Form 10-K OLIN Corp For: Dec 31

February 24, 2022 2:43 PM EST

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oln-20211231
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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
Form 10-K
(Mark One)
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021

OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from              to            
Commission file number 1-1070
oln-20211231_g1.jpg
OLIN CORPORATION
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Virginia13-1872319
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
190 Carondelet Plaza,Suite 1530,Clayton,MO63105
(Address of principal executive offices)(Zip code)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (314) 480-1400
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class:Trading symbol:Name of each exchange on which registered:
Common Stock, $1.00 par value per shareOLNNew York Stock Exchange
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes  No 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes  No 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes  No 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes  No 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company.  See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. Large accelerated filer Accelerated filer Non-accelerated filer Smaller reporting company Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes  No 
As of June 30, 2021, the aggregate market value of registrant’s common stock, $1.00 par value per share, held by non-affiliates of registrant was approximately $7,365,032,087 based on the closing sale price as reported on the New York Stock Exchange.
As of January 31, 2022, 156,083,829 shares of the registrant’s common stock were outstanding.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the following document are incorporated by reference in this Form 10-K as indicated herein:
DocumentPart of 10-K into which incorporated
Proxy Statement relating to Olin’s Annual Meeting of Shareholders to be held in 2022Part III


TABLE OF CONTENTS FOR FORM 10-KPage
Item 1.
Item 1A.
Item 1B.
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
Item 5.
Item 6.
Item 7.
     Segment Results
     2022 Outlook
Item 7A.
Item 8.
Item 9.
Item 9A.
Item 9B.
Item 9C.
Item 10.
Item 11.
Item 12.
Item 13.
Item 14.
Item 15.
Item 16.
2

PART I

Item 1.  BUSINESS

GENERAL

Olin Corporation (Olin) is a Virginia corporation, incorporated in 1892, having its principal executive offices in Clayton, MO.  We are a manufacturer concentrated in three business segments:  Chlor Alkali Products and Vinyls, Epoxy and Winchester.  The Chlor Alkali Products and Vinyls segment manufactures and sells chlorine and caustic soda, ethylene dichloride and vinyl chloride monomer, methyl chloride, methylene chloride, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, perchloroethylene, hydrochloric acid, hydrogen, bleach products and potassium hydroxide, which represent 46% of 2021 sales.  The Epoxy segment produces and sells a full range of epoxy materials and precursors, including aromatics (acetone, bisphenol, cumene and phenol), allyl chloride, epichlorohydrin, liquid epoxy resins, solid epoxy resins and downstream products such as converted epoxy resins and additives, which represent 36% of 2021 sales. The Winchester segment produces and sells sporting ammunition, reloading components, small caliber military ammunition and components, and industrial cartridges, which represent 18% of 2021 sales.  See our discussion of our segment disclosures contained in Item 7—“Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.”

GOVERNANCE

We maintain an Internet website at www.olin.com.  Our reports on Form 10-K, Form 10-Q and Form 8-K, as well as amendments to those reports, are available free of charge on our website, as soon as reasonably practicable after we file the reports with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC).  Also, a copy of our electronically filed materials can be obtained at www.sec.gov.  Our Principles of Corporate Governance, Committee Charters and Code of Conduct are available on our website at www.olin.com in the Leadership & Governance Section under Governance Documents and Committees.

In May 2021, our Chief Executive Officer (CEO) executed the annual Section 303A.12(a) CEO Certification required by the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), certifying that he was not aware of any violation of the NYSE’s corporate governance listing standards by us.  Additionally, our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer (CFO) executed the required Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 Sections 302 and 906 certifications relating to this Annual Report on Form 10-K, which are filed with the SEC as exhibits to this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

PRODUCTS, SERVICES AND STRATEGIES

Chlor Alkali Products and Vinyls

Products and Services

We have been involved in the chlor alkali industry for approximately 130 years and consider ourselves the leading global chlor alkali and derivatives producer.  Chlorine, caustic soda and hydrogen are co-produced commercially by the electrolysis of salt.  These co-produced products are produced simultaneously, and in a fixed ratio of 1.0 ton of chlorine to 1.1 tons of caustic soda and 0.03 tons of hydrogen.  The industry refers to this as an Electrochemical Unit or ECU. 

Chlorine is used as a raw material in the production of thousands of products, including vinyls, urethanes, epoxy, water treatment chemicals and a variety of other organic and inorganic chemicals.  A significant portion of chlorine production is consumed in the manufacture of ethylene dichloride (EDC) and vinyl chloride monomer (VCM), both of which our Chlor Alkali Products and Vinyls segment produces. A large portion of our EDC production is utilized in the production of VCM, but we are also one of the largest global participants in merchant EDC sales. In addition to marketing Olin produced EDC, we also purchase EDC for re-sale on a global basis. EDC and VCM are precursors for polyvinyl chloride (PVC), a material used in applications such as vinyl siding, pipe, pipe fittings and automotive parts.

Our Chlor Alkali Products and Vinyls segment is one of the largest global marketers of caustic soda, including caustic soda produced by Olin, as well as globally produced material purchased by Olin for re-sale. The diversity of caustic soda sourcing allows us to cost effectively supply customers worldwide. Caustic soda has a wide variety of end-use applications, the largest of which includes water treatment, alumina, pulp and paper, urethanes, detergents and soaps and a variety of other organic and inorganic chemicals.

Our Chlor Alkali Products and Vinyls segment also includes our chlorinated organics business which is the largest global producer of chlorinated organic products that include chloromethanes (methyl chloride, methylene chloride and chloroform)
3

and chloroethanes (perchloroethylene and carbon tetrachloride). Our chlorinated organics business participates in both the solvent segment, as well as the intermediate segment of the global chlorocarbon industry with a focus on sustainable applications and in applications where we can benefit from our cost advantages. Intermediate products are used as feedstocks in the production of fluoropolymers, fluorocarbon refrigerants and blowing agents, silicones, cellulosics and agricultural chemicals. Solvent products are sold into end uses such as surface preparation, dry cleaning, pharmaceuticals and regeneration of refining catalysts. This business’s unique technology allows us to utilize both hydrochloric acid and chlorinated hydrocarbon byproducts (RCls), produced by our other production processes, as raw materials in an integrated system.

We also manufacture and sell other chlor alkali-related products, including hydrochloric acid, sodium hypochlorite (bleach) and potassium hydroxide. The production of these products, chlorinated organics products and epoxy resins generally consume chlorine as a raw material creating downstream applications that upgrade the value of chlorine and enable caustic soda production. Our industry leadership in the production of chlorinated organics and epoxy resins, as well as other products, offer us eighteen integrated outlets for our captive chlorine.

The Chlor Alkali Products and Vinyls segment’s products are delivered by pipeline, marine vessel, deep-water and coastal barge, railcar and truck. Our logistics and terminal infrastructure provides us with geographically advantaged storage capacity and provides us with a private fleet of trucks, tankers and trailers that expands our geographic coverage and enhances our service capabilities. At our largest integrated product sites, our deep-water access enables us to reach global markets.

Our Chlor Alkali Products and Vinyls segment currently maintains a reliable supply of key raw materials. Electricity, salt, ethylene and methanol are the major purchased raw materials for our Chlor Alkali Products and Vinyls segment.  Electricity is the single largest raw material component in the production of Chlor Alkali Products and Vinyls’ products. Approximately 72% of our electricity is generated from natural gas or hydroelectric sources.  We satisfy our electricity needs through a combination of long-term power supply contracts and the operation of our own power assets, which allow for cost differentiation at specific U.S. manufacturing sites. Approximately 73% of our salt requirements are met by internal supply. Ethylene is primarily supplied for the vinyls business under a long-term supply arrangement whereby we receive ethylene at integrated producer economics. Methanol is sourced domestically and internationally primarily from large producers. The high volume nature of the chlor alkali industry places an emphasis on cost management, and we believe that our scale, integration and raw material positions make us one of the low cost producers in the industry.

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The following table lists principal products and services of our Chlor Alkali Products and Vinyls segment.
Products & ServicesMajor End UsesPlants & FacilitiesMajor Raw Materials & Components for
Products/Services
Chlorine/caustic sodaPulp & paper processing, chemical manufacturing, water purification, vinyl chloride manufacturing, bleach, swimming pool chemicals and urethane chemicalsBecancour, Canada
Charleston, TN
Freeport, TX
McIntosh, AL
Niagara Falls, NY
Plaquemine, LA
St. Gabriel, LA
salt, electricity
Ethylene dichloride/vinyl chloride monomerPrecursor to polyvinyl chloride used in vinyl siding, plumbing and automotive parts
Freeport, TX
Plaquemine, LA
chlorine, ethylene, ethylene dichloride
Chlorinated organics intermediates
Used as feedstocks in the production of fluoropolymers, fluorocarbon refrigerants and blowing agents, silicones, cellulosics and agricultural chemicalsFreeport, TX
Plaquemine, LA
Stade, Germany
chlorine, ethylene dichloride, hydrochloric acid, methanol, RCls
Chlorinated organics solvents
Surface preparation, dry cleaning and pharmaceuticals

Freeport, TX
Plaquemine, LA
Stade, Germany
chlorine, ethylene dichloride, hydrochloric acid, RCls
Sodium hypochlorite
(bleach)
Household cleaners, laundry bleaching, swimming pool sanitizers, semiconductors, water treatment, textiles, pulp & paper and food processingAugusta, GA
Becancour, Canada
Charleston, TN
Freeport, TX
Henderson, NV
Lemont, IL
McIntosh, AL*
Niagara Falls, NY*
Santa Fe Springs, CA
Tracy, CA**
caustic soda, chlorine
Hydrochloric acidSteel, oil & gas, plastics, organic chemical synthesis, water & wastewater treatment, brine treatment, artificial sweeteners, pharmaceuticals, food processing and ore & mineral processingBecancour, Canada
Charleston, TN
Freeport, TX
McIntosh, AL
Niagara Falls, NY
chlorine, hydrogen
Potassium hydroxideFertilizer manufacturing, soaps, detergents & cleaners, battery manufacturing, food processing chemicals and deicersCharleston, TNelectricity, potassium chloride
HydrogenFuel source, hydrogen peroxide and hydrochloric acidBecancour, Canada
Charleston, TN
Freeport, TX
McIntosh, AL
Niagara Falls, NY
Plaquemine, LA
St. Gabriel, LA
electricity, salt
* Includes low salt, high strength bleach manufacturing.
** On January 19, 2022, Olin announced that we will discontinue bleach manufacturing at our Tracy, CA facility by June 30, 2022.

Strategies

Maximize returns to the ECU. Leverage our diverse and flexible chlor alkali derivatives portfolio via our strategic operating model to continually mitigate exposure and maximize value from the entire ECU by managing our production rates to the prevailing weaker side of the ECU.

Participate in global trade flow of the products we market. Access excess product available for global trade, complementing our internal produced product to serve a growing customer demand at the highest value.

Continually drive down costs through productivity. Our advantaged cost position is derived from low cost energy, scale, integration, and deep water ports. Maintaining a strong discipline on areas such as cost management, capital outlays, and asset maintenance are key to creating greater operating flexibility to maximize returns to the ECU.

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Epoxy

Products and Services

The Epoxy business was one of the first major manufacturers of epoxy products, and has continued to build on more than half a century of history through product innovation and technical excellence. We believe the Epoxy segment is one of the largest fully integrated global producers of epoxy resins, curing agents and intermediates. The Epoxy segment has a favorable manufacturing cost position driven by a combination of scale and integration into low cost feedstocks (including chlorine, caustic soda, allylics and aromatics). With its advantaged cost position, the Epoxy segment is among the lowest cost producers in the world. The Epoxy segment produces and sells a full range of epoxy materials and precursors, including upstream products such as aromatics (acetone, bisphenol (BisA), cumene and phenol), allyl chloride (Allyl) and epichlorohydrin (EPI), midstream products such as liquid epoxy resins (LER) and solid epoxy resins (SER) and downstream products such as converted epoxy resins (CER) and additives.

The Epoxy segment serves a diverse array of applications, including wind energy, electrical laminates, consumer goods and composites, as well as numerous applications in civil engineering and protective coatings. The Epoxy segment has important relationships with established customers, some of which span decades. The Epoxy segment’s primary geographies are North America and Western Europe. The segment products are delivered primarily by marine vessel, deep-water and coastal barge, railcar and truck.

Allyl is used not only as a feedstock in the production of EPI, but also as a chemical intermediate in multiple industries and applications, including water purification chemicals. EPI is primarily produced as a feedstock for use in the business’s epoxy resins, and is also sold in the merchant market. LER is manufactured in liquid form and cures with the addition of a hardener into a three-dimensional thermoset solid material offering a distinct combination of structural strength, adhesion, electrical insulation, thermal or chemical resistance and corrosion protection that is well-suited to coatings and composites applications. SER is processed further with BisA to meet specific end market applications. While LER and SER are sold externally, a significant portion of LER production is further converted into CER where value-added modifications produce higher margin resins.

Our Epoxy segment maintains a reliable supply of certain key raw materials, such as benzene and propylene, under long-term, cost based contracts. The Epoxy segment’s production economics benefit from its integration into chlor alkali and aromatics which are key inputs in epoxy production. This fully integrated structure provides both access to low cost materials and significant operational flexibility. The Epoxy segment operates an integrated aromatics production chain producing cumene, phenol, acetone and BisA for internal consumption and external sale. The Epoxy segment’s consumption of chlorine enables the Chlor Alkali Products and Vinyls segment to generate caustic soda production and sales. Chlorine used in our Epoxy segment is transferred at cost from the Chlor Alkali Products and Vinyls segment.

The following table lists principal products and services of our Epoxy segment.
Products & ServicesMajor End UsesPlants & FacilitiesMajor Raw Materials & Components for Products/Services
Allylics (allyl chloride, epichlorohydrin and glycerin) & aromatics (acetone, bisphenol, cumene and phenol)Manufacturers of polymers, resins and other plastic materials and water purificationFreeport, TX
Stade, Germany
Terneuzen, Netherlands
benzene, caustic soda, chlorine, propylene
Liquid epoxy resin/solid epoxy resinAdhesives, marine and protective coatings, composites and flooringFreeport, TX
Guaruja, Brazil
Stade, Germany
bisphenol, caustic soda, epichlorohydrin
Converted epoxy resins and additivesElectrical laminates, paint and coatings, wind blades, electronics and constructionBaltringen, Germany
Freeport, TX
Guaruja, Brazil
Gumi, South Korea
Pisticci, Italy
Rheinmunster, Germany
Roberta, GA
Stade, Germany
Zhangjiagang, China
liquid epoxy resins, solid epoxy resins

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Strategies

Focus on Return to the ECU. The Epoxy segment is focused on maximizing return to the ECU by targeting participation and improving margins in EPI, LER, and derivative applications with the highest return to the ECU.

