demographic and severity factors and other actuarial assumptions which, by their nature, are subject to a high degree of variability. Among the causes of this variability are unpredictable external factors affecting future inflation rates, discount rates, litigation trends, legal interpretations, benefit level changes and claim settlement patterns. Any such matters could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and liquidity.

Our substantial leverage could adversely affect our financial condition, our ability to raise additional capital to fund our operations, our ability to operate our business, our ability to react to changes in the economy or our industry and our ability to pay our debts, which could divert our cash flow from operations to debt payments.
 
We are highly leveraged. As of January 1, 2022, our total debt was approximately $1.6 billion, which includes $1.0 billion of Senior Notes and $610.0 million of senior secured indebtedness under our senior secured credit facilities and we had
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an additional $327.1 million of unutilized capacity under our senior secured revolving credit facility (after giving effect to approximately $17.9 million of letters of credit outstanding).
 
Our high degree of leverage could have important consequences, including:
 
increasing our vulnerability to general economic and industry conditions;

requiring a substantial portion of cash flow from operations to be dedicated to the payment of principal and interest on our indebtedness, thereby reducing our ability to use our cash flow to fund our operations, capital expenditures and future business opportunities;

the deductibility of our interest expense is currently limited under existing law;

subject us to the risk of increased interest rates as a portion of our borrowings under our senior secured credit facilities are exposed to variable rates of interest;

restricting us from making strategic acquisitions or causing us to make non-strategic divestitures;

limiting our ability to obtain additional financing for working capital, capital expenditures, debt service requirements, acquisitions and general corporate or other purposes;

limiting our ability to adjust to changing market conditions and placing us at a competitive disadvantage compared to our competitors who are less highly leveraged; and

making it more difficult for us to make payments on our debt.

Borrowings under our senior secured credit facilities are at variable rates of interest and expose us to interest rate risk. If interest rates increase, our debt service obligations on the variable rate indebtedness will increase even though the amount borrowed remained the same, and our net income and cash flows, including cash available for servicing our indebtedness, will correspondingly decrease. We historically have and may in the future enter into interest rate swaps that involve the exchange of floating for fixed rate interest payments in order to reduce interest rate volatility. However, we may not maintain interest rate swaps with respect to all of our variable rate indebtedness, and any interest rate swaps we enter into may not fully mitigate our interest rate risk. In addition, certain of our variable rate indebtedness uses London Inter-bank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”) as a benchmark for establishing the rate of interest. LIBOR has been the subject of national, international and other regulatory guidance and proposals for reform. Publication of certain LIBOR reference rates was discontinued at the beginning of 2021. However, the ICE Benchmark Administration, in its capacity as administrator of USD LIBOR, intends to extend publication of USD LIBOR (other than one-week and two-month tenors) by 18 months to June 2023. While we expect LIBOR to be available in its current form at least until the end of June 2023, it is possible that LIBOR will become unavailable prior to that point which may impact the cost of our variable rate indebtedness. The consequences of these developments cannot be entirely predicted, but could include an increase in the cost of our variable rate indebtedness. If LIBOR ceases to exist or if the methods of calculating LIBOR change from their current form, we may also need to renegotiate our variable rate indebtedness that utilizes LIBOR as a factor in determining the interest rate to replace LIBOR with the new standard that is established. In addition, the indentures that govern the Senior Notes and the amended and restated credit agreement governing our senior secured credit facilities (“Credit Agreement”) contain restrictive covenants that limit our ability to engage in activities that may be in our long-term best interest. Our failure to comply with those covenants could result in an event of default which, if not cured or waived, could result in the acceleration of all our debt.
 
Despite our current level of indebtedness, we and our subsidiaries may still incur substantially more debt. This could reduce our ability to satisfy our current obligations and further exacerbate the risks to our financial condition described above.
 
We and our subsidiaries may incur significant additional indebtedness in the future to fund acquisitions as part of our growth strategy. Although the indentures governing the Senior Notes and the Credit Agreement contain restrictions on the incurrence of additional indebtedness, these restrictions are subject to a number of qualifications and exceptions, and we could incur substantial additional indebtedness in compliance with these restrictions.
 
Our senior secured credit facilities include an uncommitted incremental facility that allows us the option to increase the amount available under the term loan facility and/or the senior secured revolving credit facility by (i) $225.0 million plus (ii) an additional amount so long as we are in pro forma compliance with a consolidated first lien net leverage ratio.
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Availability of such incremental facilities will be subject to, among other conditions, the absence of an event of default and the receipt of commitments by existing or additional financial institutions.

We may not be able to generate sufficient cash to service all of our indebtedness and may be forced to take other actions to satisfy our obligations under our indebtedness, which may not be successful.
 
Our ability to make scheduled payments on our debt obligations, refinance our debt obligations and fund planned capital expenditures and other corporate expenses depends on our financial condition and operating performance, which is subject to prevailing economic and competitive conditions. We are also subject to certain financial, business, legislative, regulatory and legal restrictions on the payment of distributions and dividends. Many of these factors are beyond our control. We may not be able to maintain a level of cash flows from operating activities sufficient to permit us to pay the principal, premium, if any, and interest on our indebtedness, which would constitute an event of default if not cured. See “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Liquidity and Capital Resources.” If our cash flows and capital resources are insufficient to fund our debt service obligations or our other needs, we may be forced to reduce or delay investments and capital expenditures, seek additional capital, restructure or refinance our indebtedness or sell assets. These alternative measures may not be successful and may not permit us to meet our scheduled debt service obligations or fund planned capital expenditures. Significant delays in our planned capital expenditures may materially and adversely affect our future revenue prospects. In addition, our ability to restructure or refinance our debt will depend on the capital markets and our financial condition at such time. Any refinancing of our debt could be at higher interest rates and may require us to comply with more onerous covenants, which could further restrict our business operations. The Credit Agreement and the indentures governing the Senior Notes restrict our ability to use the proceeds from asset sales. We may not be able to consummate those asset sales to raise capital or sell assets at prices that we believe are fair and proceeds that we do receive may not be adequate to meet any debt service obligations then due. In addition, any failure to make payments of interest and principal on our outstanding indebtedness on a timely basis would likely result in a reduction of our credit rating, which could harm our ability to incur additional indebtedness.
 
