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Form 10-K McEwen Mining Inc. For: Dec 31

March 7, 2022 6:06 AM EST

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UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

FORM 10-K

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021

TRANSITION REPORT UNDER SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from to

Commission file number 001-33190

MCEWEN MINING INC.

(Name of registrant as specified in its charter)

Colorado

84-0796160

(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)

(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)

150 King Street West, Suite 2800, Toronto, Ontario Canada

M5H 1J9

(Address of principal executive offices)

(Zip Code)

(866441-0690

(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Title of each class

Trading Symbol(s)

Name of each exchange on which registered

Common Stock, no par value

MUX

New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes  No 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes  No 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes  No 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes  No 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large accelerated filer 

Accelerated filer 

Non-accelerated filer

Smaller reporting company 

Emerging growth company  

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C 7262 (b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report. 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes  No 

As of June 30, 2021 (the last business day of the registrant’s second fiscal quarter), the aggregate market value of the registrant’s voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates of the registrant was $633,678,600 based on the closing price of $1.38 per share as reported on the NYSE. There were 473,687,391 shares of common stock outstanding on March 4, 2022.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE: Portions of the registrant’s Proxy Statement for the 2022 Annual Meeting of Shareholders are incorporated into Part III, Items 10 through 14 of this report.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PART I

ITEM 1.

BUSINESS

3

ITEM 1A.

RISK FACTORS

14

ITEM 1B.

UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

31

ITEM 2.

PROPERTIES

31

ITEM 3.

LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

44

ITEM 4.

MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES

44

PART II

ITEM 5.

MARKET FOR COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

46

ITEM 7.

MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

47

ITEM 7A.

QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURE ABOUT MARKET RISK

72

ITEM 8.

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA

76

ITEM 9.

CHANGES IN AND DISAGREEMENTS WITH ACCOUNTANTS ON ACCOUNTING AND FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE

114

ITEM 9A.

CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES

114

ITEM 9B.

OTHER INFORMATION

114

PART III

ITEM 10.

DIRECTORS, EXECUTIVE OFFICERS AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

114

ITEM 11.

EXECUTIVE COMPENSATION

114

ITEM 12.

SECURITY OWNERSHIP OF CERTAIN BENEFICIAL OWNERS AND MANAGEMENT AND RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS

114

ITEM 13.

CERTAIN RELATIONSHIPS, RELATED TRANSACTIONS AND DIRECTOR INDEPENDENCE

115

ITEM 14.

PRINCIPAL ACCOUNTING FEES AND SERVICES

115

PART IV

ITEM 15.

EXHIBITS, AND FINANCIAL STATEMENT SCHEDULES

116

ITEM 16.

FORM 10-K SUMMARY

117

SIGNATURES

118

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

Descriptions of agreements or other documents in this report are intended as summaries and are not necessarily complete. Please refer to the agreements or other documents filed or incorporated herein by reference as exhibits. Please see Item 15, Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules in this report for a complete list of those exhibits.

1

SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

Please see the note under “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” for a description of special factors potentially affecting forward-looking statements included in this report.

CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING DISCLOSURE OF MINERAL PROPERTIES

 Mineral Reserves and Resources

We are subject to the reporting requirements of the Securities and Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”) and applicable Canadian securities laws, and as a result, we have reported our mineral reserves and mineral resources according to two different standards. U.S. reporting requirements are governed by Item 1300 of Regulation S-K (“S-K 1300”), as issued by the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). Canadian reporting requirements for disclosure of mineral properties are governed by National Instrument 43-101 Standards of Disclosure for Mineral Projects (“NI 43-101”), as adopted from the definitions provided by the Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum. Both sets of reporting standards have similar goals in terms of conveying an appropriate level of confidence in the disclosures being reported, but the standards embody slightly different approaches and definitions. All disclosure of mineral resources and mineral reserves in this report are reported in accordance with S-K 1300.

Investors should be aware that the estimation of measured resources and indicated resources involve greater uncertainty as to their existence and economic feasibility than the estimation of proven and probable reserves, and therefore investors are cautioned not to assume that all or any part of measured or indicated resources will ever be converted into S-K 1300-compliant reserves. The estimation of inferred resources involves far greater uncertainty as to their existence and economic viability than the estimation of other categories of resources, and therefore it cannot be assumed that all or any part of inferred resources will ever be upgraded to a higher category. Therefore, investors are cautioned not to assume that all or any part of inferred resources exist, or that they can be mined legally or economically.

Technical Report Summaries and Qualified Persons

The technical information concerning our mineral projects in this Form 10-K have been reviewed and approved by Peter Mah, P.Eng., Chief Operating Officer, and Luke Willis, Director, Resource Modeling, each a “qualified person” under S-K 1300. For a description of the key assumptions, parameters and methods used to estimate mineral reserves and mineral resources included in this Form 10-K, as well as data verification procedures and a general discussion of the extent to which the estimates may be affected by any known environmental, permitting, legal, title, taxation, sociopolitical, marketing or other relevant factors, please review the Technical Report Summaries for each of our material properties which are included as exhibits to this Report.

RELIABILITY OF INFORMATION

Minera Santa Cruz S.A. (“MSC”), the owner of the San José mine, is responsible for and has supplied to us all reported results from the San José mine. The technical information contained herein with regard to the San José mine is, with few exceptions as noted, based entirely on information provided to us by MSC. Our joint venture partner, a subsidiary of Hochschild Mining plc, and its affiliates other than MSC do not accept responsibility for the use of project data or the adequacy or accuracy of this information.

2

PART I

ITEM 1.  BUSINESS

History and Organization

We are a mining and minerals production and exploration company focused on precious and base metals in the United States, Canada, Mexico and Argentina. We were incorporated under the laws of the state of Colorado in 1979. We own 100% of the Black Fox mine and Stock mill in Ontario, Canada, a 100% interest in the Gold Bar mine in Nevada, 100% of the formerly-producing El Gallo Project in Sinaloa, Mexico, 81.4% of McEwen Copper, the owner of the Los Azules copper deposit in San Juan, Argentina, and a 49% interest in MSC, the owner and operator of the San José mine in Santa Cruz, Argentina. MSC is controlled by the majority owner of the joint venture, Hochschild Mining plc (“Hochschild”). Since we own less than a 50% interest in MSC, we account for our interest as an unconsolidated subsidiary using the equity method of accounting. In addition to our operating properties, we hold interests in advanced-stage and exploration-stage properties and projects in the United States, Canada, Mexico and Argentina, including the Los Azules copper project (“Los Azules”) in Argentina.

Our commencement of Canadian operations in 2017 was facilitated by the acquisition of Lexam VG Gold Inc. (“Lexam”) in April 2017 and the acquisition of the Black Fox mine and Stock mill in October 2017. These two acquisitions provided us with an operating mine, mill and significant land interests in the historic Timmins mining district of Ontario. On September 19, 2021, the Froome deposit at the Black Fox mine achieved commercial production.

Our 100% owned Gold Bar mine in Nevada poured its first gold ingot on February 16, 2019 and achieved commercial production on May 23, 2019. Construction activities started in late 2017 following the receipt of the final permit on November 8, 2017. At the El Gallo Project, mining and crushing activities ceased during the second quarter of 2018, with production activities since that time limited to residual leaching.

During 2021, we re-organized our subsidiary, McEwen Copper Inc. (“McEwen Copper”), through which we historically held an indirect 100% interest in the Los Azules copper project in the province of San Juan, Argentina and Nevada Creek property. During the year ended December 31, 2021, we closed the first tranche of a private placement, a $40 million investment by an affiliate of our Chairman and CEO, Rob McEwen, in exchange for a 18.6% interest in McEwen Copper. McEwen Copper is included for the period August 19 to December 31, 2021, which is reported at 81.4% non-controlling interest. For further information, see Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, Note 20 Non-Controlling Interests.

Our objective is to increase shareholder value through the exploration for and economic extraction of gold, silver and other valuable minerals. Other than the San José mine in Argentina, we generally conduct our activities as the sole operator, but we may enter into arrangements with other companies through joint venture or similar agreements in an effort to achieve our strategic objectives. We hold our mineral property interests and operate our business through various subsidiary companies, each of which is owned directly, or indirectly, by us.

Our principal executive office is located at 150 King Street West, Suite 2800, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5H 1J9 and our telephone number is (866) 441-0690. We also maintain offices in Elko, Nevada (U.S.), Matheson, Canada, Guamuchil, Mexico, and San Juan, Argentina. Our website is www.mcewenmining.com. We make available at no cost our periodic reports including Forms 10-K, 10-Q and 8-K, and news releases and certain of our corporate governance documents, including our Code of Ethics, on our website. Our common stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”) and on the Toronto Stock Exchange (“TSX”) under the symbol “MUX.”

In this report, unless otherwise noted, “Au” represents gold; “Ag” represents silver; “Cu” represents copper, “oz” represents troy ounce; “gpt” represents grams per metric tonne; “ft.” represents feet; “m” represents meter; “sq.” represents square, and C$ refers to Canadian dollars. All our financial information is reported in United States (U.S.) dollars, unless otherwise noted.

3

Segment Information

Our operating segments include USA, Canada, Mexico, MSC and Los Azules. Financial information for each of our reportable segments can be found under Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations and Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, Note 3, Operating Segment Reporting.