Drive Productivity to Sustain Our Cost Advantage. The Epoxy segment continues to drive productivity cost improvements through the entire supply chain to build on our position as the low cost producer of EPI and LER in the Americas and Europe.

Capitalize on Aromatics Assets. The Epoxy segment utilizes our Aromatics position as a low-cost feedstock for LER and derivative applications while seeking the highest return opportunities for Aromatics assets.

Winchester

Products and Services

In 2022, Winchester is in its 156th year of operation and its 92nd year as part of Olin.  Winchester is a premier developer and manufacturer of small caliber ammunition for sale to domestic and international retailers (commercial customers), law enforcement agencies and domestic and international militaries.  We believe we are a leading U.S. producer of ammunition for recreational shooters, hunters, law enforcement agencies and the U.S. Armed Forces. Winchester also manufactures industrial products that have various applications in the construction industry.

On October 1, 2020, Winchester assumed full management and operational control of the Lake City Army Ammunition Plant (Lake City) in Independence, MO. The United States Army selected Winchester to operate and manage Lake City in September 2019. The contract is for the production of small caliber military ammunition, including 5.56mm, 7.62mm, and .50 caliber rounds, as well as certain cartridges and casings. The contract also allows for the production of certain ammunition for commercial customers. The contract has an initial term of seven years and may be extended by the United States Army for up to three additional years.

Our legendary Winchester® product line includes all major gauges and calibers of shotgun shells, rimfire and centerfire ammunition for pistols and rifles, reloading components and industrial cartridges.  We believe we are a leading U.S. supplier of small caliber commercial ammunition.  

Winchester has strong relationships throughout the sales and distribution chain and strong ties to traditional dealers and distributors.  Winchester has also built its business with key high-volume mass merchants and specialty sporting goods and outdoor merchandise retailers.  Winchester has consistently developed industry-leading ammunition, which is recognized in the industry for manufacturing excellence, design innovation and consumer value.

In November 2021, Winchester introduced Shoot UnitedTM, a dynamic initiative designed to promote the shooting sports and drive increased participation. Shoot United embodies engaging content that will be shared nationwide through mainstream media and on ShootUnited.com. The content is meant to entertain, inform and foster a healthy and transparent dialogue. In addition, grassroots events will be coordinated throughout the U.S. for people to join, with the mission to drive awareness and introduce new participants to the sport.

During 2021, Winchester received the exclusive .308 Winchester/7.62x51 NATO FBI sniper contract, the first of its kind in this caliber, as well as a 9mm duty and training contract.

In May 2021, Winchester was recognized with the Overall Supplier of the Year award by Academy Sports and Outdoors, Incorporated (Academy), one of the nation’s largest retailers of sporting goods products and outdoor merchandise. The Overall Supplier of the Year is Academy’s highest merchandising supplier award across all categories and departments; Winchester was chosen from more than 1,800 merchandise suppliers for superior performance, consistent reliability, valued relationships at all levels, and overall contribution to the company during 2020.

In October 2021, Winchester was recognized by the National Association of Sporting Goods Wholesalers (NASGW) with the group’s 2021 Ammunition Manufacturer of the Year award for providing outstanding value and service to NASGW distributor members.

Winchester’s new ammunition products continue to receive awards from major industry publications and organizations, with recent awards including: American Rifleman magazine’s Golden Bullseye Award as “Ammunition Product of the Year” in 2020 and 2022; Guns & Ammo magazine’s “Ammunition of the Year” award in 2019 and 2021; National Association of
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Sporting Goods Wholesalers in partnership with the Professional Outdoor Media Association’s Caliber Award for “Best New Ammunition” in 2019.

Winchester purchases raw materials such as copper-based strip and ammunition cartridge case cups and lead from vendors based on a conversion charge or premium.  These conversion charges or premiums are in addition to the market prices for metal as posted on exchanges such as the Commodity Exchange, or COMEX, and London Metals Exchange, or LME.  Winchester’s other main raw material is propellant, which is purchased predominantly from one of the U.S.’s largest propellant suppliers.

The following table lists principal products and services of our Winchester segment.
Products & ServicesMajor End UsesPlants & FacilitiesMajor Raw Materials & Components for Products/Services
Winchester® sporting ammunition (shotshells, small caliber centerfire & rimfire ammunition)
Hunters & recreational shooters, law enforcement agenciesEast Alton, IL
Independence, MO*
Oxford, MS
brass, lead, steel, plastic, propellant, explosives
Small caliber military ammunitionInfantry and mounted weaponsEast Alton, IL
Independence, MO*
Oxford, MS
brass, lead, propellant, explosives
Industrial products (8 gauge loads & powder-actuated tool loads)Maintenance applications in power &
concrete industries, powder-actuated tools in construction industry
East Alton, IL
Oxford, MS
brass, lead, plastic, propellant, explosives
*Government-owned, contractor-operated (GOCO) facility

Strategies

Maximize Existing Strengths. Winchester will increase our value by strengthening our leadership position in small caliber ammunition through all of the customer segments that we serve – Commercial, Military, Law Enforcement, and Industrial. Through our Shoot UnitedTM strategic initiative, Winchester will focus on promoting shooting sports and drive increased participation. With one of the world’s largest small caliber ammunition manufacturing footprints, we will leverage employee engagement, engineering, and process excellence across our three production sites.

Innovative Solutions. Winchester will continue building on our strong reputation as an industry innovator with a long record of meeting the needs of recreational shooters, first responders, and the modern warfighter. We will drive value for our business through developing market driven new products and delivering engineered solutions for our customers.

Productivity Improvement. Winchester will leverage our continuous improvement process to increase productivity through optimizing our people, processes, and equipment. We will continue to modernize our facilities and equipment for productivity as well as improved safety and environmental impact.

INTERNATIONAL OPERATIONS

Olin has an international presence, including the geographic regions of Europe, Asia Pacific and Latin America. Approximately 41% of Olin’s 2021 sales were generated outside of the U.S., including 31% of our Chlor Alkali Products and Vinyls 2021 segment sales, 71% of our Epoxy 2021 segment sales and 5% of our Winchester 2021 segment sales. See Note 19 “Segment Information” of the notes to consolidated financial statements contained in Item 8, for geographic segment data.  We are incorporating our segment information from that Note into this section of our Form 10-K.

CUSTOMERS AND DISTRIBUTION

Products we sell to industrial or commercial users or distributors for use in the production of other products constitute a major part of our total sales.  We sell some of our products, such as epoxy resins, caustic soda and sporting ammunition, to a large number of users or distributors, while we sell other products, such as chlorine and chlorinated organics, in substantial quantities to a relatively small number of industrial users.  During 2021, no single customer accounted for more than 10% of sales.

We market most of our products and services primarily through our sales force and sell directly to various industrial customers, mass merchants, retailers, wholesalers, other distributors and the U.S. Government and its prime contractors.
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Sales to all U.S. Government agencies and sales under U.S. Government contracting activities in total accounted for approximately 4% of sales in 2021.  Because we engage in some government contracting activities and make sales to the U.S. Government, we are subject to extensive and complex U.S. Government procurement laws and regulations.  These laws and regulations provide for ongoing government audits and reviews of contract procurement, performance and administration.  Failure to comply, even inadvertently, with these laws and regulations and with laws governing the export of munitions and other controlled products and commodities could subject us or one or more of our businesses to civil and criminal penalties, and under certain circumstances, suspension and debarment from future government contracts and the exporting of products for a specified period of time.

BACKLOG

The total amount of estimated backlog was approximately $1,928 million and $2,175 million as of January 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively.  The backlog orders are associated with contractual orders in our Winchester business.  Backlogs in our other businesses are not significant. Backlog is comprised of all open customer orders which have been received, but not yet shipped.  The backlog was estimated based on expected volume to be shipped from firm contractual orders, which are subject to customary terms and conditions, including cancellation and modification provisions. During 2020 and 2021, consumer purchases of ammunition increased significantly above historic demand levels. Our ability to fulfill the backlog could be constrained due to limitations on our production capacity. Approximately 81% of contracted backlog as of January 31, 2022 is expected to be fulfilled during 2022, with the remainder expected to be fulfilled during 2023.

COMPETITION

We are in active competition with businesses producing or distributing the same or similar products, as well as, in some instances, with businesses producing or distributing different products designed for the same uses.

Chlor alkali manufacturers in North America, with approximately 16 million tons of chlorine and 17 million tons of caustic soda capacity, account for approximately 16% of worldwide chlor alkali production capacity.  In 2021, we have the largest chlor alkali capacity in North America and globally. While the technologies to manufacture and transport chlorine and caustic soda are widely available, the production facilities require large capital investments, and are subject to significant regulatory and permitting requirements. Approximately 68% of the total North American chlor alkali capacity is located in the U.S. Gulf Coast region. There is a worldwide market for caustic soda, which attracts imports and allows exports depending on market conditions. This industry includes large diversified producers in North America and abroad, including multiple producers located in China. Other large chlor alkali producers in North America include The Occidental Petroleum Corporation (Oxy) and Westlake Chemical Corporation (Westlake).  

We are also a leading integrated global producer of chlorinated organic products with a strong cost position due to our scale and access to chlor alkali feedstocks. This industry includes large diversified producers such as Oxy, Westlake, Inovyn (an Ineos company), and KEM ONE Group SAS, as well as multiple producers located in China.

We are a major global fully integrated epoxy producer, with access to key low cost feedstocks and a cost advantaged infrastructure. With its advantaged cost position, the Epoxy segment is among the lowest cost producers in the world. The markets in which our Epoxy segment operates are highly competitive and are dependent on significant capital investment, the development of proprietary technology and maintenance of product research and development. Among our competitors are Huntsman Corporation (Huntsman), Hexion, Inc. (Hexion), Kukdo Chemical Co. Ltd. (Kukdo) and Kumho P&B Chemicals (Kumho) as well as multiple other producers located in Asia. Westlake announced that it has completed the acquisition of Hexion’s global epoxy business.

We believe our Winchester business is one of the largest global manufacturers of commercial small caliber ammunition. Our Winchester business and Vista Outdoor Inc. (Vista) are among the largest commercial ammunition manufacturers in the U.S. The ammunition industry is highly competitive with Olin, Vista and numerous smaller domestic manufacturers and foreign producers competing for sales to the commercial ammunition customers.  Many factors influence our ability to compete successfully, including price, delivery, service, performance, product innovation and product recognition and quality, depending on the product involved.
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HUMAN CAPITAL

At Olin, we believe that our employees are critical to our success. In 2021 we established our Lifting People core principle with three distinct pillars - Opportunity & Fulfillment, Communication & Connection, and Trust. Lifting People is about creating work environments for our global workforce that are inclusive, supportive, and empowering while encouraging and incentivizing the highest level of performance. We support our global workforce through a variety of factors, including benefits and compensation, recognition and rewards, a focus on diversity and inclusion, and professional development, all of which are included in the overall employee value proposition. We strive to provide our employees with a safe and supportive environment and maintain a steadfast commitment to safely producing and distributing our products, both of which we believe are fundamental in achieving our goals.

Olin senior management provides oversight for the benefits programs and compensation of our workforce in a variety of ways, including periodic compensation benchmarking, implementation of various health and other employee benefit programs review of certain employee post-retirement benefits and accessibility of employee assistance programs. Our human resources department oversees these programs to ensure our benefits and compensation programs are competitive. We have both salaried and hourly employee structures in place to compensate employees. Our benefits and compensation structures allow Olin to attract and retain a talented workforce which fosters achievement of Olin’s goals and objectives. Separately, our Board of Directors maintains a Compensation Committee which sets policies, develops and monitors strategies for and administers the programs that are used to compensate our CEO and other senior executives.

Olin is committed to lifting people through diversity and inclusion and maintaining work environments where all employees are comfortable bringing their authentic selves to work each day. We believe the insights provided by our workforce through their unique skills, backgrounds and experiences will lead us to future innovations that will reduce costs, reduce our environmental footprint, improve our ability to serve the world and keep our employees healthier and safer. We uphold the diversity of our employees to embolden inclusive dialogue, creative ideas, and innovative solutions to cultivate lasting, positive impacts for our customers, employees, communities, and shareholders. Our largest concentration of employees is located in the U.S., of which 29% are minorities. In our support of diversity and inclusion objectives, approximately 26% of our global workforce is comprised of women, and approximately 27% of our management roles are held by women, and 14% by minority employees in the U.S. Our goal is to expand women in leadership positions to approximately 30% by 2025, an increase of approximately 10% against a 2018 baseline.

We also strive for continued professional development of our workforce. We never stop learning and Olin provides a wide range of employee development and productivity programs. These programs help our employees improve and grow, and ensure that each employee understands our values. Our learning platform focuses on providing a variety of educational opportunities that support career development for our people. As part of our commitment to professional development, we offer undergraduate and graduate tuition assistance to eligible employees up to a maximum of $10,000 per year. We regularly review talent development and succession plans to identify and develop a pipeline of talent to maintain and continuously improve business operations. We make purposeful moves to accelerate the development of high potential employees. We also have a well-established performance management process, which encourages ongoing feedback throughout the year and includes, at a minimum, annual year-end reviews and development discussions.

As of December 31, 2021, we had approximately 7,750 employees, with 6,555 working in the U.S., and approximately 1,195 working in foreign countries.  Of our total global workforce, approximately 9% are located in Europe, Middle East, Africa, and India, 3% in Asia Pacific, 2% in Canada, and 2% in Latin America. Approximately 48% of our total employees are employed in our Chlor Alkali Products and Vinyls and Epoxy businesses, 49% are employed in our Winchester business, including approximately 1,540 employees at the Lake City Army Ammunition Plant, which is a Government Owned Contractor Operated (GOCO) facility, and 3% are employed in Corporate functions. Various labor unions represent a significant number of our hourly-paid employees for collective bargaining purposes. In the U.S., bargaining unit employees comprise 35% of the total workforce. In 2022, we have no labor agreements that are due to expire in the U.S.

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RESEARCH ACTIVITIES; PATENTS

Our research activities are conducted on a product-group basis at a number of facilities.  Company-sponsored research expenditures were $20.4 million, $16.6 million and $16.5 million in 2021, 2020 and 2019, respectively.

We own or license a number of patents, patent applications and trade secrets covering our products and processes.  We believe that, in the aggregate, the rights under our patents and licenses are important to our operations, but we do not consider any individual patent, license or group of patents and licenses related to a specific process or product to be of material importance to our total business.