The indentures governing the Senior Notes and the Credit Agreement contain covenants and provisions that are restrictive.
 
The indentures governing the Senior Notes and Credit Agreement contain restrictive covenants that, among other things, limit our ability, and the ability of our restricted subsidiaries, to:
 
incur additional indebtedness, issue certain preferred shares or issue guarantees;

pay dividends, redeem our membership interests or make other restricted payments, including purchasing our Class A common stock;

make investments, loans or advances;

incur additional liens;

transfer or sell assets;

merge or engage in consolidations;

enter into certain transactions with our affiliates;

designate subsidiaries as unrestricted subsidiaries;

repay subordinated indebtedness; and

change our lines of business.

The senior secured credit facilities also require us to maintain a maximum first lien net leverage ratio. The Credit Agreement also contains certain customary representations and warranties, affirmative covenants and events of default (including, among others, an event of default upon a change of control). If an event of default occurs, the lenders under our senior secured credit facilities will be entitled to take various actions, including the acceleration of amounts due under our senior secured credit facilities and all actions permitted to be taken by a secured creditor. Our failure to comply with obligations under the indentures governing the Senior Notes and the Credit Agreement may result in an event of default under the indenture or the amended and restated Credit Agreement. A default, if not cured or waived, may permit acceleration of our
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indebtedness. If our indebtedness is accelerated, we may not have sufficient funds available to pay the accelerated indebtedness or the ability to refinance the accelerated indebtedness on terms favorable to us or at all.
 
Other Risks
 
Our success is dependent on our senior management team and our ability to retain and attract qualified personnel.
 
Our success depends on the continuing services of key members of our management team. We believe our senior management team possesses valuable knowledge and skills that are crucial to our success and would be difficult to replicate or replace.
 
Competition for senior management is intense, and we may not be able to retain our management team or attract additional qualified personnel. The unexpected loss of a member of senior management has in the past and could in the future require certain of our remaining senior officers to divert immediate attention, which can be substantial or require costly external resources in the short term. While we are developing plans for key management succession and have long-term compensation plans designed to retain our senior employees, if our retention and succession plans do not operate effectively, our business could be adversely affected. The inability to adequately fill vacancies in our senior executive positions on a timely basis could negatively affect our ability to implement our business strategy, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition and liquidity.
 
We use large amounts of electricity, diesel fuel, liquid asphalt and other petroleum‑based resources that are subject to potential reliability issues, supply constraints and significant price fluctuation, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and liquidity.
 
In our production and distribution processes, we consume significant amounts of electricity, diesel fuel, liquid asphalt and other petroleum‑based resources. The availability and pricing of these resources are subject to market forces that are beyond our control. Furthermore, we are vulnerable to any reliability issues experienced by our suppliers, which also are beyond our control. Our suppliers contract separately for the purchase of such resources and our sources of supply could be interrupted should our suppliers not be able to obtain these materials due to higher demand or other factors that interrupt their availability. Variability in the supply and prices of these resources could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and liquidity.
 
Climate change and climate change legislation or regulations may adversely affect our business.
 
A number of governmental bodies have finalized, proposed or are contemplating legislative and regulatory changes in response to the potential effects of climate change, and Canada and the United States have agreed to the Paris Agreement, the successor to the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, which could lead to additional legislative and regulatory changes in those countries. In addition, in the United States, in part due to the current administration’s focus on climate change as central to U.S. policy, there may be additional legislative and regulatory changes connected to changes in presidential administration. In April 2021, President Biden announced that the United States' Nationally Defined Contribution to the Paris Agreement will be an economy-wide reduction in greenhouse (“GHG”) emissions of 50-52% by 2030, relative to 2005 levels. In addition, in advance of the November 2021 Conference of the Parties 26 meeting in Glasgow, Scotland (“COP26”), the Biden administration released details on its strategy to achieve those targets. The COP26 meeting concluded with international consensus to further reduce GHG emissions, including through the elimination of certain fossil fuel subsidies. In conjunction with COP26, the United States and China also bilaterally agreed to cooperate on GHG emission reductions. Any resulting legislation or regulation has and potentially could include provisions for a “cap and trade” system of allowances and credits, among other provisions. The EPA promulgated a mandatory reporting rule covering GHG emissions from sources considered to be large emitters. The EPA has also promulgated a GHG emissions permitting rule, referred to as the “Tailoring Rule” which sets forth criteria for determining which facilities are required to obtain permits for GHG emissions pursuant to the U.S. Clean Air Act’s Prevention of Significant Deterioration (“PSD”) and Title V operating permit programs. The U.S. Supreme Court ruled in June 2014 that the EPA exceeded its statutory authority in issuing the Tailoring Rule but upheld the Best Available Control Technology (“BACT”) requirements for GHGs emitted by sources already subject to PSD requirements for other pollutants. Our cement plants and one of our landfills hold Title V Permits. If future modifications to our facilities require PSD review for other pollutants, GHG BACT requirements may also be triggered, which could require significant additional costs.
 
Other potential effects of climate change include physical effects such as disruption in production and product distribution as a result of major storm events and shifts in regional weather patterns and intensities. Given the nature of our operations, physical impacts may include disruptions in production and/or regional supply or product distribution networks due to major storm events, shifts in regional rainfall and temperature patterns and intensities, as well as flooding from sea level
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changes. There is also a potential for climate change legislation and regulation to adversely affect the cost of purchased energy and electricity.

