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Form 10-K PIONEER NATURAL RESOURCE For: Dec 31

February 22, 2022 4:52 PM EST

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pxd-20211231
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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021
or
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from                  to                 
Commission File Number: 1-13245

PIONEER NATURAL RESOURCES COMPANY
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware75-2702753
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation)(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)

777 Hidden Ridge
Irving, Texas 75038
(Address of principal executive offices and zip code)
(972) 444-9001
(Registrant's telephone number, including area code)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading SymbolName of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, par value $.01 per sharePXDNew York Stock Exchange

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.    Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).    Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer," "smaller reporting company," and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filerSmaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.    
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management's assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.    
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).     Yes        No   
Aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates computed by reference to the price at which the common equity was last sold, or the average bid and asked price of such common equity, as of the last business day of the registrant's most recently completed second fiscal quarter$39,435,041,959 
Number of shares of Common Stock outstanding as of February 18, 2022242,884,015 
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE:
(1)Portions of the Definitive Proxy Statement for the Company's Annual Meeting of Shareholders to be held in May 2022 are incorporated into Part III of this Report.
1

TABLE OF CONTENTS
  Page
Item 6.


2

PIONEER NATURAL RESOURCES COMPANY
Definitions of Certain Terms and Conventions Used Herein
Within this Report, the following terms and conventions have specific meanings:
"Bbl" means a standard barrel containing 42 United States gallons.
"Bcf" means one billion cubic feet and is a measure of gas volume.
"BOE" means a barrel of oil equivalent and is a standard convention used to express oil and gas volumes on a comparable oil equivalent basis. Gas equivalents are determined under the relative energy content method by using the ratio of six thousand cubic feet of gas to one Bbl of oil or natural gas liquid.
"BOEPD" means BOE per day.
"Brent" means Brent oil price, a major trading classification of light sweet oil that serves as a benchmark price for oil worldwide.
"Btu" means British thermal unit, which is a measure of the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of one pound of water one degree Fahrenheit.
"DD&A" means depletion, depreciation and amortization.
"Dutch TTF" means Dutch Title Transfer Facility, a virtual trading hub for gas in the Netherlands and the primary gas pricing hub for the European gas market.
"ESG" means environmental, social and governance.
"Field fuel" means gas consumed to operate field equipment (primarily compressors) prior to the gas being delivered to a sales point.
"GAAP" means accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.
"GHG" means greenhouse gases.
"HH" means Henry Hub, a distribution hub in Louisiana that serves as the delivery location for gas futures contracts on the NYMEX.
"Houston Ship Channel" is a benchmark pricing hub for South Texas gas.
"MBbl" means one thousand Bbls.
"MBOE" means one thousand BOEs.
"Mcf" means one thousand cubic feet and is a measure of gas volume.
"MEH" means Magellan East Houston, an oil index benchmark price of WTI at Magellan East Houston.
"MMBbl" means one million Bbls.
"MMBOE" means one million BOEs.
"MMBtu" means one million Btus.
"MMcf" means one million cubic feet.
"Mont Belvieu" means the daily average natural gas liquids components as priced by OPIS in the table "U.S. and Canada LP – Gas Weekly Averages" at Mont Belvieu, Texas.
"NGLs" means natural gas liquids, which are the heavier hydrocarbon liquids that are separated from the gas stream; such liquids include ethane, propane, isobutane, normal butane and natural gasoline.
"NYMEX" means the New York Mercantile Exchange.
"NYSE" means the New York Stock Exchange.
"OPEC" means the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries.
"OPIS" means the Oil Price Information Service.
"Pioneer" or the "Company" means Pioneer Natural Resources Company and its subsidiaries.
"Proved developed reserves" means reserves that can be expected to be recovered through existing wells with existing equipment and operating methods or in which the cost of the required equipment is relatively minor compared to the cost of a new well.
"Proved reserves" means those quantities of oil and gas, which, by analysis of geosciences and engineering data, can be estimated with reasonable certainty to be economically producible – from a given date forward, from known reservoirs, and under existing economic conditions, operating methods, and government regulations – prior to the time at which contracts providing the right to operate expire, unless evidence indicates that renewal is reasonably certain, regardless of whether deterministic or probabilistic methods are used for the estimation. The project to extract the hydrocarbons must have commenced or the operator must be reasonably certain that it will commence the project within a reasonable time.

3

PIONEER NATURAL RESOURCES COMPANY
(i) The area of the reservoir considered as proved includes: (A) The area identified by drilling and limited by fluid contacts, if any, and (B) Adjacent undrilled portions of the reservoir that can, with reasonable certainty, be judged to be continuous with it and to contain economically producible oil or gas on the basis of available geoscience and engineering data.
(ii) In the absence of data on fluid contacts, proved quantities in a reservoir are limited by the lowest known hydrocarbons ("LKH") as seen in a well penetration unless geoscience, engineering or performance data and reliable technology establishes a lower contact with reasonable certainty.
(iii) Where direct observation from well penetrations has defined a highest known oil ("HKO") elevation and the potential exists for an associated gas cap, proved oil reserves may be assigned in the structurally higher portions of the reservoir only if geoscience, engineering or performance data and reliable technology establish the higher contact with reasonable certainty.
(iv) Reserves which can be produced economically through application of improved recovery techniques (including, but not limited to, fluid injection) are included in the proved classification when: (A) Successful testing by a pilot project in an area of the reservoir with properties no more favorable than in the reservoir as a whole, the operation of an installed program in the reservoir or an analogous reservoir, or other evidence using reliable technology establishes the reasonable certainty of the engineering analysis on which the project or program was based; and (B) The project has been approved for development by all necessary parties and entities, including governmental entities.
(v) Existing economic conditions include prices and costs at which economic producibility from a reservoir is to be determined. The price shall be the average during the 12-month period prior to the ending date of the period covered by the report, determined as an unweighted arithmetic average of the first-day-of-the-month price for each month within such period, unless prices are defined by contractual arrangements, excluding escalations based upon future conditions.
"Proved undeveloped reserves" means reserves that are expected to be recovered from new wells on undrilled acreage, or from existing wells where a relatively major expenditure is required for recompletion.
(i) Reserves on undrilled acreage shall be limited to those directly offsetting development spacing areas that are reasonably certain of production when drilled, unless evidence using reliable technology exists that establishes reasonable certainty of economic producibility at greater distances.
(ii) Undrilled locations can be classified as having proved undeveloped reserves only if a development plan has been adopted indicating that they are scheduled to be drilled within five years, unless the specific circumstances, justify a longer time.
(iii) Under no circumstances shall estimates for proved undeveloped reserves be attributable to any acreage for which an application of fluid injection or other improved recovery technique is contemplated, unless such techniques have been proved effective by actual projects in the same reservoir or an analogous reservoir, or by other evidence using reliable technology establishing reasonable certainty.
"SEC" means the United States Securities and Exchange Commission.
"SoCal" is a benchmark pricing hub for Southern California gas.
"Standardized Measure" means the after-tax present value of estimated future net cash flows of proved reserves, determined in accordance with the rules and regulations of the SEC, using prices and costs employed in the determination of proved reserves and a ten percent discount rate.
"U.S." means United States.
"WAHA" is a benchmark pricing hub for West Texas gas.
"WTI" means West Texas Intermediate, a light sweet blend of oil produced from fields in western Texas and is a grade of oil used as a benchmark in oil pricing.
With respect to information on the working interest in wells, drilling locations and acreage, "net" wells, drilling locations and acres are determined by multiplying "gross" wells, drilling locations and acres by the Company's working interest in such wells, drilling locations or acres. Unless otherwise specified, wells, drilling locations and acreage statistics quoted herein represent gross wells, drilling locations or acres.
All currency amounts are expressed in U.S. dollars.

4

CAUTIONARY STATEMENT CONCERNING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This Annual Report on Form 10-K (this "Report") contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. When used in this document, the words "believes," "plans," "expects," "anticipates," "forecasts," "models," "intends," "continue," "may," "will," "could," "should," "future," "potential," "estimate," or the negative of such terms and similar expressions as they relate to the Company are intended to identify forward-looking statements, which are generally not historical in nature. The forward-looking statements are based on the Company's current expectations, assumptions, estimates and projections about the Company and the industry in which the Company operates. Although the Company believes that the expectations and assumptions reflected in the forward-looking statements are reasonable as and when made, they involve risks and uncertainties that are difficult to predict and, in many cases, beyond the Company's control. In addition, the Company may be subject to currently unforeseen risks that may have a materially adverse effect on it.
These risks and uncertainties include, among other things, volatility of commodity prices; product supply and demand; the impact of a widespread outbreak of an illness, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, on global and U.S. economic activity and oil and gas demand; competition; the ability to obtain drilling, environmental and other permits and the timing thereof; the effect of future regulatory or legislative actions on Pioneer or the industries in which it operates, including potential changes to tax laws; the ability to obtain approvals from third parties and negotiate agreements with third parties on mutually acceptable terms; potential liability resulting from pending or future litigation; the costs and results of drilling and operating activities; the risk of new restrictions with respect to development activities, including potential changes to regulations resulting in limitations on the Company's ability to dispose of produced water; availability of equipment, services, resources and personnel required to perform the Company's drilling and operating activities; access to and availability of transportation, processing, fractionation, refining, storage and export facilities; Pioneer's ability to replace reserves, implement its business plans or complete its development activities as scheduled; the Company's ability to achieve its emissions reductions, flaring and other ESG goals; access to and cost of capital; the financial strength of counterparties to Pioneer's revolving corporate credit facility (the "Credit Facility"), investment instruments and derivative contracts and purchasers of Pioneer's oil, NGL and gas production and downstream sales of purchased oil and gas; uncertainties about estimates of reserves, identification of drilling locations and the ability to add proved reserves in the future; the assumptions underlying forecasts, including forecasts of production, operating cash flow, well costs, capital expenditures, rates of return, expenses, and cash flow from downstream purchases and sales of oil and gas, net of firm transportation commitments; tax rates; quality of technical data; environmental and weather risks, including the possible impacts of climate change on the Company's operations and demand for its products; cybersecurity risks; the risks associated with the ownership and operation of the Company's water services business and acts of war or terrorism. In addition, the Company may be subject to currently unforeseen risks that may have a materially adverse effect on it.
Accordingly, no assurances can be given that the actual events and results will not be materially different than the anticipated results described in the forward-looking statements. See "Item 1. Business — Competition, Markets and Regulations," "Item 1A. Risk Factors," "Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" and "Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk" for a description of various factors that could materially affect the ability of Pioneer to achieve the anticipated results described in the forward-looking statements. Readers are cautioned not to place undue reliance on forward-looking statements, which speak only as of the date hereof. The Company undertakes no duty to publicly update these statements except as required by law.

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PART I
ITEM 1.    BUSINESS
General
Pioneer is a Delaware corporation whose common stock is listed and traded on the NYSE. The Company is a large independent oil and gas exploration and production company that explores for, develops and produces oil, NGLs and gas in the Midland Basin in West Texas.
The Company's principal executive office is located at 777 Hidden Ridge, Irving, Texas, 75038. The Company also maintains an office in Midland, Texas and field offices in the Midland Basin.
Available Information
Pioneer files or furnishes annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other documents with the SEC under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the "Exchange Act"). The SEC maintains a website (www.sec.gov) that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers, including Pioneer, that file electronically with the SEC.
The Company makes available free of charge through its website (www.pxd.com) its Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and, if applicable, amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act as soon as reasonably practicable after it electronically files such material with, or furnishes it to, the SEC. In addition to the reports filed or furnished with the SEC, Pioneer publicly discloses information from time to time in its press releases and investor presentations that are posted on its website or during publicly accessible investor conferences. Such information, including information posted on or connected to the Company's website, is not a part of, or incorporated by reference in, this Report or any other document the Company files with or furnishes to the SEC.
Mission and Strategies
The Company's mission is to be America's leading independent energy company, focused on value, safety, the environment, technology and its people. The Company's long-term strategy is centered around the following strategic objectives:
maintaining a strong balance sheet and financial flexibility;
returning free cash flow to shareholders via a stable and growing base dividend, a variable dividend and share repurchases;
utilizing the Company's scale and technological advancements to reduce costs and improve efficiency;
delivering economic production and reserve growth through drilling, completion and production improvement activities;
setting high expectations for employees and contractors to perform their jobs in a safe manner; and
maintaining industry-leading sustainable development and environmental stewardship efforts.
The Company's long-term strategy is anchored by the Company's interests in the long-lived Spraberry/Wolfcamp oil field located in the Midland Basin in West Texas, which has an estimated remaining productive life in excess of 50 years.
Competition
The oil and gas industry is highly competitive in the exploration for and acquisition of reserves, the acquisition of oil and gas leases, marketing of oil, NGL and gas production, the obtaining of equipment and services and the hiring and retention of staff necessary for the identification, evaluation, operation and acquisition and development of oil and gas properties. The Company's competitors include major integrated oil and gas companies, other independent oil and gas companies, and individuals engaged in the exploration for and development of oil and gas properties. The Company also faces competition from companies that supply alternative sources of energy, such as wind, solar power and other renewables. Competition will increase as alternative energy technology becomes more reliable and governments throughout the world support or mandate the use of such alternative energy.
Competitive advantage is gained in the oil and gas exploration and development industry by employing well-trained and experienced personnel who make prudent capital investment decisions based on management direction, embrace technological innovation and are focused on price and cost management. The Company has a team of dedicated employees who represent the

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professional disciplines and sciences that the Company believes are necessary to allow Pioneer to maximize the long-term profitability and net asset value inherent in its physical assets.
See "Item 1A. Risk Factors - The Company faces significant competition and some of its competitors have resources in excess of the Company's available resources" for additional information.
Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic
The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in a severe worldwide economic downturn, significantly disrupting the demand for oil throughout the world, and created significant volatility, uncertainty and turmoil in the oil and gas industry. The decrease in demand for oil, combined with pressures on the global supply-demand balance for oil and related products, resulted in oil prices declining significantly in late February 2020. Since mid-2020, oil prices have improved, with demand steadily increasing despite the uncertainties surrounding the COVID-19 variants, which have continued to inhibit a full global demand recovery. In addition, worldwide oil inventories are, from a historical perspective, very low and supply increases from OPEC, Russia and other oil producing nations are not expected to be sufficient to meet forecasted oil demand growth in 2022 and 2023, with many OPEC countries not able to produce at their OPEC agreed upon quota levels due to their lack of capital investments over the past few years in developing incremental oil supplies. Global oil price levels will ultimately depend on various factors and consequences beyond the Company's control, such as (i) the effectiveness of responses to combat the COVID-19 virus and their impact on domestic and worldwide demand, (ii) the ability of OPEC, Russia and other oil producing nations to manage the global oil supply, (iii) the timing and supply impact of any Iranian sanction relief on Iran's ability to export oil, (iv) additional actions by businesses and governments in response to the pandemic, (v) the global supply chain constraints associated with manufacturing delays, and (vi) political stability of oil consuming countries.
The Company continues to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the Company and may modify its response as the impact of COVID-19 continues to evolve.
See "Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" for additional information.
Acquisition and Divestiture Activities
Acquisitions. The Company regularly seeks to acquire or trade acreage that complements its operations, provides exploration and development opportunities, increases the lateral length of future horizontal wells and provides superior returns on investment (including acquisitions of particular oil and gas assets or entities owning oil and gas assets and mergers, consolidations or other business combinations with such entities). The Company periodically evaluates and pursues acquisition and acreage trade opportunities and at any given time may be in various stages of evaluating such opportunities. Such stages may take the form of internal financial analyses, oil and gas reserve analyses, due diligence, the submission of indications of interest, preliminary negotiations, negotiations of letters of intent or negotiations of definitive agreements. The success of any acquisition or acreage trade is uncertain and depends on a number of factors, some of which are outside the Company's control.
On May 4, 2021, the Company completed the acquisition of Double Eagle III Midco 1 LLC ("DoublePoint") in exchange for 27 million shares of Pioneer common stock representing stock consideration transferred of $4.2 billion, $1 billion of cash and the assumption of $890 million of debt (the "DoublePoint Acquisition"). The DoublePoint Acquisition was accounted for as a business combination, with the fair value of the acquisition consideration allocated to the acquisition date fair value of assets acquired and liabilities assumed. The results of operations attributable to the assets acquired in the DoublePoint Acquisition were included in the Company's consolidated financial statements beginning in May 2021.
On January 12, 2021, the Company completed the acquisition of Parsley Energy, Inc., a Delaware corporation that previously traded on the NYSE under the symbol "PE" ("Parsley"), pursuant to the Agreement and Plan of Merger, dated as of October 20, 2020, among Pioneer, certain of its subsidiaries, Parsley and Parsley's subsidiary, Parsley Energy, LLC (the "Parsley Acquisition"). As part of the Parsley Acquisition, each eligible share of Parsley Class A common stock and each membership interest unit of Parsley Energy, LLC were automatically converted into the right to receive 0.1252 (the "Exchange Ratio") shares of Pioneer common stock. As a result, the Company issued 52 million shares of Pioneer common stock upon the consummation of the Parsley Acquisition, representing total stock consideration transferred of $6.9 billion. The Parsley Acquisition was accounted for as a business combination, with the fair value of the acquisition consideration allocated to the acquisition date fair value of assets acquired and liabilities assumed. The results of operations attributable to the assets acquired in the Parsley Acquisition were included in the Company's consolidated financial statements beginning on January 12, 2021.
See Note 3 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in "Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data" for additional information.