SEASONALITY

Our sales are affected by economic downturns and the seasonality of several industries we serve, including building and construction, coatings, oil and gas, infrastructure, electronics, automotive, water treatment, refrigerants and ammunition. The seasonality of the ammunition business is typically driven by the U.S. fall hunting season. Our chlor alkali businesses generally experience their highest level of activity during the spring and summer months, particularly when construction, refrigerants, coatings and infrastructure activity is higher. Our Epoxy segment also serves a number of applications which experience their highest level of activity during the spring and summer months, particularly civil engineering and protective coatings and other construction materials, including composites and flooring.

RAW MATERIALS AND ENERGY

Basic raw materials are processed through an integrated manufacturing process to produce a number of products that are sold at various points throughout the process. We purchase a portion of our raw material requirements and also utilize internal resources and finished goods as raw materials for downstream products. We believe we have reliable sources of supply for our raw materials under normal market conditions. However, we cannot predict the likelihood or impact of any future raw material shortages.

The principal basic raw materials for our production of Chlor Alkali Products and Vinyls’ products are electricity, salt, ethylene and methanol.  Electricity is the predominant energy source for our manufacturing facilities.  Approximately 72% of our electricity is generated from natural gas or hydroelectric sources. We satisfy our electricity needs through a combination of long-term power supply contracts and the operation of our own power assets, which allow for cost differentiation at specific U.S. manufacturing sites. A portion of our purchases of raw materials, including ethylene, are made under long-term supply agreements, while approximately 73% of the salt used in our Chlor Alkali Products and Vinyls segment is produced from internal resources. Methanol is sourced domestically and internationally primarily from large producers.

The Epoxy segment’s principal raw materials are chlorine, benzene, propylene and aromatics, which consist of cumene, phenol, acetone and BisA. A portion of our purchases of raw materials, including benzene, propylene and a portion of our aromatics requirements, are made under long-term supply agreements, while a portion of our aromatics requirements are produced from our integrated production chain. Chlorine is predominately sourced from our Chlor Alkali Products and Vinyls segment.

Lead, brass and propellant are the principal raw materials used in the Winchester business.  We typically purchase our ammunition cartridge case cups and copper-based strip, and propellants pursuant to multi-year contracts.

We provide additional information with respect to specific raw materials in the tables set forth under “Products and Services.”

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ENVIRONMENTAL AND TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROLS

As is common in our industry, we are subject to environmental laws and regulations related to the use, storage, handling, generation, transportation, emission, discharge, disposal and remediation of, and exposure to, hazardous and non-hazardous substances and wastes in all of the countries in which we do business.

The establishment and implementation of national, state or provincial and local standards to regulate air, water and land quality affect substantially all of our manufacturing locations around the world.  Laws providing for regulation of the manufacture, transportation, use and disposal of hazardous and toxic substances, and remediation of contaminated sites have imposed additional regulatory requirements on industry, particularly the chemicals industry.  In addition, implementation of environmental laws has required and will continue to require new capital expenditures and will increase operating costs.

We are a party to various government and private environmental actions associated with former waste disposal sites and past manufacturing facilities.  Charges to income for investigatory and remedial efforts were $16.2 million, $20.9 million and $25.3 million for the years ended December 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019, respectively. These charges may be material to operating results in future years. These charges do not include insurance recoveries for costs incurred and expensed in prior periods.

See our discussion of our environmental matters contained in Note 20 “Environmental” of the notes to consolidated financial statements contained in Item 8 and under the heading “Environmental Matters” in Item 7—“Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.”

CORPORATE RESPONSIBILITY

At Olin, we are committed to corporate responsibility to ensure the long-term success of our business, our collective global society and the well-being of our environment. We focus our corporate responsibility efforts on the areas of: (1) environment, health, safety and security stewardship, (2) sustainability and governance and (3) product stewardship. We value collaboration and commit to working with other organizations to encourage collective action for improving corporate responsibility. Additional information related to our corporate responsibility initiatives, practices, activities, goals and related information, as well as future updates, can be found in the Corporate Responsibility section of our website at www.olin.com, including our 2020 Sustainability Report under the section Sustainability Success. Our progress against ESG and sustainability targets is included with our public quarterly earnings review materials and can be referenced under the Investor Relations section of our website. The contents of our website referenced in this section are not, and should not be considered to be, part of this report.

Environment, Health, Safety and Security Stewardship

Olin is strongly committed to excellence in protecting the environment, health, safety and security of our employees and those who live and work around our plants. Our operations worldwide comply with all local requirements and implement other standards as required to protect the environment, health, safety and security of our operations. We use our management system to drive continuous improvement and achieve excellence in environmental, health, safety, process safety and security performance. Our safety, health and environmental strategy and goals are designed to sustain our drive to zero incidents. Relentlessly and responsibly, we constantly emphasize the importance of monitoring the safety, security and environmental impact of our plants and processes. Through our day-to-day vigilance, Olin strives to continue to be recognized as one of the industry’s best performers.

Our corporate values — Act with Integrity, Drive Innovation and Improvement and Lift Olin People — are part of our culture. These values are also reflected in our Environment, Health, Safety and Security (EHS&S) policy and practice. Olin leadership visibly performs and guides the organization to conduct business in a manner that protects and increasingly benefits our employees, business partners and the communities in which we live. All employees have responsibilities within our management systems necessary to sustain our drive to zero incidents. Olin continues to achieve targeted safety reductions, resulting in a downward trend in total safety and environmental incidents.

Sustainability and Governance

We strongly believe in meeting the needs of the present without compromising the needs of future generations. We recognize the impact our company has on our natural resources and our responsibility to stewardship of people and the planet. This means striving for a company culture responsible to the ongoing economic, social and governance ideals of our employees and shareholders.

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At Olin, we integrate sustainability in everything we do as a responsible corporate citizen. We value and respect our people, the communities in which we operate, our customers and the environment. We commit to making a contribution to the protection of the world and its future condition through the safety and efficiency of our business practices - from supply to manufacture to delivery and ultimately the end-use of our products. Our focus on continuous improvement throughout our history drives our business. Our Sustainability Report describes our core tenets in this area. Focused on four pillars, we are challenging ourselves to advance those opportunities where our impact on the planet, our operations and our people and communities is most meaningful:

Energy and Climate Mindfulness
Olin systematically and strategically manages our energy and carbon footprint, driving greater efficiency and increasing utilization of renewable resources.

Resource Efficiency
Olin effectively manages critical resources to minimize consumption and waste, increase reuse and recycle of materials, drive operations efficiency, and be good stewards of protection for the environment.

Product Sustainability and Commercial Outreach
Olin’s products and processes contribute to sustainable opportunities and innovation, enabling safe handling and distribution throughout the supply chain.

Employee and Community Care
Olin provides equal opportunities to employees and ensures the ongoing safety and livelihood of our people and communities.

We have developed a strategy and global initiative to manage and track our greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, water usage, waste disposal and energy consumption and efficiency at our facilities.  We are committed to improving our use of resources, acting on opportunities to reduce our environmental footprint and setting targets for improvement. We understand that maintaining safe, sustainable operations has an impact on us, our communities, the environment and our collective future. We continue to invest to develop safer, cleaner and more efficient products and processes. Our social and governance practices drive safety, equality and fairness for our operations and ensure transparency of our practices.

Product Responsibility

We take great pride in distributing and handling our products safely and enabling our customers to do the same. Our product stewardship and quality practices are aligned with our core values and other globally recognized standards. We apply these standards to our chemical business segments and relevant subsidiaries to ensure compliance with applicable global regulations, evaluation, continuous improvement and transparency of relevant production and product or formulation information. Additionally, Winchester ammunition is designed and manufactured in accordance with the voluntary industry standards published by the Sporting Arms and Ammunition Manufacturers’ Institute. We are deeply committed to ammunition education and advocate strongly for the belief that it is important to take the necessary steps to be trained and educated when handling and using a firearm for recreational purposes, both for experienced and novice participants. Our goal is to meet or exceed guidelines in every instance. Olin Leadership demonstrates its commitment to these standards through active participation and communication concerning product safety, within our organization and to external stakeholders.