Additionally, actual or perceived environmental, social, governance and other sustainability (ESG) matters and our response to these matters could harm our business. Increasing governmental and societal attention to ESG matters, including expanding mandatory and voluntary reporting, diligence, and disclosure on topics such as climate change, human capital, labor and risk oversight, could expand the nature, scope, and complexity of matters that we are required to control, assess and report. These factors may alter the environment in which we do business and may increase the ongoing costs of compliance and adversely impact our results of operations and cash flows. If we are unable to adequately address such ESG matters or fail to comply with all laws, regulations, policies and related interpretations, it could negatively impact our reputation and our business results.

The effects of climate change on our operations are highly uncertain and difficult to estimate. However, because a chemical reaction inherent to the manufacture of Portland cement releases carbon dioxide, a GHG, cement kiln operations may be disproportionately affected by future regulation of GHGs. Climate change and legislation and regulation concerning GHGs could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and liquidity.
 
Unexpected operational difficulties at our facilities could disrupt operations, raise costs, and reduce revenue and earnings in the affected locations.
 
The reliability and efficiency of certain of our facilities is dependent upon vital pieces of equipment, such as our cement manufacturing kilns in Hannibal, Missouri and Davenport, Iowa. Although we have scheduled outages to perform maintenance on certain of our facilities, vital equipment may periodically experience unanticipated disruptions due to accidents, mechanical failures or other unanticipated events such as fires, explosions, violent weather conditions or other unexpected operational difficulties. A substantial interruption of one of our facilities could require us to make significant capital expenditures to restore operations and could disrupt our operations, raise costs, and reduce revenue and earnings in the affected locations.
 
We may incur significant costs in connection with pending and future litigation.

We have seen increases in litigation as the scope of our business and operations has grown. We are, or may become, party to various lawsuits, claims, investigations, and proceedings, including but not limited to personal injury, environmental, antitrust, tax, property entitlements and land use, commercial, contract, product liability, health and safety, and employment matters. The outcome of pending or future lawsuits, claims, investigations, or proceedings is often difficult to predict and could be adverse and material in amount. Development in these proceedings can lead to changes in management’s estimates of liabilities associated with these proceedings including the judge’s rulings or judgments, jury verdicts, settlements, or changes in applicable law. Future adverse rulings, settlements, or unfavorable developments could result in charges that could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and cash flows in a particular period. In addition, the defense of these lawsuits, claims, investigations, and proceedings may divert our management’s attention, and we may incur significant costs in defending these matters.

We are dependent on information technology. Our systems and infrastructure face certain risks, including cyber security risks and data leakage risks.
 
We are dependent on information technology systems and infrastructure to carry out important operational activities and to maintain our business records. In addition, we rely on the systems of third parties, such as third-party vendors. As part of our normal business activities, we collect and store certain personal identifying and confidential information relating to our customers, employees, vendors and suppliers, and maintain operational and financial information related to our business. We may share some of this confidential information with our vendors. We rely on our vendors and third-party service providers to maintain effective cybersecurity measures to keep our information secure. Any significant breakdown, invasion, destruction or interruption of our existing or future systems by employees, third parties, vendors, others with authorized access to our systems, or unauthorized persons could negatively affect operations. In addition, future systems upgrades or changes could be time consuming, costly and result in unexpected interruptions or other adverse effects on our business. There is also a risk that we could experience a business interruption, theft of information or reputational damage as a result of a cyber-attack, such as an infiltration of a data center, “ransomware” or other malware, or data leakage of confidential information either internally or at our third‑party providers.

While we have invested in the protection of our data and information technology to reduce these risks and periodically test the security of our information systems network, there can be no assurance that our efforts will prevent breakdowns or breaches in our systems that could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of
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operations and liquidity. Our or our vendors’ and third-party service providers’ failure to maintain the security of the data we are required to protect could result in damage to our reputation, financial obligations to third parties, fines, penalties, regulatory proceedings and private litigation with potentially large costs, and also in deterioration in customers’ confidence in us and other competitive disadvantages. While, to date, we have not had a significant cybersecurity breach or attack that has a material impact on our business or results of operations, there can be no assurance that our efforts to maintain the security and integrity of our information technology networks and related systems will be effective or that attempted security breaches or disruptions would not be successful or damaging.
 
Labor disputes, strikes, other forms of work stoppage or slowdown or other union activities could disrupt operations of our businesses.
 
As of January 1, 2022, labor unions represented approximately 8% of our total employees, substantially all in our cement division and at our Canadian operations. Our collective bargaining agreements for employees generally expire between 2022 and 2026. Although we believe we have good relations with our employees and unions, disputes with our trade unions, union organizing activity, or the inability to renew our labor agreements or adverse labor relations at any of our locations, could lead to strikes, other forms of work stoppage, slowdowns or other actions that could disrupt our operations and, consequently, have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and liquidity.
 
Organizational Structure Risks
 
Summit Inc.’s only material asset is its interest in Summit Holdings, and it is accordingly dependent upon distributions from Summit Holdings to pay taxes, make payments under the TRA and pay dividends.
 
Summit Inc. is a holding company and has no material assets other than its ownership of LP Units and has no independent means of generating revenue. Summit Inc. intends to cause Summit Holdings to make distributions to holders and former holders of LP Units in an amount sufficient to cover all applicable taxes at assumed tax rates, payments under the TRA and cash distributions, if any, declared by it. Deterioration in the financial condition, earnings or cash flow of Summit Holdings and its subsidiaries for any reason, or restrictions on payments by subsidiaries to their parent companies under applicable laws, including laws that require companies to maintain minimum amounts of capital and to make payments to stockholders only from profits, could limit or impair their ability to pay such distributions. Additionally, to the extent that Summit Inc. needs funds, and Summit Holdings is restricted from making such distributions under applicable law or regulation or under the terms of our financing arrangements, or is otherwise unable to provide such funds, it could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and liquidity.
 