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Divestitures. The Company regularly reviews its asset base to identify nonstrategic assets, the disposition of which would increase capital resources available for other activities, create organizational and operational efficiencies and further the Company's objective of maintaining a strong balance sheet to ensure financial flexibility.
In December 2021, the Company completed the divestiture of all of its assets in the Delaware Basin (the "Delaware Divestiture") to Continental Resources, Inc. ("Continental") for cash proceeds of $3.1 billion, after normal closing adjustments. The sale of the Delaware Basin assets resulted in a pretax loss of $1.1 billion for the year ended December 31, 2021.
In October 2021, the Company completed the sale of approximately 20,000 net acres in western Glasscock County (the "Glasscock Divestiture") to Laredo Petroleum, Inc. ("Laredo") in exchange for $137 million in cash and 960 thousand shares of Laredo's common stock representing total consideration transferred of $206 million, after normal closing adjustments. The sale of these assets resulted in a pretax gain of $1 million for the year ended December 31, 2021.
In March 2021, the Company sold its well services business (the "Well Services Divestiture") to a third party for (i) net cash proceeds of $20 million and (ii) up to $4 million of additional cash proceeds to be earned over the next three years. The sale of these assets resulted in a pre-tax gain of $9 million for the year ended December 31, 2021.
See Note 3 and Note 4 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in "Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data" for additional information.
Marketing of Production
General. Production from the Company's properties is marketed using methods that are consistent with industry practices. Sales prices for oil, NGLs and gas production are negotiated based on factors normally considered in the industry, such as an index or spot price, distance from the well to a major pipeline, commodity quality and prevailing supply and demand conditions. See "Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk" for additional information.
Seasonal nature of business. Generally, but not always, the demand for gas decreases during the summer months and increases during the winter months. Seasonal anomalies such as mild winters or hot summers may impact general seasonal changes in gas demand.
Delivery commitments. The Company has committed certain volumes of oil, NGL and gas to customers under a variety of contracts, some of which have volumetric firm transportation or fractionation requirements that could require monetary shortfall penalties if the Company's transported or fractionation volumes are insufficient to satisfy associated commitments. See Note 11 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in "Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data" for additional information.
Significant purchasers. During 2021, the Company's oil, NGL and gas sales to Sunoco Logistics Partners L.P., Shell Trading US Company and Occidental Energy Marketing Inc. accounted for 16 percent, 13 percent and 10 percent of the Company's oil, NGL and gas revenues, respectively. The loss of one of these significant purchasers or an inability to secure adequate pipeline, gas plant and NGL fractionation infrastructure for production could have a material adverse effect on the Company's ability to produce and sell its oil, NGL and gas production.
Revenues from sales of purchased oil and gas to Occidental Energy Marketing Inc. accounted for 27 percent of the Company's sales of purchased oil and gas. No other sales customer exceeded ten percent of the Company's sales of purchased oil and gas during 2021. The loss of the Company's significant purchaser of purchased oil and gas would not be expected to have a material adverse effect on the Company's ability to sell commodities it purchases from third parties.
See Note 13 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in "Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data" for additional information.
Sustainability and Environmental Compliance Costs
Since 2019, the Company has voluntarily published its Sustainability Report on an annual basis under the Global Reporting Initiative framework and the Sustainability Accounting Standards Board to address its ESG performance. For more information on the Company’s approach to sustainability management, refer to its Sustainability Report, which is available on its website (www.pxd.com).
The trend in environmental regulation has been to place more restrictions and limitations on activities that may affect the environment and thus, there can be no assurance as to the amount or timing of future expenditures for environmental compliance or remediation and actual future expenditures may be different from the amounts the Company currently anticipates. As with the upstream industry in general, complying with current and anticipated environmental laws and

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regulations can increase the Company's capital costs to drill, complete, and construct and operate facilities. While these laws and regulations may affect the Company’s capital expenditures and net income, the Company does not believe they will have a material adverse effect on its business, financial position, results of operations or cash flows, nor does the Company believe that they will affect its competitive position since the operations of its competitors are generally similarly affected. Future events, such as changes in existing laws or enforcement policies, the promulgation of new laws or regulations or the development or discovery of new facts or conditions may cause the Company to incur significant costs. See "Health, Safety and Environmental Risks" in "Item 1A. Risk Factors" for additional information.
Human Capital
As of December 31, 2021, the Company had 1,932 employees, 857 of whom were employed in field operations and 32 of whom were employed in the water services business.
Values and governance. Pioneer's approach to human capital management is guided by its core RESPECT values. These values - Respect, Ethics and honesty, Safety and environment, Personal accountability, Entrepreneurship, Communication and Teamwork and inclusion - apply to all employees, suppliers and contractors, and guide how Pioneer interacts with all stakeholders. Pioneer aims to conduct all aspects of its business in accordance with these core values, which serve as the cultural foundation of the Company.
The Company's management committee and its board of directors set the Company's human capital management philosophies and goals. They routinely engage on workforce-related topics with the support of the human resources function, which oversees and administers the Company's human capital management programs.
The Company understands that employee recruiting, retention and development play a critical role in the Company's ability to conduct its business activities and achieve its long-term strategy. As a result, the Company's management committee and board of directors take a holistic view of human capital management and have established policies and development programs with the goal of creating an inclusive environment to allow all employees to feel respected, valued and connected to the business. The key aspects of the Company's human capital management include the Company's compensation and benefits program, diversity and inclusion initiatives, talent management and development, community involvement and Health, Safety and Environment ("HSE") programs.
Compensation and benefits program. The Company annually reviews its compensation levels for all employees in an effort to adjust compensation levels for changing market conditions, allowing the Company to attract and retain a highly skilled workforce. The Company considers its employees to be its greatest asset and encourages them to take full advantage of the benefits and programs the Company offers. To ensure Pioneer attracts and retains top talent, the Company maintains an above-average benefits package. Pioneer's employees participate in incentive plans that take into consideration individual and Company performance through a traditional cash bonus plan and a variable compensation plan denominated in Company stock. These plans align employee compensation with the Company's success on critical performance metrics and goals, while also recognizing individual performance. The variable compensation plan denominated in Company stock is designed to attract and retain employees, reward performance, and align the interest of employees with stockholders through the encouragement of stock ownership. In addition to cash and equity compensation, the Company also offers other employee benefits such as life and health (medical, dental & vision) insurance, paid time off, paid parental leave, flexible work schedules and a 401(k) plan that includes employer matching contributions.
The Company routinely benchmarks its compensation and benefits program to ensure that the programs remain competitive, continue to align with the Company's RESPECT values and meet the needs of employees and their families. As part of the Company's benefits program, it offers flexible work schedules, compressed workweeks and allowances for time off, including a parental leave policy that includes up to twelve weeks of paid leave for the primary caregiver and two weeks of paid leave for the secondary caregiver. The Company's wellness programs include on-site health centers, daycare centers, fitness centers, a range of healthy eating options at employee cafeterias and an employee assistance program to support the mental well-being of employees.
Diversity, equity and inclusion. The Company is committed to creating an inclusive environment where all employees feel respected, valued and connected to the business — a workplace to which individuals bring their authentic selves and can be successful in achieving their goals. The Company's dedicated Diversity, Equity and Inclusion ("DEI") program is focused on the following areas: community, culture and talent. The Company's management committee is accountable for having long-term DEI goals for their respective departments as the Company believes that senior leadership involvement is crucial for progress on these goals. In addition, DEI plans and progress are reviewed regularly with the board of directors. The Company has established a variety of DEI initiatives, such as OnePioneer, an employee-led Company organization whose goal is to advance DEI across the entire Company.

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The Company actively monitors diversity metrics across its entire workforce. Currently, 29 percent of the board of directors and 36 percent of the management committee are women and 14 percent of the board of directors and 14 percent of the management committee identify as ethnic minorities. The Company intends to disclose its 2021 Consolidated EEO-1 Report on its website (www.pxd.com) after submission of the report to the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in an effort to provide additional transparency into the Company's efforts to increase under-represented populations in its workforce.
Talent management and development. The Company's talent planning involves a comprehensive approach to adequately prepare employees for their responsibilities and for future advancement. The Company's performance management process occurs quarterly and, in accordance with the Company's RESPECT values, encourages and reinforces ongoing feedback and coaching between employees and managers, employee growth and development for their current role and future success and alignment of individual goals with company-wide goals and team objectives. Pioneer strives to build a more skilled and engaged workforce with skill-building and competency-based training and development opportunities. The Company's competency model comprises professional, leadership and technical competencies and complements each employee's individual development planning process. In furtherance of each employee's individual development plan, the Company's workforce is trained in accordance with Pioneer's 70/20/10 learning model (70 percent on-the-job and experience-based, 20 percent collaboration and coaching, 10 percent formal training). Employees are offered a variety of development options including in-person professional trainings, technical trainings, consultation services, vendor partnerships and more.
The Company's talent planning approach also identifies and targets development of critical talent. The Company identifies critical roles based on several factors, including strategic importance, scope and impact, and unique skills. Successor candidates for those critical roles are then identified as those who have the interest, ability and experience to succeed in the critical role within five years. Talent planning enables Pioneer to proactively advance succession planning and offer targeted development for high potential employees and successors, while enabling a cross-functional view of talent to increase visibility and mobility.
Community involvement. Pioneer's dedication to community well-being and success shows in the many ways the Company seeks to be a good neighbor in all of its operating areas. The Company's employees continually seek out events, organizations, initiatives and partnerships to support the communities where they work and live, and the Company is honored to support their ongoing efforts to enrich the communities where they live and work, including through a charitable matching program.
Health, safety and environment. The Company's HSE organization, with oversight from the Health, Safety and Environment Committee (the "HSE Committee") of the board of directors, provides tools to the Company's business teams to implement an organized approach for HSE activities to support and maintain a culture of improvement in safety and environmental practices. The Company's HSE policy covers all Pioneer operations and aligns with the Company's HSE Management System ("HSEMS"). It also requires contractors, vendors and suppliers to maintain an HSE policy that meets or exceeds the Company's policy. As outlined in the HSE policy, the Company is dedicated to protecting the health and safety of everyone who works at Pioneer facilities by encouraging high standards. All HSE incidents are required to be reported, no matter how small, and are investigated to develop corrective actions to reduce the likelihood of recurrence. The HSEMS consists of 13 elements that set HSE expectations, provide an avenue for employee engagement and drive HSE performance improvement. In support of driving continuous improvement, HSE milestones and criteria are established annually to drive safety and environmental performance. Throughout the year, progress toward these milestones and criteria are measured and reported to the management committee and the HSE Committee. Additionally, Pioneer has introduced a Serious Exposure program across all operations. While appropriate management of all HSE events is important, the Serious Exposure method prioritizes the highest-risk events, bringing increased visibility and proactive, consistent solutions to these more urgent situations.
During 2021, the Company continued to undertake significant effort to address the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. At the onset of the pandemic, the Company implemented a cross-functional response team tasked with protecting employees and implementing policies and procedures to safely run the business. These priorities have been implemented through flexible policies and practices and frequent communications with employees and other key stakeholders. As the pandemic has progressed, the Company has continued to revise these policies and practices in light of guidance received from local, regional and federal authorities, where appropriate. During this time, the Company implemented a remote work environment for periods of time to ensure the safety of employees and implemented rigorous cleaning, disinfection and mitigation protocols to keep employees safe. The Company also encouraged the use of vaccines, providing incentives for employees who maintain their vaccination status.
Feedback and engagement. The Company's human capital management approach is augmented by a robust employee feedback program. The Company believes that giving employees a voice is paramount to creating a thriving and resilient culture and undertakes an annual engagement survey to provide a view into overall organizational health. The results are used

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to identify issues that are important to employees and to implement improvement opportunities. In 2021, the Company received a 76 percent participation rate in the survey and its engagement score ranked in the top quartile of companies who used the same platform. Most importantly, the quantitative and qualitative survey data was utilized by leaders across the organization to identify strengths and opportunities for improvement and to inform action plans to address issues.
Regulation
The oil and gas industry is extensively regulated at the federal, state, and local levels. Regulations affecting elements of the energy sector are under constant review for amendment or expansion and frequently more stringent requirements are imposed. Various federal and state agencies, including the Texas Railroad Commission, the Bureau of Land Management (the "BLM"), an agency of the U.S Department of the Interior ("DOI"), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (the "EPA") and the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration ("OSHA"), have legal and regulatory authority and oversight over the Company's exploration and development activities and operations. Other agencies with certain authority over the Company's business include the Internal Revenue Service (the "IRS"), the SEC and NYSE. Ensuring compliance with the rules, regulations and orders promulgated by such entities requires extensive effort and incremental costs to comply, which affects the Company's profitability. Because public policy changes are commonplace, and existing laws and regulations are frequently amended, the Company is unable to predict the future cost or impact of compliance. However, the Company does not expect that any of these laws and regulations will affect its operations materially differently than they would affect other companies with similar operations, size and financial strength.
The following are significant areas of government control and regulation affecting the Company:
Securities regulations. Enterprises that sell securities in public markets are subject to regulatory oversight by agencies such as the SEC and the NYSE. This regulatory oversight imposes many requirements on the Company, including the responsibility for establishing and maintaining disclosure controls and procedures alongside internal controls over financial reporting, and ensuring that the financial statements and other information included in submissions to the SEC do not contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary to make the statements made in such submissions not misleading. Failure to comply with the rules and regulations of the SEC could subject the Company to litigation from public or private plaintiffs. Failure to comply with the rules of the NYSE could result in the delisting of the Company's common stock, which would have an adverse effect on the market price and liquidity of the Company's common stock. Compliance with some of these rules and regulations is costly, and regulations are subject to change or reinterpretation.
Environmental and occupational health and safety matters. The Company strives to conduct its operations in a socially and environmentally responsible manner and is required to comply with many federal, state and local laws, regulations and executive orders concerning occupational safety and health, the discharge or other release of materials and protection of the environment and natural resources. These environmental legal requirements primarily relate to:
the discharge or other release of pollutants into federal and state waters and the ambient air;
assessing the environmental impact of seismic acquisition, drilling and construction activities;
the generation, storage, transportation and disposal of waste materials, including hazardous substances and wastes;
the emission of certain gases, including GHGs, into the atmosphere;
the monitoring, abandonment, reclamation and remediation of wells and other sites, including sites of former operations;
the development of emergency response and spill contingency plans;
the protection of threatened and endangered species; and
worker protection.
The more significant of these existing environmental and occupational health and safety laws and regulations include the following U.S. legal standards, as amended from time to time:
the Clean Air Act ("CAA"), which restricts the emission of air pollutants from many sources and imposes various preconstruction, operational, monitoring and reporting requirements, and has also been relied upon by the EPA as authority for adopting climate change regulatory initiatives relating to GHG emissions;
the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, also known as the Clean Water Act ("CWA"), which regulates discharges of pollutants from facilities to state and federal waters, and establishes the extent to which waterways are subject to federal jurisdiction and rulemaking as protected waters of the United States;
the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 ("CERCLA"), which imposes liability on generators, transporters, disposers and arrangers of hazardous substances at sites where hazardous substance releases have occurred or are threatening to occur;
the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act ("RCRA"), which governs the generation, treatment, storage, transport and disposal of solid wastes, including oil and gas exploration and production wastes and hazardous wastes;

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the Safe Drinking Water Act ("SDWA"), which ensures the quality of the nation's public drinking water through adoption of drinking water standards and controlling the injection of waste fluids into below-ground formations that may adversely affect drinking water sources;
OSHA, which establishes workplace standards for the protection of the health and safety of employees, including the implementation of hazard communications programs designed to inform employees about hazardous substances in the workplace, potential harmful effects of these substances and appropriate control measures; and
the Endangered Species Act ("ESA"), which restricts activities that may affect federally identified endangered and threatened species or their habitats through the implementation of operating restrictions or a temporary, seasonal or permanent ban in affected areas.
Additionally, there are existing tribal, state and local jurisdictions where the Company operates that also have, or are developing or considering developing, similar environmental and occupational health and safety laws and regulations governing many of these same types of activities. Failure by the Company to comply with these laws, regulations and regulatory initiatives or controls may result in the assessment of sanctions, including administrative, civil and criminal penalties; the imposition of investigatory, remedial and corrective action obligations or the obligation to incur capital expenditures; the occurrence of restrictions, delays or cancellations in the permitting, development or expansion of projects; and issuance of injunctions restricting or prohibiting some or all of the Company's activities in a particular area. Historically, the Company's environmental and worker safety compliance costs have not had a material adverse effect on its results of operations. However, there can be no assurance that such costs will not be material in the future or that such future compliance will not have a material adverse effect on the Company's business and operational results.
The Company owns, leases or operates numerous properties that have been used for oil and gas exploration and production activities for many years. The Company also has acquired certain properties from third parties whose actions with respect to the management and disposal or release of hydrocarbons, hazardous substances or wastes at or from such properties were not under the Company's control prior to acquiring them. Under certain environmental laws and regulations, such as CERCLA and RCRA, the Company could incur strict joint and several liability due to damages to natural resources or for remediating hydrocarbons, hazardous substances or wastes disposed of or released by prior owners or operators. Moreover, an accidental release of materials into the environment during the Company's operations may cause it to incur significant costs and liabilities. The Company also could incur costs related to the clean-up of third-party sites to which it sent regulated substances for disposal or to which it sent equipment for cleaning and for damages to natural resources or other claims related to releases of regulated substances at or from such third-party sites.
Over time, the trend in environmental and occupational health and safety laws and regulations is to typically place more restrictions and limitations on activities that may adversely affect the environment or expose workers to injury. If existing legal requirements change or new legislative, regulatory or executive initiatives are developed and implemented in the future, the Company may be required to make significant, unanticipated capital and operating expenditures. The Company may not have insurance or be fully covered by insurance against all environmental and occupational health and safety risks. For more information on environmental and occupational health and safety matters, see the risk factors identified as Health, Safety and Environmental Risks in "Item 1A. Risk Factors."
Other regulation of the oil and gas industry. The Company's oil and gas operations are subject to laws and regulations that relate to matters including:
the acquisition of seismic data;
location, drilling and casing of wells;
hydraulic fracturing;
well production operations;
disposal of produced water;
regulation of transportation and sale of oil, NGLs and gas;
surface usage;
calculation and disbursement of royalty payments and production taxes;
restoration of properties used for oil and gas operations; and
transportation of production.
Development and production operations are subject to various regulations, including regulations requiring permits for the drilling of wells, the posting of bonds in connection with development and production activities and the filing of reports related to production operations. Texas, and some municipalities in which the Company operates, also regulate one or more of the following:
the location of wells;

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the method of drilling and casing wells;
the method and ability to fracture stimulate wells;
the surface use and restoration of properties upon which wells are drilled;
the plugging and abandoning of wells; and
notices to surface owners and other third parties.
State laws regulate the size of drilling and spacing units or proration units governing the drilling and production of oil and gas properties. The Company relies on voluntary pooling, production sharing agreements and the drilling of allocation wells to develop its leases. In some instances, forced pooling or unitization may be implemented by third parties and may reduce the Company's interest in the unitized properties. In addition, state conservation laws establish maximum rates of production from oil and gas wells and generally prohibit the venting or flaring of gas without a permit. These laws and regulations may limit the amount of oil and gas the Company can produce from the Company's wells, negatively affect the economic decision to continue to produce these wells or limit the number of wells or locations that the Company can economically drill.
Approximately one percent of the Company's U.S. oil and gas leases are granted or approved by the federal government and administered by the BLM. All of the Company's federal leases are outside of Texas and the Company has no current plans to further develop the leases at this time. Such leases require compliance with detailed federal regulations and orders that regulate, among other matters, drilling and operations on lands covered by these leases and the calculation and disbursement of royalty payments to the federal government.
See "Regulatory Risks" and "Health, Safety and Environmental Risks" included in "Item 1A. Risk Factors" for additional information.

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PIONEER NATURAL RESOURCES COMPANY
ITEM 1A.    RISK FACTORS
The Company's operations and financial results are subject to various risks and uncertainties, including but not limited to those described below. Other risks are described in "Item 1. Business — Competition, Markets and Regulations," "Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" and "Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk." The Company's business could also be affected by additional risks and uncertainties not currently known to the Company or that it currently deems to be immaterial. If any of these risks actually occur, it could materially harm the Company's business, financial condition or results of operations or impair the Company's ability to implement business plans or complete development activities as scheduled. In that case, the market price of the Company's common stock could decline. The following risk factors are summarized as general business and industry; operational; financial; health, safety and environmental; regulatory and risks associated with acquisitions.
General Business and Industry Risks
The COVID-19 pandemic and related developments in the global oil markets have had, and depending on the progression of the pandemic, may continue to have, material adverse consequences for general economic, business and industry conditions and for the Company's operations, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows and liquidity and those of its purchasers, suppliers and other counterparties.
Declining general economic, business or industry conditions could have a material adverse effect on the Company's results of operations.
The Company may be unable to make attractive acquisitions and any acquisition it completes is subject to substantial risks that could materially and adversely affect its business.
The Company's ability to complete dispositions of assets or sell partial interests in assets may be subject to factors beyond its control, and in certain cases the Company may be required to retain liabilities for certain matters.
The Company's operations and drilling activity are concentrated in the Midland Basin of West Texas; such concentration makes the Company vulnerable to risks associated with operating in a limited geographic area.
The Company may not be able to obtain access on commercially reasonable terms or otherwise to gathering systems, pipelines and other processing, fractionation, refining, storage, transportation and export facilities to market its oil, NGL and gas production.
The Company relies on a limited number of purchasers for a majority of its products.
The refining industry and export facilities may be unable to absorb U.S. oil production, and the ability to export oil is subject to suspension; in any such case, the resulting surplus could depress prices and restrict the availability of markets.
Estimates of proved reserves and future net cash flows are not precise. The actual quantities and net cash flows of the Company's proved reserves may prove to be lower than estimated.
Because the Company's producing wells decline continually over time, the Company will need to mitigate these declines through drilling and production enhancement initiatives and/or acquisitions.
A portion of the Company's total estimated proved reserves as of December 31, 2021 were undeveloped, and those proved reserves may not ultimately be developed.
The Company faces significant competition and some of its competitors have resources in excess of the Company's available resources.
The Company's business could be materially and adversely affected by security threats, including cybersecurity threats, and other disruptions.
Provisions of the Company's charter documents and Delaware law may inhibit a takeover, which could limit the price investors might be willing to pay in the future for the Company's common stock.
Operational Risks
The Company's operations involve many operational risks, some of which could result in unforeseen interruptions to the Company's operations and substantial losses to the Company for which the Company may not be adequately insured.
Exploration and development drilling involve substantial costs and risks and may not result in commercially productive reserves.
Part of the Company's strategy involves using some of the latest available horizontal drilling and completion techniques, which involve risks and uncertainties in their application.
The Company's expectations for future drilling activities will be realized over several years, making them susceptible to uncertainties that could materially alter the occurrence or timing of such activities.
Multi-well pad drilling may result in volatility in the Company's operating results.
The Company's operations are substantially dependent upon the availability of water and its ability to dispose of produced water gathered from drilling and production activities.
The Company's use of seismic data is subject to interpretation and may not accurately identify the presence of oil and gas, which could materially and adversely affect the results of its future drilling operations.