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Item 1A.  RISK FACTORS

In addition to the other information in this Form 10-K, the following factors should be considered in evaluating Olin and our business.  All of our forward-looking statements should be considered in light of these factors.  Additional risks and uncertainties that we are unaware of or that we currently deem immaterial also may become important factors that affect us.
Business, Industry and Operational Risks
Sensitivity to Global Economic Conditions—Our operating results could be negatively affected during economic and industry downturns.
Our industries and the businesses of most of our customers have historically experienced periodic downturns. These economic, seasonal and industry downturns have been characterized by diminished product demand, excess manufacturing capacity and, in some cases, lower average selling prices. Therefore, any significant downturn in our customers’ businesses or in global economic conditions could result in a reduction in demand for our products and could adversely affect our results of operations or financial condition.
Although a majority of our sales are within North America, a large part of our financial performance is dependent upon a healthy economy beyond North America because we have a significant amount of sales abroad and our customers sell their products abroad. As a result, our business is and will continue to be affected by general economic conditions and other factors in Europe, Asia Pacific, particularly China, and Latin America, including fluctuations in interest rates, customer demand, labor and energy costs, currency changes and other factors beyond our control, such as public health epidemics. The demand for our products and our customers’ products is directly affected by such fluctuations. In addition, our customers could decide to move some or all of their production to locations that are more remote from our facilities, and this could reduce demand for our products. We cannot assure you that events having an adverse effect on the industries in which we operate will not occur or continue, such as a downturn in the European, Asian Pacific, particularly Chinese, Latin American, or other world economies, increases in interest rates, unfavorable currency fluctuations or prolonged effects of the 2019 Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. Economic conditions in other regions of the world, predominantly Asia and Europe, can adversely impact the balance between global supply and demand for our chemical products and increase the amount of products produced and made available for export to North America. Any significant increased product supply could put downward pressure on our product pricing, negatively impacting our profitability.
Pricing Pressure—Our profitability could be reduced by declines in average selling prices of our products, particularly chlorine and chlorine derivatives and caustic soda.
Our industries and each of our business segments experience fluctuating supply and demand, particularly in our Chlor Alkali Products and Vinyls segment, which can result in changes in selling prices. Periods of high demand, tight supply and increasing operating margins tend to result in increases in capacity and production until supply exceeds demand, generally followed by periods of oversupply and declining prices. We believe our strategic operating model will mitigate pricing pressure historically experienced during periods of supply exceeding demand. Nevertheless, we cannot assure you that increased pricing pressure will not impact our operating results in the future during these periods. Another factor influencing demand and pricing for chemical products is the price of natural gas. Higher natural gas prices increase our customers’ and competitors’ manufacturing costs, and depending on the ratio of crude oil to natural gas prices, could make our customers less competitive in world markets.
In the chemical industries in which we operate, price is one of the major supplier selection criterion. Pricing is subject to a variety of factors, some of which are outside of our control. Decreases in the average selling prices of our products could have a material adverse effect on our profitability. While we strive to maintain or increase our profitability by executing our strategic operating model and by reducing costs through improving production efficiency, emphasizing higher margin products and by controlling transportation, selling and administration expenses, we cannot assure you that these efforts will be sufficient to fully offset the effect of possible decreases in pricing on operating results.
Chlorine and caustic soda are produced simultaneously and in a fixed ratio of 1.0 ton of chlorine to 1.1 tons of caustic soda. An imbalance in customer demand may require Olin to reduce production of both chlorine and caustic soda or take other steps to correct the imbalance. Since we cannot store large quantities of chlorine, we may not be able to respond to an imbalance in customer demand for these products quickly or efficiently. To mitigate exposure and maximize value from the entire ECU, we continually take a number of actions, including, managing our production rates to the prevailing weaker side of the ECU, leveraging our portfolio of chlorine and chlorine derivatives outlets and entering into purchase for re-sale transactions. If our efforts are not successful and a substantial imbalance occurred, we might need to take actions that could have a material adverse impact on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
We cannot assure you that pricing or profitability in the future will be comparable to any particular historical period, including the most recent period shown in our operating results. We cannot assure you that the chemical industry will not
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experience adverse trends in the future, or that our business, financial condition, and results of operations will not be adversely affected by them.
Our Winchester segment is also subject to pricing pressures. Selling prices of ammunition are affected by changes in raw material costs and availability, customer demand and industry production capacity. Declines in average selling prices of products of our Winchester segment could adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Change in Operating Model—Our operating results could be negatively impacted if we do not successfully execute our operating model in our chemicals businesses.
In late 2020, we adopted a strategic operating model in our chemicals businesses that prioritizes ECU margins over sales volume. This model represents a change to our Chlor Alkali Products and Vinyls and Epoxy businesses. To mitigate exposure and maximize value from the entire ECU, the model necessitates managing production rates to the weaker side of the ECU. The execution of the model may not be successful. For example, we may not be able to consistently achieve higher margins or the margin improvement achieved might be more than offset by the impact from lower sales volumes, either of which could have a material adverse effect on our operating results and cash flows. In addition, we take actions from time to time designed to complement our operating model, such as purchase for re-sale transactions (which we sometimes refer to as “parlaying activities”) that may not improve our operating results and could adversely impact our business if these activities are not successfully implemented.
Some of our assets were designed to operate at consistently high operating rates. If we operate at lower operating rates for extended periods or make frequent changes to operating rates, our assets may become less reliable or may require additional maintenance or capital investment, which could have a material adverse impact on our operating results and cash flows. Additionally, we may not be able to attract, develop, or retain the skills necessary to effectively execute the strategic operating model. Our model is dependent on implementing changes to the way we transact business with customers and other third parties. Customers or third parties may not be willing to transact with us on terms acceptable to us or at all. If we fail to effectively execute our strategic operating model, our operating results may fail to meet expectations and our business, financial condition, and results of operations could be adversely impacted.
Cost Control—Our profitability could be reduced if we experience increasing raw material, utility, transportation or logistics costs, or if we fail to achieve targeted cost reductions.
Our operating results and profitability are dependent upon our continued ability to control, and in some cases reduce, our costs. If we are unable to do so, or if costs outside of our control, particularly our costs of raw materials, utilities, transportation and similar costs, increase beyond anticipated levels, our profitability will decline. In addition, an increase in costs generally as a result of rising inflation, or in a particular sector such as the energy or transportation sector, could result in rising costs which we cannot fully mitigate through product price increases or cost reductions, which could also adversely affect our profitability.
For example, if our feedstock and energy costs increase, and we are unable to pass the increased costs on to customers, our profitability in our Chlor Alkali Products and Vinyls and Epoxy segments would be negatively affected. Similarly, costs of commodity metals and other materials used in our Winchester business, such as copper and lead, can vary. If we experience significant increases in these costs and are unable to raise our prices to offset the higher costs, the profitability in our Winchester business would be negatively affected.
Suppliers—We rely on a limited number of third-party suppliers for specified feedstocks and services.
We obtain a significant portion of our raw materials from a few key suppliers. If any of these suppliers fail to meet their obligations under present or any future supply agreements, we may be forced to pay higher prices or incur higher costs to obtain the necessary raw materials. Any interruption of supply or any price increase of raw materials could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Certain of our facilities are dependent on feedstocks, services, and related infrastructure provided by third parties, which are provided pursuant to long-term contracts. Any failure of those third parties to perform their obligations under those agreements or disagreements regarding the performance under those agreements could adversely affect the operation of the affected facilities and our business, financial condition and results of operations, or result in diversion of management’s attention or our resources from other business matters. If we are required to obtain an alternate source for these feedstocks or services, we may not be able to obtain equally favorable pricing and terms. Additionally, we may be forced to pay additional transportation costs or to invest in capital projects for pipelines or alternate facilities to accommodate railcar or other delivery methods or to replace other services.
A vendor may choose, subject to existing contracts, to modify its relationship due to general economic concerns or concerns relating to the vendor or us, at any time. Any significant change in the terms that we have with our key suppliers could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations, as could significant additional requirements from suppliers that we provide them additional security in the form of prepayments or posting letters of credit.
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Raw Materials—Availability of purchased feedstocks and energy, and the volatility of these costs, impact our operating costs and add variability to earnings.
Purchased feedstock, including propylene and benzene, and energy costs account for a substantial portion of our total production costs and operating expenses. We purchase certain raw materials as feedstocks.
Feedstock and energy costs generally follow price trends in crude oil and natural gas, which are sometimes volatile. Ultimately, the ability to pass on underlying cost increases in a timely manner or at all is partially dependent on market conditions. Conversely, when feedstock and energy costs decline, selling prices generally decline as well. As a result, volatility in these costs could impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.
If the availability of any of our principal feedstocks is limited or we are unable to obtain natural gas or energy from any of our energy sources, we may be unable to produce some of our products in the quantities demanded by our customers, which could have a material adverse effect on plant utilization and our sales of products requiring such raw materials. We have long-term supply contracts with various third parties for certain raw materials, including ethylene, electricity, propylene and benzene. As these contracts expire, we may be unable to renew these contracts or obtain new long-term supply agreements on terms comparable or as favorable to us, depending on market conditions, which may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, many of our long-term contracts contain provisions that allow our suppliers to limit the amount of raw materials shipped to us below the contracted amount in force majeure or similar circumstances. If we are required to obtain alternate sources for raw materials because our suppliers are unwilling or unable to perform under raw material supply agreements or if a supplier terminates its agreements with us, we may not be able to obtain these raw materials from alternative suppliers or obtain new long-term supply agreements on terms comparable or as favorable to us.
Third-Party Transportation—We rely heavily on third-party transportation, which subjects us to risks and costs that we cannot control, and which risks and costs may have a material adverse effect on our financial position or results of operations.
We rely heavily on railroad, truck, marine vessel, barge and other shipping companies to transport finished products to customers and to transport raw materials to the manufacturing facilities used by each of our businesses. These transport operations are subject to various hazards and risks, including extreme weather conditions, work stoppages and operating hazards, as well as domestic and international transportation and maritime regulations. In addition, the methods of transportation we utilize, including shipping chlorine and other chemicals by railroad and by barge, may be subject to additional, more stringent and more costly regulations in the future. If we are delayed or unable to ship finished products or unable to obtain raw materials as a result of any such new or modified regulations or public policy changes related to transportation safety, or these transportation companies’ failure to operate properly, or if there are significant changes in the cost of these services due to new additional regulations, or otherwise, we may not be able to arrange efficient alternatives and timely means to obtain raw materials or ship goods, which could result in a material adverse effect on our business, financial position or results of operations. If any third-party railroad that we utilize to transport chlorine and other chemicals ceases to transport certain hazardous materials, or if there are significant changes in the cost of shipping hazardous materials by rail or otherwise, we may not be able to arrange efficient alternatives and timely means to deliver our products or at all, which could result in a material adverse effect on our business, financial position or results of operations.
Production Hazards—Our facilities are subject to operating hazards, which may disrupt our business.
We are dependent upon the continued safe and reliable operation of our production facilities. Our production facilities are subject to hazards associated with the manufacture, handling, storage and transportation of chemical materials and products and ammunition, including leaks and ruptures, explosions, fires, inclement weather and natural disasters, unexpected utility disruptions or outages, unscheduled downtime, equipment failure, information technology systems interruptions or failures, terrorism, transportation interruptions, transportation incidents involving our chemical products, chemical spills and other discharges or releases of toxic or hazardous substances or gases and environmental hazards. Due to the integrated nature of our large chemical sites, an event at one plant could impact production across multiple plants at a facility. From time to time in the past, we have had incidents that have temporarily shut down or otherwise disrupted our manufacturing, causing production delays and resulting in liability for workplace injuries and fatalities. Some of our operations involve the manufacture and/or handling of a variety of explosive and flammable materials. Use of our products by our customers could also result in liability if an explosion, fire, spill or other accident were to occur. We cannot assure you that we will not experience these types of incidents in the future or that these incidents will not result in production delays or otherwise have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations. Major hurricanes, or other weather-related events, have caused significant disruption in our operations on the U.S. Gulf Coast, logistics across the region and the supply of certain raw materials, which have had an adverse impact on volume and cost for some of our products. Due to the substantial presence we have on the U.S. Gulf Coast, similar severe weather conditions or other natural phenomena in the future could negatively affect our results of operations, for which we may not be fully insured.
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Information Security—A failure of our information technology systems, or an interruption in their operation due to internal or external factors including cyber-attacks, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Our operations are dependent on our ability to protect our information systems, computer equipment and information databases from systems failures. We rely on both internal information technology systems and certain external services and service providers to manage the day-to-day operation of our business, operate elements of our manufacturing facilities, manage relationships with our employees, customers and suppliers, fulfill customer orders and maintain our financial and accounting records. Failure of any one or more than one of our information technology systems could be caused by internal or external events, such as incursions by intruders or hackers, computer viruses, cyber-attacks, failures in hardware or software, or power or telecommunication fluctuations or failures. The failure of our information technology systems to perform as anticipated for any reason or any significant breach of security could disrupt our business and result in numerous adverse consequences, including reduced effectiveness and efficiency of operations, increased costs or loss of important information, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations. We have technology and information security processes, periodic external service and service provider reviews, insurance policies and disaster recovery plans in place to mitigate our risk to these vulnerabilities. However, these measures may not be adequate to ensure that our operations will not be disrupted or our financial impact minimized, should such an event occur.
Ability to Attract and Retain Qualified Employees—We must attract, retain and motivate key employees, and the failure to do so may adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations.
We feel our success depends on hiring, retaining and motivating key employees, including executive officers. Our future success depends in part on our ability to identify and develop talent throughout the organization who adopt and successfully execute our strategic operating model. The development and retention of key personnel and appropriate senior management succession planning will continue to be important to the successful execution of our strategies. We may have difficulty locating and hiring qualified personnel. In addition, we may have difficulty retaining such personnel once hired, and key people may leave and compete against us. The loss of key personnel or our failure to attract and retain other qualified and experienced personnel could disrupt or materially adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations. In addition, our operating results could be adversely affected by increased costs due to increased competition for employees or higher employee turnover, which may result in the loss of significant customer business or increased costs.
Acquisitions and Joint Ventures—We may not be able to complete future acquisitions or joint venture transactions or successfully integrate them into our business, which could adversely affect our business or results of operations.
As part of our growth strategy, we intend to pursue acquisitions and joint venture opportunities consistent with or complementary to our existing business strategies. Successful accomplishment of this objective may be limited by the availability and suitability of acquisition candidates, the ability to obtain regulatory approvals necessary to complete a planned transaction, and by our financial resources. Acquisitions and joint venture transactions involve numerous risks, including difficulty determining appropriate valuation, integrating operations, technologies, services and products of the acquired businesses, personnel turnover and the diversion of management’s attention from other business matters. In addition, we may be unable to achieve anticipated benefits from these transactions in the time frame that we anticipate, or at all, which could adversely impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Indebtedness—Our indebtedness could adversely affect our financial condition.
As of December 31, 2021, we had $2,779.3 million of indebtedness outstanding. Outstanding indebtedness does not include amounts that could be borrowed under our $800.0 million senior revolving credit facility, under which $799.6 million was available for borrowing as of December 31, 2021 because we had issued $0.4 million of letters of credit. As of December 31, 2021, our indebtedness represented 51.2% of our total capitalization and $201.1 million of our indebtedness was due within one year. Despite our level of indebtedness, we expect to continue to have the ability to borrow additional debt, but we cannot be certain that additional debt will be available on terms acceptable to us or at all.
Our indebtedness could have important consequences, including but not limited to:

limiting our ability to fund working capital, capital expenditures, and other general corporate purposes;
limiting our ability to accommodate growth by reducing funds otherwise available for other corporate purposes, which in turn could prevent us from fulfilling our obligations under our indebtedness;
limiting our operational flexibility due to the covenants contained in our debt agreements;
to the extent that our debt is subject to floating interest rates, increasing our vulnerability to fluctuations in market interest rates;
limiting our ability to pay cash dividends;
limiting our flexibility for, or reacting to, changes in our business or industry or economic conditions, thereby limiting our ability to compete with companies that are not as highly leveraged; and
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increasing our vulnerability to economic downturns.

Our ability to generate sufficient cash flow from operations to make scheduled payments on our debt will depend on a range of economic, competitive and business factors, many of which are outside our control. There can be no assurance that our business will generate sufficient cash flow from operations to make these payments. If we are unable to meet our expenses and debt obligations, we may need to refinance all or a portion of our indebtedness before maturity, sell assets or issue additional equity. We may not be able to refinance any of our indebtedness, sell assets or issue additional equity on commercially reasonable terms or at all, which could cause us to default on our obligations and impair our liquidity. Our inability to generate sufficient cash flow to satisfy our debt obligations, or to refinance our debt obligations on commercially reasonable terms, would have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations, as well as on our ability to satisfy our debt obligations.
International Sales and Operations—We are subject to risks associated with our international sales and operations that could have a material adverse effect on our business or results of operations.
Olin has an international presence, including the geographic regions of Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America and Canada. In 2021, approximately 41% of our sales were generated outside of the United States. These international sales and operations expose us to risks, including:

difficulties and costs associated with complying with complex and varied laws, treaties, and regulations;
tariffs and trade barriers;
outbreaks of serious disease, such as COVID-19, which could cause us and our suppliers and/or customers to temporarily suspend operations in affected areas, restrict the ability of Olin to distribute our products or cause economic downturns that could affect demand for our products;
changes in laws and regulations, including the imposition of economic or trade sanctions affecting international commercial transactions;
risk of non-compliance with anti-bribery laws and regulations, such as the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act;
restrictions on, or difficulties and costs associated with, the repatriation of cash from foreign countries to the United States;
unfavorable currency fluctuations;
changes in local economic conditions, including inflation levels exceeding that of the U.S.;
unexpected changes in political or regulatory environments;
labor compliance and costs associated with a global workforce;
data privacy regulations;
difficulties in maintaining overseas subsidiaries and international operations; and
challenges in protecting intellectual property rights.