Payments of dividends, if any, are at the discretion of our board of directors after taking into account various factors, including our business, operating results and financial condition, current and anticipated cash needs, plans for expansion and any legal or contractual limitations on our ability to pay dividends. Any financing arrangement that we enter into in the future may include restrictive covenants that limit our ability to pay dividends. In addition, Summit Holdings is generally prohibited under Delaware law from making a distribution to a limited partner to the extent that, at the time of the distribution, after giving effect to the distribution, liabilities of Summit Holdings (with certain exceptions) exceed the fair value of its assets. Subsidiaries of Summit Holdings are generally subject to similar legal limitations on their ability to make distributions to Summit Holdings.
 
Summit Inc. anticipates using certain distributions from Summit Holdings to acquire additional LP Units.
 
The limited partnership agreement of Summit Holdings provides for cash distributions, which we refer to as “tax distributions,” to be made to the holders of the LP Units if it is determined that the income of Summit Inc. will give rise to net taxable income allocable to holders of LP Units. To the extent that future tax distributions Summit Inc. receives exceed the amounts it actually requires to pay taxes and make payments under the TRA, our board of directors has in the past and may in the future cause Summit Inc. to use such excess cash to acquire additional newly-issued LP Units at a per unit price determined by reference to the volume weighted average price per share of the Class A common stock during the five trading days immediately preceding the date of the relevant board action. Any cash used by Summit Inc. to acquire additional LP Units would not then be available to fund cash dividends on the Class A common stock.

Summit Inc. is required to pay exchanging holders of LP Units for most of the benefits relating to any additional tax depreciation or amortization deductions that we may claim as a result of the tax basis step-up we receive in connection with sales or exchanges of LP Units and related transactions.
 
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Holders of LP Units (other than Summit Inc.) may exchange their LP Units for Class A common stock on a one-for-one basis. The exchanges are expected to result in increases in the tax basis of the tangible and intangible assets of Summit Holdings. These increases in tax basis may increase (for tax purposes) depreciation and amortization deductions and therefore reduce the amount of tax that Summit Inc. would otherwise be required to pay in the future, although the Internal Revenue Service (the “IRS”) may challenge all or part of the tax basis increase, and a court could sustain such a challenge.
 
In connection with Summit Inc.'s initial public offering ("IPO"), we entered into a TRA with the holders of LP Units that provides for the payment by Summit Inc. to exchanging holders of LP Units of 85% of the benefits, if any, that Summit Inc. is deemed to realize as a result of the increases in tax basis described above and certain other tax benefits related to entering into the TRA, including tax benefits attributable to payments under the TRA. This payment obligation is an obligation of Summit Inc. and not of Summit Holdings. While the actual increase in tax basis and the actual amount and utilization of net operating losses, as well as the amount and timing of any payments under the TRA, will vary depending upon a number of factors, including the timing of exchanges, the price of shares of our Class A common stock at the time of the exchange, the extent to which such exchanges are taxable and the amount and timing of our income, we expect that as a result of the size of the transfers and increases in the tax basis of the tangible and intangible assets of Summit Holdings and our possible utilization of net operating losses, the payments that Summit Inc. may make under the TRA will be substantial.
 
In certain cases, payments under the TRA may be accelerated or significantly exceed the actual benefits Summit Inc. realizes in respect of the tax attributes subject to the TRA.
 
The TRA provides that upon certain changes of control, or if, at any time, Summit Inc. elects an early termination of the TRA, Summit Inc.’s obligations under the TRA may be accelerated. Summit Inc.’s ability to achieve benefits from any tax basis increase or net operating losses, and the payments to be made under the TRA, will depend upon a number of factors, including the timing and amount of our future income. As a result, even in the absence of a change of control or an election to terminate the TRA, payments under the TRA could be in excess of 85% of Summit Inc.’s actual cash tax savings.
 
The actual cash tax savings realized by Summit Inc. under the TRA may be less than the corresponding TRA payments. Further, payments under the TRA may be made years in advance of when the benefits, if any, are realized on our federal and state income tax returns. Accordingly, there may be a material negative effect on our liquidity if the payments under the TRA exceed the actual cash tax savings that Summit Inc. realizes in respect of the tax attributes subject to the TRA and/or distributions to Summit Inc. by Summit Holdings are not sufficient to permit Summit Inc. to make payments under the TRA. Based upon a $40.14 share price of our Class A common stock, which was the closing price on December 31, 2021, and a contractually defined discount rate of 1.58%, we estimate that if Summit Inc. were to exercise its termination right, the aggregate amount of these termination payments would be approximately $312 million. The foregoing number is merely an estimate and the actual payments could differ materially. We may need to incur debt to finance payments under the TRA to the extent our cash resources are insufficient to meet our obligations under the TRA as a result of timing discrepancies or otherwise.
 
Ownership of Our Class A Common Stock Risks
 
The market price of shares of our Class A common stock has fluctuated significantly, which could cause the value of your investment to decline.

The market price of our Class A common stock has fluctuated significantly in the past and could be subject to wide fluctuations in the future. During the year ended January 1, 2022, the closing price of our Class A common stock on the New York Stock Exchange has fluctuated from a low of $20.42 per share to a high of $41.21 per share. Securities markets worldwide experience significant price and volume fluctuations. This market volatility, as well as general economic, market or political conditions, could reduce the market price of shares of our Class A common stock regardless of our operating performance. In addition, our operating results could be below the expectations of public market analysts and investors due to a number of potential factors, including variations in our quarterly operating results or dividends, if any, to stockholders, additions or departures of key management personnel, failure to meet analysts’ earnings estimates, publication of research reports about our industry, litigation and government investigations, changes or proposed changes in laws or regulations or differing interpretations or enforcement thereof affecting our business, adverse market reaction to any indebtedness we may incur or securities we may issue in the future, changes in market valuations of similar companies or speculation in the press or investment community, announcements by our competitors of significant contracts, acquisitions, dispositions, strategic partnerships, joint ventures or capital commitments, adverse publicity about the industries we participate in or individual scandals, and in response the market price of shares of our Class A common stock could decrease significantly. You may be unable to resell your shares of Class A common stock for a profit.
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In recent years, stock markets have experienced extreme price and volume fluctuations. In the past, following periods of volatility in the overall market and the market price of a company’s securities, securities class action litigation has often been instituted against these companies. Such litigation, if instituted against us, could result in substantial costs and a diversion of our management’s attention and resources.
 