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The Company's gas processing and gathering systems are subject to operational and regulatory risks.
Financial Risks
The prices of oil, NGLs and gas are highly volatile.
Future declines in the price of oil, NGLs and gas could result in a reduction in the carrying value of the Company's proved oil and gas properties.
The Company's actual production could differ materially from its forecasts.
The Company could experience periods of higher costs if commodity prices rise.
The Company is a party to debt instruments, a Credit Facility and other financial commitments that may limit the Company's ability to fund future business and financing activities.
• The Company's return of capital strategies, including its base and variable dividend policy and share repurchase program, may be changed at the discretion of the Company's board of directors, and the Company's ability to declare and pay base and variable dividends and repurchase shares are subject to certain considerations.
A failure by purchasers of the Company's production to satisfy their obligations to the Company could have a material adverse effect on the Company's results of operations.
The failure by counterparties to the Company's derivative risk management activities to perform their obligations could have a material adverse effect on the Company's results of operations.
The Company's derivative risk management activities could result in financial losses, limit the Company's potential gains or fail to protect the Company from declines in commodity prices.
Pioneer's ability to utilize its U.S. net operating loss carryforwards to offset future income taxes may be limited.
The Company periodically evaluates its unproved oil and gas properties to determine recoverability of its cost and could be required to recognize noncash charges in the earnings of future periods.
The Company periodically evaluates its goodwill for impairment and could be required to recognize noncash charges in the earnings of future periods.
Health, Safety and Environmental Risks
The Company's operations are subject to a series of risks arising out of the threat of climate change, energy conservation measures or initiatives that stimulate demand for alternative forms of energy.
The nature of the Company's assets and production operations may impact the environment or cause environmental contamination.
The Company's hydraulic fracturing and former sand mining operations may result in silica-related health issues and litigation.
Increasing attention to ESG matters may impact the Company's business.
Regulatory Risks
The Company's operations are subject to stringent environmental, oil and gas-related and occupational safety and health legal requirements.
Laws, regulations and other executive actions or regulatory initiatives regarding hydraulic fracturing could increase the Company's cost of doing business and result in additional operating restrictions, delays or cancellations that could have a material adverse effect on the Company's business, results of operations and financial condition.
Laws and regulations pertaining to protection of threatened and endangered species or to critical habitat, wetlands and natural resources could delay, restrict or prohibit the Company's operations and cause it to incur substantial costs.
The Company's transportation of gas; sales and purchases of oil, NGLs and gas or other energy commodities; and any derivative activities related to such energy commodities, expose the Company to potential regulatory risks.
The enactment of derivatives legislation could have a material adverse effect on the Company's ability to use derivative instruments to reduce the effect of commodity price, interest rate and other risks.
The Company's bylaws provide that the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware (or if the Court of Chancery does not have jurisdiction, the federal district court for the District of Delaware) will be the exclusive forum for certain legal actions between the Company and its stockholders and that the federal district courts of the United States shall be the sole and exclusive forum for the resolution of causes of action arising under the Securities Act of 1933.
Risks Associated with Acquisitions
The financial and operational synergies attributable to acquisitions may vary from expectations.
Litigation relating to acquisitions could result in substantial costs to the Company.
The Company's future results will suffer if it does not effectively manage its expanded operations.

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PIONEER NATURAL RESOURCES COMPANY
General Business and Industry Risks
The COVID-19 pandemic and related developments in the global oil markets have had, and depending on the progression of the pandemic, may continue to have, material adverse consequences for general economic, business and industry conditions and for the Company's operations, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows and liquidity and those of its purchasers, suppliers and other counterparties.
The onset of the COVID-19 pandemic significantly affected the global economy, disrupted global supply chains and created significant volatility in the financial markets. In addition, the onset of the pandemic resulted in widespread travel restrictions, business closures and other restrictions that led to a significant reduction in demand for oil, NGL and gas, resulting in oil prices declining significantly in the first quarter of 2020. While demand for and prices for oil, NGLs and gas have generally improved during 2021 as travel restrictions, business closures and other restrictions were lifted, an increase in infections or the onset of a new variant of the virus could again reduce demand for and prices of oil, NGLs and gas. If this were to continue for a prolonged period, the Company, similar to the steps it took at the onset of the pandemic in 2020, may have to make changes to its operations and capital budgets, and the Company's operations, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows and liquidity may be materially and adversely affected. Risks include, but are not limited to, the following:
An extended decline in commodity prices could materially and adversely affect the amount of oil, NGLs and gas that the Company can produce economically, which may result in (i) the Company having to make significant downward adjustments to its estimated proved reserves and (ii) a shortfall in expected cash flows, which could require the Company to reduce capital spending or borrow funds to cover any such shortfall. In addition, the continuation of depressed prices may adversely affect the ability of the Company to pay dividends or repurchase shares of common stock in the future.
A reduced demand for oil, combined with an oversupply of oil, would likely result in an oil surplus in the United States and worldwide. If the global demand for oil exports to foreign markets, or if the price that can be obtained in foreign markets does not support the transportation and other costs to reach those destinations, it may be uneconomical to invest in new wells and may cause the Company to shut in producing wells. The Company cannot be certain whether shut-in wells can successfully return to pre-shut-in production levels or that the costs required to return the wells to production will be economical.
The Company's ability to develop and sell its production could be materially and adversely affected by the inability or unwillingness of third parties to provide sufficient processing, fractionation, refining, transportation, storage or export facilities to the Company. For example, at the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, oil storage in the United States was, at times, near full capacity in many locations. If this were to again occur for an extended period, the Company's purchasers might decline to purchase the Company's oil, NGLs and gas, and the Company may not be able to store its production. Such a lack of market for or storage capacity for the Company's products could require that the Company shut in some portion of its production. The amount of oil in storage may also keep oil prices at low levels for an extended period, even after demand begins to rise.
Under Texas law, the Texas Railroad Commission is empowered to prorate oil production in the state based on market demand. If the Texas Railroad Commission finds that waste is taking place or is reasonably imminent, it is empowered to adopt a rule or order to correct, prevent, or lessen the waste. If the Texas Railroad Commission imposes proration in the future, or if any other similar laws or regulations are imposed, those restrictions would limit the amount of oil, NGLs and gas the Company can produce.
It is possible that any delay, reduction or curtailment of the Company's development and producing operations, whether due to regulatory actions or actions by the Company in reaction to market conditions, could result in the loss of acreage through lease expiration.
Market conditions resulting from the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, low oil prices, or a negative or recessionary economy could also increase the risk that the purchasers of the Company's production, lenders under its credit agreement, counterparties to its derivative instruments, and service providers may be unable to fulfill their obligations in a timely manner, or at all. If any such counterparty were to default on its obligations, such a default could have a material adverse effect on the Company's results of operations.
The Company performs assessments of its proved and unproved oil and gas properties whenever events or circumstances indicate that the carrying values of those assets may not be recoverable. To the extent such tests indicate a reduction of the estimated useful life or estimated future cash flows of the Company's proved oil and gas properties, an impairment charge could be required to reduce the carrying value of its proved oil and gas properties to their fair value. In addition, goodwill is assessed for impairment whenever it is likely that events or circumstances indicate that the carrying value of a reporting unit exceeds its fair value.
The Company's operations may be adversely affected if significant portions of its workforce are unable to work effectively, including because of illness, quarantines, social distancing, government actions, or other restrictions in connection with the COVID-19 pandemic. The Company, as recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and

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Prevention ("CDC"), has implemented workplace restrictions, including guidance for employees to work remotely for health and safety reasons, where possible. As some employees may have been or may in the future be placed in workplaces where exposure to COVID-19 is possible, the Company may be subject to risk of liability should such employees allege that the Company failed to adequately mitigate the risk of exposure to COVID-19, to the extent obligated to do so. In addition, in order to facilitate remote working arrangements, some employees are accessing workspaces from their personal devices through cloud-based systems, which could increase cybersecurity risks to the Company and to its employees. There can be no assurance that the Company's operations will not be curtailed or suspended or otherwise adversely affected due to such workforce issues.
The Company is not able to predict the ultimate long-term impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the Company's business, which will depend on numerous evolving factors and future developments that are beyond the Company's control, including the length of time that the pandemic continues, the speed and effectiveness of responses to combat the COVID-19 virus, the impact of the pandemic and its aftermath on the demand for oil, NGLs and gas, the response of the overall economy and the financial markets as well as the effect of governmental actions taken in response to the COVID-19 pandemic.
Declining general economic, business or industry conditions could have a material adverse effect on the Company's results of operations.
The economies in the United States and certain countries in Europe and Asia have been growing, with resulting improvements in industrial demand and consumer confidence. However, other economies, such as those of certain South American nations, continue to face economic struggles or slowing economic growth. If these conditions worsen, combined with a decline in economic growth in other parts of the world, there could be a significant adverse effect on global financial markets and commodity prices. In addition, continued hostilities in the Middle East, and the occurrence or threat of terrorist attacks in the United States or other countries could adversely affect the global economy. Global or national health concerns, including the outbreak of pandemic or contagious disease, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, may adversely affect the Company by (i) reducing demand for its oil, NGL and gas because of reduced global or national economic activity, (ii) impairing its supply chain (for example, by limiting manufacturing of materials used in operations), and (iii) affecting the health of its workforce, rendering employees unable to work or travel. If the economic climate in the United States or abroad were to deteriorate, demand for petroleum products could diminish or stagnate, which could depress the prices at which the Company could sell its oil, NGLs and gas, affect the ability of the Company's vendors, suppliers and customers to continue operations and ultimately decrease the Company's cash flows and profitability. In addition, reduced worldwide demand for debt and equity securities issued by oil and gas companies may make it more difficult for the Company to raise capital to fund its operations or refinance its debt obligations.
The Company may be unable to make attractive acquisitions and any acquisition it completes is subject to substantial risks that could materially and adversely affect its business.
Acquisitions of oil and gas properties, including acreage trades, have from time to time contributed to the Company's growth. Acquisition opportunities in the oil and gas industry are very competitive, which can increase the cost of, or cause the Company to refrain from, completing acquisitions. The success of any acquisition will depend on a number of factors and involves potential risks, including, among other things:
the inability to accurately forecast future commodity prices and estimate the costs to develop the acquired reserves, the recoverable volumes of the acquired reserves, rates of future production and future net cash flows attainable from the acquired reserves;
the assumption of unknown liabilities, including environmental liabilities, and losses or costs for which the Company is not indemnified or for which the indemnity the Company receives is inadequate;
the validity of assumptions about costs, including synergies;
the effect on the Company's liquidity or financial leverage of using available cash or debt to finance acquisitions or from the amount of debt assumed as part of the acquisition;
the diversion of management's attention from other business concerns; and
an inability to hire, train or retain qualified personnel to manage and operate the Company's growing business and assets.
All of these factors affect whether an acquisition will ultimately generate cash flows sufficient to provide a suitable return on investment. Even though the Company performs a review of the properties it seeks to acquire that it believes is consistent with industry practices, such reviews are often limited in scope. As a result, among other risks, the Company's initial estimates of reserves may be subject to revision following an acquisition, which may materially and adversely affect the desired benefits of the acquisition. See "Risks Associated with Acquisitions" included in "Item 1A. Risk Factors" for additional information.

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The Company's ability to complete dispositions of assets or sell partial interests in assets may be subject to factors beyond its control, and in certain cases the Company may be required to retain liabilities for certain matters.
The Company regularly reviews its property base for the purpose of identifying nonstrategic assets, the disposition of which would increase capital resources available for other activities and create organizational and operational efficiencies. In addition, from time to time, the Company sells an interest in its oil and gas properties for the purpose of assisting or accelerating the asset's development. Various factors could materially affect the ability of the Company to dispose of such nonstrategic assets or partial interests or complete announced dispositions, including the receipt of approvals of governmental agencies or third parties and the availability of purchasers willing to acquire the nonstrategic assets or partial interests on terms and at prices acceptable to the Company.
Sellers typically retain certain liabilities or indemnify buyers for certain pre-closing matters, such as matters of litigation, environmental contingencies, royalty obligations and income taxes. The magnitude of any such retained liability or indemnification obligation may be difficult to quantify at the time of the transaction and ultimately may be material. Also, as is typical in divestiture transactions, third parties may be unwilling to release the Company from guarantees or other credit support provided prior to the sale of the divested assets. As a result, after a divestiture, the Company may remain secondarily liable for the obligations guaranteed or supported to the extent that the buyer of the assets fails to perform these obligations.
The Company's operations and drilling activity are concentrated in the Midland Basin of West Texas, an area of high industry activity, which may affect its ability to obtain the personnel, equipment, services, resources and facilities access needed to complete its development activities as planned or result in increased costs; such concentration also makes the Company vulnerable to risks associated with operating in a limited geographic area.
The Company's producing properties are geographically concentrated in the Midland Basin of West Texas. Industry activity is high in the Midland Basin and demand for and costs of personnel, equipment, power, services and resources remains high. Any delay or inability to secure the personnel, equipment, power, services and resources could result in oil, NGL and gas production volumes being below the Company's forecasted volumes. In addition, any such negative effect on production volumes, or significant increases in costs, could have a material adverse effect on the Company's results of operations, cash flow and profitability.
As a result of this concentration, the Company may be disproportionately exposed to the impact of delays or interruptions of operations or production in this area caused by external factors such as governmental regulation, state politics, market limitations, produced water disposal limitations, water or sand shortages, or extreme weather related conditions.
The Company may not be able to obtain access on commercially reasonable terms or otherwise to gathering systems, pipelines and other processing, fractionation, refining, storage, transportation and export facilities to market its oil, NGL and gas production.
The marketing of oil, NGL and gas production depends in large part on the availability, proximity and capacity of gathering systems, pipelines and other processing, fractionation, refining, storage, transportation and export facilities, as well as the existence of adequate markets. If there were insufficient capacity available on these systems, if these systems were unavailable to the Company or if access to these systems were to become commercially unreasonable, the price offered for the Company's production could be significantly depressed, or the Company could be forced to shut in some production or delay or discontinue drilling plans and commercial production following a discovery of hydrocarbons while it constructs its own facility or awaits the availability of third party facilities. The Company also relies (and expects to rely in the future) on facilities developed and owned by third parties in order to gather, store, process, transport, fractionate, refine, export and sell its oil, NGL and gas production. The Company's plans to develop and sell production from its oil and gas reserves could be materially and adversely affected by the inability or unwillingness of third parties to provide sufficient gathering, transportation, storage, processing, fractionation, refining or export facilities to the Company, especially in areas of planned expansion where such facilities do not currently exist. Additionally, certain of these challenges may be compounded by a high level of industry activity in the Permian Basin.
For example, following Hurricane Harvey in 2017 and Hurricanes Gustav and Ike in 2008, certain Permian Basin gas processors were forced to shut down their plants due to the inability of certain Texas Gulf Coast NGL fractionators to operate. The Company was able to produce its oil wells and vent or flare the associated gas; however, there is no certainty the Company will vent or flare gas in the future as a result of its emissions reduction efforts and potential changes in regulations. The amount of oil and gas that can be produced is subject to limitations in certain circumstances, such as pipeline interruptions due to scheduled and unscheduled maintenance, excessive pressure, physical damage to gathering, transportation, storage, processing, fractionation, refining or export facilities, or lack of capacity at such facilities. The Company has periodically experienced high line pressure at its tank batteries, which has occasionally led to the flaring of gas due to the inability of the gas gathering systems in the areas to support the increased gas production. The curtailments arising from these and similar circumstances may

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PIONEER NATURAL RESOURCES COMPANY
last for a few days, and in many cases, the Company may be provided only limited, if any, notice as to when these circumstances will arise and their duration.
To the extent that the Company enters into transportation contracts with pipelines that are subject to the United States Federal Energy Regulatory Commission ("FERC") regulation, the Company is subject to FERC requirements related to use of such capacity. Any failure on the Company's part to comply with FERC's regulations and policies related to pipeline transportation, reporting requirements or other regulations, and any failure to comply with a FERC-related pipeline's tariff, could result in the imposition of civil and criminal penalties. In addition, any changes in FERC or state regulations or requirements on pipeline transportation may result in increased transportation costs on pipelines that are subject to such regulation, thereby negatively impacting the Company's profitability.
The Company relies on a limited number of purchasers for a majority of its products.
A limited number of companies purchase a majority of the Company's oil, NGL and gas. The loss of a significant purchaser could have a material adverse effect on the Company's ability to sell its production.
The refining industry and export facilities may be unable to absorb U.S. oil production, and the ability to export oil is subject to suspension; in any such case, the resulting surplus could depress prices and restrict the availability of markets, which could materially and adversely affect the Company's results of operations.
Absent an expansion of U.S. refining and export capacity, an increase in U.S. production of oil could result in a surplus of these products in the U.S., which would likely cause prices for these commodities to fall and markets to constrict. Although U.S. law was changed in 2015 to permit the export of oil, exports may not occur if demand is lacking in foreign markets or the price that can be obtained in foreign markets does not support associated export capacity expansions, transportation and other costs. In such circumstances, the rate of return on the Company's capital projects would decline, possibly to levels that would make execution of the Company's drilling plans uneconomical, and a lack of market for the Company's products could require that the Company shut in some portion of its production. If this were to occur, the Company's production and cash flow could decrease, or could increase less than forecasted, which could have a material adverse effect on the Company's cash flow and profitability.
Under the 2015 federal law that lifted the ban on U.S. exports of oil, the President, in certain limited circumstances, has the authority to impose export licensing requirements or other restrictions on exports of oil from the U.S. for an initial period of up to one year, subject to extension. Such a limitation could result in a surplus of oil in the U.S., which would likely cause U.S. oil prices to fall.
Estimates of proved reserves and future net cash flows are not precise. The actual quantities and net cash flows of the Company's proved reserves may prove to be lower than estimated.
Numerous uncertainties exist in estimating quantities of proved reserves and future net cash flows therefrom. The estimates of proved reserves and related future net cash flows set forth in this Report are based on various assumptions, which may ultimately prove to be inaccurate.
Petroleum engineering is a subjective process of estimating underground accumulations of oil and gas that cannot be measured in an exact manner. Estimates of economically recoverable oil and gas reserves and estimates of future net cash flows depend upon a number of variable factors and assumptions, including the following:
historical production from the area compared with production from other producing areas;
the quality and quantity of available data;
the interpretation of that data;
the assumed effects of regulations by governmental agencies;
assumptions concerning future commodity prices; and
assumptions concerning future development costs, operating costs, severance, ad valorem and excise taxes, gathering, processing, transportation and fractionation costs and workover and remedial costs.
Because all proved reserve estimates are to some degree subjective, each of the following items may differ materially from those assumed in estimating proved reserves:
the quantities of oil and gas that are ultimately recovered;
the production costs incurred to recover the reserves;
the amount and timing of future development expenditures; and
future commodity prices.