Any one or more of the above factors could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
COVID-19 Pandemic—The COVID-19 pandemic and the global response to the pandemic, including without limitation complying with governmental mandates, could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition, or results of operations.
The COVID-19 global pandemic, and the various governmental, business, and consumer responses to this pandemic, have caused significant disruptions in the U.S. and global economies, which negatively impacted the demand for several of the products produced by our Chlor Alkali Products and Vinyls and Epoxy businesses during 2020 resulting in lower volumes and pricing. As a result, the COVID-19 pandemic has significantly impacted our results of operations and could continue to have negative impacts on our business. These impacts could include plant closures or operating reductions, volatility and decrease in demand for our products, and supply chain interruptions. These impacts could become more widespread or prolonged as the pandemic continues. The extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic impacts our results will depend on future developments that are outside of our control and highly uncertain, including the severity and duration of the pandemic, emerging variants, vaccine and booster effectiveness, the domestic and international actions that are taken in response, including mandates implemented at the local, state and federal levels, and the extent and severity of any resulting economic or industry downturn.
Credit Facility—Weak industry conditions could affect our ability to comply with the financial maintenance covenants in our senior credit facility.
Our senior credit facility includes certain financial maintenance covenants requiring us to not exceed a maximum leverage ratio and to maintain a minimum coverage ratio.
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Depending on the magnitude and duration of economic or industry downturns affecting our businesses, including deterioration in prices and volumes, there can be no assurance that we will continue to be in compliance with these ratios. If we fail to comply with either of these covenants in a future period and are not able to obtain waivers from the lenders, we would need to refinance our current senior credit facility. However, there can be no assurance that such refinancing would be available to us on terms that would be acceptable to us or at all.
Credit and Capital Market Conditions—Adverse conditions in the credit and capital markets may limit or prevent our ability to borrow or raise capital.
While we believe we have facilities in place that should allow us to borrow funds as needed to meet our ordinary course business activities, adverse conditions in the credit and financial markets could prevent us from obtaining financing, if the need arises, or result in our creditors terminating their funding commitments. Our ability to invest in our businesses and refinance or repay maturing debt obligations could require access to the credit and capital markets and sufficient bank credit lines to support cash requirements. Our ability to access credit and capital markets can also depend on our credit rating as determined by reputable credit rating agencies. A significant downgrade in our credit rating could affect our ability to refinance or repay maturing debt obligations, result in increased borrowing costs, decrease the availability of capital from financial institutions or require our subsidiaries to post letters of credit, cash or other assets as collateral with certain counterparties. If we are unable to access the credit and capital markets on commercially reasonable terms, we could experience a material adverse effect on our business, financial position or results of operations.
Pension Plans—The impact of declines in global equity and fixed income markets on asset values and any declines in interest rates and/or improvements in mortality assumptions used to value the liabilities in our pension plans may result in higher pension costs and the need to fund the pension plans in future years in material amounts.
We sponsor domestic and foreign defined benefit pension plans for eligible employees and retirees. Substantially all domestic defined benefit pension plan participants are no longer accruing benefits. However, a portion of our bargaining hourly employees continue to participate in our domestic qualified defined benefit pension plans under a flat-benefit formula.  Our funding policy for the qualified defined benefit pension plans is consistent with the requirements of federal laws and regulations.  Our foreign subsidiaries maintain pension and other benefit plans, which are consistent with local statutory practices.  The determinations of pension expense and pension funding are based on a variety of rules and regulations along with economic factors which are outside of our control. These factors include returns on invested assets, the level of certain market interest rates, the discount rates used to determine pension obligations and mortality assumptions used to value liabilities in our pension plans. Changes in these rules and regulations or unfavorable changes to the factors which are used to value the assets and liabilities in our pension plans could impact the calculation of funded status of our pension plans. They may also result in higher pension costs and the need for additional pension plan funding. See “Pension and Postretirement Benefits” contained in Item 7—“Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.”
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Asset Impairment—If our goodwill, other intangible assets or property, plant and equipment become impaired in the future, we may be required to record non-cash charges to earnings, which could be significant.
The process of impairment testing for our goodwill involves a number of judgments and estimates made by management including future cash flows, discount rates, profitability assumptions and terminal growth rates with regards to our reporting units. Our internally generated long-range plan includes assumptions regarding pricing and operating forecasts for the chlor alkali industry. If the judgments and estimates used in our analysis are not realized or are affected by external factors, then actual results may not be consistent with these judgments and estimates, and we may be required to record a goodwill impairment charge in the future, which could be significant and have an adverse effect on our financial position and results of operations. During the third quarter of 2020, the carrying values of our Chlor Alkali Products and Vinyls and Epoxy reporting units exceeded the fair values which resulted in pre-tax goodwill impairment charges of $557.6 million and $142.2 million, respectively. The goodwill impairment charge was calculated as the amount that the carrying value of the reporting unit, including any goodwill, exceeded its fair value and therefore the carrying value of our reporting units equal their fair value upon completion of the goodwill impairment test.
We review long-lived assets, including property, plant and equipment and identifiable amortizing intangible assets, for impairment whenever changes in circumstances or events may indicate that the carrying amounts are not recoverable. If the fair value is less than the carrying amount of the asset, an impairment is recognized for the difference. Factors which may cause an impairment of long-lived assets include significant changes in the manner of use of these assets, negative industry or market trends, a significant underperformance relative to historical or projected future operating results, extended period of idleness or a likely sale or disposal of the asset before the end of its estimated useful life. If our property, plant and equipment and identifiable amortizing intangible assets are determined to be impaired in the future, we may be required to record non-cash charges to earnings during the period in which the impairment is determined, which could be significant and have an adverse effect on our financial position and results of operations.
Legal, Environmental and Regulatory Risks
Effects of Regulation—Changes in or failure to comply with applicable laws or government regulations or policies could have a material adverse effect on our financial position or results of operations.
Legislation or regulations that may be adopted or modified by U.S. or foreign governments, including legislation or regulations intended to address climate change, antitrust and competition laws, tax regulation, import and export duties and quotas and anti-dumping measures and related tariffs could significantly affect the sales, costs and profitability of our business.
The chemical and ammunition industries are subject to legislative and regulatory actions, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial position or results of operations. Many of our products and operations are subject to chemical control laws of the countries in which they are located. These laws include regulation of chemical substances and inventories under the U.S. Toxic Substances Control Act of 1976 (TSCA) in the U.S. and the Registration, Evaluation and Authorization of Chemicals (REACH) regulation in Europe. TSCA was amended in 2016, and the EPA is currently evaluating several of our products for additional regulation under the amended law. Certain of our products, or inputs into our manufacturing process, are subject to regulation under current TSCA regulations, and other chemicals or ingredients may be regulated under the law in the future. Under REACH, additional testing requirements, documentation, risk assessments and registrations are occurring and will continue to occur and may adversely affect our costs of products produced in or imported into the European Union.
Compliance with current or future TSCA, REACH, or other regulations may limit or hinder our ability to manufacture our products and/or cause us to incur expenditures that are material to our business, financial condition or results of operations. Additionally, changes to government regulations and laws, including TSCA and REACH, or changes in their interpretation may reduce the demand for our products, impact our ability to use or manufacture certain products, or limit our ability to implement our strategies, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. A material change in tax laws, treaties or regulations in the jurisdictions in which we operate or a change in their interpretation or application could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
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Security and Chemicals Transportation—New regulations on the transportation of hazardous chemicals and/or the security of chemical manufacturing facilities and public policy changes related to transportation safety could result in significantly higher operating costs.
The transportation of our products and feedstocks, including transportation by pipeline, and the security of our chemical manufacturing facilities are subject to extensive regulation. Government authorities at the local, state and federal levels could implement new or stricter regulations, or change their interpretations of existing regulations, that would impact the security of chemical plant locations and the transportation of hazardous chemicals. Our Chlor Alkali Products and Vinyls and Epoxy segments could be adversely impacted by the cost of complying with any new regulations. Our business also could be adversely affected if an incident were to occur at one of our facilities or while transporting products. The extent of the impact would depend on the requirements of future regulations and the nature of an incident, which are unknown at this time.
Legal and Regulatory Claims and Proceedings—We are subject to legal and regulatory claims and proceedings, which could cause us to incur significant expenses.
We are subject to legal and regulatory claims and proceedings relating to our present and former operations and could become subject to additional claims in the future, some of which could be material. These proceedings may be brought by the government or private parties and may arise out of a number of matters, including, antitrust claims, contract disputes, product liability claims, including ammunition and firearms, and proceedings alleging injurious exposure of plaintiffs to various chemicals and other substances (including proceedings based on alleged exposures to asbestos). Frequently, the proceedings alleging injurious exposure involve claims made by numerous plaintiffs against many defendants. Defense of these claims can be costly and time-consuming even if ultimately successful. Because of the inherent uncertainties of legal proceedings, we are unable to predict their outcome and therefore cannot determine whether the financial impact, if any, will be material to our financial position, cash flows or results of operations. We have included additional information with respect to pending legal and regulatory proceedings in Part II, Item 8, under the heading of “Legal Matters” within Note 22, “Commitments and Contingencies,” of our Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
Environmental Costs—We have ongoing environmental costs, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial position or results of operations.
Our operations and assets are subject to extensive environmental, health and safety regulations, including laws and regulations related to air emissions, water discharges, waste disposal and remediation of contaminated sites. The nature of our operations and products, including the raw materials we handle, exposes us to the risk of liabilities, obligations or claims under these laws and regulations due to the production, storage, use, transportation and sale of materials that can adversely impact the environment or cause personal injury, including, in the case of chemicals, unintentional releases into the environment. Environmental laws may have a significant effect on the costs of use, transportation, handling and storage of raw materials and finished products, as well as the costs of storage, handling, treatment, transportation and disposal of wastes. In addition, we are party to various government and private environmental actions associated with past manufacturing facilities and former waste disposal sites. We have incurred, and expect to incur, significant costs and capital expenditures in complying with environmental laws and regulations.
The ultimate costs and timing of environmental liabilities are difficult to predict. Liabilities under environmental laws relating to contaminated sites can be imposed retroactively and on a joint and several basis. One liable party could be held responsible for all costs at a site, regardless of fault, percentage of contribution to the site or the legality of the original disposal. We could incur significant costs, including clean-up costs, natural resource damages, civil or criminal fines and sanctions and third-party lawsuits claiming, for example, personal injury and/or property damage, as a result of past or future violations of, or liabilities under, environmental or other laws.
In addition, future events, such as changes to environmental laws, changes in the interpretation or implementation of current environmental laws or new information about the extent of remediation required, could require us to make additional expenditures, modify or curtail our operations and/or install additional pollution control equipment. It is possible that regulatory agencies may identify new chemicals of concern or enact new or more stringent clean-up standards for existing chemicals of concern. This could lead to expenditures for environmental remediation in the future that are additional to existing estimates.
Accordingly, it is possible that some of the matters in which we are involved or may become involved may be resolved unfavorably to us, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial position, cash flows or results of operations. See “Environmental Matters” contained in Item 7—“Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.”
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Governmental Contract Compliance and Deliverables—Various risks associated with our Lake City contract and performance under other government contracts could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our Winchester business currently operates and manages the Lake City Army Ammunition Plant in Independence, MO under a multi-year contract with the United States Army. The contract has an initial term of seven years, starting on October 1, 2020, and may be extended for up to three additional years. Additionally, our Winchester business is engaged to perform various deliverables under other government contract arrangements. The Lake City facility also allows, under certain conditions, for Winchester to utilize the facility to produce commercial ammunition. The operation of the Lake City facility and our other U.S. government contracts require compliance with numerous contract provisions and government regulations. U.S. government contracts often reserve the right to audit our contract costs and conduct inquiries and investigations of our business practices and compliance with government contract requirements. Our failure to comply with any one of these contract provisions and regulations could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial position, and results of operations.
A large portion of our government contracts contain fixed-price deliverables while a smaller portion are performed under cost-plus arrangements. While certain of these contracts contain price escalation and other price adjustment provisions, if we are unable to control costs related to these contracts or if our assumptions regarding the fixed pricing on one or multiple of these contracts is incorrect, we may experience lower profitability, adversely affecting our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG)—ESG issues and related regulation, including those related to climate change and sustainability, may have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations and damage our reputation.
Companies across all industries are facing increased scrutiny related to their ESG policies. Increased focus and activism related to ESG may hinder our access to credit and capital markets, as investors may reconsider their investment as a result of their assessment of our ESG practices. In particular, customers, consumers, investors and other stakeholders are increasingly focusing on environmental issues, including climate change, energy and water use, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and other sustainability concerns. Change in public sentiment may result in changing demands for our customers’ products and the products which we produce in light of their perceived environmental impacts or other related issues. These demand changes could cause changes in the market dynamics of our existing products, impacting pricing, or we may incur additional costs to make changes to our operations to comply with such demand changes.
Concern over climate change, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in particular, may result in new or increased legal and regulatory requirements to reduce or mitigate impacts to the environment. Increased regulatory requirements or demands for enhanced mitigation of environmental impacts may result in increased compliance costs, higher energy and raw materials input costs or compliance with more stringent emissions standards, which may cause disruptions in the manufacture of our products or an increase in operating costs. Any failure to achieve our ESG goals, or a perception of our failure to act responsibly with respect to the environment or to effectively respond to new, or updated, legal or regulatory requirements concerning environmental or other ESG matters, or increased operating or manufacturing costs due to increased regulation or efforts to mitigate environmental impacts could adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and reputation.
If we do not adapt to or comply with new regulations or fail to meet the ESG goals or evolving investor, industry or stakeholder expectations and standards, or if we are perceived to have not responded appropriately to the growing concern for ESG issues, customers may choose to stop purchasing our products or purchase products from a competitor, and our reputation, financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected.
Labor Matters—We cannot assure that we can conclude future labor contracts or any other labor agreements without work stoppages.
Various labor unions represent a significant number of our hourly paid employees for collective bargaining purposes. No significant labor contracts are expected to be negotiated during 2022 or early 2023. In addition, a large number of our employees are located in countries in which employment laws provide greater bargaining or other rights to employees than the laws of the U.S. Such employment rights require us to work collaboratively with the legal representatives of those employees to effect any changes to labor arrangements. For example, most of our employees in Europe are represented by works councils that must approve any changes in conditions of employment, including salaries and benefits and staff changes, and may impede efforts to restructure our workforce. While we believe our relations with our employees and their various representatives are generally satisfactory, we cannot assure that we can conclude any labor agreements without work stoppages and cannot assure that any work stoppages will not have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.

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Item 1B.  UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

Not applicable.

Item 2.  PROPERTIES

Information concerning our principal locations from which our products and services are manufactured, distributed or marketed are included in the tables set forth under the caption “Products and Services” contained in Item 1—“Business.” Generally, these facilities are well maintained, in good operating condition, and suitable and adequate for their use. Our two largest facilities are co-located with a site partner. The land on which these facilities are located is leased with a 99-year initial term that commenced in 2015. Additionally, we lease warehouses, terminals and distribution offices and space for executive and branch sales offices and service departments. We believe our current facilities are adequate to meet the requirements of our present operations.

On October 1, 2020, Winchester assumed full management and operational control of the Lake City Army Ammunition Plant in Independence, MO, which is a government-owned, contractor operated facility. The United States Army selected Winchester to operate and manage Lake City in September 2019. The contract is for the production of small caliber military ammunition, including 5.56mm, 7.62mm, and .50 caliber rounds, as well as certain cartridges and casings. The contract also allows for the production of certain ammunition for commercial customers. The contract has an initial term of seven years and may be extended by the United States Army for up to three additional years.

Item 3.  LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

Discussion of legal matters is incorporated by reference from Part II, Item 8, under the heading of “Legal Matters” within Note 22, “Commitments and Contingencies,” and should be considered an integral part of Part I, Item 3, “Legal Proceedings.”

Item 4.  MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES

Not applicable.

23

PART II

Item 5.  MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

As of January 31, 2022, we had 3,175 record holders of our common stock.

Our common stock is traded on the NYSE under the “OLN” ticker symbol.

A dividend of $0.20 per common share was paid during each of the four quarters in 2021 and 2020.

Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Period
Total Number of Shares (or Units) Purchased(1)
Average Price Paid per Share (or Unit)Total Number of Shares (or Units) Purchased as Part of Publicly Announced Plans or ProgramsMaximum Dollar Value of Shares (or Units) that May Yet Be Purchased Under the Plans or Programs
October 1-31, 2021174,195 $49.24 174,195 
November 1-30, 20211,540,815 60.26 1,540,815 
December 1-31, 20211,485,507 55.35 1,485,507 
Total$1,052,210,241 (1)

(1)On April 26, 2018, our board of directors authorized a share repurchase program for the purchase of shares of common stock at an aggregate price of up to $500.0 million (the 2018 Repurchase Authorization).  This program will terminate upon the purchase of $500.0 million of our common stock. On November 1, 2021, our board of directors authorized an additional share repurchase program for the purchase of shares of common stock at an aggregate price of up to $1.0 billion (the 2021 Repurchase Authorization). This program will terminate upon the purchase of $1.0 billion of our common stock. Through December 31, 2021, 14,743,977 shares had been repurchased at a total value of $447,789,759 and $52,210,241 of common stock remained available for purchase under the 2018 Repurchase Authorization. As of December 31, 2021, there have been no repurchases under the 2021 Repurchase Authorization program and $1.0 billion of common stock remained authorized to be repurchased under this plan.