Products

The end product at our gold and silver operations is either in the form of doré or concentrate. Doré is an alloy consisting primarily of gold and silver but also containing other impurity metals. Doré is sent to third party refiners to produce bullion that meets the required market standard of 99.95% gold and 99.9% silver. Ore concentrate, or simply concentrate, is raw mineralized material that has been ground finely to a powdery product from which gangue (waste) is removed, thus concentrating the metal component. Concentrate, as well as slag and fine carbons (by-products of the gold production process), are sent to third party smelters for further recovery of gold and silver.

During 2021, production consisted of 100% doré from the Gold Bar mine, 99% doré and 1% slag and fine carbon from the Black Fox mine was and approximately 92% doré and 8% slag and fine carbon from the El Gallo Project. Production from the San José mine consisted of approximately 40% doré and 60% concentrate.  

During 2021, we reported the following consolidated production attributable to us:

    

Gold

    

Silver

    

Gold equivalent

Consolidated Production

ounces

ounces

ounces(1)

Gold Bar mine

43,881

1,142

43,894

Black Fox mine

 

30,016

 

 

30,016

El Gallo Project

3,543

7,045

3,643

San José mine (on 49% basis)

 

40,971

 

2,572,286

 

76,839

Total Production

118,411

2,580,473

154,392

(1)Calculated using an average silver to gold ratio of 72:1 at the 100% owned operations and at the San José mine.

Gold and silver bullion obtained from the doré produced in USA, Canada, Mexico and the San José mine are sold at the prevailing spot market price. Concentrates produced by the San José mine are provisionally priced, whereby the selling price is subject to final adjustments at the end of a period ranging from 30 to 90 days after delivery to the customer. The final price is based on the market price at the relevant quotation period stipulated in the contract. Due to the time elapsed between shipment and the final settlement with the buyer, MSC estimates the prices at which sales of metals will be settled. At the end of each financial reporting period, previously recorded provisional sales are adjusted to estimated settlement metals prices based on relevant forward market prices until final settlement with the buyer.

During 2021, revenues from gold and silver sales were $79.2 million from the Gold Bar mine, $50.7 million from the Black Fox mine, $6.6 million from the El Gallo Project, and $133.2 million from the San José mine on a 49% basis. Revenue from the San José mine is not included in our Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive (Loss) as we use the equity method of accounting for MSC. See Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations for additional information regarding production and operating results for our properties, and Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, Note 2, Summary of Significant Accounting Policies—Investments and Note 9, Investment in Minera Santa Cruz S.A. (“MSC”) – San José Mine for additional information regarding the equity method of accounting.

4

Like all metal producers, our operations are affected by fluctuations in metal prices. The following table presents the annual high, low and average daily London P.M. Fix prices per ounce for gold and London Fix prices per ounce for silver over the past three years and 2022 to the most recent practical date on the London Bullion Market:

Gold

Silver

 

Year

High

Low

Average

High

Low

Average

 

(in dollars per ounce)

 

2019

 

1,546

 

1,270

 

1,393

 

19.31

 

14.38

16.21

2020

 

2,067

1,474

1,770

28.90

12.00

20.50

2021

1,943

1,684

1,799

29.59

21.53

25.14

2022 (through March 4, 2022)

1,945

1,788

1,845

25.32

22.24

23.46

On March 4, 2022, the London P.M. Fix for gold was $1,945 per ounce and the London Fix for silver was $25.15 per ounce.

Mineralized Material Processing Methods

Gold and silver are extracted from mineralized material by either milling or heap leaching depending on, among other things, the amount of gold and silver contained in the material, whether the material is naturally oxidized or not, and the amenability of the material to treatment.

At the Gold Bar mine and the El Gallo Project, both open pit operations, the mineralized material is processed using heap leaching methods. Heap leaching consists of stacking crushed, oxidized material on impermeable pads, where a weak cyanide solution is applied to the surface of the heap to dissolve and leach the gold and silver. The gold and silver-bearing solution is then collected and processed into doré bars.

At Black Fox, mineralized material from the underground mine is transported to the mill site and fed to the mill’s crushing circuit. Following additional processing and refining, the operation produces doré bars.

At San José, mineralized material from the underground mine is processed at a mill site, producing a concentrate and doré product.

Hedging Activities

Our strategy is to provide shareholders with exposure to gold and silver prices by selling our gold and silver ounces at spot market prices and consequently, we do not hedge our gold or silver sales. We may, however, from time to time, manage certain risks associated with fluctuations in foreign currencies using the derivatives market.

Gold and Silver Reserves

We have established gold and/or silver reserves at two of our properties: Gold Bar and San José. In 2020, through consultations with field experts, we completed work around the Gold Bar mineral reserve to revise the previous estimate. The work included drilling and metallurgical testing, geological and structural modelling and a 110,500 feet (33,700 m) drill program. On January 7, 2021, we announced the updated Indicated Resource and Probable Reserve Estimates of the Gold Bar mine and subsequently filed the 43-101 Technical Report on February 22, 2021.

5

The following tables summarize the mineral resources, exclusive of reserves, for gold, silver and other metals attributable for all our properties for the last two fiscal years.

Canada

Mineral resources, exclusive of reserves, as at December 31, 2021:

Gold

Measured

Indicated

Measured & Indicated

Inferred

Tonnes (000s)

Au Grade (g/t)

Contained Au (000s oz)

Tonnes (000s)

Au Grade (g/t)

Contained Au (000s oz)

Tonnes (000s)

Au Grade (g/t)

Contained Au (000s oz)

Tonnes (000s)

Au Grade (g/t)

Contained Au (000s oz)

COG Au gpt

Met Rec %

Froome

790

4.47

113

641

3.92

81

1,432

4.22

194

276

3.32

29

2.35

87

Grey Fox

-

-

-

7,566

4.80

1,168

7,566

4.80

1,168

1,685

4.35

236

2.30

85

Stock West

-

-

-

1,171

3.83

144

1,171

3.82

144

1,049

3.30

111

1.95

94

Fuller

-

-

-

1,149

4.25

157

1,149

4.25

157

693

3.41

76

2.30

88

Stock East

-

-

-

1,232

2.41

95

1,232

2.40

95

21

2.32

2

1.67

94

Others

484

6.30

98

1,227

2.18

86

1,711

3.34

184

309

5.13

51

Total

1,274

10.77

211

12,986

21.39

1731

14,261

22.83

1942

4,033

21.83

505

Mineral resources, exclusive of reserves, as at December 31, 2020:

Gold

Measured

Indicated

Measured & Indicated

Inferred

Tonnes (000s)

Au Grade (g/t)

Contained Au (000s oz)

Tonnes (000s)

Au Grade (g/t)

Contained Au (000s oz)

Tonnes (000s)

Au Grade (g/t)

Contained Au (000s oz)

Tonnes (000s)

Au Grade (g/t)

Contained Au (000s oz)

Froome

-

-

-

1,104

5.09

181

1,104

5.09

181

52

4.13

7

Grey Fox

-

-

-

3,917

7.05

888

3,917

7.05

888

818

6.58

173

Stock West

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Fuller

-

-

-

5,660

1.92

351

5,660

1.92

351

3,548

2.16

247

Stock East

-

-

-

2,417

1.55

121

2,417

1.55

121

262

0.91

8

Others

1,149

4.30

159

1,453

2.91

136

2,603

3.54

296

705

4.81

109

Total

1,149

4.30

159

14,551

18.52

1677

15,701

19.15

1837

5,385

18.59

544

United States

Mineral resources, exclusive of reserves, as at December 31, 2021:

Gold

Measured

Indicated

Measured & Indicated

Inferred

Tons (000s)

Au Grade (opt)

Contained Au (000s oz)

Tonnes (000s)

Au Grade (opt)

Contained Au (000s oz)

Tons (000s)

Au Grade (opt)

Contained Au (000s oz)

Tons (000s)

Au Grade (opt)

Contained Au (000s oz)

COG Au opt

Met Rec %

Gold Bar, Nevada

-

-

-

1,342

1.92

82.4

1,342

1.92

82.4

1,774

0.79

44.4

0.0065 - 0.0121

var*

Total

-

-

-

1,342

1.920

82.4

1,342

1.920

82.4

1,774

0.790

44.4

*78% crushed oxide recovery at Pick & Ridge, 50% mid-carbon recovery at Pick & Ridge, 72% ROM oxide recovery at Pick & Ridge, 61% ROM oxide recovery at GBS, 0% ROM mid-carbon recovery

Mineral resources, exclusive of reserves, as at December 31, 2020:

Gold

Measured

Indicated

Measured & Indicated

Inferred

Tons (000s)

Au Grade (opt)

Contained Au (000s oz)

Tonnes (000s)

Au Grade (opt)

Contained Au (000s oz)

Tons (000s)

Au Grade (opt)

Contained Au (000s oz)

Tons (000s)

Au Grade (opt)

Contained Au (000s oz)

COG Au opt

Met Rec %

Gold Bar, Nevada

-

-

-

1,129

1.95

71.2

1,129

1.95

71.2

1,982

0.82

52

0.0065 - 0.0121

var*

Total

-

-

-

1,129

1.95

71.2

1,129

1.95

71.2

1,982

0.82

52

*78% crushed oxide recovery at Pick & Ridge, 50% mid-carbon recovery at Pick & Ridge, 72% ROM oxide recovery at Pick & Ridge, 61% ROM oxide recovery at GBS, 0% ROM mid-carbon recovery

6

Argentina

Mineral resources, exclusive of reserves, as at December 31, 2021:

Gold

Measured

Indicated

Measured & Indicated

Inferred

Tonnes (000s)

Au Grade (g/t)

Contained Au (000s oz)

Tonnes (000s)

Au Grade (g/t)

Contained Au (000s oz)

Tonnes (000s)

Au Grade (g/t)

Contained Au (000s oz)

Tonnes (000s)

Au Grade (g/t)

Contained Au (000s oz)

COG

Met Rec %

Los Azules (82% attrib.)