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PIONEER NATURAL RESOURCES COMPANY
Furthermore, different reserve engineers may make different estimates of proved reserves and cash flows based on the same available data. The Company's actual production, revenues and expenditures with respect to proved reserves will likely differ from the estimates, and the differences may be material.
As required by the SEC, the estimated discounted future net cash flows from proved reserves are based on average prices preceding the date of the estimate and costs as of the date of the estimate, while actual future prices and costs may be materially higher or lower. Actual future net cash flows also will be affected by factors such as:
the amount and timing of actual production;
the level of future capital spending;
increases or decreases in the supply of or demand for oil, NGL and gas; and
changes in governmental regulations or taxation.
Standardized Measure is a reporting convention that provides a common basis for comparing oil and gas companies subject to the rules and regulations of the SEC. In general, it requires the use of commodity prices that are based upon a historical 12-month unweighted average, as well as operating and development costs being incurred at the end of the reporting period. Consequently, it may not reflect the prices ordinarily received or that will be received for future oil and gas production because of seasonal price fluctuations or other varying market conditions, nor may it reflect the actual costs that will be required to produce or develop the oil and gas properties. Accordingly, estimates included herein of future net cash flows may be materially different from the future net cash flows that are ultimately received. In addition, the ten percent discount factor, which is required by the SEC to be used in calculating discounted future net cash flows for reporting purposes, may not be the most appropriate discount factor based on interest rates in effect from time to time and risks associated with the Company or the oil and gas industry in general. Therefore, the estimates of discounted future net cash flows or Standardized Measure in this Report should not be construed as accurate estimates of the current market value of the Company's proved reserves.
Because the Company's producing wells decline continually over time, the Company will need to mitigate these declines through drilling and production enhancement initiatives and/or acquisitions.
Producing oil and gas reservoirs are characterized by declining production rates, which vary depending upon reservoir characteristics and other factors. Because the Company's producing wells decline continually over time as those wells are produced, the Company will need to mitigate these declines through drilling and production enhancement initiatives and/or acquisitions of additional recoverable reserves. There can be no assurance that the Company will be able to develop, exploit, find or acquire sufficient additional reserves to replace its current or future production.
A portion of the Company's total estimated proved reserves as of December 31, 2021 were undeveloped, and those proved reserves may not ultimately be developed.
As of December 31, 2021, 12 percent of the Company's total estimated proved reserves were undeveloped. Recovery of undeveloped proved reserves requires significant capital expenditures and successful drilling. The Company's reserve data assumes that the Company can and will make these expenditures and conduct these operations successfully, which assumptions may not prove to be correct. If the Company chooses not to spend the capital to develop these proved undeveloped reserves, or if the Company is not otherwise able to successfully develop these proved undeveloped reserves, the Company will be required to write-off these proved reserves. In addition, under the SEC's rules, because proved undeveloped reserves may be booked only if they relate to wells planned to be drilled within five years of the date of booking, the Company may be required to write-off any proved undeveloped reserves that are not developed within this five-year timeframe. The Company's future production levels and, therefore, its future cash flow and profitability will be impacted if it is not able to successfully develop its undeveloped leasehold acreage.
A substantial portion of the Company's acreage is currently held under leases that require it to establish and maintain production of hydrocarbons in paying quantities, and such leases are typically held by production from horizontal wells and/or older, lower-producing vertical wells. Unless production in paying quantities is maintained from existing lease-holding wells, or is established during the primary term of the lease and then maintained thereafter with respect to these leases, the leases will terminate, and the Company will lose the right to develop the undeveloped leasehold acreage.
The Company faces significant competition and some of its competitors have resources in excess of the Company's available resources.
The oil and gas industry is highly competitive. The Company competes with a large number of companies, producers and operators in a number of areas such as:
seeking to acquire oil and gas properties suitable for exploration or development;

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PIONEER NATURAL RESOURCES COMPANY
marketing oil, NGL and gas production; and
seeking to acquire the equipment, services and expertise, including trained personnel, necessary to identify, evaluate, develop and operate its properties.
Some of the Company's competitors are larger and have substantially greater financial and other resources than the Company, and as such, the Company may be at a competitive disadvantage in the identification, acquisition and development of properties that complement the Company's operations. The Company also faces competition from companies that supply alternative sources of energy, such as wind, solar power or other renewable energy. Competition is expected to increase and in certain cases, governments are providing tax advantages and other subsidies to support alternative energy sources or are mandating the use of specific fuels or technologies. Governments and other parties are also promoting research into new technologies to accelerate the implementation of alternative energy sources.
The Company's business could be materially and adversely affected by security threats, including cybersecurity threats, and other disruptions.
As an oil and gas producer, the Company faces various security threats, including cybersecurity threats to gain unauthorized access to, or control of, sensitive information or to render data or systems corrupted or unusable; threats to the security of the Company's facilities and infrastructure or third party facilities and infrastructure, such as processing plants and pipelines; and threats from terrorist acts. The potential for such security threats has subjected the Company's operations to increased risks that could have a material adverse effect on the Company's business. In particular, the Company's implementation of various procedures and controls to monitor and mitigate security threats and to increase security for the Company's information, facilities and infrastructure may result in increased capital and operating costs. Costs for insurance have also increased as a result of security threats, and insurance coverage has become more difficult to obtain, and may not be available at prices acceptable to the Company or at all. Moreover, there can be no assurance that such procedures and controls will be sufficient to prevent security breaches from occurring. If any of these security breaches were to occur, they could lead to losses of sensitive information, critical infrastructure or capabilities essential to the Company's operations and could have a material adverse effect on the Company's reputation, financial position, results of operations and cash flows.
Cybersecurity attacks in particular are becoming more sophisticated. The Company relies extensively on information technology systems, including internet sites, computer software, data hosting facilities and other hardware and software platforms, some of which are hosted by third parties, to assist in conducting its business. The Company's technologies systems and networks, and those of its business associates may become the target of cybersecurity attacks, including without limitation denial-of-service attacks, malicious software, data privacy breaches by employees, insiders or others with authorized access, cyber or phishing-attacks, ransomware, attempts to gain unauthorized access to data and systems, and other electronic security breaches that could lead to disruptions in critical systems and materially and adversely affect the Company in a variety of ways, including the following:
unauthorized access to and release of seismic data, reserves information, strategic information or other sensitive or proprietary information, which could have a material adverse effect on the Company's ability to compete for oil and gas resources;
data corruption, communication interruption or other operational disruptions during drilling activities, which could result in the failure to reach the intended target or a drilling incident;
data corruption or operational disruptions of production infrastructure, which could result in loss of production or accidental discharges;
unauthorized access to and release of personal information of royalty owners, employees and vendors, or the data or confidential information of customers, suppliers or other third parties, which could expose the Company to allegations that it did not sufficiently protect that information;
a cybersecurity attack on a vendor or service provider, which could result in supply chain disruptions and could delay or halt operations;
a cybersecurity attack on third-party gathering, transportation, processing, fractionation, refining, storage or export facilities, which could delay or prevent the Company from transporting and marketing its production, resulting in a loss of revenues;
a cybersecurity attack involving commodities exchanges or financial institutions, which could slow or halt commodities trading, thus preventing the Company from marketing its production or engaging in derivative activities, resulting in a loss of revenues;
a cybersecurity attack on a communications network or power grid, which could cause operational disruptions resulting in the loss of revenues; and
a cybersecurity attack on the Company's automated and surveillance systems, which could cause a loss in production and potential environmental hazards.

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PIONEER NATURAL RESOURCES COMPANY
These events could damage the Company's reputation and lead to financial losses from remedial actions, loss of business or potential liability. Additionally, certain cyber incidents, such as surveillance, may remain undetected for an extended period of time.
While the Company has experienced cybersecurity events in the past, including attempts to gain unauthorized access to data and systems, inadvertent data exposures, distributed denial-of-service attacks and phishing-attacks, the Company has not suffered any material losses as a result of such events. However, there is no assurance that the Company will not suffer such losses in the future. As cyber threats continue to evolve, the Company may be required to expend significant additional resources to continue to modify or enhance its protective measures or to investigate and remediate any information security vulnerabilities. Additionally, the continuing and evolving threat of cybersecurity attacks has resulted in evolving legal and compliance matters, including increased regulatory focus on prevention, which could require the Company to expend significant additional resources to meet such requirements.
Provisions of the Company's charter documents and Delaware law may inhibit a takeover, which could limit the price investors might be willing to pay in the future for the Company's common stock.
Provisions in the Company's certificate of incorporation and bylaws may have the effect of delaying or preventing an acquisition of the Company or a merger in which the Company is not the surviving company and may otherwise prevent or slow changes in the Company's board of directors and management. In addition, because the Company is incorporated in Delaware, it is governed by the provisions of Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law. These provisions could discourage an acquisition of the Company or other change in control transactions and thereby negatively affect the price that investors might be willing to pay in the future for the Company's common stock.
Operational Risks
The Company's operations involve many operational risks, some of which could result in unforeseen interruptions to the Company's operations and substantial losses to the Company for which the Company may not be adequately insured.
The Company's operations, including drilling and completion activities and water distribution, collection and disposal activities, are subject to all the risks incident to the oil and gas development and production business, including:
blowouts, cratering, explosions and fires;
adverse weather effects;
environmental hazards, such as NGL and gas leaks, oil and produced water spills, pipeline and vessel ruptures, encountering naturally occurring radioactive materials ("NORM"), and unauthorized discharges of toxic chemicals, gases, brine, well stimulation and completion fluids or other pollutants onto the surface or into the subsurface environment;
high costs, shortages or delivery delays of equipment, labor or other services or materials, such as water and sand for hydraulic fracturing;
facility or equipment malfunctions, failures or accidents;
title problems;
pipe or cement failures or casing collapses;
uncontrollable flows of oil, gas or water;
compliance with environmental and other governmental requirements, including executive actions and regulatory or legislative efforts under a Biden administration;
lost or damaged oilfield workover and service tools;
surface access restrictions;
unusual or unexpected geological formations or pressure or irregularities in formations;
terrorism, vandalism, extreme physical acts of activism against fossil fuel interests and physical, electronic and cybersecurity breaches and global or national health concerns, including the outbreak of a pandemic or contagious disease, such as the recent COVID-19 pandemic; and
natural disasters.
The Company's overall exposure to operational risks may increase as its drilling activity expands, along with any associated increases in internally-provided well services, water distribution, water collection, disposal or other services. In addition, any of these risks could adversely impact the Company's service providers and suppliers, causing its supply chain to be interrupted, slowed or rendered inoperable. Any of these risks could result in substantial losses to the Company due to injury or loss of life, damage to or destruction of wells, production facilities or other property and natural resources, clean-up responsibilities, regulatory investigations and penalties and suspension of operations.

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The Company may not be insured or is not fully insured against certain of the risks described above, either because such insurance is not available or because of the high premium costs and deductibles associated with obtaining such insurance. Additionally, the Company relies, to a large extent, on facilities owned and operated by third-parties, and damage to or destruction of those third-party facilities could adversely affect the ability of the Company to produce, gather, process, fractionate, refine, store, transport, export and sell its hydrocarbons.
Exploration and development drilling involve substantial costs and risks and may not result in commercially productive reserves.
Drilling involves numerous risks, including the risk that no commercially productive oil or gas reservoirs will be encountered. The cost of drilling, completing and operating wells is often uncertain and drilling operations may be curtailed, delayed or canceled, or become costlier, as a result of a variety of factors, including:
unexpected drilling conditions;
unexpected pressure or irregularities in formations;
equipment failures or accidents;
construction delays;
fracture stimulation accidents or failures;
adverse weather conditions;
restricted access to land for drilling or laying pipelines;
title defects;
lack of available gathering, transportation, processing, fractionation, storage, refining or export facilities;
lack of available capacity on interconnecting transmission pipelines;
access to, and the cost and availability of, the equipment, services, resources and personnel required to complete the Company's drilling, completion and operating activities; and
restrictions, delays or cancellations imposed by or resulting from compliance with or changes in environmental and other governmental, regulatory or contractual requirements.
The Company's future drilling activities may not be successful and, if unsuccessful, the Company's proved reserves and production would decline, which could have an adverse effect on the Company's future results of operations and financial condition. While all drilling, whether developmental, extension or exploratory, involves these risks, exploratory and extension drilling involves greater risks of dry holes or failure to find commercial quantities of hydrocarbons. The Company expects that it will continue to recognize exploration and abandonments expense in 2022.
Part of the Company's strategy involves using some of the latest available horizontal drilling and completion techniques, which involve risks and uncertainties in their application.
The Company's operations involve utilizing some of the latest drilling and completion techniques as developed by it and its service providers. Risks that the Company faces while drilling horizontal wells include, but are not limited to, the following:
landing the wellbore in the desired drilling zone;
staying in the desired drilling zone while drilling horizontally through the formation;
running casing the entire length of the wellbore; and
being able to run tools and other equipment consistently through the horizontal wellbore.
Risks that the Company faces while completing wells include, but are not limited to, the following:
the ability to fracture stimulate the planned number of stages;
the ability to run tools the entire length of the wellbore during completion operations; and
the ability to successfully clean out the wellbore after completion of the final fracture stimulation stage.
Drilling in emerging areas is more uncertain than drilling in areas that are more developed and have a longer history of established drilling operations. New discoveries and emerging formations have limited or no production history and, consequently, the Company is more limited in assessing future drilling results in these areas. If the Company's drilling results are worse than anticipated, the return on investment for a particular project may not be as attractive as anticipated and the Company may recognize noncash charges to reduce the carrying value of its unproved properties in those areas.
The Company's expectations for future drilling activities will be realized over several years, making them susceptible to uncertainties that could materially alter the occurrence or timing of such activities.
The Company has identified drilling locations and prospects for future drilling opportunities, including development, exploratory, extension and infill drilling activities. These drilling locations and prospects represent a significant part of the

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Company's future drilling plans. For example, the Company's proved reserves as of December 31, 2021 include proved undeveloped reserves and proved developed non-producing reserves of 130 MMBbls of oil, 92 MMBbls of NGL and 462 Bcf of gas. The Company's ability to drill and develop these locations depends on a number of factors, including the availability and cost of capital, regulatory approvals, negotiation of agreements with third parties, commodity prices, costs, access to and availability of equipment, services, resources and personnel, and drilling results. There can be no assurance that the Company will drill these locations or that the Company will be able to produce oil or gas reserves from these locations or any other potential drilling locations. Well results vary by formation and geographic area, and the Company generally prioritizes its drilling activities to focus on remaining locations that are believed to offer the highest return. Changes in the laws or regulations on which the Company relies in planning and executing its drilling programs could materially and adversely impact the Company's ability to successfully complete those programs. For example, under current Texas laws and regulations, the Company may receive permits to drill, and may drill and complete, certain horizontal wells that traverse one or more units and/or leases; a change in those laws or regulations could materially and adversely impact the Company's ability to drill those wells. Because of these uncertainties, the Company cannot give any assurance as to the timing of these activities or that they will ultimately result in the realization of proved reserves or meet the Company's expectations for success. As such, the Company's actual drilling activities may materially differ from the Company's current expectations, which could have a material adverse effect on the Company's proved reserves, financial condition and results of operations.
Multi-well pad drilling may result in volatility in the Company's operating results.
The Company utilizes multi-well pad drilling, and wells drilled on a pad are not placed on production until all wells on the pad are drilled and completed. In addition, problems affecting a single well could adversely affect production from all of the wells on the pad. As a result, multi-well pad drilling can cause delays in the scheduled commencement of production, or interruptions in ongoing production. These delays or interruptions may cause volatility in the Company's operating results. Further, any delay, reduction or curtailment of the Company's development and producing operations due to operational delays caused by multi-well pad drilling could result in the loss of acreage through lease expiration.
The Company's operations are substantially dependent upon the availability of water and its ability to dispose of produced water gathered from drilling and production activities. Restrictions on the Company's ability to obtain water or dispose of produced water may have a material adverse effect on its financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
Water is an essential component of the Company's drilling and hydraulic fracturing processes. Limitations or restrictions on the Company's ability to secure sufficient amounts of water (including limitations resulting from natural causes such as drought), could materially and adversely impact its operations. Severe drought conditions can result in local water districts taking steps to restrict the use of water in their jurisdiction for drilling and hydraulic fracturing in order to protect the local water supply. If the Company is unable to obtain water to use in its operations from local sources, it may need to be obtained from new sources and transported to drilling sites, resulting in increased costs, which could have a material adverse effect on its financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
In addition, the Company must dispose of the fluids produced from oil and gas production operations, including produced water, which it does directly or through the use of third party vendors. The legal requirements related to the disposal of produced water into a non-producing geologic formation by means of underground injection wells are subject to change based on concerns of the public or governmental authorities regarding such disposal activities. One such concern arises from seismic events near underground disposal wells that are used for the disposal of produced water resulting from oil and gas activities. In 2016, the United States Geological Survey identified Texas as being among the states with areas of increased rates of induced seismicity that could be attributed to fluid injection or oil and gas extraction. Additionally, regulators in some states have imposed, or are considering imposing, additional requirements in the permitting of produced water disposal wells to assess any relationship between seismicity and the use of such wells. For example, in Texas, the Texas Railroad Commission has adopted rules governing the permitting or re-permitting of wells used to dispose of produced water and other fluids resulting from the production of oil and gas in order to address these seismic activity concerns within the state. Among other things, these rules require companies seeking permits for disposal wells to provide seismic activity data in permit applications, provide for more frequent monitoring and reporting for certain wells and allow the state to modify, suspend or terminate permits on grounds that a disposal well is likely to be, or determined to be, causing seismic activity.
In response to recent seismic activity in the Midland Basin over the past couple of years, the Texas Railroad Commission has pursued a series of actions commencing in the latter half of 2021, including suspending deep disposal activity and curtailing certain shallow disposal activities in the areas of heightened seismic activity. Such restrictions have not had a material impact on the Company's operations to date, but further restrictions across the basin as a result of more stringent regulations or legal directives, potential litigation or other developments could materially impact its ability to dispose of produced water, which could have a material adverse effect on the Company's business, financial condition and results of operations.