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Performance Graph

This graph compares the total shareholder return on our common stock with the cumulative total return of the Standard & Poor’s (S&P) 500 Index, S&P 500 Chemicals Index and S&P Composite 1500 Commodity Chemicals Index (S&P 1500 Commodity Chemicals Index).
COMPARISON OF FIVE YEAR CUMULATIVE TOTAL RETURN
Among Olin Corporation, the S&P 500 Index,
S&P 500 Chemicals Index and the S&P 1500 Commodity Chemicals Index
oln-20211231_g2.jpg
12/1612/1712/1812/1912/2012/21
Olin Corporation1001438374111266
S&P 500 Index100122116153181233
S&P 500 Chemicals Index100129116144168208
S&P 1500 Commodity Chemicals Index10013298113118135
Copyright© 2021 Standard & Poor’s, a division of S&P Global. All rights reserved.

Data is for the five-year period from December 31, 2016 through December 31, 2021.  The cumulative return includes reinvestment of dividends.  The performance graph assumes an investment of $100 on December 31, 2016.












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FIVE-YEAR SUMMARY OF SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA
 20212020201920182017
Operations($ and shares in millions, except per share data)
Sales$8,911 $5,758 $6,110 $6,946 $6,268 
Cost of goods sold6,616 5,375 5,439 5,822 5,555 
Selling and administration417 422 417 431 369 
Restructuring charges28 76 22 38 
Acquisition-related costs— — — 13 
Goodwill impairment— 700 — — — 
Other operating income— 
Earnings (losses) of non-consolidated affiliates— — — (20)
Interest expense348 293 243 243 217 
Interest income and other income— 12 
Non-operating pension income36 19 16 22 34 
Income (loss) before taxes1,539 (1,020)(37)437 117 
Income tax provision (benefit)242 (50)(26)109 (432)
Net income (loss)$1,297 $(970)$(11)$328 $549 
Financial position 
Cash and cash equivalents$181 $190 $221 $179 $218 
Working capital, excluding cash and cash equivalents 386 329 411 410 527 
Property, plant and equipment, net2,914 3,171 3,324 3,482 3,576 
Total assets8,518 8,271 9,188 8,997 9,218 
Capitalization:
Short-term debt201 26 126 
Long-term debt2,578 3,838 3,339 3,104 3,611 
Shareholders’ equity2,652 1,451 2,418 2,832 2,754 
Total capitalization$5,431 $5,315 $5,759 $6,062 $6,366 
Total debt to total capitalization51.2 %72.7 %58.0 %53.3 %56.7 %
Per share data 
Net income (loss): 
Basic$8.15 $(6.14)$(0.07)$1.97 $3.31 
Diluted$7.96 $(6.14)$(0.07)$1.95 $3.26 
Cash dividends paid per common share$0.80 $0.80 $0.80 $0.80 $0.80 
Other
Capital expenditures$201 $299 $386 $385 $294 
Depreciation and amortization583 568 597 601 559 
Common stock dividends paid128 126 129 134 133 
Repurchases of common stock252 — 146 50 — 
Current ratio1.3 1.4 1.6 1.5 1.8 
Effective tax rate15.7 %4.9 %69.4 %25.0 %(368.9)%
Average common shares outstanding - diluted163.0 157.9 162.3 168.4 168.5 
Employees(1)
7,750 8,000 6,500 6,500 6,400 
(1)     Beginning October 1, 2020, total employees include employees at Lake City which is a government-owned, contractor-operated facility.

Item 6.  [RESERVED]

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Item 7.  MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

BUSINESS BACKGROUND

Olin Corporation (Olin) is a Virginia corporation, incorporated in 1892, having its principal executive offices in Clayton, MO.  We are a leading vertically-integrated global manufacturer and distributor of chemical products and a leading U.S. manufacturer of ammunition. Our operations are concentrated in three business segments:  Chlor Alkali Products and Vinyls, Epoxy and Winchester.  All of our business segments are capital intensive manufacturing businesses.  The Chlor Alkali Products and Vinyls segment manufactures and sells chlorine and caustic soda, ethylene dichloride and vinyl chloride monomer, methyl chloride, methylene chloride, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, perchloroethylene, hydrochloric acid, hydrogen, bleach products and potassium hydroxide.  The Epoxy segment produces and sells a full range of epoxy materials and precursors, including aromatics (acetone, bisphenol, cumene and phenol), allyl chloride, epichlorohydrin, liquid epoxy resins, solid epoxy resins and downstream products such as converted epoxy resins and additives. The Winchester segment produces and sells sporting ammunition, reloading components, small caliber military ammunition and components, and industrial cartridges.  

RECENT DEVELOPMENTS AND HIGHLIGHTS

Winter Storm Uri

Olin’s Freeport, TX facility was affected by Winter Storm Uri and was forced to halt production due to the lack of electrical power, natural gas, and other raw materials. All of Olin’s Freeport operations were impacted. In addition, production at Olin’s Plaquemine, LA; St. Gabriel, LA; Oxford, MS; and McIntosh, AL facilities were also negatively impacted. As a result, by February 18, 2021, Olin declared Force Majeure on all chemical product shipments from North America. Our facilities had returned to operation by March 31, 2021.

The 2021 results included a net pretax favorable impact of $99.9 million associated with Winter Storm Uri due to Olin’s customary financial hedges and contracts maintained to provide protection from rapid and dramatic changes in energy costs, partially offset by unabsorbed fixed manufacturing costs and storm-related maintenance costs. During 2021, Chlor Alkali Products and Vinyls segment results included a favorable impact of $121.4 million and Epoxy segment results included an unfavorable impact of $21.5 million associated with Winter Storm Uri.

2021 Overview

Net income was $1,296.7 million for the year ended 2021 compared to net loss of $969.9 million for 2020. The increase in results from the prior year was due to improved operating results across all our business segments. The prior year results were also impacted by a $699.8 million pretax goodwill impairment charge.

Chlor Alkali Products and Vinyls generated segment income of $997.8 million for 2021 compared to $3.5 million for 2020. Chlor Alkali Products and Vinyls segment results were higher than in the prior year due to higher pricing across all products, partially offset by higher raw material and operating costs.

Epoxy reported segment income of $616.5 million for 2021 compared to $40.8 million for 2020.  Epoxy segment results were higher than in the prior year primarily due to higher product prices, partially offset by higher raw materials costs, primarily benzene and propylene.

Winchester reported segment income of $412.1 million for 2021 compared to $92.3 million for 2020.  On October 1, 2020, Winchester assumed full management and operational control of Lake City. Winchester segment results were higher than in the prior year primarily due to increased commercial ammunition pricing and higher volumes, which includes ammunition produced at Lake City. Winchester segment results were also negatively impacted by higher commodity costs compared to the prior year.

During 2021, we repaid approximately $1.1 billion of long-term debt. In connection with these financing transactions, we recognized a loss on extinguishment of debt of $152.2 million, which includes the payment of early redemption premiums of $137.7 million.

During 2021, we repurchased and retired 4.7 million shares of common stock at a cost of $251.9 million. As of December 31, 2021, we have $52.2 million of remaining authorized common stock to be purchased under our 2018 Repurchase
27

Authorization program and $1.0 billion of remaining authorized common stock to be purchased under our 2021 Repurchase Authorization program.

COVID-19

The 2019 Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) global pandemic, and the various governmental, business and consumer responses to this pandemic, significantly impacted our results during 2020. We have taken measures to protect the health and safety of our employees, work with our customers and suppliers to minimize potential disruptions and support our communities during this global pandemic. Our operations are among businesses that were considered “essential” by government and public health authorities. We are following all federal, state and local health department guidelines and the costs associated with these safety procedures were not material. We continue to safely maintain plant operations and focus on business continuity. All Olin manufacturing facilities worldwide continue to operate, with the exception of those undergoing planned maintenance turnarounds.

The spread of the pandemic and the associated response has caused significant disruptions and increased volatility in the U.S. and global economies, resulting in the disruption of the supply and demand fundamentals of our Chemicals businesses. During 2020, the various governmental, business and consumer responses to the pandemic negatively impacted the demand for several of the products produced by our Chlor Alkali Products and Vinyls and Epoxy businesses resulting in lower volumes and pricing. We initiated several actions during 2020 that partially mitigated the impact of economic decline on our financial performance, but also enhanced our position, financially and structurally, to take advantage of the eventual global economic recovery. These actions were primarily focused around liquidity and specific actions to reduce our costs in 2020. We continue to monitor the changing business environment, volatility and heightened degree of uncertainty resulting from the response to COVID-19, including compliance with certain federal, state and local governmental mandates. At the current time, we are unable to fully determine its future impact on our business. We continue to work with our customers, employees, suppliers and communities to address the impacts of COVID-19 and we continue to assess possible implications to our business, supply chain and customers, and to take actions in an effort to mitigate adverse consequences.

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CONSOLIDATED RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
 Years ended December 31,
 202120202019
 ($ in millions, except per share data)
Sales$8,910.6 $5,758.0 $6,110.0 
Cost of goods sold6,616.4 5,374.6 5,439.2 
Gross margin2,294.2 383.4 670.8 
Selling and administration416.9 422.0 416.9 
Restructuring charges27.9 9.0 76.5 
Goodwill impairment— 699.8 — 
Other operating income1.4 0.7 0.4 
Operating income (loss)1,850.8 (746.7)177.8 
Interest expense348.0 292.7 243.2 
Interest income0.2 0.5 1.0 
Non-operating pension income35.7 18.9 16.3 
Other income — — 11.2 
Income (loss) before taxes1,538.7 (1,020.0)(36.9)
Income tax provision (benefit)242.0 (50.1)(25.6)
Net income (loss)$1,296.7 $(969.9)$(11.3)
Net income (loss) per common share:   
Basic $8.15 $(6.14)$(0.07)
Diluted$7.96 $(6.14)$(0.07)

2021 Compared to 2020

Sales for 2021 were $8,910.6 million compared to $5,758.0 million in 2020, an increase of $3,152.6 million, or 55%.  Chlor Alkali Products and Vinyls sales increased by $1,180.9 million, primarily due to higher pricing across all products. Epoxy sales increased by $1,315.5 million, primarily due to higher product prices. Winchester sales increased by $656.2 million, primarily due to increased commercial ammunition pricing and higher commercial and military sales volumes, which included ammunition produced at Lake City.

Gross margin increased $1,910.8 million from 2020. Chlor Alkali Products and Vinyls gross margin increased by $986.1 million, primarily due to higher pricing and the effect of Winter Storm Uri. Epoxy gross margin increased by $578.6 million, primarily due to higher product prices, partially offset by higher raw material costs and the effect of Winter Storm Uri. Winchester gross margin increased by $336.1 million, primarily due to increased commercial ammunition pricing and higher sales volumes, which included ammunition produced at Lake City. Gross margin as a percentage of sales increased to 26% in 2021 from 7% in 2020.

Selling and administration expenses in 2021 decreased $5.1 million, or 1%, from 2020. The decrease was primarily due to the absence of $73.9 million of costs associated with a multi-year implementation of new enterprise resource planning, manufacturing and engineering systems, and related infrastructure (collectively, the Information Technology Project), which was completed in late 2020. This decrease was partially offset by higher variable incentive compensation expense of $49.4 million, which includes mark-to-market adjustments on stock-based compensation expense, and inclusion of a full year of selling and administration expenses associated with Lake City operations of $18.6 million. Selling and administration expenses as a percentage of sales decreased to 5% in 2021 from 7% in 2020.

Restructuring charges for 2021 were $27.9 million compared to $9.0 million in 2020. The increase in charges was primarily due to a productivity initiative to align the organization with our new operating model and improve efficiencies, which was completed during the second quarter of 2021, and the 2021 decisions to permanently close our diaphragm-grade chlor alkali capacity, representing 400,000 tons, at our McIntosh, AL facility.

Goodwill impairment includes non-cash pretax impairment charges of $557.6 million related to the Chlor Alkali Products and Vinyls segment and $142.2 million related to the Epoxy segment recorded during the third quarter of 2020.
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Interest expense increased by $55.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2021. Interest expense for 2021 included $137.7 million of bond redemption premiums and $14.5 million for write-off of deferred debt issuance costs, write-off of bond original issue discount, and recognition of deferred fair value interest rate swap losses. Interest expense for 2020 included $14.6 million of bond redemption premiums, $5.8 million for write-off of deferred debt issuance costs and $4.0 million of accretion expense related to the 2020 ethylene payment discount. Interest expense for 2021 and 2020 was reduced by capitalized interest of $3.2 million and $6.4 million, respectively. Without these items, interest expense decreased by $75.7 million, primarily due to a lower level of debt outstanding and lower average interest rates.

Non-operating pension income includes all components of pension and other postretirement income (costs) other than service costs. Non-operating pension income was higher for the year ended December 31, 2021 primarily due to a decrease in the discount rate used to determine interest costs.

The effective tax rate for 2021 included benefits from a net decrease in the valuation allowance related to deferred tax assets in foreign jurisdictions and domestic tax credits, a benefit associated with prior year tax positions, a benefit associated with stock-based compensation, an expense from remeasurement of deferred taxes due to an increase in our state effective tax rates and an expense from a change in tax contingencies. These factors resulted in a net $103.6 million tax benefit. After giving consideration to these items, the effective tax rate for 2021 of 22.5% was higher than the 21% U.S. federal statutory rate primarily due to state taxes, foreign income inclusions and foreign income taxes, partially offset by a net decrease in the valuation allowance related to utilization of losses in foreign jurisdictions and favorable permanent salt depletion deductions. The effective tax rate for 2020 included expenses associated with a net increase in the valuation allowance related to foreign and domestic tax credits and deferred tax assets in foreign jurisdictions, a remeasurement of deferred taxes due to an increase in our state effective tax rates and a change in tax contingencies, and stock-based compensation, partially offset by a benefit associated with prior year tax positions. These factors resulted in a net $27.9 million tax expense. For 2020, a tax benefit of $10.8 million was recognized associated with the $699.8 million goodwill impairment charge. After giving consideration to these items, including the goodwill impairment charge on Olin’s loss before taxes, the effective tax rate for 2020 of 21.0% was equal to the 21.0% U.S. federal statutory rate as foreign income taxes, foreign income inclusions and a net increase in the valuation allowance related to losses in foreign jurisdictions were offset by state taxes and favorable permanent salt depletion deductions.