Because we have no current plans to pay cash dividends on our Class A common stock, you may not receive any return on investment unless you sell your Class A common stock for a price greater than that which you paid for it.
 
We have no current plans to pay any cash dividends. The declaration, amount and payment of any future dividends on shares of Class A common stock will be at the sole discretion of our board of directors. Our board of directors may take into account general and economic conditions, our financial condition and results of operations, our available cash and current and anticipated cash needs, capital requirements, contractual, legal, tax and regulatory restrictions and implications on the payment of dividends by us to our stockholders or by our subsidiaries to us and such other factors as our board of directors may deem relevant. In addition, our ability to pay dividends is limited by our senior secured credit facilities and our Senior Notes and may be limited by covenants of other indebtedness we or our subsidiaries incur in the future. As a result, you may not receive any return on an investment in our Class A common stock unless you sell our Class A common stock for a price greater than that which you paid for it.
 
Future issuance of additional Class A common stock, or securities convertible or exchangeable for Class A common stock, may adversely affect the market price of the shares of our Class A common stock.
 
As of January 1, 2022, we had 118,705,108 shares of Class A common stock issued and outstanding, and 881,294,892 shares authorized but unissued. The number of unissued shares includes 1,314,006 shares available for issuance upon exchange of LP Units held by limited partners of Summit Holdings. Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation authorizes us to issue shares of Class A common stock and options, rights, warrants and appreciation rights relating to Class A common stock for the consideration and on the terms and conditions established by our board of directors in its sole discretion. We may need to raise significant additional equity capital in connection with acquisitions or otherwise. Similarly, the limited partnership agreement of Summit Holdings permits Summit Holdings to issue an unlimited number of additional limited partnership interests of Summit Holdings with designations, preferences, rights, powers and duties that are different from, and may be senior to, those applicable to the LP Units, and which may be exchangeable for shares of our Class A common stock. Sales of substantial amounts of Class A common stock, or securities convertible or exchangeable for Class A common stock, or the perception that such sales could occur may adversely affect the prevailing market price for the shares of our Class A common stock. Thus holders of our Class A common stock will bear the risk of our future issuances reducing the market price of our Class A common stock and diluting the value of their stock holdings in us.
 
As of January 1, 2022, we have reserved an aggregate of 17.5 million shares of Class A common stock for issuances under the Summit Materials, Inc. 2015 Omnibus Incentive Plan (the “Omnibus Incentive Plan”), including 7.9 million shares were available for grant as of January 1, 2022. In addition, we also have 5.5 million shares of Class A common stock reserved for issuance under the Summit Materials, Inc. 2021 Employee Stock Purchase Plan (“ESPP”) as of January 1, 2022. Lastly, as of January 1, 2022, we had outstanding warrants to purchase an aggregate of 31,519 shares of Class A common stock. Any Class A common stock that we issue, including under our Omnibus Incentive Plan, our ESPP or other equity incentive plans that we may adopt in the future, or upon exercise of outstanding options or warrants, or other securities convertible or exchangeable for Class A common stock would dilute the percentage ownership held by the investors of our Class A common stock and may adversely affect the market price of the shares of our Class A common stock.
 
Anti-takeover provisions in our organizational documents and Delaware law might discourage or delay acquisition attempts for us that you might consider favorable.
 
Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws contain provisions that may make the merger or acquisition of our company more difficult without the approval of our board of directors. Among other things, these provisions:
 
would allow us to authorize the issuance of undesignated preferred stock in connection with a stockholder rights plan or otherwise, the terms of which may be established and the shares of which may be issued without stockholder approval, and which may include super voting, special approval, dividend, or other rights or preferences superior to the rights of the holders of Class A common stock;

prohibit stockholder action by written consent unless such action is recommended by all directors then in office; 
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provide that the board of directors is expressly authorized to make, alter, or repeal our bylaws and that our stockholders may only amend our bylaws with the the affirmative vote of a majority in voting power of all the then-outstanding shares of stock of the Corporation entitled to vote thereon.

establish advance notice requirements for nominations for elections to our board or for proposing matters that can be acted upon by stockholders at stockholder meetings.

Further, as a Delaware corporation, we are also subject to provisions of Delaware law, which may impede or discourage a takeover attempt that our stockholders may find beneficial. These anti-takeover provisions and other provisions under Delaware law could discourage, delay or prevent a transaction involving a change in control of our company, including actions that our stockholders may deem advantageous, or negatively affect the trading price of our Class A common stock. These provisions could also discourage proxy contests and make it more difficult for you and other stockholders to elect directors of your choosing and to cause us to take other corporate actions you desire.

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ITEM  1B.    UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS  
 
None.

ITEM 2.     PROPERTIES.
 
Properties
 
Our headquarters are located in a 21,615 square foot office space, which we lease in Denver, Colorado, under a lease expiring on January 31, 2024. We have executed a lease for 33,191 square feet for new office space, also in Denver, Colorado, and expect to occupy the new space in mid-2022.
 
We mine a variety of hard rock materials including limestone, granite, quartzite and unconsolidated materials including clay, sand and gravel at our quarry operations. The aggregates produced at our quarries are utilized as general construction aggregates, bituminous asphalt pavement and ready-mix concrete. Our reserves and resources are across over 250 sites, to which we believe we have adequate road, barge or railroad access.