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The Company's use of seismic data is subject to interpretation and may not accurately identify the presence of oil and gas, which could materially and adversely affect the results of its future drilling operations.
Even when properly used and interpreted, seismic data and visualization techniques are only tools used to assist geoscientists in identifying subsurface structures and hydrocarbon indicators and do not enable the interpreter to know whether hydrocarbons are, in fact, present in those structures. As a result, the Company's drilling activities may not be successful or economic. In addition, the use of advanced technologies, such as 3-D seismic data, requires greater pre-drilling expenditures than traditional drilling strategies, and the Company could incur losses as a result of such expenditures.
The Company's gas processing and gathering systems are subject to operational and regulatory risks, which could result in significant damages and the loss of revenue.
As of December 31, 2021, the Company owns interests in 11 gas processing plants, including the related gathering systems. There are significant risks associated with the operation of gas processing plants and the associated gathering systems. Gas and NGLs are volatile and explosive and may include carcinogens. Damage to or improper operation of gas processing plants or gathering systems could result in an explosion or the discharge of toxic gases, which could result in significant damage claims in addition to interrupting a revenue source.
Moreover, while the Company's gas processing and gathering systems generally are not currently subject to FERC or state regulation with respect to rates or terms and conditions of service, there can be no assurance that such processing and gathering operations will continue to be unregulated in the future. Although these facilities may not be directly regulated, other laws and regulations may affect the availability of gas for gathering and processing, such as state regulations regarding production rates and the maximum daily production allowable from gas wells, which could impact the Company's business in these areas. Such regulation could result in additional costs and reduced revenues.
Financial Risks
The prices of oil, NGLs and gas are highly volatile. A sustained decline in these commodity prices could materially and adversely affect the Company's business, financial condition and results of operations.
The Company's revenues, profitability, cash flow and future rate of growth are highly dependent on commodity prices. Commodity prices may fluctuate widely in response to relatively minor changes in the supply of and demand for oil, NGL and gas, market uncertainty and a variety of additional factors that are beyond the Company's control, such as:
domestic and worldwide supply of and demand for oil, NGL and gas;
worldwide oil, NGL and gas inventory levels, including at Cushing, Oklahoma, the benchmark location for WTI oil prices, and the U.S. Gulf Coast, where the majority of the U.S. refinery capacity exists;
volatility and trading patterns in the commodity-futures markets;
the capacity of U.S. and international refiners to utilize U.S. supplies of oil and condensate;
weather conditions;
overall domestic and global political and economic conditions, including the imposition of tariffs or trade or other economic sanctions, political instability or armed conflict in oil and gas producing regions;
global or national health concerns, including the outbreak of pandemic or contagious disease, such as the recent COVID-19 virus, which may reduce the demand for oil, NGL and gas because of reduced global or national economic activity;
actions of OPEC, its members and other state-controlled oil companies relating to oil price and production controls;
the price and quantity of oil, NGL and LNG imports to and exports from the U.S.;
technological advances or social attitudes or policies affecting energy consumption and energy supply;
domestic and foreign governmental legislative efforts, executive actions and regulations, including environmental regulations, climate change regulations and taxation;
the effect of energy conservation efforts;
stockholder activism or activities by non-governmental organizations to limit certain sources of capital for the energy sector or restrict the exploration, development and production of oil and gas;
the proximity, capacity, cost and availability of gathering systems, pipelines and other processing, fractionation, refinery, storage and export facilities; and
the price, availability and acceptance of alternative fuels.
Commodity prices have historically been, and continue to be, extremely volatile. For example, the Brent oil prices in 2021 ranged from a high of $86.40 to a low of $51.09 per Bbl and the NYMEX gas prices in 2021 ranged from a high of $6.31 to a low of $2.45 per MMBtu. The Company expects this volatility to continue. A further or extended decline in commodity prices could materially and adversely affect the Company's future business, financial condition, results of operations, liquidity

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or its ability to fund planned capital expenditures, pay dividends or repurchase shares of common stock. The Company makes price assumptions that are used for planning purposes, and a significant portion of the Company's cash outlays, including rent, salaries and noncancellable capital and transportation commitments, are largely fixed in nature. Accordingly, if commodity prices are below the expectations on which these commitments were based, the Company's financial results are likely to be adversely and disproportionately affected because these cash outlays are not variable in the short-term and cannot be quickly reduced to respond to unanticipated decreases in commodity prices.
Significant or extended price declines could also materially and adversely affect the amount of oil, NGL and gas that the Company can produce economically, which may result in the Company having to make significant downward adjustments to its estimated proved reserves. A reduction in production could also result in a shortfall in expected cash flows and require the Company to reduce capital spending or borrow funds to cover any such shortfall. Any of these factors could negatively affect the Company's ability to replace its production and its future rate of growth.
Future declines in the price of oil, NGLs and gas could result in a reduction in the carrying value of the Company's proved oil and gas properties, which could materially and adversely affect the Company's results of operations.
Significant or extended price declines could result in the Company having to make downward adjustments to the carrying value of its proved oil and gas properties. The Company performs assessments of the recoverability of its oil and gas properties whenever events or circumstances indicate that the carrying values of those assets may not be recoverable. In order to perform these assessments, management uses various observable and unobservable inputs, including management's outlooks for (i) proved reserves and risk-adjusted probable and possible reserves, (ii) commodity prices, (iii) production costs, (iv) capital expenditures and (v) production. To the extent such tests indicate a reduction of the estimated useful life or estimated future cash flows of the Company's oil and gas properties, the carrying value may not be recoverable and therefore an impairment charge would be required to reduce the carrying value of the proved properties to their fair value. The Company may incur impairment charges in the future, which could materially affect the Company's results of operations in the period incurred. See "Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Results of Operations - Impairment of oil and gas properties and other long-lived assets" and Note 4 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in "Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data" for additional information.
The Company's actual production could differ materially from its forecasts.
From time to time, the Company provides forecasts of expected quantities of future oil and gas production and other financial and operating results. These forecasts are based on a number of estimates and assumptions, including that none of the risks associated with the Company's oil and gas operations summarized in this "Item 1A. Risk Factors" occur. Production forecasts, specifically, are based on assumptions such as:
expectations of production from existing wells and future drilling activity;
the absence of facility or equipment malfunctions;
the absence of adverse weather effects;
expectations of commodity prices, which could experience significant volatility;
expected well costs; and
the assumed effects of regulation by governmental agencies, which could make certain drilling activities or production uneconomical.
Should any of these assumptions prove inaccurate, or should the Company's development plans change, actual production could be materially and adversely affected.
The Company could experience periods of higher costs if commodity prices rise. These increases could reduce the Company's profitability, cash flow and ability to complete development activities as planned.
Historically, the Company's capital and operating costs have risen during periods of increasing oil, NGL and gas prices. These cost increases result from a variety of factors beyond the Company's control, such as increases in the cost of electricity, steel and other raw materials that the Company and its vendors rely upon; increased demand for labor, services and materials as drilling activity increases; and increased production and ad valorem taxes. Costs may rise faster than increases in the Company's revenue if commodity prices rise, thereby negatively impacting the Company's profitability, cash flow and ability to complete development activities as scheduled and on budget. This impact may be magnified to the extent that the Company's ability to participate in the commodity price increases is limited by its derivative risk management activities.

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PIONEER NATURAL RESOURCES COMPANY
The Company is a party to debt instruments, a Credit Facility and other financial commitments that may limit the Company's ability to fund future business and financing activities.
The Company is a borrower under fixed rate senior and convertible notes and maintains a Credit Facility that was undrawn as of December 31, 2021. The terms of the Company's borrowings specify scheduled debt repayments and require the Company to comply with certain associated covenants and restrictions. The Company's ability to comply with the debt repayment terms, associated covenants and restrictions is dependent on, among other things, factors outside the Company's direct control, such as commodity prices and interest rates. In addition, from time to time, the Company enters into arrangements and transactions that can give rise to material off-balance sheet obligations, including firm purchase, transportation and fractionation commitments, gathering, processing, transportation and storage commitments on uncertain volumes of future throughput, commitments to purchase minimum volumes of goods and services, operating lease agreements and drilling commitments. The Company's financial commitments could have important consequences to its business including, but not limited to, the following:
the incurrence of charges associated with unused commitments if actual activities do not meet the Company's expectations at the time such commitments are entered into;
increasing its vulnerability to adverse economic and industry conditions;
limiting its flexibility to plan for, or react to, changes in its business and industry;
limiting its ability to fund future development activities or engage in future acquisitions; and
placing it at a competitive disadvantage compared to competitors that have less debt and/or fewer financial commitments.
The Company's ability to obtain additional financing is also affected by the Company's debt credit ratings and competition for available debt financing. A ratings downgrade could materially and adversely impact the Company's ability to access debt markets, increase the borrowing cost under the Company's Credit Facility and the cost of future debt and potentially require the Company to post letters of credit or other forms of credit support for certain obligations.
The Company's return of capital strategies, including its base and variable dividend policy and share repurchase program, may be changed at the discretion of the Company's board of directors, and the Company's ability to declare and pay base and variable dividends and repurchase shares are subject to certain considerations.
Dividends, whether base or variable, are authorized and determined by the Company's board of directors at its sole discretion. The Company's stock repurchase program has no time limit, may be modified, suspended or terminated at any time by the board of directors, and the repurchase of shares pursuant to the stock repurchase program approved by the board of directors are made from time to time based on management's discretion. Decisions regarding the payment of dividends and the repurchase of shares are subject to a number of considerations, including:
cash available for distribution or repurchases;
the Company's results of operations and anticipated future results of operations;
the Company's financial condition, especially in relation to its anticipated future capital needs;
the level of cash reserves the Company maintains to fund future capital expenditures;
the Company's stock price; and
other factors the board of directors deems relevant.
The frequency and amount of dividends, if any, may vary significantly from amounts paid in previous periods. The Company can provide no assurance that it will continue to pay base or variable dividends or authorize share repurchases at the current rate or at all. Any elimination of or downward revision in the Company's base or variable dividend payout or stock repurchase program could adversely affect the total return of an investment in and have a material adverse effect on the market price, of the Company's common stock.
A failure by purchasers of the Company's production to satisfy their obligations to the Company could have a material adverse effect on the Company's results of operation.
The Company relies on a limited number of purchasers to purchase a majority of its products. To the extent that purchasers of the Company's production rely on access to the credit or equity markets to fund their operations, there is a risk that those purchasers could default in their contractual obligations to the Company if such purchasers were unable to access the credit or equity markets for an extended period of time. If for any reason the Company were to determine that it was probable that some or all of the accounts receivable from any one or more of the purchasers of the Company's production were uncollectible, the Company would recognize a charge in the earnings of that period for the probable loss.

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The failure by counterparties to the Company's derivative risk management activities to perform their obligations could have a material adverse effect on the Company's results of operations.
The use of derivative risk management transactions involves the risk that the counterparties will be unable to meet the financial terms of such transactions. The Company is unable to predict changes in a counterparty's creditworthiness or ability to perform. Even if the Company accurately predicts sudden changes, the Company's ability to negate the risk may be limited depending upon market conditions and the contractual terms of the transactions. During periods of declining commodity prices, the Company's derivative receivable positions generally increase, which increases the Company's counterparty credit exposure. In periods of lower commodity prices, if any of the Company's counterparties were to default on its obligations under the Company's derivative arrangements, such a default could (i) have a material adverse effect on the Company's results of operations, (ii) result in a larger percentage of the Company's future production being subject to commodity price changes and (iii) increase the likelihood that the Company's derivative arrangements may not achieve their intended strategic purposes.
The Company's derivative risk management activities could result in financial losses, limit the Company's potential gains or fail to protect the Company from declines in commodity prices; the Company may not enter into derivative arrangements with respect to future volumes if prices are unattractive.
The Company has historically entered into derivative arrangements covering a portion of its oil, NGL and gas production to mitigate the effect of commodity price volatility on the Company's net cash provided by operating activities and its net asset value, support the Company's annual capital expenditure plans and planned dividend payments. In addition, Pioneer assumed existing derivative arrangements in the Parsley Acquisition and DoublePoint Acquisition, which are now part of the Company's consolidated derivative arrangements. These derivative arrangements, on a combined basis, are subject to mark-to-market accounting treatment, and the changes in fair market value of the contracts are reported in the Company's statements of operations each quarter, which may result in significant noncash gains or losses.
While intended to reduce the effects of oil, NGL and gas price volatility, the Company's derivative arrangements may limit the Company's potential gains if prices rise over the price established by such arrangements. Conversely, the Company's derivative arrangements may be inadequate to protect the Company from continuing and prolonged declines in the price of oil, NGL or gas. Global commodity prices are volatile. Such volatility challenges the Company's ability to forecast the price of oil, NGL and gas, and, as a result, it may become more difficult for the Company to manage its derivative arrangements. In trying to manage its exposure to commodity price risk, the Company may end up with too many or too few derivatives, depending upon where commodity prices settle relative to the Company's derivative price thresholds and how the Company's oil, NGL and gas volumes and production mix fluctuate relative to expectations when the derivatives were entered.
The Company's derivative arrangements may also expose the Company to risk of financial loss in certain circumstances, including, but not limited to, when:
production is less than the contracted derivative volumes;
the counterparty to the derivative contract defaults on its contract obligations;
there is a change in the expected differential between the underlying price in the derivative contract and actual prices received; or
a sudden, unexpected event materially impacts oil and gas prices.
Failure to protect against declines in commodity prices exposes the Company to reduced liquidity when prices decline. A sustained lower commodity price environment would result in lower realized prices for unprotected volumes and reduce the prices at which the Company could enter into derivative contracts on future volumes. The Company has significantly reduced its derivative arrangements for 2022 and beyond; therefore, any decreases in commodity prices for oil, NGLs and gas could have a material adverse effect on the Company's financial condition, cash flow, liquidity and results of operations.
Pioneer's ability to utilize its U.S. net operating loss carryforwards to offset future income taxes may be limited.
As of December 31, 2021, Pioneer had U.S. federal net operating loss carryforwards ("NOLs") of $6.0 billion. Of the total NOLs, $2.2 billion were incurred prior to January 1, 2018 and will begin to expire, if unused, in 2032, and $3.8 billion were incurred on or after January 1, 2018 and will not expire and will be carried forward indefinitely under current tax law. Pioneer's ability to utilize these NOLs and other tax attributes to reduce future taxable income depends on many factors, including its future income, which cannot be assured. Section 382 of the Code ("Section 382") generally imposes an annual limitation on the amount of NOLs that may be used to offset taxable income when a corporation has undergone an "ownership change" (as determined under Section 382). An ownership change generally occurs if one or more stockholders (or groups of stockholders) who are each deemed to own at least five percent of such corporation's stock increase their ownership by more than 50 percentage points over their lowest ownership percentage within a rolling three-year period. In the event that an ownership change occurs, utilization of the relevant corporation's NOLs would be subject to an annual limitation under Section

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382, generally determined, subject to certain adjustments, by multiplying (i) the fair market value of such corporation's stock at the time of the ownership change by (ii) a percentage approximately equivalent to the yield on long-term tax-exempt bonds during the month in which the ownership change occurs. Any unused annual limitation may be carried over to later years.
The Company periodically evaluates its unproved oil and gas properties to determine recoverability of its cost and could be required to recognize noncash charges in the earnings of future periods.
As of December 31, 2021, the Company carried unproved oil and gas property costs of $6.1 billion. GAAP requires periodic evaluation of these costs on a project-by-project basis. These evaluations are affected by the results of exploration activities, commodity price outlooks, planned future sales or expiration of all or a portion of the leases and the contracts and permits appurtenant to such projects. If the quantity of potential reserves determined by such evaluations is not sufficient to fully recover the cost invested in each project, the Company will recognize noncash charges in the earnings in the period in which the unproved oil and gas properties is determined to be impaired.
The Company periodically evaluates its goodwill for impairment and could be required to recognize noncash charges in the earnings of future periods.
As of December 31, 2021, the Company had a carrying value for goodwill of $243 million. Goodwill is assessed for impairment annually during the third quarter and whenever facts or circumstances indicate that the carrying value of the Company's goodwill may be impaired, which may require an estimate of the fair values of the reporting unit's assets and liabilities. Those assessments may be affected by (i) positive or negative reserve adjustments, (ii) results of drilling activities, (iii) management's outlook for commodity prices and costs and expenses, (iv) changes in the Company's market capitalization, (v) changes in the Company's weighted average cost of capital and (vi) changes in income taxes. If the fair value of the reporting unit's net assets is not sufficient to fully support the goodwill balance in the future, the Company will reduce the carrying value of goodwill for the impaired value, with a corresponding noncash charge to earnings in the period in which goodwill is determined to be impaired. If incurred, an impairment of the goodwill could result in a material noncash charge to the Company's earnings in the period in which goodwill is determined to be impaired.
Health, Safety and Environmental Risks
The Company's operations are subject to a series of risks arising out of the threat of climate change, energy conservation measures, or initiatives that stimulate demand for alternative forms of energy that could result in increased operating costs, limit the areas in which oil and gas production may occur, and reduce demand for the oil and gas production it provides.
The threat of climate change continues to attract considerable attention in the United States and around the world. Numerous proposals have been made and could continue to be made at the international, national, regional and state levels of government to monitor and limit existing emissions of GHGs as well as to restrict or eliminate such future emissions.
No comprehensive climate change legislation has been implemented at the federal level, but President Biden has made the combat of climate change arising from GHG emissions a priority under his Administration and has issued, and may continue to issue, executive orders or other regulatory initiatives in pursuit of his regulatory agenda. The EPA has adopted rules that, among other things, establish construction and operating permit reviews for GHG emissions from certain large stationary sources, require the monitoring and annual reporting of GHG emissions from certain petroleum and gas system sources, and impose new standards reducing methane emissions from oil and gas operations through limitations on venting and flaring and the implementation of enhanced emission leak detection and repair requirements. In recent years, there has been considerable uncertainty surrounding regulation of methane emissions. During 2020, the former Trump Administration revised performance standards for methane established in 2016 to lessen the impact of those standards and remove the transmission and storage segments from the source category for certain regulations. However, shortly after taking office in 2021, President Biden issued an executive order calling on the EPA to revisit federal regulations regarding methane and establish new or more stringent standards for existing or new sources in the oil and gas sector, including the transmission and storage segments. The U.S. Congress also passed, and President Biden signed into law, a revocation of the 2020 rulemaking, effectively reinstating the 2016 standards. In response to President Biden's executive order, in November 2021, the EPA issued a proposed rule that, if finalized, would establish Quad Ob new source and Quad Oc first-time existing source standards of performance for methane and volatile organic compound ("VOC") emissions in the oil and gas source category. This proposed rule would apply to upstream and midstream facilities at oil and gas well sites, gas gathering and boosting compressor stations, gas processing plants, and transmission and storage facilities. Owners or operators of affected emission units or processes would have to comply with specific standards of performance that may include leak detection using optical gas imaging and subsequent repair requirements, reduction of emissions by 95 percent through capture and control systems, zero-emission requirements, operations and maintenance requirements, and so-called green well completion requirements. The EPA plans to issue a supplemental proposal enhancing this proposed rulemaking in 2022 that will contain additional requirements that were not included in the November 2021 proposed rule. EPA anticipates issuing a final rule before the end of 2022.