2020 Compared to 2019

Sales for 2020 were $5,758.0 million compared to $6,110.0 million in 2019, a decrease of $352.0 million, or 6%.  Chlor Alkali Products and Vinyls sales decreased by $460.2 million, primarily due to lower caustic soda and EDC pricing and lower caustic soda volumes. Epoxy sales decreased by $153.9 million, primarily due to lower product prices. Winchester sales increased by $262.1 million, primarily due to higher commercial and military sales volumes, which included ammunition produced at Lake City, and increased commercial ammunition pricing.

Gross margin for 2020 decreased $287.4 million, or 43%, from 2019. Chlor Alkali Products and Vinyls gross margin decreased by $327.3 million, primarily due to lower caustic soda and EDC pricing and lower caustic soda volumes, partially offset by lower costs, primarily raw materials. Epoxy gross margin decreased $9.5 million, primarily due to lower product prices, partially offset by lower raw material costs. Winchester gross margin increased $73.5 million, primarily due to higher sales volumes, which included ammunition produced at Lake City, and increased commercial pricing. Gross margin as a percentage of sales decreased to 7% in 2020 from 11% in 2019.

Selling and administration expenses in 2020 increased $5.1 million, or 1%, from 2019. The increase was primarily due to Lake City operations and higher transition costs relating to the Lake City contract of $22.4 million and higher stock-based compensation expense of $14.7 million, which includes mark-to-market adjustments. These increases were partially offset by lower salaries and benefits of $13.9 million, consulting and contract services of $7.9 million and travel-related expenses of $8.1 million. Selling and administration expenses for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 included costs associated with the Information Technology Project of $73.9 million and $77.0 million, respectively. Selling and administration expenses as a percentage of sales were 7% in both 2020 and 2019.

Restructuring charges in 2020 and 2019 were primarily associated with the March 2016 closure of 433,000 tons of chlor alkali capacity across three separate locations. Restructuring charges for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 were also associated with the closure of a chlor alkali plant and a VDC production facility, both in Freeport, TX, and included $58.9 million of non-cash impairment charges for equipment and facilities for the year ended December 31, 2019. Restructuring charges for the year ended December 31, 2019 also included costs associated with permanently closing the ammunition assembly operations at our Geelong, Australia facility in December 2018.
30


Goodwill impairment includes non-cash pretax impairment charges of $557.6 million related to the Chlor Alkali Products and Vinyls segment and $142.2 million related to the Epoxy segment recorded during the third quarter of 2020.

Interest expense increased by $49.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2020, primarily due to a higher level of debt outstanding and higher interest rates. Interest expense included $14.6 million of expense related to the 2023 Notes redemption premium and $5.8 million for write-off of deferred debt issuance costs for financing transactions during 2020. Interest expense for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 included $4.0 million and $17.0 million, respectively, of accretion expense related to the ethylene payment discount. Interest expense was reduced by capitalized interest of $6.4 million and $10.8 million for 2020 and 2019, respectively.

Non-operating pension income includes all components of pension and other postretirement income (costs) other than service costs. Non-operating pension income was higher for the year ended December 31, 2020, primarily due to a decrease in the amortization of actuarial losses associated with our domestic qualified defined benefit pension plan.

The effective tax rate for 2020 included expenses associated with a net increase in the valuation allowance related to foreign and domestic tax credits and deferred tax assets in foreign jurisdictions, a remeasurement of deferred taxes due to an increase in our state effective tax rates and a change in tax contingencies, and stock-based compensation, partially offset by a benefit associated with prior year tax positions. These factors resulted in a net $27.9 million tax expense. For 2020, a tax benefit of $10.8 million was recognized associated with the $699.8 million goodwill impairment charge. After giving consideration to these items, including the goodwill impairment charge on Olin’s loss before taxes, the effective tax rate for 2020 of 21.0% was equal to the 21% U.S. federal statutory rate as foreign income taxes, foreign income inclusions and a net increase in the valuation allowance related to losses in foreign jurisdictions were offset by state taxes and favorable permanent salt depletion deductions. The effective tax rate for 2019 included benefits associated with the finalization of the IRS review of years 2013 to 2015 U.S. income tax claims, stock-based compensation, prior year tax positions, foreign tax law changes, a remeasurement of deferred taxes due to a decrease in our state effective tax rates and a change in tax contingencies. The effective tax rate also included expenses associated with a net increase in the valuation allowance primarily related to foreign deferred tax assets and liabilities. These factors resulted in a net $19.4 million tax benefit. After giving consideration to these items, the effective tax rate for 2019 of 16.8% was lower than the 21% U.S. federal statutory rate primarily due to state taxes and a net increase in the valuation allowance related to losses in foreign jurisdictions, partially offset by foreign income taxes and favorable permanent salt depletion deductions.

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SEGMENT RESULTS

We define segment results as income (loss) before interest expense, interest income, goodwill impairment charges, other operating income (expense), non-operating pension income, other income and income taxes. We have three operating segments: Chlor Alkali Products and Vinyls, Epoxy and Winchester. The three operating segments reflect the organization used by our management for purposes of allocating resources and assessing performance. Chlorine used in our Epoxy segment is transferred at cost from the Chlor Alkali Products and Vinyls segment.
 Years ended December 31,
 202120202019
Sales:($ in millions)
Chlor Alkali Products and Vinyls $4,140.8 $2,959.9 $3,420.1 
Epoxy3,186.0 1,870.5 2,024.4 
Winchester1,583.8 927.6 665.5 
Total sales$8,910.6 $5,758.0 $6,110.0 
Income (loss) before taxes:   
Chlor Alkali Products and Vinyls$997.8 $3.5 $336.7 
Epoxy616.5 40.8 53.9 
Winchester412.1 92.3 40.1 
Corporate/Other:   
Environmental expense(1)
(14.0)(20.9)(20.5)
Other corporate and unallocated costs(2)
(135.1)(154.3)(156.3)
Restructuring charges(3)
(27.9)(9.0)(76.5)
Goodwill impairment— (699.8)— 
Other operating income(4)
1.4 0.7 0.4 
Interest expense(5)
(348.0)(292.7)(243.2)
Interest income0.2 0.5 1.0 
Non-operating pension income35.7 18.9 16.3 
Other income(6)
— — 11.2 
Income (loss) before taxes$1,538.7 $(1,020.0)$(36.9)

(1)Environmental expense for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2019 included $2.2 million and $4.8 million, respectively, of insurance recoveries for environmental costs incurred and expensed in prior periods. Environmental expense is included in cost of goods sold in the consolidated statements of operations.  

(2)Other corporate and unallocated costs for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 included costs associated with the implementation of the Information Technology Project of $73.9 million and $77.0 million, respectively.

(3)Restructuring charges for the year ended December 31, 2021 were primarily due to a productivity initiative to align the organization with our new operating model and improve efficiencies, which was completed during the second quarter of 2021, and the 2021 decisions to permanently close our diaphragm-grade chlor alkali capacity, representing 400,000 tons, at our McIntosh, AL facility. Restructuring charges for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 were primarily associated with the closure of a chlor alkali plant and a VDC production facility, both in Freeport, TX, and included $58.9 million of non-cash impairment charges for equipment and facilities for the year ended December 31, 2019.

(4)Other operating income for the year ended December 31, 2021 included a $1.4 million gain on the sale of a terminal facility. Other operating income for the year ended December 31, 2020 included an $0.8 million gain on the sale of land.

(5)Interest expense for the year ended December 31, 2021 included a loss on extinguishment of debt of $152.2 million which includes bond redemption premiums, write-off of deferred debt issuance costs, bond original issue discount, and recognition of deferred fair value interest rate swap losses associated with the optional prepayment of existing debt. Interest expense for the year ended December 31, 2020 included a loss on extinguishment of debt of $20.4 million which includes bond redemption premiums and write-off of deferred debt issuance costs. Interest expense for the years ended 2020 and 2019 included $4.0 million and $17.0 million, respectively, of accretion expense related to the ethylene
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payment discount. Interest expense was reduced by capitalized interest of $3.2 million, $6.4 million and $10.8 million for the years ended December 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019, respectively.

(6)Other income for the year ended December 31, 2019 included a gain of $11.2 million on the sale of our equity interest in a non-consolidated affiliate.

Chlor Alkali Products and Vinyls

2021 Compared to 2020

Chlor Alkali Products and Vinyls sales for 2021 were $4,140.8 million compared to $2,959.9 million for 2020, an increase of $1,180.9 million, or 40%.  The sales increase was primarily due to higher pricing across all product lines. Chlor Alkali Products and Vinyls sales increase was also due to higher VCM sales as a result of our primary VCM contract transitioning from a toll manufacturing arrangement to a direct customer sale agreement beginning on January 1, 2021.

Chlor Alkali Products and Vinyls generated segment income of $997.8 million for 2021 compared to $3.5 million for 2020, an increase of $994.3 million.  The increase in Chlor Alkali Products and Vinyls segment results was primarily due to higher product prices ($1,128.0 million) and the favorable impact of Winter Storm Uri ($121.4 million), partially offset by higher raw material and operating costs ($132.8 million) and increased costs associated with product purchased from other parties ($122.3 million). The impact of Winter Storm Uri includes a net one-time benefit associated with Olin’s customary financial hedges and contracts maintained to provide protection from rapid and dramatic changes in energy costs, partially offset by unabsorbed fixed manufacturing costs and storm-related maintenance costs. Chlor Alkali Products and Vinyls segment results included depreciation and amortization expense of $466.4 million and $451.4 million in 2021 and 2020, respectively.

2020 Compared to 2019

Chlor Alkali Products and Vinyls sales for 2020 were $2,959.9 million compared to $3,420.1 million for 2019, a decrease of $460.2 million, or 13%.  The sales decrease was primarily due to lower caustic soda and EDC pricing and lower volumes, primarily caustic soda.

Chlor Alkali Products and Vinyls generated segment income of $3.5 million for 2020 compared to $336.7 million for 2019, a decrease of $333.2 million.  The decrease in Chlor Alkali Products and Vinyls segment results was primarily due to lower product prices ($318.5 million), primarily caustic soda and EDC, and lower volumes ($143.1 million), primarily caustic soda. Partially offsetting these decreases were lower raw material costs ($83.8 million) and lower maintenance turnaround and operating costs ($44.6 million). Chlor Alkali Products and Vinyls segment results included depreciation and amortization expense of $451.4 million and $470.4 million in 2020 and 2019, respectively.

Epoxy

2021 Compared to 2020

Epoxy sales were $3,186.0 million for 2021 compared to $1,870.5 million for 2020, an increase of $1,315.5 million, or 70%.  The sales increase was primarily due to higher product prices ($1,211.0 million), a favorable effect of foreign currency translation ($74.9 million), and higher volumes ($29.6 million).

Epoxy reported segment income of $616.5 million for 2021 compared to $40.8 million for 2020, an increase of $575.7 million. The increase in segment results was primarily due to higher product prices ($1,211.0 million) and increased volumes ($11.5 million), partially offset by higher raw material costs ($554.4 million), primarily benzene and propylene, higher operating and maintenance turnaround costs ($70.9 million) and the unfavorable impact of Winter Storm Uri ($21.5 million). A significant percentage of our Euro denominated sales are of products manufactured within Europe. As a result, the impact of foreign currency translation on revenue is primarily offset by the impact of foreign currency translation on raw materials and manufacturing costs also denominated in Euros. Epoxy segment results included depreciation and amortization expense of $86.1 million and $90.7 million in 2021 and 2020, respectively.
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2020 Compared to 2019

Epoxy sales were $1,870.5 million for 2020 compared to $2,024.4 million for 2019, a decrease of $153.9 million, or 8%.  The sales decrease was primarily due to lower product prices ($180.0 million) and an unfavorable effect of foreign currency translation ($6.1 million), partially offset by higher volumes ($32.2 million).

Epoxy reported segment income of $40.8 million for 2020 compared to $53.9 million for 2019, a decrease of $13.1 million, or 24%. The decrease in segment results was primarily due to lower product prices ($180.0 million) and an unfavorable product mix ($24.4 million), partially offset by lower raw material costs ($162.5 million), primarily benzene and propylene, and lower operating costs ($38.8 million). Epoxy segment results were also negatively affected by a first quarter 2020 force majeure declaration by a European phenol supplier, which reduced epoxy resin and epoxy resin precursor production, and Epoxy manufacturing plant closures and operating reductions in Asia due to COVID-19 ($10.0 million). A significant percentage of our Euro denominated sales are of products manufactured within Europe. As a result, the impact of foreign currency translation on revenue is primarily offset by the impact of foreign currency translation on raw materials and manufacturing costs also denominated in Euros.  Epoxy segment results included depreciation and amortization expense of $90.7 million and $100.1 million in 2020 and 2019, respectively.

Winchester

2021 Compared to 2020

Winchester sales were $1,583.8 million for 2021 compared to $927.6 million for 2020, an increase of $656.2 million, or 71%.  The increase was due to higher ammunition sales to commercial customers ($463.6 million) and military customers ($179.2 million), both of which include ammunition produced at Lake City, and law enforcement agencies ($13.4 million).

Winchester reported segment income of $412.1 million for 2021 compared to $92.3 million for 2020, an increase of $319.8 million.  The increase in segment results was due to higher product pricing ($221.6 million) and increased sales volumes ($134.1 million), which includes ammunition produced at Lake City, partially offset by higher commodity and operating costs ($49.4 million). Segment results in 2020 were also impacted by transition costs relating to the Lake City contract ($13.5 million). Winchester segment results included depreciation and amortization expense of $23.3 million and $20.1 million in 2021 and 2020, respectively.

2020 Compared to 2019

Winchester sales were $927.6 million for 2020 compared to $665.5 million for 2019, an increase of $262.1 million, or 39%.  The increase was due to higher ammunition sales to commercial customers ($199.2 million) and military customers ($51.9 million), both of which include ammunition produced at Lake City, and law enforcement agencies ($11.0 million).

Winchester reported segment income of $92.3 million for 2020 compared to $40.1 million for 2019, an increase of $52.2 million, or 130%.  The increase in segment results was due to increased sales volumes ($49.2 million), which includes ammunition produced at Lake City, and higher product pricing ($23.4 million), partially offset by higher transition costs relating to the Lake City contract ($12.9 million) and higher operating costs ($7.5 million). Winchester segment results included depreciation and amortization expense of $20.1 million in both 2020 and 2019.

Corporate/Other

2021 Compared to 2020

For the year ended December 31, 2021, charges to income for environmental investigatory and remedial activities were $14.0 million, which includes $2.2 million of insurance recoveries for environmental costs incurred and expensed in prior periods. Without these recoveries, charges to income for environmental investigatory and remedial activities for the year ended December 31, 2021 would have been $16.2 million, compared to $20.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2020. These charges related primarily to expected future investigatory and remedial activities associated with past manufacturing operations and former waste disposal sites.