-

-

-

788,800

0.06

1,394

788,800

0.06

1,394

2,186,000

0.04

3,116

0.2%Cu

90

San Jose (49% attrib.)

56

5.09

9.2

49

2.41

4

106

3.84

4

901

5.22

151.1

240gpt AgEq

90

Total

56

5.09

9.2

788,849

2.47

1,398

788,906

3.90

1,398

2,186,901

5.26

3,267.1

Silver

Tonnes (000s)

Ag Grade (g/t)

Contained Ag (Moz)

Tonnes (000s)

Ag Grade (g/t)

Contained Ag (Moz)

Tonnes (000s)

Ag Grade (g/t)

Contained Ag (Moz)

Tonnes (000s)

Ag Grade (g/t)

Contained Ag (Moz)

COG

Met Rec %

Los Azules (82% attrib.)

-

-

-

788,840

1.80

45.7

788,800

1.80

45.7

2,186,000

1.60

111

0.2%Cu

90

San Jose (49% attrib.)

56

310

0.6

49

204

0.3

106

260

0.9

901

332

9.6

240gpt AgEq

90

Total

56

310

0.6

788,889

205.8

46

788,906

261.80

46.6

2,186,901

333.6

120.6

Copper

Tonnes (000s)

Cu Grade (%)

Contained Cu (Blbs)

Tonnes (000s)

Cu Grade (%)

Contained Cu (Blbs)

Tonnes (000s)

Cu Grade (%)

Contained Cu (Blbs)

Tonnes (000s)

Cu Grade (%)

Contained Cu (Blbs)

COG

Met Rec %

Los Azules (82% attrib.)

-

-

-

788,800

0.48

8.4

788,800

0.48

8.4

2,186,000

0.33

15.8

0.22% Cu

90

Total

-

-

-

788,800

0.48

8.4

788,800

0.48

8.4

2,186,000

0.33

15.8

Molybdenum

Tonnes (000s)

Mo Grade (%)

Contained Mo (Mlbs)

Tonnes (000s)

Mo Grade (%)

Contained Mo (Mlbs)

Tonnes (000s)

Mo Grade (%)

Contained Mo (Mlbs)

Tonnes (000s)

Mo Grade (%)

Contained Mo (Mlbs)

COG

Met Rec %

Los Azules (82% attrib.)

-

-

-

788,800

0.003

47

788,800

0.003

47

2,186,000

0.003

159.1

0.2%Cu

90

Total

-

-

-

788,800

0.003

47

788,800

0.003

47

2,186,000

0.003

159.1

Mineral resources, inclusive* of reserves, as at December 31, 2020:

Gold

Measured

Indicated

Measured & Indicated

Inferred

Tonnes (000s)

Au Grade (g/t)

Contained Au (000s oz)

Tonnes (000s)

Au Grade (g/t)

Contained Au (000s oz)

Tonnes (000s)

Au Grade (g/t)

Contained Au (000s oz)

Tonnes (000s)

Au Grade (g/t)

Contained Au (000s oz)

Los Azules (100%)

-

-

-

962,000

0.06

1,700

962,000

0.06

1,700

2,666,000

0.04

3,800

San Jose (49% attrib.)*

858

7.89

218

490

5.68

89

1,348

7.09

307

912

5.58

164

Total

858

7.89

218.0

962,490

5.74

1,398

963,348

7.15

2,007

2,666,912

5.62

3,964

Silver

Tonnes (000s)

Ag Grade (g/t)

Contained Ag (Moz)

Tonnes (000s)

Ag Grade (g/t)

Contained Ag (Moz)

Tonnes (000s)

Ag Grade (g/t)

Contained Ag (Moz)

Tonnes (000s)

Ag Grade (g/t)

Contained Ag (Moz)

Los Azules (100%)

-

-

-

962,000

1.80

55.7

962,000

1.80

55.7

2,666,000

1.60

135.4

San Jose (49% attrib.)*

858

484

13.4

490

335

5

1,348

429

19

912

345

10.1

Total

858

484

13.4

962,490

336.8

1,398

963,348

430.80

74.7

2,666,912

346.6

146

Copper

Tonnes (000s)

Cu Grade (%)

Contained Cu (Blbs)

Tonnes (000s)

Cu Grade (%)

Contained Cu (Blbs)

Tonnes (000s)

Cu Grade (%)

Contained Cu (Blbs)

Tonnes (000s)

Cu Grade (%)

Contained Cu (Blbs)

Los Azules (100%)

-

-

-

962,000

0.48

10.2

962,000

0.48

10.2

2,666,000

0.33

19.3

Total

-

-

-

962,000

0.48

10.2

962,000

0.48

10.2

2,666,000

0.33

19.3

Molybdenum

Tonnes (000s)

Mo Grade (%)

Contained Mo (Mlbs)

Tonnes (000s)

Mo Grade (%)

Contained Mo (Mlbs)

Tonnes (000s)

Mo Grade (%)

Contained Mo (Mlbs)

Tonnes (000s)

Mo Grade (%)

Contained Mo (Mlbs)

Los Azules (100%)

-

-

-

962,000

0.003

57.3

962,000

0.003

57.3

2,666,000

0.003

194

Total

-

-

-

962,000

0.003

57.3

962,000

0.003

57.3

2,666,000

0.003

194

*2020 Resources exclusive of Reserves not calculated under Industry Guide 7 in 2020 by JV partners.  There are no reserves at Los Azules

7

Mexico

Mineral resources, exclusive of reserves, as at December 31, 2021:

Gold

Measured

Indicated

Measured & Indicated

Inferred

Tonnes (Mt)

Au Grade (g/t)

Contained Au (koz)

Tonnes (Mt)

Au Grade (g/t)

Contained Au (koz)

Tonnes (Mt)

Au Grade (g/t)

Contained Au (koz)

Tonnes (Mt)

Au Grade (g/t)

Contained Au (koz)

COG

Met Rec %

Fenix

9.8

0.46

146

5

0.23

35

14.5

0.39

182

0.2

0.31

2

var**

var**

Total

9.8

0.46

146

5

0.23

35

14.5

0.39

182

0.2

0.31

2

Silver

Tonnes (Mt)

Ag Grade (g/t)

Contained Ag (koz)

Tonnes (Mt)

Ag Grade (g/t)

Contained Ag (koz)

Tonnes (Mt)

Ag Grade (g/t)

Contained Ag (koz)

Tonnes (Mt)

Ag Grade (g/t)

Contained Ag (koz)

COG

Met Rec %

Fenix

9.8

17

5,236

5

95

14,294

14.5

42

19,530

0.2

46

293

var*

var**

Total

9.8

17

5,236

5

95

14294

14.5

42

19,530

0.2

46

293

* Heap Leach has no COG as the entire heap is processed with zero selectivity; El Gallo Silver COG 58gpt Ag;

** Recoveries HLP 85% Au, 60% Ag; EGS 86% Au, 75% Ag

Mineral resources, exclusive of reserves, as at December 31, 2020:

Gold

Measured

Indicated

Measured & Indicated

Inferred

Tonnes (Mt)

Au Grade (g/t)

Contained Au (koz)

Tonnes (Mt)

Au Grade (g/t)

Contained Au (koz)

Tonnes (Mt)

Au Grade (g/t)

Contained Au (koz)

Tonnes (Mt)

Au Grade (g/t)

Contained Au (koz)

Fenix

9.8

0.48

150

5

0.23

35

14.5

0.39

186

0.2

0.31

2

Total

9.8

0.48

150

5

0.23

35

14.5

0.39

186

0.2

0.31

2

Silver

Tonnes (Mt)

Ag Grade (g/t)

Contained Ag (koz)

Tonnes (Mt)

Ag Grade (g/t)

Contained Ag (koz)

Tonnes (Mt)

Ag Grade (g/t)

Contained Ag (koz)

Tonnes (Mt)

Ag Grade (g/t)

Contained Ag (koz)

Fenix

9.8

17

5,242

5

95.00

14,295

14.5

41

19,537

0.2

46

293

Total

9.8

17

5,242

5

95.00

14295

14.5

41

19,537

0.2

46

293

The following table is a variance of the mineral resources from December 31, 2020 and December 31, 2021:

Property

Measured

Indicated

Measured & Indicated

Inferred

Mass %

Grade %

Metal %

Mass %

Grade %

Metal %

Mass %

Grade %

Metal %

Mass %

Grade %

Metal %

Froome

100

100

100

-42

-23

-55

30

-17

7

431

-20

314

Grey Fox

-

-

-

93

-32

32

93

-32

32

106

-34

36

Stock West

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Stock East

-

-

-

-49

55

-21

-49

55

-21

-92

155

-75

Fuller

-

-

-

-80

121

-55

-80

121

-55

-80

58

-69

Gold Bar

-

-

-

16

-2

14

16

-2

14

-12

-6

-17

Los Azules

-

-

-

-18

-

-18

-18

-

-18

-18

-

-18

Mexico

-

-4

-3

-

-

-

-

-

-2

-

-

-

*Mexico, no change in Resources exclusive of Reserves; San Jose, calculation not made.