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Additionally, various states and groups of states have adopted or are considering adopting legislation, regulations or other regulatory initiatives that are focused on such areas as GHG cap and trade programs, carbon taxes, GHG reporting and tracking programs, and restriction of GHG emissions. At the international level, there exists the United Nations-sponsored Paris Agreement, which is a non-binding agreement for nations to limit their greenhouse gas emissions through individually-determined reduction goals every five years after 2020. President Biden announced in April 2021 a new, more rigorous nationally determined emissions reduction level of 50 percent to 52 percent from 2005 levels in economy-wide net GHG emissions by 2030. Moreover, the international community gathered again in Glasgow in November 2021 at the 26th Conference of the Parties ("COP26"), during which multiple announcements (not having the effect of law) were made, including a call for parties to eliminate certain fossil fuel subsidies and pursue further action on non-CO2 GHGs. Relatedly, the United States and European Union jointly announced at COP26 the launch of a Global Methane Pledge, an initiative which over 100 counties joined, committing to a collective goal of reducing global methane emissions by at least 30 percent from 2020 levels by 2030, including "all feasible reductions" in the energy sector. The impacts of these orders, pledges, agreements and any legislation or regulation promulgated to fulfill the United States' commitments under the Paris Agreement, COP26, or other international conventions cannot be predicted at this time.
Governmental, scientific, and public concern over the threat of climate change arising from GHG emissions has resulted in federal political risks in the United States. President Biden has issued several executive orders calling for more expansive action to address climate change and suspend new oil and gas operations on federal lands and waters. The suspension of the federal leasing activities prompted legal action by several states against the Biden Administration, resulting in issuance of a nationwide preliminary injunction by a federal district judge in Louisiana in June 2021, effectively halting implementation of the leasing suspension. The federal government is appealing the district court decision. Other actions adversely affecting the oil and gas industry that may be pursued by the Biden Administration include limiting hydraulic fracturing by banning new oil and gas permitting on federal lands and waters, potentially eliminating certain tax rules (referred to as subsidies) that benefit the oil and gas industry, and imposing restrictions on pipeline infrastructure. Litigation risks are also increasing, as a number of states, municipalities and other plaintiffs have sought to bring suit against oil and gas exploration and production companies in state or federal court, alleging, among other things, that such energy companies created public nuisances by producing fuels that contributed to global warming effects, such as rising sea levels, and therefore, are responsible for roadway and infrastructure damages as a result, or alleging that the companies have been aware of the adverse effects of climate change for some time but defrauded their investors by failing to adequately disclose those impacts. The Company is not currently a defendant in any of these lawsuits, but it could be named in actions making similar allegations. An unfavorable ruling in any such case could significantly impact the Company's operations and could have an adverse impact on its financial condition.
Additionally, the Company's access to capital may be impacted by climate change policies. Shareholders and bondholders that are currently invested in fossil-fuel energy companies are concerned about the potential effects of climate change and may elect in the future to shift some or all of their investments into non-fossil fuel energy related sectors. Institutional lenders who provide financing to fossil-fuel energy companies also have become more attentive to sustainable lending and investment practices that favor "clean" power sources, such as wind and solar, making those sources more attractive, and some of them may elect not to provide funding for fossil fuel energy companies. Many of the largest U.S. banks have made "net zero" carbon emission commitments and have announced that they will be assessing financed emissions across their portfolios and taking steps quantify and reduce those emissions. At COP26, the Glasgow Financial Alliance for Net Zero ("GFANZ") announced that commitments from over 450 firms across 45 countries had resulted in over $130 trillion in capital committed to net zero goals. The various suballiances of GFANZ generally require participants to set short-term, sector-specific targets to transition their financing, investing, and/or underwriting activities to net zero emissions by 2050. These and other developments in the financial sector could lead to some lenders restricting access to capital for or divesting from certain industries or companies, including the oil and gas sector, or requiring that borrowers take additional steps to reduce their GHG emissions. Additionally, there is the possibility that financial institutions may be pressured or required to adopt policies that limit funding for fossil fuel energy companies. In late 2020, the Federal Reserve announced that it had joined the Network for Greening the Financial System ("NGFS"), a consortium of financial regulators focused on addressing climate-related risks in the financial sector. More recently, in November 2021, the Federal Reserve issued a statement in support of the efforts of the NGFS to identify key issues and potential solutions for the climate-related challenges most relevant to central banks and supervisory authorities. While the Company cannot predict what policies may result from these announcements, a material reduction in the capital available to the fossil fuel industry could make it more difficult to secure funding for exploration, development, production, transportation, and processing activities, which could impact the Company's business and operations. Separately, the SEC has also announced that is scrutinizing existing climate-change related disclosures in public filings, increasing the potential for enforcement if the SEC were to allege an issuer's existing climate disclosures misleading or deficient.
Finally, increasing concentrations of GHG in the Earth's atmosphere may produce climate changes that have significant physical effects, such as increased frequency and severity of storms, droughts, floods, rising sea levels and other climatic

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events, as well as chronic shifts in temperature and precipitation patterns. These climatic developments have the potential to cause physical damage to the Company's assets and thus could have an adverse effect on its exploration and production operations. Additionally, changing meteorological conditions, particularly temperature, may result in changes to the amount, timing, or location of demand for energy or its production. While the Company's consideration of changing climatic conditions and inclusion of safety factors in design is intended to reduce the uncertainties that climate change and other events may potentially introduce, its ability to mitigate the adverse impacts of these events depends in part on the effectiveness of its facilities and its disaster preparedness and response and business continuity planning, which may not have considered or be prepared for every eventuality.
The occurrence of any one or more of these developments with respect to climate change initiatives and further restrictions on GHG emissions could have a material adverse effect on the Company's business, financial condition and results of operations.
The nature of the Company's assets and production operations may impact the environment or cause environmental contamination, which could result in material liabilities to the Company.
The Company's assets and production operations may give rise to significant environmental costs and liabilities as a result of the Company's handling of petroleum hydrocarbons and wastes, because of air emissions and water discharges related to its operations, and due to past industry operations and waste disposal practices. The Company's oil and gas business involves the generation, handling, treatment, storage, transport and disposal of wastes, hazardous substances and petroleum hydrocarbons and is subject to environmental hazards, such as oil and produced water spills, NGL and gas leaks, pipeline and vessel ruptures and unauthorized discharges of such wastes, substances and hydrocarbons, that could expose the Company to substantial liability due to pollution and other environmental damage. The Company could also incur costs and liabilities arising out of the unintended release of its flowback water or certain other oilfield fluids that the Company injects or has injected into non-producing formations. Another consequence of such contamination may be lawsuits alleging that its operations have caused damage to neighboring properties or otherwise violated state and federal rules regulating waste disposal. The occurrence of any one or more of these developments could have a material adverse effect on the Company's business, financial condition and results of operations.
The Company's hydraulic fracturing and former sand mining operations may result in silica-related health issues and litigation that could have a material adverse effect on the Company.
The Company routinely conducts hydraulic fracturing in its drilling and completion programs, which activity requires management and use of significant volumes of sand. Additionally, the Company owns and formerly operated certain sand mining operations. The inhalation of respirable crystalline silica dust is associated with the lung disease silicosis. There is evidence of an association between crystalline silica exposure or silicosis and lung cancer and a possible association with other diseases, including immune system disorders, such as scleroderma. These health risks have been, and may continue to be, a significant issue confronting the commercial sand industry. The actual or perceived health risks of mining, processing and handling sand could materially and adversely affect the Company through the threat of product liability or personal injury lawsuits, enacted OSHA silica regulations and increased scrutiny by federal, state and local regulatory authorities. The occurrence of significant silica-related health issues as well as any pending or future claims or inadequacies of insurance coverage or contractual indemnification arising out of such issues could have a material adverse effect on the Company's results of operations.
Increasing attention to ESG matters may impact the Company's business.
Businesses across all industries are facing increasing scrutiny from stakeholders related to their ESG practices. Businesses that do not adapt to or comply with investor or stakeholder expectations and standards, which are continuing to evolve, or businesses that are perceived to have not responded appropriately to the growing concern for ESG issues, regardless of whether there is a legal requirement to do so, may suffer from reputational damage and the business, financial condition, and/or stock price of such business entity could be materially and adversely affected. Increasing attention to climate change, increasing societal expectations on businesses to address climate change, and potential consumer use of substitutes to energy commodities may result in increased costs, reduced demand for the Company's hydrocarbon products, reduced profits, increased investigations and litigation, and negative impacts on its stock price and access to capital markets. Increasing attention to climate change, for example, may result in demand shifts for the Company's hydrocarbon products, additional governmental investigations and private litigation, an increase in shareholder activism as shareholders may attempt to effect changes to the Company's business or governance, whether by shareholder proposals, public campaigns, proxy solicitations or otherwise, or constraints in sources of capital as certain financial institutions, institutional investors and other sources of capital limit or eliminate their investment in oil and gas activities.

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As part of the Company's ongoing effort to enhance its ESG efforts, its board of directors has established a Sustainability and Climate Oversight Committee, which is charged with the ongoing oversight of the Company's corporate climate-related risk analysis, as well as its Sustainability Report, Climate Risk Report and other related activities. Additionally, in 2021, to further strengthen the Company's ESG performance, it enhanced its aspirational emissions reduction goals as follows: (i) increased its emissions reduction targets for its methane emissions intensity from a 40 percent reduction to a 75 percent reduction by 2030 and its GHG emissions intensity from a 25 percent reduction to a 50 percent reduction by 2030 and (ii) maintaining a flaring intensity standard of less than one percent of gas produced and to end routine flaring by 2030, with an aspirational goal to achieve it by 2025. While the Company may elect to establish various voluntary ESG targets now or in the future, such targets are aspirational. The Company may not be able to meet such targets in the manner or on such a timeline as initially contemplated, including as a result of unforeseen costs or technical difficulties associated with achieving such results. To the extent the Company elected to pursue such targets and were able to achieve the desired target levels, such achievement may have been accomplished as a result of entering into various contractual arrangements, including the purchase of various credits or offsets that may be deemed to mitigate its ESG impact instead of actual changes in ESG performance. Notwithstanding the Company's election to pursue aspirational targets now or in the future, it may receive pressure from investors, lenders or other groups to adopt more aggressive climate or other ESG-related goals, but the Company cannot guarantee it will be able to implement such goals because of potential costs or technical or operational obstacles.
In addition, organizations that provide information to investors on corporate governance and related matters have developed ratings processes for evaluating business entities on their approach to ESG matters. Currently, there are no universal standards for such scores or ratings, but the importance of sustainability evaluations is becoming more broadly accepted by investors and shareholders. Such ratings are used by some investors to inform their investment and voting decisions. Additionally, certain investors use these scores to benchmark businesses against their peers and if a business entity is perceived as lagging, these investors may engage with such entities to require improved ESG disclosure or performance. Moreover, certain members of the broader investment community may consider a business entity's sustainability score as a reputational or other factor in making an investment decision. Consequently, a low sustainability score could result in exclusion of the Company's stock from consideration by certain investment funds, engagement by investors seeking to improve such scores and a negative perception of the Company's operations by certain investors. Additionally, though the Company believes it can achieve its voluntary ESG targets and goals, any failure to realize or the perception of a failure to realize voluntary targets or long-term goals, could lead to a negative perception of the Company.
Regulatory Risks
The Company's operations are subject to stringent environmental, oil and gas-related and occupational safety and health legal requirements that could increase its costs of doing business and result in operating restrictions, delays or cancellations in the permitting, drilling or completion of oil and gas wells, which could have a material adverse effect on the Company's business, results of operations and financial condition.
The Company's oil and gas exploration and production operations are subject to stringent federal, state and local legal requirements governing, among other things, the drilling of wells (including allocation wells on two or more leaseholds that are not pooled), rates of production, the size and shape of drilling and spacing units or proration units, the transportation and sale of oil, NGLs and gas, the discharging of materials into the environment, environmental protection and occupational safety and health. These requirements may take the form of laws, regulations, and executive actions, and noncompliance with these legal requirements may subject the Company to sanctions, including administration, civil or criminal penalties, remedial cleanups or corrective actions, delays in permitting or performance of projects, natural resource damages and other liabilities. Changes in administrative procedures or authorizations, court decisions, and legislative action with respect to any of these areas, including authorizations for allocation wells, could have a material adverse effect on the Company's anticipated future production, results of operations and financial condition.
In connection with its operations, the Company must obtain and maintain numerous environmental and oil and gas related permits, approvals and certificates from various federal, state and local governmental authorities, and may incur substantial costs in doing so. The need to obtain permits has the potential to delay, curtail or cease the development of oil and gas projects. The Company may in the future be charged royalties on gas emissions or required to incur certain capital expenditures for air pollution control equipment or other air emissions-related issues. For example, in 2015, the EPA under the Obama Administration issued a final rule under the CAA, making the National Ambient Air Quality Standard ("NAAQS") for ground-level ozone more stringent. Since that time, the EPA has issued area designations with respect to ground-level ozone and, on December 31, 2020, published a final action that, upon conducting a periodic review of the ozone standard in accord with CAA requirements, elected to retain the 2015 ozone NAAQS without revision on a going-forward basis. However, several groups have filed litigation over this December 2020 decision, and the Biden Administration has announced plans to reconsider the December 2020 final action in favor of a more stringent ground-level ozone NAAQS. State implementation of the revised

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NAAQS could, among other things, require installation of new emission controls on some of the Company's equipment, result in longer permitting timelines, and significantly increase the Company's capital expenditures and operating costs.
In another example, there continues to be uncertainty on the federal government's applicable jurisdictional reach under the CWA over waters of the United States, including wetlands, as the EPA and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers ("Corps") under the Obama, Trump and Biden Administrations have pursued multiple rulemakings since 2015 in an attempt to determine the scope of such reach. While the EPA and Corps under the Trump Administration issued a final rule in January 2021 narrowing federal jurisdictional reach over waters of the United States, President Biden issued an executive order to further review and assess these regulations consistent with the new administration's policy objectives, following which the EPA and Corps announced plans in June 2021 to initiate a new rulemaking process that would repeal the 2020 rule and restore protections that were in place prior to the 2015. Although the EPA and Corps did not seek to vacate the 2020 rule on an interim basis, two federal district courts in Arizona and New Mexico have vacated the 2020 rule in decisions announced during the third quarter of 2021. While these district court decisions may be appealed, it is clear that the EPA and Corps intend to adopt a more expansive definition for waters of the United States. As an initial step, the agencies published on December 7, 2021 a proposed rulemaking that would put back into place the pre-2015 definition of "waters of the United States." The proposed rule, if adopted would serve as an interim approach to "waters of the United States" and provide the agency with time to develop a subsequent rule that builds upon the currently proposed rule based, in part, on additional stakeholder involvement. To the extent that any new final rule or rules issued by the EPA and Corps under the Biden Administration expands the scope of the CWA's jurisdiction in areas where the Company conducts operations, such developments could delay, restrict or halt the development of projects, result in longer permitting timelines, or increased compliance expenditures or mitigation costs for the Company's operations, which may reduce the Company's rate of production of oil and gas and have a material adverse effect on the Company's business, results of operations and cash flows.
Additionally, the Company's operations are subject to federal and state laws and regulations, including the federal OSHA and comparable state statutes, whose purpose is to protect the health and safety of employees. Among other things, the OSHA hazard communication standard, the EPA community right-to-know regulations under Title III of the federal Superfund Amendment and Reauthorization Act, and comparable state statutes require that information be maintained concerning hazardous materials used or produced in the Company's operations and that this information be provided to employees, state and local government authorities and citizens.
Compliance with these legal requirements, or any other new environmental or occupational safety and health laws, regulations or executive actions could, among other things, require the Company to install new or modified emission or safety controls on equipment or processes, incur longer permitting timelines, and incur increased capital or operating expenditures, which costs may be significant. Additionally, one or more of these developments could impact the Company's oil and gas exploration, production and development activities, which could have a material adverse effect on its business, results of operations and financial condition.
Laws, regulations and other executive actions or regulatory initiatives regarding hydraulic fracturing could increase the Company's cost of doing business and result in additional operating restrictions, delays or cancellations that could have a material adverse effect on the Company's business, results of operations and financial condition.
The Company routinely conducts hydraulic fracturing in its drilling and completion programs. Hydraulic fracturing is typically regulated by state oil and gas commissions, but the practice continues to attract considerable public, scientific and governmental attention in certain parts of the country, resulting in increased scrutiny and regulation, including by federal agencies.
At the federal level, the EPA asserted federal regulatory authority under the SDWA over certain hydraulic fracturing activities involving the use of diesel fuels and published permitting guidance for such activities. Additionally, the EPA issued a final regulation under the CWA prohibiting discharges to publicly owned treatment works of wastewater from onshore unconventional oil and gas extraction facilities. In late 2016, the EPA released its final report on the potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing on drinking water resources, concluding that "water cycle" activities associated with hydraulic fracturing may impact drinking water resources under certain circumstances. Also, in 2016, the BLM under the Obama Administration published a final rule imposing more stringent standards on hydraulic fracturing on federal lands; however, in late 2018, the BLM, under the Trump Administration, published a final rule rescinding the 2016 final rule. Since that time, litigation challenging the BLM's 2016 final rule and the 2018 final rule has resulted in rescission in federal courts of both the 2016 rule and the 2018 final rule but appeals to those decisions are ongoing.
Notwithstanding these regulatory developments, the Biden Administration has issued executive orders, could issue additional executive orders and could pursue other legislative and regulatory initiatives that restrict hydraulic fracturing activities on federal lands. For example, the Biden Administration issued an order in January 2021 suspending the issuance of

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new leases on federal lands and waters pending review and reconsideration of federal oil and gas leasing and permitting practices. The suspension of these federal leasing activities prompted legal action by several states against the Biden Administration, resulting in issuance of a nationwide preliminary injunction by a federal district judge in Louisiana in June 2021, effectively halting implementation of the leasing suspension. The federal government is appealing the district court decision. Separately, the DOI released its report on federal oil and gas leasing and permitting practices in November 2021, following a review of the onshore and offshore federal oil and gas program. The report states an intent to modernize the federal oil and gas leasing program and, in respect of the onshore sector, recommends adjusting royalty rates to ensure that the full value of the tracts being leased are captured and strengthening financial assurance coverage amounts that are more protective of the federal government and taxpayers. Certain of the report recommendations require action by Congress and cannot be implemented unilaterally by the new administration and, thus, the extent to which the Biden Administration will act upon the report's recommendations cannot be predicted at this time. Further constraints may be adopted by the Biden Administration in the future.
At the state level, many states have adopted legal requirements that have imposed new or more stringent permitting, public disclosure or well construction requirements on hydraulic fracturing activities, including in states where the Company's oil and gas exploration and production activities occur. States could also elect to place prohibitions on hydraulic fracturing and local governments may seek to adopt ordinances within their jurisdictions regulating the time, place or manner of drilling activities in general or hydraulic fracturing activities in particular.
Laws and regulations pertaining to protection of threatened and endangered species or to critical habitat, wetlands and natural resources could delay, restrict or prohibit the Company's operations and cause it to incur substantial costs that may have a material adverse effect on the Company's development and production of reserves.
The federal ESA and comparable state laws were established to protect endangered and threatened species. Under the ESA, if a species is listed as threatened or endangered, restrictions may be imposed on activities adversely affecting that species' habitat. Similar protections are offered to migratory birds under the Migratory Bird Treaty Act ("MBTA"). The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service ("FWS"), during the Trump Administration, issued a final rule on January 7, 2021, which clarifies that criminal liability under the MBTA will apply only to actions "directed at" migratory birds, its nests, or its eggs; however, the FWS under the Biden Administration has since published a final rule in October 2021 revoking the January 2021 rule and affirmatively stating that the MBTA prohibits incidental takes of migratory birds. Some of the Company's operations are conducted in areas where protected species or their habitats are known to exist. In these areas, the Company may be obligated to develop and implement plans to avoid potential adverse effects to protected species and their habitats, and the Company may be delayed, restricted or prohibited from conducting operations in certain locations or during certain seasons, such as breeding and nesting seasons, when the Company's operations could have an adverse effect on the species. In addition, the FWS may make new determinations on the listing of species as endangered or threatened under the ESA. The dunes sagebrush lizard and the lesser prairie chicken are examples of species that, if listed as endangered or threatened under the ESA in the future, could impact the Company's operations. The designation of previously unprotected species or the re-designation of under protected species as threatened or endangered in areas where the Company conducts operations could cause the Company to incur increased costs arising from species protection measures or could result in delays, restrictions or prohibitions on its development and production activities that could have a material adverse effect on the Company's ability to develop and produce reserves.
The Company's transportation of gas; sales and purchases of oil, NGLs and gas or other energy commodities and any derivative activities related to such energy commodities, expose the Company to potential regulatory risks.
The FERC, the Federal Trade Commission ("FTC") and the U.S. Commodities Futures Trading Commission ("CFTC") hold statutory authority to monitor certain segments of the physical and futures energy commodities markets relevant to the Company's business. These agencies have imposed broad regulations prohibiting fraud and manipulation of such markets. With regard to the Company's transportation of gas in interstate commerce, physical sales and purchases of oil, NGL, gas or other energy commodities, and any derivative activities related to these energy commodities, the Company is required to observe the market-related regulations enforced by these agencies, which hold substantial enforcement authority. Failure to comply with such regulations, as interpreted and enforced, could result in agency actions that could materially and adversely affect the Company's results of operations and financial condition.
The enactment of derivatives legislation could have a material adverse effect on the Company's ability to use derivative instruments to reduce the effect of commodity price, interest rate and other risks associated with its business.
The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (the "Dodd-Frank Act") enacted in July 2010, established federal oversight and regulation of the over-the-counter derivatives market and entities, such as the Company, that participate in that market. The Dodd-Frank Act requires the CFTC and the SEC to promulgate rules and regulations for its