For 2021, other corporate and unallocated costs were $135.1 million compared to $154.3 million for 2020, a decrease of $19.2 million, or 12%.  The decrease was primarily due to the absence of $73.9 million of costs associated with the implementation of the Information Technology Project, which was completed in late 2020, partially offset by higher variable
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incentive compensation costs of $45.7 million, which includes mark-to-market adjustments on stock-based compensation expense, and an unfavorable foreign currency impact of $7.0 million.

2020 Compared to 2019

For the year ended December 31, 2020, charges to income for environmental investigatory and remedial activities were $20.9 million compared to $20.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2019. These charges related primarily to expected future investigatory and remedial activities associated with past manufacturing operations and former waste disposal sites. The year ended December 31, 2019 includes a $4.8 million environmental insurance-related settlement gain.

For 2020, other corporate and unallocated costs were $154.3 million compared to $156.3 million for 2019, a decrease of $2.0 million, or 1%.  The decrease was primarily due to lower salary and benefit costs of $12.2 million and lower travel-related expenses of $2.1 million, partially offset by higher stock-based compensation expense of $14.8 million, which includes mark-to-market adjustments. Other corporate and unallocated costs included costs associated with the implementation of the Information Technology Project for the year ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 of $73.9 million and $77.0 million, respectively.

Restructurings

Olin committed to a productivity initiative to align the organization with our new operating model and improve efficiencies (collectively, Productivity Plan). These actions and related activities were completed during the second quarter of 2021. For the year ended December 31, 2021, we recorded pretax restructuring charges of $10.3 million for employee severance and related benefit costs related to these actions. We do not expect to incur additional restructuring charges related to these actions.

On May 18, 2021, we announced that we had made the decision to permanently close approximately 20% of our diaphragm-grade chlor alkali capacity, representing 225,000 tons, at our Plaquemine, LA facility (Plaquemine Plan). The closure was completed in the second quarter of 2021. We do not expect to incur restructuring charges related to this action.

On March 15, 2021, we announced that we had made the decision to permanently close approximately 50% of our diaphragm-grade chlor alkali capacity, representing 200,000 tons, at our McIntosh, AL facility. The closure was completed in the first quarter of 2021. On October 21, 2021, we announced that we had made a decision to permanently cease operations of the remaining 50% of our diaphragm-grade chlor alkali capacity, representing an additional 200,000 tons, at our McIntosh, AL facility (collectively, McIntosh Plans). The closure is expected to be completed by the end of the third quarter of 2022. For the year ended December 31, 2021, we recorded pretax restructuring charges of $5.6 million for lease and other contract termination costs related to these actions. We expect to incur additional restructuring charges through 2026 of approximately $35 million related to these actions.

On January 18, 2021, we announced we had made the decision to permanently close our trichloroethylene and anhydrous hydrogen chloride liquefaction facilities in Freeport, TX, which was completed in the fourth quarter of 2021. For the year ended December 31, 2021, we recorded pretax restructuring charges of $6.5 million for facility exit costs related to these actions. We expect to incur restructuring charges through 2024 of approximately $20 million related to these actions.

2022 OUTLOOK

In 2022, we expect to continue to benefit from Olin’s strategic operating model of optimizing value across our Chemicals and Winchester businesses. In 2022, we expect operating results to improve across all our business segments compared to 2021. In early 2022, we expect sequentially higher raw material and operating costs, mainly increased natural gas and electrical power costs. As a result, we expect the first quarter 2022 results from our Chemicals businesses to be similar to fourth quarter 2021 levels. We expect our Winchester business first quarter 2022 results to increase sequentially from fourth quarter 2021.

Other Corporate and Unallocated costs in 2022 are expected to be lower than the $135.1 million in 2021.

During 2022, we anticipate environmental expenses in the $25 million to $30 million range compared to $14.0 million in 2021.

We expect non-operating pension income in 2022 to be in the $40 million to $45 million range compared to $35.7 million in 2021. Based on our plan assumptions and estimates, we will not be required to make any cash contributions to our domestic qualified defined benefit pension plan in 2022. We have several international qualified defined benefit pension plans for which we anticipate cash contributions of less than $5 million in 2022.

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In 2022, we currently expect our capital spending to be in the $200 million to $250 million range. We expect 2022 depreciation and amortization expense to be in the $575 million to $600 million range.

We currently believe the 2022 effective and cash tax rates will be in the 25% to 30% range.

PENSION AND POSTRETIREMENT BENEFITS

We recorded an after-tax benefit of $188.5 million ($249.7 million pretax) to shareholders’ equity as of December 31, 2021 for our pension and other postretirement plans.  This benefit primarily reflected a 50-basis point increase in the domestic pension plans’ discount rate and favorable performance on plan assets during 2021. In 2020, we recorded an after-tax benefit of $14.8 million ($26.6 million pretax) to shareholders’ equity as of December 31, 2020 for our pension and other postretirement plans. This benefit primarily reflected favorable performance on plan assets during 2020, partially offset by an 80-basis point decrease in the domestic pension plans’ discount rate. In 2019, we recorded an after-tax charge of $150.2 million ($183.9 million pretax) to shareholders’ equity as of December 31, 2019 for our pension and other postretirement plans.  This charge primarily reflected a 100-basis point decrease in the domestic pension plans’ discount rate, partially offset by favorable performance on plan assets during 2019. These non-cash charges to shareholders’ equity do not affect our ability to borrow under our senior credit facility.

During 2019, we made a discretionary cash contribution to our domestic qualified defined benefit pension plan of $12.5 million. Based on our plan assumptions and estimates, we will not be required to make any cash contributions to the domestic qualified defined benefit pension plan at least through 2022.

In connection with international qualified defined benefit pension plans, we made cash contributions of $1.1 million, $2.1 million and $2.4 million in 2021, 2020 and 2019, respectively, and we anticipate less than $5 million of cash contributions to international qualified defined benefit pension plans in 2022.  

At December 31, 2021, the projected benefit obligation of $2,883.0 million exceeded the market value of assets in our qualified defined benefit pension plans by $377.3 million, as calculated under ASC 715.

Components of net periodic benefit (income) costs were:
 Years ended December 31,
 202120202019
 ($ in millions)
Pension benefits$(27.5)$(11.7)$(8.8)
Other postretirement benefit costs4.5 4.9 4.9 

The service cost component of net periodic benefit (income) costs related to employees of the operating segments are allocated to the operating segments based on their respective estimated census data.

We have included additional information with respect our defined benefit pension plans and other postretirement benefit plans within Note 12 “Pension Plans” and Note 13 “Postretirement Benefits” of our Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

ENVIRONMENTAL MATTERS
Years ended December 31,
202120202019
Cash outlays:($ in millions)
Remedial and investigatory spending (charged to reserve)$16.4 $12.8 $12.2 
Capital spending4.1 3.8 1.2 
Plant operations (charged to cost of goods sold)194.9 182.8 188.4 
Total cash outlays$215.4 $199.4 $201.8 

Cash outlays for remedial and investigatory activities associated with former waste sites and past operations were not charged to income but instead were charged to reserves established for such costs identified and expensed to income in prior years.  Cash outlays for normal plant operations for the disposal of waste and the operation and maintenance of pollution
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control equipment and facilities to ensure compliance with mandated and voluntarily imposed environmental quality standards were charged to income.

Total environmental-related cash outlays for 2022 are estimated to be approximately $215 million, of which approximately $25 million is expected to be spent on investigatory and remedial efforts, approximately $5 million on capital projects and approximately $185 million on normal plant operations.  Remedial and investigatory spending is anticipated to be higher in 2022 than 2021 due to the timing of continuing remedial action plans and investigations. Historically, we have funded our environmental capital expenditures through cash flow from operations and expect to do so in the future.

Annual environmental-related cash outlays for site investigation and remediation, capital projects and normal plant operations are expected to range between $200 million to $220 million over the next several years, $20 million to $30 million of which is for investigatory and remedial efforts, which are expected to be charged against reserves recorded on our consolidated balance sheet.  While we do not anticipate a material increase in the projected annual level of our environmental-related cash outlays for site investigation and remediation, there is always the possibility that such an increase may occur in the future in view of the uncertainties associated with environmental exposures.

Our liabilities for future environmental expenditures were as follows:
December 31,
202120202019
($ in millions)
Beginning balance$147.2 $139.0 $125.6 
Charges to income16.2 20.9 25.3 
Remedial and investigatory spending(16.4)(12.8)(12.2)
Foreign currency translation adjustments0.3 0.1 0.3 
Ending balance$147.3 $147.2 $139.0 

As is common in our industry, we are subject to environmental laws and regulations related to the use, storage, handling, generation, transportation, emission, discharge, disposal and remediation of, and exposure to, hazardous and non-hazardous substances and wastes in all of the countries in which we do business.

The establishment and implementation of national, state or provincial and local standards to regulate air, water and land quality affect substantially all of our manufacturing locations around the world. Laws providing for regulation of the manufacture, transportation, use and disposal of hazardous and toxic substances, and remediation of contaminated sites, have imposed additional regulatory requirements on industry, particularly the chemicals industry.  In addition, implementation of environmental laws has required and will continue to require new capital expenditures and will increase plant operating costs.  We employ waste minimization and pollution prevention programs at our manufacturing sites.

We are party to various government and private environmental actions associated with past manufacturing facilities and former waste disposal sites.  Associated costs of investigatory and remedial activities are provided for in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles governing probability and the ability to reasonably estimate future costs.  Our ability to estimate future costs depends on whether our investigatory and remedial activities are in preliminary or advanced stages.  With respect to unasserted claims, we accrue liabilities for costs that, in our experience, we expect to incur to protect our interests against those unasserted claims.  Our accrued liabilities for unasserted claims amounted to $9.0 million at December 31, 2021.  With respect to asserted claims, we accrue liabilities based on remedial investigation, feasibility study, remedial action and operation, maintenance and monitoring (OM&M) expenses that, in our experience, we expect to incur in connection with the asserted claims.  Required site OM&M expenses are estimated and accrued in their entirety for required periods not exceeding 30 years, which reasonably approximates the typical duration of long-term site OM&M. 

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Environmental provisions charged to income, which are included in cost of goods sold, were as follows:
Years ended December 31,
202120202019
($ in millions)
Provisions charged to income$16.2 $20.9 $25.3 
Insurance recoveries for costs incurred and expensed(2.2)— (4.8)
Environmental expense$14.0 $20.9 $20.5 

These charges relate primarily to remedial and investigatory activities associated with past manufacturing operations and former waste disposal sites and may be material to operating results in future years. 

Environmental expense for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2019 included $2.2 million and $4.8 million, respectively, of insurance recoveries for environmental costs incurred and expensed in prior periods. Environmental expense is included in cost of goods sold in the consolidated statement of operations.

We have included additional information with respect to environmental matters within Note 20, “Environmental,” of our Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

LEGAL MATTERS AND CONTINGENCIES

Please see the discussion of legal matters and contingencies within Item 8, under the heading of “Legal Matters” within Note 23, “Commitments and Contingencies.”

LIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES

Cash Flow Data
 Years ended December 31,
 202120202019
Provided by (used for)($ in millions)
Net operating activities$1,741.0 $433.0 $617.3 
Capital expenditures(200.6)(298.9)(385.6)
Payments under long-term supply contracts— (536.8)— 
Proceeds from disposition of non-consolidated affiliate— — 20.0 
Net investing activities(197.4)(835.7)(365.6)
Long-term debt (repayments) borrowings, net(1,103.1)520.3 80.8 
Debt early redemption premium(137.7)(14.6)— 
Stock options exercised72.4 1.9 1.7 
Common stock repurchased and retired(251.9)— (145.9)
Net financing activities(1,552.0)371.0 (209.3)

Operating Activities

For 2021, cash provided by operating activities increased by $1,308.0 million from 2020, primarily due to an increase in operating results, partially offset by working capital increases to support operations. For 2021, working capital increased $243.1 million, compared to a decrease of $141.6 million in 2020. The working capital increase primarily reflects a higher sales level. Receivables increased by $360.0 million from December 31, 2020, primarily as a result of higher sales in the fourth quarter of 2021. For the year ended December 31, 2021, our days sales outstanding (DSO), which was calculated by dividing period end accounts receivable by average daily sales for the period, improved from the comparable prior year period. Inventories increased by $206.0 million from December 31, 2020 and accounts payable and accrued liabilities increased $240.1 million, which were both primarily as a result of increased raw material costs.

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For 2020, cash provided by operating activities decreased by $184.3 million from 2019, primarily due to a decrease in operating results, partially offset by a decrease in the investment in working capital from the prior year. During 2020, we executed a strategy to improve our working capital and manage our balance sheet to maximize our financial flexibility. For 2020, working capital decreased $141.6 million, which included an approximately $67 million investment in working capital to support Lake City operations, compared to a decrease of $11.0 million in 2019. In 2020, inventories decreased by $28.6 million, primarily as a result of lower raw material costs and lower Winchester inventory due to improved commercial ammunition demand, partially offset by the investment in Lake City inventory. Accounts payable and accrued liabilities increased by $149.3 million as a result of specific actions taken by management to improve Olin’s working capital.

Investing Activities

Capital spending was $200.6 million and $298.9 million in 2021 and 2020, respectively. In 2022, we expect our capital spending to be in the $200.0 million to $250.0 million range.

In 2017, we began a multi-year implementation of the Information Technology Project. The project standardized business processes across the chemicals businesses with the objective of maximizing cost effectiveness, efficiency and control across our global operations. The project was completed in 2020. Our results for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 include $41.0 million and $56.0 million, respectively, of capital spending and $73.9 million and $77.0 million, respectively, of expenses associated with this project.

For the year ended December 31, 2020, a payment of $461.0 million was made associated with long-term supply contracts to reserve additional ethylene at producer economics and a payment of $75.8 million was made associated with the resolution of a dispute over the allocation to Olin of certain capital costs incurred at our Plaquemine, LA site.

Financing Activities

During 2021 and 2020, activity of our outstanding debt included:

Long-term Debt Borrowings (Repayments)Debt Early Redemption Premiums PaidLong-term Debt Borrowings (Repayments)Debt Early Redemption Premiums Paid
Year Ended
December 31, 2021
Year Ended
December 31, 2020
Debt Instrument($ in millions)
Borrowings:
Senior Term Loans$315.0 $675.0 
Receivables Financing Agreement225.0 655.0 
9.50% senior notes due 2025— 497.5 
Total borrowings$540.0 $1,827.5 
Repayments:
10.00% senior notes due 2025$(500.0)$