8

The following table summarizes the estimated portion of proven and probable gold and silver reserves attributable to us for the Gold Bar mine, the Fenix project and San José mine as of December 31, 2021.

Gold Reserves at December 31, 2021

Proven

Probable

Proven and Probable

Tonnes

Gold

Gold

Tonnes

Gold

Gold

Tonnes

Gold

Gold

(kt)

(gpt)

(koz)

(kt)

(gpt)

(koz)

(kt)

(gpt)

(koz)

Gold Bar mine (1)

-

-

-

14,053

0.82

370

14,053

0.82

370

San José mine (2)

381

5.69

70

351

5.68

64

733

5.69

134

Silver Reserves at December 31, 2021

Proven

Probable

Proven and Probable

Tonnes

Silver

Silver

Tonnes

Silver

Silver

Tonnes

Silver

Silver

(kt)

(gpt)

(koz)

(kt)

(gpt)

(koz)

(kt)

(gpt)

(koz)

San José mine (2)

381

368

4.5

351

314

3.5

733

342

8.1

(1)The reserve estimate for the Gold Bar mine as at December 31, 2021 was prepared by Joseph McNaughton, P.E., Senior Mining Engineers, Partner, Independent Mining Consultants
(2)The reserve estimate for the San José mine as at December 31, 2021, presented on a 49% basis, was prepared by Hochschild and audited by P&E Mining Consultants Inc. (“P&E”).

The following table summarizes the estimated portion of proven and probable gold and silver reserves attributable to us for the Gold Bar mine San José mine as of December 31, 2020.

Gold Reserves at December 31, 2020

Proven

Probable

Proven and Probable

Tonnes

Gold

Gold

Tonnes

Gold

Gold

Tonnes

Gold

Gold

(kt)

(gpt)

(koz)

(kt)

(gpt)

(koz)

(kt)

(gpt)

(koz)

Gold Bar mine

-

-

-

15,570

0.84

420

15,570

0.84

420

San José mine

399

6.73

86

92

5.46

16

491

6.49

102

Silver Reserves at December 31, 2020

Proven

Probable

Proven and Probable

Tonnes

Silver

Silver

Tonnes

Silver

Silver

Tonnes

Silver

Silver

(kt)

(gpt)

(koz)

(kt)

(gpt)

(koz)

(kt)

(gpt)

(koz)

San José mine

399

409

5.3

92

354

1.0

491

399

6.3

Footnotes to 2021 Mineral Resource and Mineral Reserves

Mineral Resources are not Mineral Reserves and do not have demonstrated economic viability. There is no certainty that any part of the Mineral Resources estimated will be converted into a Mineral Reserves estimate. The numbers in the tables have been rounded to reflect the accuracy of the estimates and may not sum due to rounding. The Inferred Mineral Resource in these estimates has a lower level of confidence than that applied to an Indicated Mineral Resource and must not be converted to a Mineral Reserve. It is reasonably expected that the majority of the Inferred Mineral Resource could be upgraded to an Indicated Mineral Resource with continued exploration; Quantity and grade of reported Inferred resources are uncertain in nature and there has been insufficient exploration to classify these Inferred resources as Measured or Indicated.

UG Mineral Resources include the ‘must take’ minor material below cut-off grade within the mineable shape optimizer stopes that are generated by above-cut-off grade blocks.

The Mineral Resources in this report were estimated and reporting using the regulation S-K 1300 of the United States Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”).

9

Fox Complex

Mineral Resources for Froome are reported above an economic cut-off grade of 2.35 g/t gold assuming underground extraction methods and based on a mining cost of C$80/t, process cost of C$24.34/t, G&A cost of C$10.50/t, haulage cost of C$4.70/t, refining cost of C$1.82/oz, metallurgical recovery of 87%, royalty buyout of C$1.21/t, dilution of 15%, and realized gold price of US$1,632/oz (after Sandstorm Stream).

Mineral Resources for Grey Fox are reported above an economic cut-off grade of 2.30 g/t gold assuming underground extraction methods and based on a mining cost of C$80/t, process cost of C$24.34/t, G&A cost of C$10.50/t, haulage cost of C$5.64/t, refining cost of C$1.82/oz, metallurgical recovery of 85%, royalty NSR of 2.65%, dilution of 15%, and gold price of US$1,725/oz.

Mineral Resources for Stock West are reported above an economic cut-off grade of 1.95 g/t gold assuming underground extraction methods and based on a mining cost of C$80/t, process cost of C$24.34/t, G&A cost of C$10.50/t, refining cost of C$1.82/oz, metallurgical recovery of 94%, dilution of 15%, and gold price of US$1,725/oz.

Mineral Resources for Fuller are reported above an economic cut-off grade of 2.30 g/t gold assuming underground extraction methods and based on a mining cost of C$90/t, process cost of C$24.55/t, G&A cost of C$10.50/t, haulage cost of C$6.64/t, metallurgical recovery of 88%, 10% Net Profits Interest (NPI) royalty, dilution of 10% and gold price of US$1,725/oz.

Mineral Resources for Stock East are reported above an economic cut-off grade of 1.67 g/t gold assuming underground extraction methods and based on a mining cost of $60.61/t, process cost of $18.60/t, G&A cost of $7.95/t, metallurgical recovery of 94%, and gold price of US$1,725/oz.  

Resources were calculated using a gold price of U$1725 based on industry consensus on long-term metal prices in late 2020.  Resources are stated as in-situ. There are no Mineral Reserves stated in 2021 - Black Fox Mine reserves were depleted in 2021 when mining ceased in May.  For all properties, a change in commodity price led to a change (generally lower) in the COG used to calculate resources.  In addition, the use of UG constraining shapes to better define reasonable prospects for economic extraction were used.  Some of the deposits used improvements to modelling and estimation methodology and updates based on drilling results.  Black Fox Mine and Froome included changes due to mining depletion.

Gold Bar

Mineral reserves equal the total ore planned for processing from the mine plan based on a $1,650/oz gold price.  Mineral reserves are based on the following economic input parameters: $3.80/ avg. ore ton mining cost, $2.88/ avg. waste ton mining cost, $4.91/ore ton crushed process cost, $3.77/ore ton ROM process cost, $3.22/ore ton G&A cost, $0.475/oz gold refining charge, $1.538/oz transport & sales cost, 99.95% payable gold, 1% royalty at GBS only.

The stated Reserves are based on a variable cut-off grade based on rock type, mining area, carbon content, clay content and process response. The grades reported from Pick and Ridge include a mining dilution based on the surrounding block grades. Reserves are contained within an engineered pit design between the $1,250/oz and $1,400 gold sales price Lerchs-Grossman pit shells, based on end of December 2021 topography.

Mineral resources are based on the following economic input parameters: $3.19/ore ton mining cost, $1.99/waste ton mining cost, $4.91/ore ton crushed process cost, $3.77/ore ton ROM process cost, $3.16/ore ton G&A cost, $0.475/oz gold refining charge, $1.538/oz transport & sales cost, 99.95% payable gold, 1% royalty at Gold Bar South (GBS) only.  Resources stated are contained within a $1,725/oz Gold sales price Lerchs-Grossmann (LG) pits based on end of December 2021 topography

The Metal price used (U$1725) for resources is based on the consensus pricing forecasts based on Q4 2020 data.  Resources are reported as in-situ. Recoveries are variable and as follows: 78% crushed oxide recovery at Pick & Ridge, 50% mid-carbon recovery at Pick & Ridge, 72% ROM oxide recovery at Pick & Ridge, 61% ROM oxide recovery at GBS, 0% ROM mid-carbon recovery.  Cut-off grades are variable and based on the presence or not of clay content, carbon content and recoveries.  

10

The metal price used (U$1650) for reserves reflects a conservative combination of a recent trailing average sourced from Kitco’s Historic Price data and a consensus forecast via Bloomberg.  Recoveries are variable and as follows: 78% crushed oxide recovery at Pick & Ridge, 50% mid-carbon recovery at Pick & Ridge, 72% ROM oxide recovery at Pick & Ridge, 61% ROM oxide recovery at GBS, 0% ROM mid-carbon recovery.  Cut-off grades are variable and based on the presence or not of clay content, carbon content and recoveries and range from 0.0065opt to 0.0121opt.  The reference point for the Mineral Reserves is at the primary crusher.

Changes in Mineral Resources are due to mining depletion during 2021.  The following changes have impacted the project Reserves: Mining depletion at Pick; the Gold Price has increased from $1500/toz to $1650/toz; the operating costs increased largely driven by an increase in mining costs; project costs were re-estimated based on current mining activity and new contractor quotes; the schedule has been updated based on the revised metal prices and costs.

San Jose

Reported resources and reserves are McEwen’s 49% attributable interest.  Hochschild has a 51% interest in San José.

Metal equivalent used AgEq = (Au x 72) + Ag

Resources reporting Cut-off: 240 g/t AgEq; For Reserves AgEq Cut-offs: cut & fill 269 g/t AgEq., long hole 191 g/t AgEq.

Resources are in situ.  Reserves as presented are in place and include average internal dilution of 5%, average mining and geotechnical dilution of 46%, and mine extraction of 37%, but do not include allowances for mill or smelter recoveries.  For the 2021 Mineral Reserve Estimate, inaccessible Mineral Resources that contained insufficient tonnages to permit the development of local infrastructure, Mineral Resources in mined out/ isolated areas, Mineral Resources located in sill and rib pillars and operationally lost Mineral Resources were not included in the Mineral Reserve Estimate.