A map showing the location of all mining properties is below:

sum-20220101_g3.jpg

We periodically perform sub-surface exploration at most of our sites through drilling methods. At most of our sites, our mining operations are conducted using surface open pit techniques. Mineral resources are defined as having a reasonable prospect of extraction, and is likely to, either in whole or in part, to become economically extractable. Mineral resource estimates were obtained using property boundaries, exploration coverage and regional geologic research. Areas of uneconomically thick overburden or poor aggregate quality rock were defined to the best ability and excluded from reserves or resources areas. Mineral reserves are defined as an estimate of tonnage that can be economically extracted and includes an allowance for losses that may occur when the material is mined or extracted. Mineral reserves estimates were made using similar parameters as for mineral resources. Quantities are counted as reserves based on the nature of the permit, property boundaries, mineral rights and core drilling availability. Areas that are not yet permitted or not explored through a drilling campaign are excluded from reserves. Due to the nature of our products, we do not perform metallurgical testing, however during exploration, material is tested for aggregate or cement suitability.



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As of January 1, 2022, we had 3.9 billion tons of proven and probable mineral reserves and 1.8 billion measured and indicated mineral resources. In total, we owned 49 percent and leased 51 percent of total mineral reserves and resources. We do not consider any of our individual quarrying operations as material for disclosure purposes. We estimate that the useful life of our reserves serving our aggregates and cement businesses are approximately 55 years and 170 years, respectively, based on the average production rates in 2021 and 2020. We obtained technical reports covering each of our mining site prepared by Continental Placer Inc. as of January 1, 2022. The technical reports were prepared in accordance with the requirements of the Modernization of Property Disclosures for Mining Registrants set forth in subpart 1300 of Regulation S-K (the “SEC Mining Modernization Rules”). Inferred resources are defined as a mineral resource for which quantity and grade have been estimated but not yet verified. The terms defined in the table below are defined and used in accordance with the SEC Mining Modernization Rules. By segment, our estimate of proven and probable mineral reserves and measured and indicated mineral resources as of January 1, 2022 are shown in the table below:

Hard Rock Tons (000s)Sand and Gravel Tons (000s)
WestEastCementTotalWestEastCementTotal
Proven Reserves146,434 1,239,308 495,343 1,881,085 849,945 227,816 — 1,077,761 
Probable Reserves184,107 515,945 10,760 710,812 199,184 36,713 — 235,897 
Total Proven and Probable Mineral Reserves330,541 1,755,253 506,103 2,591,897 1,049,129 264,529 — 1,313,658 
Measured Resources20,675 1,019,185 47,185 1,087,045 96,887 46,420 — 143,307 
Indicated Resources25,000 477,723 — 502,723 19,484 31,779 — 51,263 
Total Measured and Indicated Resources45,675 1,496,908 47,185 1,589,768 116,371 78,199 — 194,570 
Inferred Resources— 133,110 — 133,110 46,918 11,122 — 58,040 


As of January 1, 2022, we operated the following production and distribution facilities:
 Quarries and Sand DepositsCement PlantsCement Distribution TerminalsFixed and portable ready-mix concrete plantsAsphalt paving mix plants
Owned98259427
Leased13542516
Partially owned and leased184
Total2512911947

The following chart summarizes our production and distribution facilities by state as of January 1, 2022:
 
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StateSand & GravelLimestoneCement  Ready-mix ConcreteAsphalt
Plant
LandfillOther*
Arkansas61723
Colorado2819713
Georgia5
Idaho432
Iowa121
Kansas849164812
Kentucky11410139
Louisiana31
Minnesota2
Missouri149266
Nebraska1
Nevada13
North Carolina42
Oklahoma51123
South Carolina151
Tennessee11
Texas17223815
Utah1821953
Virginia1955
Wisconsin1
Wyoming1122
     Total US1151311111946967
British Columbia, Canada5136
     Total12013111119471273
______________________
*Other primarily consists of office space.

Internal Controls Disclosure

The analysis of our reserves and resources has been developed by our personnel in collaboration with Continental Placer, designated as our qualified person. Our management teams periodically review our reserves by performing sub-surface exploration as part of our mine planning process. Further, we also review and update our mineral resources and reserves as operations progress through our reserves, and as mining permits are submitted for updates and approvals. The modeling and analysis of the Company’s reserves and resources has been developed by Company mine personnel and reviewed by several levels of internal management, including Continental Placer. The development of such reserves and resources estimates, including related assumptions, was a collaborative effort between Continental Placer and Company staff. This section summarizes the internal control considerations for the Company’s development of estimations, including assumptions, used in reserve and resource analysis and modeling.

When determining reserves and resources, as well as the differences between reserves and resources, management developed specific criteria, each of which must be met to qualify as a reserve or resource, respectively. These criteria, such as demonstration of economic viability, legal right to mine, and material quality are specific and attainable. Continental Placer and Company management agree on the reasonableness of the criteria for the purposes of estimating reserves and resources. Calculations using these criteria are either performed or reviewed and validated by Continental Placer.

Estimations and assumptions were developed independently for each geographical operational area. All estimates require a combination of historical data and key assumptions and parameters. When possible, resources and data from generally accepted industry sources, such as governmental resource agencies, were used to develop these estimations.

ITEM  3.    LEGAL PROCEEDINGS.  
 
The information set forth under “—Legal Proceedings” in Item 1, “Business,” is incorporated herein by reference.
 
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ITEM  4.    MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES. 
 
The information concerning mine safety violations or other regulatory matters required by Section 1503(a) of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act and Item 104 of Regulation S-K (17 CFR 229.104) is included in Exhibit 95.1 to this report.

INFORMATION ABOUT OUR EXECUTIVE OFFICERS
 
Pursuant to General Instruction G(3) to Form 10-K, certain of the information regarding our executive officers required by Items 401(b) and (e) of Regulation S-K is hereby included in Part I of this report.
 