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implementation. While many Dodd-Frank Act regulations are already in effect, the rulemaking and implementation process is ongoing, and the ultimate effect of the adopted rules and regulations and any future rules and regulations on the Company's business remain uncertain.
In 2021, the CFTC voted to finalize a new set of rules regarding position limits for certain physical commodity derivatives (the "Final Position Limits Rule"). The Final Position Limits Rule establishes new and amended position limits for futures and options contracts in various commodities (including oil and gas) and for swaps that are their economic equivalents. Under the Final Position Limits Rule, certain types of derivative transactions are exempt from these limits, provided that such derivative transactions satisfy the CFTC's requirements for certain enumerated "bona fide" derivative transactions, pass-through swaps and certain anticipatory hedges. The Final Position Limits Rule also includes new exemptions for conditional spot-month positions in gas, preexisting positions acquired in good faith and, in limited circumstances, upon request to the CFTC.
The CFTC has also adopted final rules regarding the aggregation requirements applicable to position limits (such rules, as expanded by the Final Positions Limits Rule, the "Aggregation Rule"). The Aggregation Rule requires the aggregation of positions in commodity futures contracts and the economically equivalent futures, options and swaps held by separate but related entities for purposes of determining compliance with position limits. Absent an applicable exemption, aggregation is required across accounts in which a market participant holds at least a ten percent equity interest or where multiple accounts with identical trading strategies are controlled by such aggregating entity. The CFTC has granted relief from some of the aggregation requirements in the Aggregation Rule until August 12, 2022 for aggregating entities that hold or control the trading of multiple accounts or entities with substantially identical trading strategies unless they hold or control such accounts or entities to willfully evade applicable position limits. The Final Position Limits Rule provides that, by January 21, 2022, market participants need to comply with speculative position limits applicable for commodity futures contracts, other than economically equivalent swaps. Economically equivalent swaps will become subject to position limits under the Final Position Limits Rule on January 1, 2023. These rules may affect both the size of the positions that the Company may hold and the ability or willingness of counterparties to trade with the Company, potentially increasing the costs of transactions. Moreover, such changes could materially reduce the Company's access to derivative opportunities, which could adversely affect revenues or cash flow during periods of low commodity prices. The ultimate effect of these rules and any additional regulations on the Company's business is uncertain.
The CFTC has designated certain interest rate swaps and credit default swaps for mandatory clearing and the associated rules also will require the Company, in connection with covered derivative activities, to comply with clearing and trade-execution requirements or to take steps to qualify for an exemption to such requirements. Although the Company believes it qualifies for the end-user exception from the mandatory clearing requirements for swaps entered to mitigate its commercial risks, the application of the mandatory clearing and trade execution requirements to other market participants, such as swap dealers, may change the cost and availability of the swaps that the Company uses. If the Company's swaps do not qualify for the commercial end-user exception, or if the cost of entering into uncleared swaps becomes prohibitive, the Company may be required to clear such transactions. The ultimate effect of these rules and any additional regulations on the Company's business is uncertain.
In addition, certain banking regulators and the CFTC have adopted final rules establishing minimum margin requirements for uncleared swaps. Although the Company expects to qualify for the end-user exception from margin requirements for swaps entered into to manage its commercial risks, the application of such requirements to other market participants, such as swap dealers, may change the cost and availability of the swaps that the Company uses. If any of the Company's swaps do not qualify for the commercial end-user exception, the posting of collateral could reduce its liquidity and cash available for capital expenditures and could reduce its ability to manage commodity price volatility and the volatility in its cash flows.
The full impact of the Dodd-Frank Act and related regulatory requirements upon the Company's business will not be known until the regulations are fully implemented and the market for derivatives contracts has adjusted. In addition, it is possible that the Biden administration could expand regulation of the over-the-counter derivatives market and the entities that participate in that market through either the Dodd-Frank Act or the enactment of new legislation. The Dodd-Frank Act (and any regulations implemented thereunder) and any new legislation could significantly increase the cost of derivative contracts, materially alter the terms of derivative contracts, reduce the availability of derivatives to protect against risks the Company encounters and reduce the Company's ability to monetize or restructure its existing derivative contracts. Further, the Dodd-Frank Act was enacted, in part, for the purpose of preventing the burdens associated with excessive speculation causing sudden or unreasonable fluctuations or unwarranted changes in the price of an underlying commodity (including oil and gas). The Company's revenues could therefore be materially and adversely affected if a consequence of the Dodd-Frank Act and implementing regulations is to lower commodity prices.

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The European Union and other non-U.S. jurisdictions are implementing regulations with respect to the derivatives market. To the extent the Company transacts with counterparties in foreign jurisdictions or counterparties with other businesses that subject them to regulations in foreign jurisdictions, the Company may become subject to, or otherwise affected by, such regulations. At this time, the impact of such regulations is not clear.
Regulation by the CFTC and banking regulators of the over-the-counter derivatives market and market participants could cause the Company's contract counterparties, which are generally financial institutions and other market participants, to curtail or cease their derivatives activities. The Company believes that these regulatory trends have contributed to a reduction in liquidity of the over-the-counter derivatives market, which could make it more difficult to engage in derivative transactions covering significant volumes of the Company's future production, and which could materially and adversely affect the cost and availability of derivatives to the Company. If the Company reduces its use of derivatives as a result of such regulation, the Company's results of operations may become more volatile and its cash flows may be less predictable, which could materially and adversely affect the Company's ability to plan for and fund capital expenditures. Any of these consequences could have a material adverse effect on the Company, its financial condition and its results of operations.
The Company's bylaws provide, to the fullest extent permitted by law, that the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware (or if the Court of Chancery does not have jurisdiction, the federal district court for the District of Delaware) will be the exclusive forum for certain legal actions between the Company and its stockholders and that the federal district courts of the United States shall be the sole and exclusive forum for the resolution of causes of action arising under the Securities Act of 1933. These provisions could increase costs to bring a claim, discourage claims or limit the ability of the Company's stockholders to bring a claim in a judicial forum viewed by the stockholders as more favorable for disputes with the Company or the Company's directors, officers or other employees.
The Company's bylaws provide to the fullest extent permitted by law that, unless the Company consents in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware (or if the Court of Chancery does not have jurisdiction, the federal district court for the District of Delaware) will be the sole and exclusive forum for (a) any derivative action or proceeding brought on behalf of the Company, (b) any action asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any director, officer, other employee, agent or stockholder of the Company to the Company or the Company's stockholders, (c) any action against the Company arising pursuant to any provision of the Delaware General Corporation Law or as to which the Delaware General Corporation Law confers jurisdiction on the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware, or (d) any action against the Company or any director, officer, other employee or agent of the Company asserting a claim governed by the internal affairs doctrine, including, without limitation, any action to interpret, apply, enforce or determine the validity of the Company's certificate of incorporation or the Company's bylaws. The Company's bylaws also provided that the federal district courts of the United States shall be the sole and exclusive forum for the resolution of any complaint asserting a cause of action arising under the Securities Act of 1933. Although the Company's bylaws provide for an exclusive forum for causes of action under the Securities Act of 1933, its stockholders will not be deemed to have waived compliance with the federal securities laws and the rules and regulations thereunder. The choice of forum provisions may increase costs to bring a claim, discourage claims or limit a stockholder's ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that it finds favorable for disputes with the Company or the Company's directors, officers or other employees, which may discourage such lawsuits against the Company or the Company's directors, officers and other employees. Alternatively, if a court were to find the choice of forum provision contained in the Company's bylaws to be inapplicable or unenforceable in an action, the Company may incur additional costs associated with resolving such action in other jurisdictions.
Risks Associated with Acquisitions
The financial and operational synergies attributable to acquisitions may vary from expectations.
Pioneer may fail to realize the anticipated benefits and synergies expected from acquisitions, which could adversely affect its business, financial condition and operating results. The success of an acquisition will depend, in significant part, on Pioneer's ability to successfully integrate the acquired business and realize the anticipated strategic benefits and synergies from the combination. Actual operating, technological, strategic and revenue synergies, if achieved at all, may be less significant than expected or may take longer to achieve than anticipated. If Pioneer is not able to achieve these objectives and realize the anticipated benefits and synergies expected from an acquisition within the anticipated timing or at all, Pioneer's business, financial condition and operating results may be adversely affected.
Litigation relating to acquisitions could result in substantial costs to the Company.
Securities class action lawsuits and derivative lawsuits are often brought against public companies that have entered into acquisition, merger or other business combination agreements. Even if such a lawsuit is without merit, defending against these

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claims can result in substantial costs and divert the time and resources of management. An adverse judgment could result in monetary damages, which could have a negative impact on the Company's liquidity and financial condition.
The Company, subsidiaries, or persons that have indemnification rights against the Company or its subsidiaries may be named in one or more lawsuits in connection with prior acquisitions. If any such lawsuits are filed, there can be no assurance that the Company and the other defendants will be successful in the outcome of any such pending or any potential future lawsuits. The defense or settlement of any of these potential lawsuits may adversely affect the Company's business, liquidity, financial condition and results of operations.
The Company's future results will suffer if it does not effectively manage its expanded operations.
As a result of acquisitions, the size and geographic footprint of the Company's business will likely increase. The Company's future success will depend, in part, upon its ability to manage this expanded business, which may pose substantial challenges for management, including challenges related to the management and monitoring of new operations and the associated increased costs and complexity. The Company may also face increased scrutiny from governmental authorities as a result of the increase in the size of its business. There can be no assurances that the Company will be successful or that it will realize the expected operating efficiencies, cost savings, revenue enhancements or other benefits currently anticipated from acquisitions.
ITEM 1B.    UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
None. 

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ITEM 2.    PROPERTIES
Reserve Estimation Procedures and Audits
The information included in this Report about the Company's proved reserves as of December 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019 is based on evaluations prepared by the Company's engineers and audited by Netherland, Sewell & Associates, Inc. ("NSAI").
Reserve estimation procedures. The Company has established internal controls over reserve estimation processes and procedures to support the accurate and timely preparation and disclosure of reserve estimates in accordance with SEC requirements. These controls include oversight of the reserves estimation reporting processes by Pioneer's Corporate Reserves Group ("Corporate Reserves") and an annual external audit of substantial portions of the Company's proved reserves by NSAI.
Corporate Reserves is staffed with reservoir engineers who prepare reserve estimates using reservoir engineering information technology. Corporate Reserves interacts with the exploration and production functions to ensure all available engineering and geologic data is taken into account prior to establishing or revising an estimate. There is oversight of the reservoir engineers by the Director of Reserves who is in turn subject to direct oversight by the Company's management committee ("MC"), which is comprised of its Chief Executive Officer, Chief Operating Officer, Chief Financial Officer and other executive officers.
All reserve estimates, material assumptions and inputs used in reserve estimates and significant changes in reserve estimates are reviewed for appropriateness and compliance with SEC rules and U.S. GAAP. Annually, the MC reviews the reserve estimates, and any differences with NSAI for the portion of the reserves that it audits, before these estimates are approved. The engineers who participate in the reserve estimation and disclosure process periodically attend training provided by external consultants and through internal Pioneer programs. Additionally, Corporate Reserves has prepared and maintains written policies and guidelines for its staff to reference on reserve estimation and preparation to promote consistency in the preparation of the Company's reserve estimates and compliance with the SEC reserve estimation and reporting rules.
Proved reserves audits. The proved reserves audited by NSAI, in aggregate, represented the following:
As of December 31,
202120202019
Proved reserves audited by NSAI93 %89 %83 %
Pre-tax present value of proved reserves discounted at ten percent audited by NSAI96 %100 %99 %
In connection with the annual reserves audit, NSAI prepared its own estimates of the Company's proved reserves and compared its estimates to those prepared by the Company. NSAI determined that the Company's estimates of reserves were prepared in accordance with the definitions and regulations of the SEC, including the criteria of "reasonable certainty," as it pertains to expectations about the recoverability of reserves in future years, under existing economic and operating conditions, consistent with the definition in Rule 4-10(a)(24) of Regulation S-X. NSAI issued an unqualified audit opinion on the Company's proved reserves as of December 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019, respectively, based upon their evaluation. NSAI concluded that the Company's estimates of proved reserves were, in the aggregate, reasonable and had been prepared in accordance with Standards Pertaining to the Estimating and Auditing of Oil and Gas Reserves Information promulgated by the Society of Petroleum Engineers. NSAI's audit report as of December 31, 2021, which should be read in its entirety, is attached as Exhibit 99.1 to this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Qualifications of proved reserves preparers and auditors. Corporate Reserves is staffed by petroleum engineers with extensive industry experience and is managed by the Director of Reserves, the technical person who is primarily responsible for overseeing the Company's reserves estimates. These individuals meet the professional qualifications of reserves estimators and reserves auditors as defined by the Standards Pertaining to the Estimating and Auditing of Oil and Gas Reserves Information. The qualifications of the Director of Reserves include 42 years of international and domestic experience as a petroleum engineer, with 24 years focused on reserves reporting for independent oil and gas companies, including Pioneer. He has an additional 20 years of Permian Basin-focused production engineering, advanced reservoir engineering, petrophysics, consulting and special project research experience with major oil companies. His educational background includes an undergraduate degree in Geological Engineering, with a Petroleum Engineering emphasis.
NSAI provides worldwide petroleum property analysis services for energy clients, financial organizations and government agencies. NSAI was founded in 1961 and performs consulting petroleum engineering services under Texas Board of Professional Engineers Registration No. F-2699. The technical person primarily responsible for auditing the Company's reserves estimates is a Licensed Professional Engineer in the State of Texas and has been practicing consulting petroleum engineering at NSAI since 1993. He graduated with a Bachelor of Science degree in Chemical Engineering in 1983 and meets

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PIONEER NATURAL RESOURCES COMPANY
or exceeds the education, training and experience requirements set forth in the Standards Pertaining to the Estimating and Auditing of Oil and Gas Reserves Information.
Technologies used in proved reserves estimates. Proved undeveloped reserves include those reserves that are expected to be recovered from new wells on undrilled acreage, or from existing wells where a relatively major expenditure is required for completion. Undeveloped reserves may be classified as proved reserves on undrilled acreage directly offsetting development areas that are reasonably certain of production when drilled, or where reliable technology provides reasonable certainty of economic producibility. Undrilled locations may be classified as having undeveloped proved reserves only if an ability and intent has been established to drill the reserves within five years, unless specific circumstances justify a longer time period.
In the context of reserves estimations, reasonable certainty means a high degree of confidence that the quantities will be recovered and reliable technology means a grouping of one or more technologies (including computational methods) that has been field-tested and has been demonstrated to provide reasonable certainty that the results will be consistent and repeatable in the formation being evaluated or in an analogous formation. In estimating proved reserves, the Company uses several different traditional methods such as performance-based methods, volumetric-based methods and analogy with similar properties. In addition, the Company utilizes additional technical analysis such as seismic interpretation, wireline formation tests, geophysical logs and core data to provide incremental support for more complex reservoirs. Information from this incremental support is combined with the traditional technologies outlined above to enhance the certainty of the Company's proved reserve estimates.
Proved Reserves
The Company's oil and gas proved reserves are as follows:
Proved Reserve Volumes
 Oil
(MBbls)
NGLs
(MBbls)
Gas
(MMcf) (a)
Total (MBOE)%
As of December 31, 2021:
Developed847,632 584,492 3,076,329 1,944,845 88 %
Undeveloped119,996 85,488 430,379 277,214 12 %
967,628 669,980 3,506,708 2,222,059 100 %
As of December 31, 2020:
Developed539,320 362,584 1,855,607 1,211,172 95 %
Undeveloped29,464 16,603 84,493 60,149 %
568,784 379,187 1,940,100 1,271,321 100 %
As of December 31, 2019:
Developed571,293 268,468 1,429,417 1,077,997 95 %
Undeveloped32,457 13,515 70,096 57,655 %
603,750 281,983 1,499,513 1,135,652 100 %
_____________________
(a)Total proved gas reserves include 186,325 MMcf, 115,239 MMcf and 100,236 MMcf of gas that the Company expected to be produced and used as field fuel (primarily for compressors) as of December 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019, respectively.
The Company's Standardized Measure of total proved reserves are as follows:
 As of December 31,
 202120202019
 (in millions)
Proved developed reserves$24,992 $6,992 $9,386 
Proved undeveloped reserves2,692 210 348 
$27,684 $7,202 $9,734 
The NYMEX prices used for oil and gas reserve preparation, based upon SEC guidelines, were as follows:
Year Ended December 31,
202120202019
Oil per Bbl$66.56 $39.57 $55.93 
Gas per Mcf$3.60 $1.98 $2.58 

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PIONEER NATURAL RESOURCES COMPANY
See "Unaudited Supplementary Information" included in "Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data" for additional information.
Description of Properties
Average daily oil, NGLs, gas and total production is as follows:
Year Ended December 31, 2021
Oil (Bbls)356,986 
NGL (Bbls)143,026 
Gas (Mcf) (a)703,919 
Total (BOE)617,332 
_____________________
(a)Gas production excludes gas produced and used as field fuel.
Costs incurred are as follows:
Year Ended December 31, 2021
 (in millions)
Proved property acquisition costs (a)$9,039 
Unproved property acquisition costs (a)8,090 
Exploration costs2,682 
Development costs699 
Asset retirement obligations15 
$20,525 
_____________________
(a)Primarily proved and unproved acquisition costs related to the Parsley Acquisition of $5.1 billion and $5.6 billion, respectively, and proved and unproved acquisition costs related to the DoublePoint Acquisition of $3.9 billion and $2.4 billion, respectively.
Development and exploratory/extension drilling activity is as follows:
Year Ended December 31, 2021
DevelopmentExploratory/Extension
Beginning wells in progress17 202 
Wells spud40 460 
Successful wells(54)(488)
Wells acquired23 106 
Wells sold— (10)
Ending wells in progress26 270 
As of December 31, 2021, the Company holds 976,000 gross acres (863,000 net acres), of which 961,000 gross acres (852,000 net acres) are located in the Spraberry/Wolfcamp field in the Midland Basin of West Texas. Pioneer is the largest acreage holder in the Spraberry/Wolfcamp field with interests in the northern portion of the play of 749,000 gross acres and its interests in the southern portion of the play, where the Company has a joint venture with Sinochem, comprise 212,000 gross acres. The Parsley Acquisition and DoublePoint Acquisition added 115,000 gross acres and 107,000 gross acres, respectively, to the Company's position in the Midland Basin.
The oil produced from the Spraberry/Wolfcamp field in the Midland Basin is West Texas Intermediate Sweet, and the gas produced is casinghead gas with an average energy content of 1,400 Btu. The oil and gas are produced primarily from six formations, the Spraberry, the Jo Mill, the Dean, the Wolfcamp, the Strawn and the Atoka, at depths ranging from 7,500 feet to 14,000 feet. The Company believes that it has significant resource potential within its Spraberry, Jo Mill and Wolfcamp acreage, based on the Company's extensive geologic data covering the Middle Spraberry, Jo Mill and Lower Spraberry intervals, the Wolfcamp A, B, C and D intervals and the Company's drilling results to-date.