Metal prices of U$1800/oz Au and U$26/oz Ag were used for Resources based on a long-term consensus forecast for reserve prices with ~15% increase for resource prices.  Metal prices of U$1600/oz Au and U$23/oz Ag were used based on long term consensus forecast for reserve prices.  Ongoing definition, delineation and mine exploration drilling leads to better definition of existing resources or extensions of known veins that will be reflected on the year-on-year comparison of both mineral resources and reserves.  Mine depletion, commodity price changes and equivalents leading to COG changes will also have an effect on the comparative data.

It should be noted that the San José Mine has a history of increasing Mineral Reserves over time, both from upgrading Inferred Mineral Resources to Indicated Mineral Resources, and from exploration success. Changes to internal and external dilution and ore loss rates will affect the Reserve balance

Los Azules

Mineral Resource is reported inside of a pitshell, the parameters assumed are a copper price of $2.75/lb, operating costs of $1.70/t mining, $5.00/t for processing and $1.00/t for G&A, and Copper metallurgical recovery of 90%. Mineral Resource is reported with a cut-off grade of 0.20% Cu.

Mexico

Gold and Silver Resources were calculated using metal prices of U$1300/oz and U$16/oz respectively. These prices were based off the 3-year trailing average of the London Closing Fix for 2017-2019 ($1306 and $16.32) sourced from Kitco’s Historical Data charts.

Resources are stated as in situ for El Gallo Silver and as crushed and stacked ready for hauling and processing at the El Gallo Gold HLP.

El Gallo Silver: Milling recovery assumptions of 86% (sulfide) and 75% (oxide) for silver and 86% gold. Mining costs of $1.95/t, processing and G&A costs of $26.15/t milled were used. Resources are stated within an optimized pitshell indicating prospects for eventual economic extraction.

11

Heap Leach Pad: Because of the unconsolidated nature of the heap leach material, the mine schedule plans to mine the entire heap without the benefit of selectivity. Sub-cut-off leach pad material will inherently have potential acid generating sulfide liabilities if placed in our waste dumps and so it will be prudent to process the entire leach pad and place tailings in a previously mined pit at an overall environmental and economic benefit.

Recovery assumptions of 85% Au and 60% Ag.

The differences in annual Resources at El Gallo Gold are attributed to the Heap Leach operation. Residual leaching continued in 2021 and continues into 2022. There was a minor amount of metal recovered (c.3.6koz Au and 7.0koz Ag) at the operation in 2021.

Competitive Business Conditions

We compete with many companies in the mining and mineral exploration and production industry, including large, established mining companies with substantial capabilities, personnel, and financial resources. There is a limited supply of desirable mineral lands available for claim-staking, lease, or acquisition in the United States, Canada, Mexico, Argentina, and other areas where we may conduct our mining or exploration activities. We may be at a competitive disadvantage in acquiring mineral properties, since we compete with these individuals and companies, many of which have significantly greater financial resources and larger technical staffs than we do. From time to time, specific properties or areas that would otherwise be attractive to us for exploration or acquisition may be unavailable due to their previous acquisition by other companies or our lack of financial resources.

Competition in the industry is not limited to the acquisition of mineral properties, but also extends to the technical expertise to find, advance, and operate such properties; the labor to operate the properties; and the capital for the purpose of funding such exploration and development. Many competitors not only explore for and mine precious and base metals but conduct refining and marketing operations on a world-wide basis. Such competition may result in our company not only being unable to acquire desired properties, but to recruit or retain qualified employees or to acquire the capital necessary to fund our operation and advance our properties. Our inability to compete with other companies for these resources would have a material adverse effect on our results of operation, financial condition and cash flows.

General Government Regulations

In the United States, Canada, Mexico and Argentina, we are subject to various governmental laws and regulations, including environmental regulations. Other than operating licenses for our mining and processing facilities and concessions granted under contracts with the host government, there are no third-party patents, licenses or franchises material to our business.  The applicable laws and regulations applicable to us include but are not limited to:

mineral concession rights.
surface rights.
water rights.
mining royalties.
environmental laws.
mining permits.
mining and income taxes.
health and safety laws and regulations.
labor laws and regulations.
export regulations.

We believe that all of our properties are operated in compliance with all applicable governmental laws and regulations.

12

Reclamation Obligations

Under applicable laws in the jurisdictions where our properties are located, we are required to reclaim disturbances caused by our mining activities.  Accordingly, we have recorded estimates in our financial statements for our reclamation obligations, in accordance with United States Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (“US GAAP” or “GAAP”) the most significant of which are related to our properties in the U.S., Canada and Mexico.  

Estimated future reclamation costs are based primarily on legal and regulatory requirements. At December 31, 2021, we accrued $35.5 million for reclamation costs relating to currently developed and producing properties. These amounts are included in Asset Retirement Obligation on the Consolidated Balance Sheets.

U.S. Environmental Laws

We are subject to extensive environmental regulation under the laws of the U.S. and the state of Nevada, where our U.S. operations are conducted.  For example, certain mining wastes resulting  from the extraction and processing of ores would be considered hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (“RCRA”) and state law equivalents, but we are currently exempt from the extensive set of Environmental Protection Agency (“EPA”) regulations governing hazardous waste. If our mine wastes were treated as hazardous waste under RCRA or such wastes resulted in operations being designated as “Superfund” sites under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (“CERCLA”) or state law equivalents for cleanup, significant expenditures could be required for the construction of additional waste disposal facilities, for other remediation expenditures, or for natural resource damages. Under CERCLA, any present or past owners or operators of a Superfund site generally may be held liable and may be forced to undertake remedial cleanup action or to pay for the government’s cleanup efforts. Such owners or operators may also be liable to governmental entities for the cost of damages to natural resources, which may be substantial. Additional regulations or requirements may also be imposed upon our operations, tailings, and waste disposal areas, as well as upon mine closure under federal and state environmental laws and regulations, including, without limitation, CERCLA, the Clean Water Act, Clean Air Act, the Endangered Species Act and state law equivalents. See Note 12 to our consolidation financial statements, Reclamation and Remediation Liabilities, for information on reclamation obligations under governmental environmental laws.

We have reviewed and considered current federal legislation relating to climate change and do not believe it to have a material effect on our operations. Future changes in U.S. federal or state laws or regulations could have a material adverse effect upon us and our results of operations.

Foreign Government Regulations

Canada, where the Black Fox mine, Stock mill and other exploration and development projects are located, and Mexico, where the El Gallo Project and Fenix Project are located, have both adopted laws and guidelines for environmental permitting that are similar to those in effect in the U.S. The permitting process requires a thorough study to determine the baseline condition of the mining site and surrounding area, an environmental impact analysis, and proposed mitigation measures to minimize and offset the environmental impact of exploration and mining operation activities. We have received all permits required to operate our current activities in Canada and Mexico and have received all permits necessary for the exploration activities being conducted at our non-U.S. properties.

Customers

Production from Gold Bar, Black Fox, and the El Gallo Project is sold as refined metal on the spot market or doré under the terms set out in doré purchase agreements.

We have doré purchase agreements with Canadian financial institutions, Asahi Refining (“Asahi”), our refiner, and with metals trading companies.  Under the terms of our doré purchase agreements, we have the option to sell approximately 90% of the gold and silver contained in doré bars produced at Gold Bar, Black Fox and the El Gallo Project prior to the completion of refining.  During the year ended December 31, 2021, 97% of our consolidated sales were made to Asahi, with 38% of the sales made through the doré purchase agreement.

13

During the year ended December 31, 2021, 92% of  the total sales from the San José mine were made to three companies: Aurubis AG, a German company, accounted for 15% of  the total sales, LS Nikko, a Korean Company, accounted for 35% of  the total sales and Argo-Heraeus, a Swiss company, accounted for 42% of  the total sales. MSC has sales agreements with each of these purchasers.

In the event that our customer relationships or MSC’s customer relationships were interrupted for any reason, we believe that we or MSC could locate other purchasers for our products. However, any interruption may temporarily disrupt the sale of our products and may affect our operating results.

Human Capital Resources

As of December 31, 2021, we had 430 employees, including 83 in the United States, 27 in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 189 in Timmins, Ontario, Canada, 96 in Mexico, and 35 in Argentina. All our employees based in Toronto work in an executive, technical or administrative position, while our employees in the United States, Timmins, Mexico, and Argentina include management, laborers, craftsmen, mining, geologist  environmental specialists, information technologists, and various other support roles. As of December 31, 2021, MSC had 1,462 employees in Argentina. We also frequently engage independent contractors in connection with certain administrative matters and the exploration of our properties, such as drillers, geophysicists, geologists, and other specialty technical disciplines. For Canada and United States, we also engage independent contractors for technical and professional expertise as well as extractive and exploration activities such as drilling, geophysics, hauling and crushing. Of our employees in Mexico, 48 are covered by union labor contracts  and  we believe we have good relations with them.

As part of our fundamental need to attract and retain talent, we regularly evaluate our compensation, benefits and employee wellness offerings. We have determined that our compensation arrangements are competitive in the industry.  Over 93% of U.S. employees are enrolled in our medical benefit plan, and over 90% of U.S. employees contribute to our 401(k) plan and 94% of employees in Canada contribute to our Deferred Profit Share Plan. Supplemental healthcare is provided above government requirements in both Canada and Mexico.