Anne P. Noonan, 58, President and Chief Executive Officer and Director. Ms. Noonan joined the Company in September 2020. Prior to joining the Company, Ms. Noonan served as president and chief executive officer and as a director of OMNOVA Solutions Inc. (“OMNOVA”), a global provider of emulsion polymers, specialty chemicals, and engineered surfaces for a variety of commercial, industrial, and residential end uses, with manufacturing, technical, and other facilities located in North America, Europe, China, and Thailand, from December 2016 until April 1, 2020 when OMNOVA was acquired by Synthomer plc. Before being appointed President and Chief Executive Officer, Ms. Noonan served as OMNOVA’s President, Performance Chemicals, from 2014 until December 2016. Ms. Noonan previously held several positions of increasing responsibility with Chemtura Corporation, a global specialty chemicals company, from 1987 through 2014, including most recently as senior vice president and president of Chemtura’s Industrial Engineered Products business and Corporate Development function. Ms. Noonan serves on the board of CF Industries Holdings, Inc., a global leader in nitrogen fertilizer manufacturing and distribution.
   
Karli S. Anderson, 48, Executive Vice President, Chief Environmental, Social & Governance Officer and Head of Investor Relations. Ms. Anderson joined the Company in 2019 after having served as Vice President at Royal Gold, Inc., a precious metals stream and royalty company from 2013 to 2018. Prior to that, Ms. Anderson served in senior investor relations roles at Newmont Mining Corporation and Coeur Mining, and was the Chair of the Board of the Denver Gold Group for six years. Ms. Anderson currently serves on the Board of Westwater Resources where she is the chair of the Compensation Committee and a member of the Audit and Environmental, Health and Safety committees. Ms. Anderson received her Master of Business Administration in finance from the Wharton School at the University of Pennsylvania and her Bachelor of Science from Ohio University. Ms. Anderson is also a National Association of Corporate Directors fellow.

Chris B. Gaskill, 40, Executive Vice President, Chief Legal Officer and Secretary. Mr. Gaskill joined the Company in 2015 and has served in various roles of increasing responsibility, most recently as the Senior Vice President, Deputy General Counsel and Assistant Secretary. Prior to joining the Company, Mr. Gaskill served in senior legal roles at The Western Union Company and Cardinal Health, Inc. Mr. Gaskill began his career at Simpson Thacher & Bartlett, LLP in New York, NY. Mr. Gaskill has a Bachelor of Arts in Government and Legal Studies from Bowdoin College and received his Juris Doctor from the University of Virginia School of Law. He currently serves on the Board of Governors of Colorado Goodwill, one of the state’s largest 501(c)(3) organizations.

Brian J. Harris, 64, Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer. Mr. Harris joined the Company as Chief Financial Officer in October 2013 after having been Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of Bausch & Lomb Holdings Incorporated, a leading global eye health company, from 2009 to 2013. From 1990 to 2009, Mr. Harris held positions of increasing responsibility with industrial, automotive, building products and engineering manufacturing conglomerate Tomkins plc, including President of the $2 billion worldwide power transmission business for Gates Corporation, and Senior Vice President for Strategic Business Development and Business Administration, Chief Financial Officer and Secretary of Gates Corporation. Mr. Harris received a Bachelor of Accountancy from Glasgow University and is qualified as a Scottish Chartered Accountant.

Deon MacMillan, 48, Executive Vice President, Chief People Officer and Head of Corporate Communications. Ms. MacMillan joined the Company in March 2021 after serving as the Chief Human Resource and Communications Officer for Ardent Mills, a leading flour and grain supplier, from 2014 to March 2021. From 2012 through 2014, Ms. MacMillan consulted on a wide range of human relations related matters with publicly traded multi-national corporations through her consulting firm, MacMillan Consulting. From 2013 to 2015, Ms. MacMillan served as an associate consultant at Lominger (a wholly owned subsidiary of Korn Ferry) and was the Vice President Human Resources, Customer Sales and Experience at multiple organizations with increasing levels of responsibilities, focused on human resources, communications and general change management. Ms. MacMillan received her Bachelor of Arts in Business Administration with an Emphasis in Human Resources and her Master of Business Administration from the University of Alaska-Fairbanks.
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PART II 
 
ITEM  5.     MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES.
 
Market Information
 
Summit Inc.’s Class A common stock began publicly trading on the NYSE under the symbol “SUM” on March 11, 2015. Prior to that time, there was no public market for our Class A common stock. Our Class B common stock is not publicly traded. As of February 21, 2022, there were five holders of record of our Class A common stock and 30 holders of record of our Class B common stock.
 
These stockholder figures do not include a substantially greater number of holders whose shares are held of record by banks, brokers and other financial institutions.
 
All of the outstanding limited liability company interests of Summit LLC are held by Summit Materials Intermediate Holdings, LLC, an indirect subsidiary of Summit Inc. There is no established public trading market for limited liability company interests of Summit LLC.
 
Dividends
  
If Summit Inc. uses future excess tax distributions to purchase additional LP Units, we anticipate that in order to maintain the relationship between the shares of Class A common stock and the LP Units, our board of directors may continue to declare stock dividends on the Class A common stock.
 
Summit Inc. has no current plans to pay cash dividends on its Class A common stock. The declaration, amount and payment of any future dividends on shares of Class A common stock is at the sole discretion of our board of directors and we may reduce or discontinue entirely the payment of any such dividends at any time. Our board of directors may take into account general and economic conditions, our financial condition and operating results, our available cash and current and anticipated cash needs, capital requirements, contractual, legal, tax and regulatory restrictions and implications on the payment of dividends by us to our stockholders or by our subsidiaries to us, and such other factors as our board of directors may deem relevant.

Summit Inc. is a holding company and has no material assets other than its ownership of LP Units. Should we decide to pay a cash dividend on our Class A common stock in the future, we anticipate funding this cash dividend by causing Summit Holdings to make distributions to Summit Inc. in an amount sufficient to cover such dividend, whereupon the other holders of LP Units will also be entitled to receive distributions pro rata in accordance with the percentages of their respective limited partnership interests. Because Summit Inc. must pay taxes and make payments under the TRA, any amounts ultimately distributed as dividends to holders of our Class A common stock are expected to be less on a per share basis than the amounts distributed by Summit Holdings to its partners on a per LP Unit basis.
 