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PIONEER NATURAL RESOURCES COMPANY
During 2021, the Company successfully completed 445 wells in the northern portion of the Midland Basin, 80 wells in the southern portion of the Midland Basin and 17 wells in the Delaware Basin, which were sold in December 2021 as part of the Delaware Divestiture. In the northern portion of the Midland Basin, 35 percent of the horizontal wells placed on production were Wolfcamp A interval wells, 34 percent were Spraberry interval wells and the remaining 31 percent were primarily Wolfcamp B interval wells. In the southern portion of the Midland Basin, the majority of the wells placed on production were Wolfcamp A and B interval wells. In the Delaware Basin, 65 percent were Wolfcamp A and B interval wells and the remaining 35 percent were in the Bone Spring interval.
The Company continues to complete acreage trades that allow the Company to drill wells with longer laterals, improving the expected returns of the wells. The Company estimates that the acreage trades completed in 2021 added approximately 1.6 million lateral feet to the Company's drilling inventory.
The Company plans to operate 22 to 24 horizontal drilling rigs and approximately six frac fleets in the Midland Basin in 2022. The Company will continue to evaluate its drilling and completions program with future activity levels assessed regularly.
Selected Oil and Gas Information
Production, price and cost data. The price that the Company receives for the oil and gas it produces is largely a function of market supply and demand. Demand is affected by general economic conditions, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, and weather and other seasonal conditions, such as hurricanes and tropical storms. Over or under supply of oil or gas can result in substantial price volatility. Historically, commodity prices have been volatile and the Company expects that volatility to continue in the future. A decline in oil, NGL and gas prices or poor drilling results could have a material adverse effect on the Company's financial position, results of operations, cash flows, quantities of oil and gas reserves that may be economically produced and the Company's ability to access the capital markets.
The following tables set forth production, price and cost data with respect to the Company's properties. These amounts represent the Company's historical results of operations without making pro forma adjustments for any acquisitions, divestitures or drilling activity that occurred during the respective years. The production amounts will not match the proved reserve volume tables in "Unaudited Supplementary Information" included in "Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data" because field fuel volumes are included in the proved reserve volume tables. Because of normal production declines, increased or decreased drilling activities and the effects of acquisitions or divestitures, the historical information presented below should not be interpreted as being indicative of future results.

41

PIONEER NATURAL RESOURCES COMPANY
PRODUCTION, PRICE AND COST DATA
 Year Ended December 31, 2021
 Permian BasinTotal Company
Annual sales volumes:
Oil (MBbls)130,296 130,300 
NGLs (MBbls)52,200 52,204 
Gas (MMcf)256,926 256,931 
Total (MBOE)225,316 225,326 
Average daily sales volumes:
Oil (Bbls)356,974 356,986 
NGLs (Bbls)143,014 143,026 
Gas (Mcf)703,906 703,919 
Total (BOE)617,304 617,332 
Average prices:
Oil (per Bbl)$67.60 $67.60 
NGLs (per Bbl)$32.70 $32.70 
Gas (per Mcf)$3.85 $3.85 
Revenue (per BOE)$51.06 $51.05 
Average costs (per BOE):
Production costs:
Lease operating$2.97 $2.97 
Gathering, processing and transportation3.14 3.14 
Net natural gas plant(0.93)(0.93)
Workover0.45 0.45 
Total$5.63 $5.63 
Production and ad valorem taxes:
Ad valorem$0.48 $0.48 
Production2.41 2.41 
Total$2.89 $2.89 
Depletion expense$10.81 $10.81 



42

PIONEER NATURAL RESOURCES COMPANY
PRODUCTION, PRICE AND COST DATA - (continued)
 Year Ended December 31, 2020
 Permian BasinTotal Company
Annual sales volumes:
Oil (MBbls)77,086 77,095 
NGLs (MBbls)31,368 31,376 
Gas (MMcf)155,611 155,662 
Total (MBOE)134,389 134,415 
Average daily sales volumes:
Oil (Bbls)210,618 210,641 
NGLs (Bbls)85,706 85,728 
Gas (Mcf)425,167 425,307 
Total (BOE)367,185 367,253 
Average prices:
Oil (per Bbl)$37.24 $37.24 
NGLs (per Bbl)$15.62 $15.62 
Gas (per Mcf)$1.73 $1.73 
Revenue (per BOE)$27.01 $27.01 
Average costs (per BOE):
Production costs:
Lease operating$3.00 $3.00 
Gathering, processing and transportation2.59 2.59 
Net natural gas plant(0.76)(0.76)
Workover0.24 0.24 
Total$5.07 $5.07 
Production and ad valorem taxes:
Ad valorem$0.64 $0.64 
Production1.17 1.17 
Total$1.81 $1.81 
Depletion expense$11.55 $11.55 


43

PIONEER NATURAL RESOURCES COMPANY
PRODUCTION, PRICE AND COST DATA - (continued)
 Year Ended December 31, 2019
 Permian BasinTotal Company
Annual sales volumes:
Oil (MBbls)77,053 77,509 
NGLs (MBbls)25,960 26,398 
Gas (MMcf)128,848 133,245 
Total (MBOE)124,488 126,114 
Average daily sales volumes:
Oil (Bbls)211,104 212,353 
NGLs (Bbls)71,123 72,323 
Gas (Mcf)353,007 365,055 
Total (BOE)341,062 345,518 
Average prices:
Oil (per Bbl)$53.77 $53.77 
NGLs (per Bbl)$19.36 $19.33 
Gas (per Mcf)$1.75 $1.79 
Revenue (per BOE)$39.13 $38.98 
Average costs (per BOE):
Production costs:
Lease operating$4.52 $4.57 
Gathering, processing and transportation2.19 2.24 
Net natural gas plant(0.60)(0.59)
Workover0.72 0.71 
Total$6.83 $6.93 
Production and ad valorem taxes:
Ad valorem$0.62 $0.63 
Production1.76 1.75 
Total$2.38 $2.38 
Depletion expense$12.85 $12.78 


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PIONEER NATURAL RESOURCES COMPANY
Productive wells. Productive wells consist of producing wells and wells capable of production, including oil wells awaiting connection to production facilities, gas wells awaiting pipeline connections to commence deliveries and shut-in wells. One or more completions in the same well bore are counted as one well. Any well in which one of the multiple completions is an oil completion is classified as an oil well.
Productive oil and gas wells attributable to the Company's properties are as follows:
As of December 31, 2021
Gross Productive WellsNet Productive Wells
OilGasTotalOilGasTotal
10,7542810,7828,470228,492
Developed, undeveloped and royalty leasehold acreage is as follows:
As of December 31, 2021
Developed AcreageUndeveloped AcreageRoyalty Acreage
Gross AcresNet AcresGross AcresNet Acres
917,966809,94257,89253,325137,690
The expiration dates of the leases attributable to gross and net undeveloped acres are as follows:
As of December 31, 2021
 Acres Expiring
 GrossNet
2022 (a)47,570 46,021 
20233,291 2,968 
20243,968 1,839 
20252,560 1,996 
2026— — 
Thereafter503 501 
57,892 53,325 
 _____________________
(a)The Company has an active drilling program and ongoing efforts to extend leases that may not be drilled prior to expiration. The Company currently has no proved undeveloped reserve locations scheduled to be drilled after lease expiration. Approximately 42,000 net acres expiring are subject to continuous drilling obligations, which the Company expects to meet with its active drilling program.


45

PIONEER NATURAL RESOURCES COMPANY
Drilling activities. The following table sets forth the number of gross and net wells drilled by the Company that were productive or dry holes. This information should not be considered indicative of future performance, nor should it be assumed that there was any correlation between the number of productive wells drilled and the oil and gas reserves generated thereby or the costs to the Company of productive wells compared to the costs of dry holes.
 Gross WellsNet Wells
 Year Ended December 31,Year Ended December 31,
 202120202019202120202019
Productive wells:
Development54 13 26 52 12 20 
Exploratory/extension488 242 280 440 218 249 
Dry holes:
Exploratory/extension— — — — 
542 255 307 492 230 270 
Success ratio (a)100 %100 %100 %100 %100 %100 %
______________________
(a)Represents the ratio of those wells that were successfully completed as producing wells or wells capable of producing to total wells drilled and evaluated.
Wells in process of being drilled are as follows:
As of December 31, 2021
Gross WellsNet Wells
Development26 25 
Exploratory/extension270 236 
296 261 

ITEM 3.    LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
The Company is party to various proceedings and claims incidental to its business. While many of these matters involve inherent uncertainty, the Company believes that the amount of the liability, if any, ultimately incurred with respect to these proceedings and claims will not have a material adverse effect on the Company's consolidated financial position as a whole or on its liquidity, capital resources or future annual results of operations. See Note 11 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in "Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data" for additional information.
ITEM 4.    MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
Not applicable.

46

PIONEER NATURAL RESOURCES COMPANY
INFORMATION ABOUT OUR EXECUTIVE OFFICERS
The following table sets forth certain information as of the date of this Report regarding the Company's executive officers. All of the Company's executive officers serve at the discretion of the Company's board of directors. There are no family relationships among any of the Company's directors or executive officers.
NamePositionAge
Scott D. SheffieldChief Executive Officer69
Richard P. Dealy
President and Chief Operating Officer
55
Mark S. BergExecutive Vice President, Corporate Operations63
Chris J. CheatwoodExecutive Vice President, Advisor to the Management Committee61
J.D. HallExecutive Vice President, Operations56
Mark H. KleinmanExecutive Vice President and General Counsel60
Elizabeth A. McDonaldSenior Vice President, Strategic Planning, Field Development and Marketing43
Neal H. ShahSenior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer 51
Tyson L. TaylorSenior Vice President, Human Resources43
Margaret M. MontemayorVice President and Chief Accounting Officer44
Scott D. Sheffield
Mr. Sheffield has served as the Company's Chief Executive Officer since February 2019, and held the additional title of President from February 2019 through the end of 2020. Previously, he had served as Chief Executive Officer of the Company from 1997 through December 31, 2016, and then as the Executive Chairman until December 31, 2017. He has served as a director of the Company since 1997 and had served as Chairman of the board of directors from 1999 through February 2019. Mr. Sheffield was the Chairman of the board of directors and Chief Executive Officer of Parker & Parsley Petroleum Company, a predecessor of the Company (together with its predecessor companies, "Parker & Parsley"), from January 1989 until the Company was formed in August 1997. Mr. Sheffield joined Parker & Parsley as a petroleum engineer in 1979, was promoted to Vice President - Engineering in September 1981, was elected President and a Director in April 1985, and became Parker & Parsley's Chairman of the board of directors and Chief Executive Officer on January 19, 1989. Before joining Parker & Parsley, Mr. Sheffield was employed as a production and reservoir engineer for Amoco Production Company. Mr. Sheffield is also a director of The Williams Companies, Inc. Mr. Sheffield is a distinguished graduate of the University of Texas with a Bachelor of Science degree in Petroleum Engineering.
Richard P. Dealy
Mr. Dealy was elected as the Company's President and Chief Operating Officer effective January 1, 2021. Prior to that, Mr. Dealy had served as the Company's Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer since November 2004. Mr. Dealy held positions for the Company as Vice President and Chief Accounting Officer from February 1998 to November 2004 and Vice President and Controller from August 1997 to January 1998. Mr. Dealy joined Parker & Parsley in July 1992 and was promoted to Vice President and Controller in 1996, in which position he served until August 1997. Before joining Parker & Parsley, Mr. Dealy was employed by KPMG LLP. Mr. Dealy graduated with honors from Eastern New Mexico University with a Bachelor of Business Administration degree in Accounting and Finance and is a Certified Public Accountant.
Mark S. Berg
Mr. Berg joined the Company as Executive Vice President and General Counsel in April 2005, serving in that capacity until January 2014, at which time he assumed broader executive responsibilities, most recently being elected to serve as Executive Vice President, Corporate Operations, in April 2019. Prior to joining the Company, Mr. Berg served as Executive Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary of American General Corporation, a Fortune 200 diversified financial services company, from 1997 through 2002. Subsequent to the sale of American General to American International Group, Inc., Mr. Berg joined Hanover Compressor Company as Senior Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary. He served in that capacity from May 2002 through April 2004. Mr. Berg began his career in 1983 with the Houston-based law firm of Vinson & Elkins L.L.P. He was a partner with the firm from 1990 through 1997. Mr. Berg is also a director of ProPetro Holding Corp. and a director and Vice Chairman of Permian Strategic Partnership Inc. Mr. Berg graduated Magna Cum Laude and Phi Beta Kappa with a Bachelor of Arts degree from Tulane University in 1980. He earned his Juris Doctorate with honors from the University of Texas School of Law in 1983.

47

PIONEER NATURAL RESOURCES COMPANY
Chris J. Cheatwood
Mr. Cheatwood was elected as an Executive Vice President of the Company in November 2007 and Executive Vice President, Advisor to the Management Committee effective January 1, 2021, having served as Executive Vice President, Field Development and Emerging Technology from April 2019 to January 2021, Executive Vice President and Chief Technology Officer from May 2017 to April 2019, Executive Vice President, Business Development and Geoscience from November 2011 to May 2017, Executive Vice President, Business Development and Technology, from February 2010 to November 2011, Executive Vice President, Geoscience from November 2007 to February 2010, and Executive Vice President - Worldwide Exploration from January 2002 to November 2007. He also served as Senior Vice President - Worldwide Exploration from December 2000 to January 2002 and Vice President - Domestic Exploration from July 1998 to December 2000. Before joining the Company, Mr. Cheatwood spent ten years with Exxon Corporation. Mr. Cheatwood is a graduate of the University of Oklahoma with a Bachelor of Science degree in Geology and earned his Master of Science degree in Geology from the University of Tulsa.
J. D. Hall
Mr. Hall was elected as the Company's Executive Vice President, Operations, in April 2019. Mr. Hall had previously held positions for the Company as Executive Vice President, Permian Operations, from August 2015 to April 2019, Executive Vice President, Southern Wolfcamp Operations from August 2014 to August 2015, Senior Vice President, South Texas Operations from June 2013 to August 2014, Vice President, South Texas Operations from February 2013 to June 2013, Vice President, South Texas Asset Team from September 2012 to February 2013 and Vice President, Eagle Ford Asset Team from January 2010 to September 2012. Prior to his positions in South Texas, he was the Operations Manager in Alaska from January 2005 to January 2010. He previously held several other positions with the Company, including managing offshore, onshore and international projects. He began his career with a predecessor company, MESA, Inc. ("MESA"), in 1989. He has a Bachelor of Science degree in Mechanical Engineering from Texas Tech University and is a registered professional engineer in Texas.
Mark H. Kleinman
Mr. Kleinman was elected as the Company's Executive Vice President and General Counsel in April 2019. He also held the positions of Senior Vice President and General Counsel from January 2014 through April 2019, Vice President from May 2006 until January 2014, Corporate Secretary from June 2005 through August 2015, and Chief Compliance Officer from June 2005 until May 2013. Mr. Kleinman earned a Bachelor of Arts degree in Government from the University of Texas and graduated, with honors, from the University of Texas School of Law.
Elizabeth A. McDonald
Ms. McDonald was elected as the Company's Senior Vice President, Strategic Planning, Field Development and Marketing, effective January 1, 2021. Ms. McDonald had previously held positions for the Company as Vice President, Permian Strategic Planning and Field Development, from May 2019 to January 2021, Vice President, Permian Infrastructure Development and Operations, from April 2018 to May 2019, Vice President, South Texas Asset Team, from March 2017 to April 2018, and Vice President, South Texas Subsurface, from August 2014 to March 2017. She joined the Company in 2005 as a reservoir engineer on the Engineering and Development team focused on the Gulf of Mexico and North Africa exploration projects, and has held a number of positions, including as Senior Reservoir Engineering Manager – South Texas Asset Team, Manager of Planning – Corporate Finance, Business Analyst – Worldwide Operations, Senior Reservoir Engineer – Central Gulf Coast Exploration and Reservoir Engineer – Engineering and Development. Ms. McDonald earned a Bachelor of Science, Petroleum Engineering degree in 2001 from Texas A&M University and is a registered professional engineer in Texas.
Neal H. Shah
Mr. Shah was elected as the Company's Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer, effective January 1, 2021. Mr. Shah joined the Company in June 2017 as Vice President, Investor Relations. Before joining the Company, Mr. Shah served as Senior Equity Research Analyst at Thrivent Asset Management from June 2016 to June 2017, and as Vice President at Nuveen LLC from March 2006 to June 2016. He has a financial and equity research background and has held various financial analysis positions at Piper Jaffray & Company, RBC Capital Markets and Goldman Sachs & Company. Mr. Shah earned a Bachelor of Science degree in Electrical Engineering from Louisiana State University and a Master of Business Administration degree from the Booth School of Business at the University of Chicago, where he was a Siebel Scholar and a recipient of the Irwin J. Biederman Leadership award.

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PIONEER NATURAL RESOURCES COMPANY
Tyson L. Taylor
Ms. Taylor was elected as the Company's Senior Vice President, Human Resources, in November 2021. Prior to her current role, Ms. Taylor served as Vice President, Human Resources, from April 2019 through November 2021. Ms. Taylor has 20 years of Human Resources experience, including 11 years with the Company, during which she has worked in all areas of the Company's Human Resources department. Ms. Taylor previously held the positions of Vice President, Learning and Development, and Director, Organizational Development and Recruiting. Ms. Taylor earned a Bachelor of Business Administration from the University of North Texas and a Master of Business Administration from Southern Methodist University.
Margaret M. Montemayor
Ms. Montemayor was elected as the Company's Vice President and Chief Accounting Officer in March 2014, having previously served the Company as Vice President and Corporate Controller since January 2014, Corporate Controller from April 2012 to December 2013 and Director of Technical Accounting and Financial Reporting from June 2010 to March 2012. Prior to joining the Company, Ms. Montemayor spent ten years in public accounting with both Arthur Andersen and PricewaterhouseCoopers, serving in Dallas, Texas and Zurich, Switzerland. Ms. Montemayor graduated from St. Mary's University in San Antonio, Texas with a Bachelor of Business Administration degree in Accounting and a Master of Business Administration degree and is a Certified Public Accountant.
Officers are generally elected by the Company's board of directors at its meeting on the day of each annual election of directors, with each such officer servi