ITEM 1A.  RISK FACTORS

Our operations and financial condition are subject to significant risks, including those described below. You should carefully consider these risks. If any of these risks actually occurs, our business, financial condition, and/or results of operation could be adversely affected. This report, including Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, contains forward looking statements that may be affected by several risk factors, including those set forth below. The following information summarizes all material risks known to us as of the date of filing this report:

Risks Relating to Our Financial Condition, Results of Operation and Cash Flows

Our results of operations, cash flows and the value of our properties are highly dependent on the market prices of gold, silver, and copper and these prices can be volatile.

The profitability of our gold and silver mining operations and the value of our mining properties are directly related to the market price of gold, silver and copper. The price of gold, silver and copper may also have a significant influence on the market price of our common stock. Historically, the market price of gold and silver has fluctuated significantly and is affected by numerous factors beyond our control. These factors include supply and demand fundamentals, global or national political or economic conditions, expectations with respect to the rate of inflation, the relative strength of the U.S. dollar and other currencies, interest rates, gold and silver sales and loans by central banks, forward sales by metal producers, accumulation and divestiture by exchange traded funds, and a number of other factors such as industrial and commercial demand. The volatility of mineral prices represents a substantial risk which no amount of planning or technical expertise can fully eliminate. This is especially true since we do not hedge any of our sales.

We derive all of our revenue from the sale of gold and silver and our results of operations will fluctuate as the prices of these metals change.  A period of significant and sustained lower gold and silver prices would materially and adversely

14

affect our results of operations and cash flows. In the event metal prices decline or remain low for prolonged periods of time, our existing producing properties may become uneconomic, and we might be unable to develop our undeveloped properties, which may further adversely affect our results of operations, financial performance and cash flows. An asset impairment charge may also result from the occurrence of unexpected adverse events that impact our estimates of expected cash flows generated from our producing properties or the market value of our non-producing properties, including a material diminution in the price of gold and/or silver.  

Our results of operations have been and could in the future be materially and adversely affected by the impairment of assets.

During 2021, the price of gold, as measured by the London PM fix, fluctuated between $1,684 and $1,943 per ounce, while the price of silver fluctuated between $21.53 and $29.59 per ounce. As at March 4, 2022, gold, silver and copper prices were $1,945 per ounce, $25.15 per ounce, and $4.82 per pound, respectively.

We have incurred substantial losses in recent years and may never return to profitability.

During the three years ended December 31, 2021, we have incurred pre-tax losses on an annual basis of $64.2 million $153.7 million and $63.6 million. As of December 31, 2021, our accumulated deficit, which includes noncash impairment charges, was $1.2 billion. In the future, our ability to become profitable will depend on the profitability of the Gold Bar, Black Fox, including the Froome mine, and San José mines, our ability to generate revenue sufficient to cover our costs and expenses, and our ability to advance, sell or otherwise monetize our other properties and our interest in the Los Azules copper project. In pursuit of profitability, we will seek to identify additional mineralization that can be extracted economically at operating and exploration properties. For our non-operating properties that we believe demonstrate economic potential, we need to either develop our properties, locate and enter into agreements with third party operators, or sell the properties. We may suffer significant additional losses in the future and may not be profitable again. Even if we do achieve profitability, we may not be able to sustain or increase profitability on a quarterly or annual basis.

Our business requires substantial capital investment from outside sources, and we may be unable to raise additional funding on favorable terms to develop additional mining operations. In addition, our ongoing reliance on equity funding will result in continued dilution to our existing shareholders.

We have in the past and will likely in the future require significant capital to develop our exploration projects. A significant portion of that funding in the past has come in the form of sales of our common stock.  We continue to evaluate capital and development expenditure requirements as well as other options to monetize certain assets in the Company’s portfolio including Los Azules, Grey Fox, Stock and the Fenix Project. If we make a positive decision to develop one or more of these initiatives, the expenditures incurred may significantly exceed our working capital. Our ability to obtain necessary funding, in turn, depends upon a number of factors, including the state of the economy, our operating results and applicable commodity prices. We may not be successful in obtaining the required financing to advance our projects or for other purposes, on terms that are favorable to us or at all, in which case, our ability to replace reserves and continue operating would be adversely affected. Failure to obtain such additional financing could result in delay or indefinite postponement of further exploration or potential development and in the possible partial or total loss of our interest in certain properties. Even if we are successful in obtaining additional equity capital, it will result in dilution to existing shareholders.

Our indebtedness adversely affects our cash flow and may adversely affect our ability to operate our business.

As of December 31, 2021, we had an outstanding long term, secured debt with a principal amount of $50.0 million. Repayment of the loan is secured by a lien on certain of our and our subsidiaries’ assets. This debt requires us to make monthly interest payments, to begin making monthly principal payments of $2 million August 2022 for 12 months and a final $26 million payment on August 31, 2023. During 2021, the Company entered into negotiations with the lenders to defer the repayment of the debt and also change the terms that will be favorable to the Company. As of March 4, 2022, discussions are ongoing to extend debt repayments and more favorable terms.

We cannot be certain that our cash flow from operations will be sufficient to allow us to pay the principal and interest on our debt and meet our other obligations. Even if we have sufficient cash flow to retire the debt, those payments will affect

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the amount of cash we have available for capital investment, exploration, ongoing operations and other purposes. Payments on our debt may also inhibit our ability to react to changing business conditions.

Any failure to meet our debt obligations could harm our business and financial condition and may require us to sell assets or take other steps to satisfy the debt.

Our ability to make payments on and/or to refinance our indebtedness and to fund planned capital expenditures will depend on our ability to generate sufficient cash flow from operations in the future. We cannot assure you that our business will generate sufficient cash flow from operations or that future borrowings, or other financing will be available to us in an amount sufficient to enable us to pay principal and interest on our indebtedness or to fund our other liquidity needs. Decreases in precious metal prices, in addition to our ability to execute our mine plans at existing operations, may adversely affect our ability to generate cash flow from operations. If our cash flow and existing capital resources are insufficient to fund our debt obligations, we may be forced to reduce our planned capital expenditures, sell assets, seek additional equity or debt capital, or restructure our debt, and any of these actions, if completed, could adversely affect our business and/or the holders of our securities. We cannot assure you that any of these remedies could, if necessary, be completed on commercially reasonable terms, in a timely manner or at all. In addition, any failure to make scheduled payments of interest and principal on our outstanding indebtedness could result in the immediate acceleration of the debt and foreclosure of our assets.

Restrictive debt covenants could limit our growth and our ability to finance our operations, fund our capital needs, respond to changing conditions, and engage in other business activities that may be in our best interests.

Our credit facility contains covenants that restrict or limit our ability to:

Pay dividends or distributions on our capital stock;
Borrow additional funds;
Repurchase, redeem, or retire our capital stock;
Make certain loans and investments;
Sell assets;
Enter into certain transactions with affiliates;
Create or assume certain liens on our assets;
Make certain acquisitions; or
Engage in certain other corporate activities.

As part of our facility, the debt can be called in certain circumstances, including on demand in the event of a material adverse change in our business or our inability to satisfy certain financial tests on an ongoing basis. Our ability to comply with these requirements may be affected by events beyond our control, and we cannot assure you that we will satisfy them in the future. In addition, these requirements could limit our ability to obtain future financings, make needed capital expenditures, withstand a future downturn in our business or the economy in general, or otherwise conduct necessary corporate activities. We may also be prevented from taking advantage of potential business opportunities that arise because of the restrictive covenants under our debt agreement. A breach of any of the covenants in our debt agreements could result in a default under the agreement.

Increased operating and capital costs could adversely affect our results of operations.

Costs at any particular mining location are subject to variation due to a number of factors, such as variable ore grade, changing metallurgy and revisions to mine plans in response to the physical shape and location of the ore body, as well as the age and utilization rates for the mining and processing- related facilities and equipment. In addition, costs are affected by the price and availability of input commodities, such as fuel, electricity, labor, chemical reagents, explosives, steel, concrete and mining and processing related equipment and facilities. Commodity costs are, at times, subject to volatile price movements, including increases that could make production at certain operations less profitable. Further, changes in laws and regulations can affect commodity prices, uses and transport. Reported costs may also be affected by changes in

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accounting standards. A material increase in costs at any significant location could have a significant adverse effect on our results of operation and operating cash flow.

We could have significant increases in capital and operating costs over the next several years in connection with the development of new projects in challenging jurisdictions and in the sustaining and/or expansion of existing mining and processing operations. Costs associated with capital expenditures may increase in the future as a result of factors beyond our control. Increased capital expenditures may have an adverse effect on the results of operation and cash flow generated from existing operations, as well as the economic returns anticipated from new projects.

If we do not hedge our exposure to reductions in gold and silver prices, we may be subject to significant reductions in price.

We do not use hedging transactions with respect to any of our gold and silver production and we do not expect to do so in the future. Accordingly, we may be exposed to more significant price fluctuations if gold and/or silver prices decline. While the use of hedging transactions limits the downside risk of price declines, their use also may limit future revenues from price increases. Hedging transactions also involve the risk that the counterparty may be unable to satisfy its obligations.

Estimates relating to new development projects and mine plans of existing operations are uncertain and we may incur higher costs and lower economic returns than estimated.