The agreements governing our senior secured credit facilities and the Senior Notes contain a number of covenants that restrict, subject to certain exceptions, Summit LLC’s ability to pay distributions to its parent company and ultimately to Summit Inc. See Note 8, Debt, to our consolidated financial statements.
 
Any financing arrangements that we enter into in the future may include restrictive covenants that limit our ability to pay dividends. In addition, Summit Holdings is generally prohibited under Delaware law from making a distribution to a limited partner to the extent that, at the time of the distribution, after giving effect to the distribution, liabilities of Summit Holdings (with certain exceptions) exceed the fair value of its assets.
 
Subsidiaries of Summit Holdings are generally subject to similar legal limitations on their ability to make distributions to Summit Holdings.
 
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
 
During the quarter and year ended January 1, 2022, we did not purchase any of our equity securities that are registered under Section 12(b) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”).
 
Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities
 
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There were no unregistered sales of equity securities which have not been previously disclosed in a quarterly report on Form 10-Q or a current report on Form 8-K during the year ended January 1, 2022.

ITEM  6.     [RESERVED]

ITEM 7.     MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

This Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations is intended to assist in understanding and assessing the trends and significant changes in our results of operations and financial condition. Historical results may not be indicative of future performance. Forward-looking statements reflect our current views about future events, are based on assumptions and are subject to known and unknown risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from those contemplated by these statements. Factors that may cause differences between actual results and those contemplated by forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, those discussed in the section entitled “Risk Factors” and any factors discussed in the sections entitled “Disclosure Regarding Forward-Looking Statements” and “Risk Factors” of this report. This Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations should be read in conjunction with the “Selected Historical Consolidated Financial Data,” our audited consolidated annual financial statements and the related notes thereto and other information included in this report. A discussion and analysis of our results of operations and changes in financial condition for fiscal 2020 compared to 2019 may be found in Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operation of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended January 2, 2021, filed with the SEC on February 24, 2021, which discussion is incorporated herein by reference.
 
Overview
 
Summit’s vision is to be the most socially responsible, integrated construction materials solution provider, collaborating with stakeholders to deliver differentiated innovations and solve our customers’ challenges. Within our markets, we strive to be a market leader by offering customers a single-source provider for construction materials and related downstream products through our vertical integration. Our materials include aggregates, which we supply across the United States, and in British Columbia, Canada, and cement, which we supply to surrounding states along the Mississippi River from Minnesota to Louisiana. In addition to supplying aggregates to customers, we use a portion of our materials internally to produce ready-mix concrete and asphalt paving mix, which may be sold externally or used in our paving and related services businesses. Our vertical integration creates opportunities to increase aggregates volumes, optimize margin at each stage of production and provide customers with efficiency gains, convenience and reliability, which we believe gives us a competitive advantage.
 
We are organized into 11 operating companies that make up our three distinct operating segments—West, East and Cement. We operate in 21 U.S. states and in British Columbia, Canada and currently have assets in 21 U.S. states and British Columbia, Canada. The map below illustrates our geographic footprint:

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sum-20220101_g4.jpg 

Business Trends and Conditions
 
The U.S. construction materials industry is composed of four primary sectors: aggregates; cement; ready-mix concrete; and asphalt paving mix. Each of these materials is widely used in most forms of construction activity. Participants in these sectors typically range from small, privately-held companies focused on a single material, product or market to publicly traded multinational corporations that offer a wide array of construction materials and services. Competition is constrained in part by the distance materials can be transported efficiently, resulting in predominantly local or regional operations. Due to the lack of product differentiation, competition for all of our products is predominantly based on price and, to a lesser extent, quality of products and service. As a result, the prices we charge our customers are not likely to be materially different from the prices charged by other producers in the same markets. Accordingly, our profitability is generally dependent on the level of demand for our materials and products and our ability to control operating costs.
 
Our revenue is derived from multiple end-use markets including public infrastructure construction and private residential and nonresidential construction. Public infrastructure includes spending by federal, state, provincial and local governments for roads, highways, bridges, airports and other infrastructure projects. Public infrastructure projects have
historically been a relatively stable portion of state and federal budgets. Residential and nonresidential construction consists of new construction and repair and remodel markets. Any economic stagnation or decline, which could vary by local region and market, could affect our results of operations. Our sales and earnings are sensitive to national, regional and local economic conditions and particularly to cyclical changes in construction spending, especially in the private sector. From a macroeconomic view, we see positive indicators for the construction sector, including positive trends in highway obligations, housing starts and non-residential construction activity.
 
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Transportation infrastructure projects, driven by both federal and state funding programs, represent a significant share of the U.S. construction materials market. Federal funds are allocated to the states, which are required to match a portion of the federal funds they receive. Federal highway spending uses funds predominantly from the Federal Highway Trust Fund, which derives its revenue from taxes on diesel fuel, gasoline and other user fees. The dependability of federal funding allows the state departments of transportation to plan for their long term highway construction and maintenance needs. The Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act (IIJA) was signed into law on November 15, 2021. The IIJA provides $1.2 trillion in funding over five years from 2022 through 2026, including $550 billion in new investments for all modes of transportation, water, power and energy, environmental remediation, public lands, broadband and resilience.
 
In addition to federal funding, state, county and local agencies provide highway construction and maintenance funding. Our four largest states by revenue, Texas, Utah, Kansas and Missouri, represented approximately 23%, 15%, 12% and 9%, respectively, of our total revenue in 2021. The following is a summary of key funding initiatives in those states:
 
The Texas Department of Transportation (“TXDOT”) updated its fiscal year 2022 lettings estimate to $10.2 billion up from $8.4 billion in fiscal year 2021 and $7.5 billion in fiscal year 2020. Longer term, TXDOT has indicated a target of $8 billion per year in total state and local lettings.

The state of Utah anticipates transportation funding of approximately $1.8 billion in 2022, up from $1.3 billion in 2021.