Our decision to develop a project is typically based on the results of feasibility studies, which estimate the anticipated economic returns of a project. However, the actual project profitability or economic feasibility may differ from such estimates as a result of any of the following factors, among others:

Changes in tonnage, grades and metallurgical characteristics of mineralized material to be mined and processed;
Changes in input commodity and labor costs;
The quality of the data on which engineering assumptions were made;
Adverse geotechnical conditions;
Availability of an adequate and skilled labor force;
Availability, supply and cost of utilities such as water and power;
Fluctuations in inflation and currency exchange rates;
Changes in metals prices; or
Changes in tax laws, the laws and/or regulations around royalties and other taxes due to the regional and national governments and royalty agreements.

Our recent development activities, including Gold Bar and Black Fox, may not result in the expansion or replacement of past production with new production, or one or more of these new production sites or facilities may be less profitable than currently anticipated or may not be profitable at all, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial position.

For our existing operations, we base our mine plans on geological, metallurgical and engineering assumptions, financial projections and commodity price estimates. These estimates are periodically updated to reflect changes in our operations, including modifications to our proven and probable reserves and mineralized material, revisions to environmental obligations, changes in legislation and/or our political or economic environment, and other significant events associated with mining operations. There are numerous uncertainties inherent in estimating quantities and qualities of gold, silver and copper and costs to mine recoverable reserves, including many factors beyond our control, that could cause actual results to differ materially from expected financial and operating results or result in future impairment charges.

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We are subject to foreign currency risks which may increase our costs and affect our results of operation.

While we transact most of our business in U.S. dollars, certain expenses, such as labor, operating supplies, and property and equipment, may be denominated in Canadian dollars, Mexican pesos or Argentine pesos. As a result, currency exchange fluctuations and foreign exchange regulations may impact our operating costs. The appreciation of non-U.S. dollar currencies against the U.S. dollar increases costs and the cost of purchasing property and equipment in U.S. dollar terms in Canada, Mexico and Argentina, which can adversely impact our operating results and cash flows.

The value of cash and cash equivalents denominated in foreign currencies also fluctuates with changes in currency exchange rates. Appreciation of non-U.S. dollar currencies results in a foreign currency gain on such investments and a depreciation in non-U.S. dollar currencies results in a loss. We have not utilized market risk sensitive instruments to manage our exposure to foreign currency exchange rates but may do so in the future. We also hold portions of our cash reserves in Canadian, Mexican and Argentine currency.

Our continuing reclamation obligations at Tonkin, Gold Bar, Black Fox and other Timmins properties, El Gallo, and other properties could require significant additional expenditures.

We are responsible for the reclamation obligations related to disturbances on all our properties. In Canada and the United States, we are required to post bonds to ensure performance of our reclamation obligations. As of December 31, 2021, we have accrued $29.7 million in estimated reclamation costs for our properties, including $37.7 million covered by surety bonds for projects in the United States and Canada. We have not posted a bond in Mexico as none is required by the current legislation; however, we have recorded a liability based on the estimated amount of our reclamation obligations in that jurisdiction.

There is a risk that any surety bond or recorded liability, even if increased based on the analysis and work performed to update the reclamation obligations, could be inadequate to cover the actual costs of reclamation when actually carried out. The satisfaction of bonding requirements and continuing reclamation obligations will require a significant amount of capital. Further, it is possible that the United States Bureau of Land Management (“BLM”) may request that we provide additional long-term financing supported by a long-term trust for an amount that cannot be determined at present. There is a risk that we will be unable to fund any additional bonding requirements or that the surety bonds may no longer be accepted by the governmental agencies as satisfactory reclamation coverage, in which case we would be required to replace the surety bonding with cash, and further, that the regulatory authorities may increase reclamation and bonding requirements to such a degree that it would not be commercially reasonable to continue exploration activities, which may adversely affect our results of operations, financial performance and cash flows.

There is no guarantee that we will declare distributions to shareholders.

From June 2015 to September 2018, we paid a distribution to holders of our common stock on a semi-annual basis. Those distributions were suspended in March 2019. Any determination to reinstate this distribution on our common stock will be based primarily upon covenants in outstanding debt instruments, our financial condition, results of operations and capital requirements, including for capital expenditures and acquisitions, and our Board of Directors’ determination that the distribution to shareholders is in the best interest of our shareholders and in compliance with all laws and agreements applicable to the Company.  

Risks Relating to Our Operations as a Mining Company

Our estimates of proven and probable reserves and mineralized material are based on interpretation and assumptions and, under actual conditions, may yield less mineral production than is currently estimated or may result in additional impairment charges to our operations.

Unless otherwise disclosed, proven and probable reserves and mineralization figures presented in our filings with securities regulatory authorities, including the SEC, in our news releases and other public statements that may be made from time to time, are based upon estimates made by both independent and our own internal professionals. Estimates of proven and probable reserves and mineralized material are subject to considerable uncertainty and are based, to a large extent, on the

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prices of gold and silver and interpretations of geologic data obtained from drill holes and other exploration techniques. These prices and interpretations are subject to change. If we determine that certain of our estimated reserves or mineralized material have become uneconomic, we may be forced to reduce our estimates. Actual production may be significantly less than we expect and such reductions may result in impairment charges such as we experienced in 2020.

When making determinations about whether to advance any of our projects to development, we rely upon such estimated calculations as to the mineralized material and grades of mineralization on our properties. Until ore is mined and processed, mineralized material and grades of mineralization must be considered as estimates only. We cannot ensure that these estimates will be accurate, or this mineralization can be mined or processed profitably.

Any material changes in mineral estimates and grades of mineralization may affect the economic viability of placing a property into production and such property’s return on capital. There can be no assurance that minerals recovered in small scale tests will be recovered in large-scale tests under on-site conditions or in production scale. Extended declines in market prices for gold and/or silver may render portions of our mineralization estimates uneconomic and result in reduced reported mineralization or adversely affect the commercial viability of one or more of our properties. Any material reductions in estimates of mineralization, or of our ability to extract this mineralization, could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations or financial condition.

Investors should also be aware that calculations of “reserves” differ under SEC reporting standards and those under other international standards, such as Canada.  Investors should also be aware that mineralized material may not be converted into reserves. Please also see, CAUTIONARY NOTE TO UNITED STATES INVESTORS-INFORMATION CONCERNING PREPARATION OF RESOURCE AND RESERVE ESTIMATES.

We may be unable to replace gold and silver reserves as they become depleted.

Like all metal producers, we must continually replace reserves depleted by production to maintain production levels over the long term and provide a return on invested capital. Depleted reserves can be replaced in several ways, including expanding known ore bodies, locating new deposits or acquiring interests in reserves from third parties. Exploration is highly speculative in nature, involves many risks and uncertainties and is frequently unsuccessful in discovering significant mineralization. Accordingly, our current or future exploration programs may not result in new mineral producing operations. Even if significant mineralization is discovered, it will likely take many years from the initial phases of exploration  to commencement of production, during which time the economic feasibility of production may change.

From time to time, we may acquire ore reserves from other parties, as we did in 2017. Such acquisitions are based on an analysis of a variety of factors including historical operating results, estimates and assumptions on the extent of ore reserves, the timing of production from such reserves, cash and other operating costs. In addition, we may rely on data and reports prepared by third parties (including in relation to the ability to permit and comply with existing regulations), which may contain information or data that we are unable to independently verify or confirm in advance. Other than historical operating results, these factors are uncertain, they may contribute to the uncertainties related to the process used to estimate ore reserves and have an impact on our revenue, our cash flow and other operating issues.

As a result of these uncertainties, our exploration programs and acquisitions may not result in the expansion or replacement of our current production with new ore reserves or operations, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, results of operations and financial position.

Our acquisitions may not achieve their intended results.

Our acquisitions subject us to many risks. The Fox Complex acquired in 2017 was a distressed asset which has struggled to produce positive cash flows during its years of operation.  We are working to improve the operations but with a small reserve base, the success of this operation is dependent upon finding additional mineralization through exploration and there is no guarantee that we will be able to convert this mineralization into mineable reserves. We may discover title defects,  adverse environmental or other conditions relating to the properties acquired of which we are currently unaware. Environmental, title, and other problems could reduce the value of the properties to us, and depending on the

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circumstances, we could have limited or no recourse to the sellers with respect to those problems. We have assumed substantially all of the liabilities associated with acquired properties, and such liabilities could be significant.

We own our 49% interest in the San José mine under the terms of an option and joint venture agreement (“OJVA”), and therefore we are unable to control all aspects of the exploration and development of, and production from, this property.

Our interest in the San José mine is subject to the risks normally associated with the conduct of joint ventures. A disagreement between joint venture partners on strategic decisions or how to conduct business efficiently, the inability of joint venture partners to meet their obligations to the joint venture or third parties, or litigation arising between joint venture partners regarding joint venture matters could have a material adverse effect on the viability of our interests held through the joint venture. Since all day-to-day decisions are made by the majority owner of the venture, we are unable to participate in those decisions, including whether and when to pay dividends to the venture partners.

Even if we are successful in achieving one or more of our strategic initiatives at the Los Azules project, its development presents challenges that may negatively affect, if not completely negate, the feasibility for development of the property.

The Los Azules property is located in a remote location that is currently accessed by 75 miles of dirt road with eight river crossings and two mountain passes above 13,450 feet. Even assuming that technical difficulties associated with this remote location can be overcome, the significant capital costs required to develop the project may make the project uneconomical.  If it were for the long term price of copper to decrease significantly below the current price or for capital cost estimates to increase significantly, Los Azules may not be feasible for development, and we may have to write-off the remaining carrying value of the asset. Furthermore, the project’s economic feasibility has not yet been demonstrated through a full feasibility study. The Preliminary Economic Assessment (“PEA”) is preliminary in nature, includes NI 43-101 mineral resources that are considered too speculative geologically to have economic considerations applied to them that would allow them to be categorized as mineral reserves either under S-K 1300 or NI 43-101, and there is no certainty that the PEA will be realized.

We may acquire additional exploration-stage properties on which reserves may never be discovered.

We have acquired in the past and may acquire in the future additional exploration-stage properties. There can be no assurance that we have completed or will be able to complete the acquisition of such properties at reasonable prices or on favorable terms and that reserves will be identified on any properties that we acquire. We may also experience negative reactions from the financial markets if we are unable to successfully complete acquisitions of additional properties or if reserves are not located on acquired properties. These factors may adversely affect the trading price of our common stock or our financial condition or results of operations.

The nature of mineral exploration and production activities involves a high degree of risk and the possibility of uninsured losses that could adversely and materially affect our operations.

Exploration for and production of minerals is highly speculative and involves greater risk than many other businesses. Many exploration programs do not result in the discovery of mineralization, and any mineralization discovered may not be of sufficient quantity or quality to be profitably mined. Few properties that are explored are ultimately advanced to production. Our current exploration efforts, and future development and mining operations are subject to all of the operating hazards and risks normally incident to exploring for and developing mineral properties, such as, but not limited to:

economically insufficient mineralized material;
fluctuations in production costs that may render mining uneconomical;
availability of labor, contractors, engineers, power, transportation and infrastructure;
labor disputes;
potential delays related to social, public health, and community issues;
negotiations with aboriginal groups or local populations affecting our efforts to explore, develop or produce gold and silver deposits;

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unanticipated variations in grade and other geological problems;
environmental hazards;
water conditions;
difficult surface or underground conditions;
metallurgical and other processing problems;
mechanical and equipment performance problems;
industrial accidents, personal injury, fire, flooding, cave-ins, landslides and other natural disasters; and
decrease in reserves or mineralized material due to a lower price of silver, gold or copper.

Any of these risks can adversely and materially affect, among other things, the development of properties, production quantities and rates, costs and expenditures, potential revenues and production dates. We currently have no insurance to guard against any of these risks, except in very limited circumstances. If we determine that capitalized costs associated with any of our mineral interests are not likely to be recovered, we would incur a write-down of our investment in these interests. All of these factors may result in losses in relation to amounts spent and those amounts that would then not be recoverable.

Our operations are subject to permitting requirements which could require us to delay, suspend or terminate our operations on our mining properties.

Our mining operations, including ongoing exploration drilling programs and development efforts, require permits from various state and federal governments, including permits for the use of water and for drilling water wells. We may be unable to obtain these permits in a timely manner, on reasonable terms or on terms that provide us sufficient resources to develop our properties in any way. Even if we are able to obtain such permits, the time required by the permitting process can be significant. If we cannot obtain or maintain the necessary permits, or if there is a delay in receiving these permits, our timetable and business plan for exploration of our properties will be adversely affected, which may in turn adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, cash flows and market price of our securities.

Due to increased activity levels of non-governmental, aboriginal and local groups targeting the mining industry, the potential for the government or process instituted by non-governmental, aboriginal and local groups, to delay the issuance of permits or impose new requirements or conditions upon mining operations may be increased. Any changes in government policies may be costly to comply with and may delay mining operations. Future changes in such laws and regulations, if any, may adversely affect our operations, make them prohibitively expensive, or prohibit them altogether. If our interests are materially adversely affected as a result of a violation of applicable laws, regulations, permitting requirements or a change in applicable law or regulations, it would have a significant negative impact on the value of our company and could have a significant impact on our stock price.

Our operations in Argentina and Mexico are subject to political and social risks.

With respect to our affiliated company, Minera Santa Cruz S.A (“MSC”) which owns the San José mine, there are risks relating to an uncertain or unpredictable political and economic environment in Argentina, illustrated by the following:

Argentina defaulted on foreign debt repayments and on the repayment on a number of official loans to multinational organizations in 2002 and 2003, and defaulted again on its bonds in 2014.  
In 2012, Argentina’s President announced the nationalization of the majority stake of Yacimientos Petrolíferos Fiscales (YPF), Argentina’s largest oil company.
In December 2017,Argentina enacted comprehensive tax reform (Law No. 27,430 (the “Law”)). Specifically, the Law introduces amendments to tax and other various laws, including a special regime comprising an optional revaluation of assets for income tax purposes.
In 2018, Argentina’s federal government introduced a decree imposing a temporary tax on all exports from Argentina. The tax was introduced as an emergency measure due to the significant peso devaluation during the year. The estimated impact to MSC is a tax of approximately 7.5% of revenue.
In September 2019, Argentine authorities implemented new foreign exchange regulations that impact the results of MSC. The main restrictions include, but are not limited to, full repatriation of proceeds of exports

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in cash bank savings to be denominated only in Argentine pesos and authorization from Argentina Central Bank being required for dividend distributions abroad and intercompany loan payments.
In October 2019, Alberto Fernández and former president Cristina Fernández de Kirchner were elected to office. The prior president, Mr. Mauricio Macri, who assumed office in December 2015, implemented several significant economic and policy reforms, including reforms related to foreign exchange and trade, fiscal policy, labor laws and tax rules. The fiscal, monetary and currency adjustments undertaken by the Macri administration subdued growth in the short-term, and some measures, including the export tax, have negatively impacted Argentina sourced revenues. There remains uncertainty about changes that may be adopted by the new administration and their impact on the Argentina economy and our business.
In December 2019, the Argentina federal government approved a decree delaying the corporate tax rate to change from 30% to 25% to the end of 2021 and extending the temporary export tax introduced in September 2018 to the end of 2021. Furthermore, the decree suspended the increase in the dividend withholding tax from 7% to 13% until January 2021.
In 2020, the Alberto Fernández administration marked its first year in office, a year in which it faced numerous challenges including renegotiating Argentina’s foreign debt, managing currency crises, and, most difficult, designing Argentina’s response to the COVID-19 pandemic.
In June 16, 2021, Law 27,630, which introduced amendments to the corporate income tax law, entered into force. Under prior law, the corporate income tax rate was 25%. As per the new law applicable to fiscal years starting on or after January 1, 2021, corporate income will be subject to tax at progressive rates ranging from 25% to 35%. Starting in January 2022, these brackets will be annually adjusted to account for inflation, as per the consumer price index published by relevant governmental agency.
Under prior law, distribution of earnings attributable to fiscal year 2021 were subject to withholding tax at a 13% rate.  The rate was tied to the prior income tax rate of 25%. The enacted Law 27,630 reduced the withholding tax rate on dividend distributions to non-residents from earnings obtained from the beginning of  2021 to 7%.

With respect to the El Gallo Project in Mexico, there has been an ongoing level of violence and crime relating to drug cartels and gangs in Sinaloa State where we operate, and in other regions of Mexico. Our facility at the El Gallo Project was robbed in 2015.  On December 17, 2019, the US State Department issued a Level 2 (“increased caution”) warning with respect to five Mexican states, including Sinaloa State, due to violent crime. On September 8, 2020, the US State Department issued a Level 3 (“Reconsider travel”) revaluating travel to Mexico with respect to COVID-19 and warning travel to five Mexican states, including Sinaloa State, due to violent crime.  These events may disrupt our ability to carry out exploration and mining activities and may affect the safety and security of our employees and contractors.

Our operations and properties in Canada expose us to additional political risks.

Our properties in Canada may be of particular interest or sensitivity to one or more interest groups, including aboriginal groups (which are generally referred to as "First Nations" and “Metis” groups). We have mineral projects in Ontario that are in areas with an aboriginal presence. It is our practice to work closely with and consult with First Nations in areas in which our projects are located or which could be impacted by our activities. However, there is no assurance that relationships with such groups will be positive. Accordingly, it is possible that our production, exploration or development activities on these properties could be interrupted or otherwise adversely affected in the future by political uncertainty, native land claims entitlements, expropriations of property, changes in applicable law, governmental policies and policies of relevant interest groups, including those of First Nations. Any changes in law or relations or shifts in political conditions may be beyond our control, or we may enter into agreements with First Nations, all of which may adversely affect our business and operations and if significant, may result in the impairment or loss of mineral concessions or other mineral rights, or may make it impossible to continue our mineral production, exploration or development activities in the applicable area, any of which could have an adverse effect on our financial conditions and results of operations.

Our operations face substantial regulation of health and safety.

Our operations are subject to extensive and complex laws and regulations governing worker health and safety across our projects and our failure to comply with applicable legal requirements can result in substantial penalties. Future changes in applicable laws, regulations, permits and approvals or changes in their enforcement or regulatory interpretation could

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substantially increase costs to achieve compliance, lead to the revocation of existing or future exploration or mining rights or otherwise have an adverse impact on our results of operations and financial position.

Our mines are inspected on a regular basis by government regulators who may issue citations and orders when they believe a violation has occurred under local mining regulations. If inspections result in an alleged violation, we may be subject to fines, penalties or sanctions and our mining operations could be subject to temporary or extended closures.

In addition to potential government restrictions and regulatory fines, penalties or sanctions, our ability to operate (including the effect of any impact on our workforce) and thus, our results of operations and our financial position, could be adversely affected by accidents, injuries, fatalities or events detrimental (or perceived to be detrimental) to the health and safety of our employees, the environment or the communities in which we operate.

Reform of the General Mining Law in the United States could adversely affect our results of operations.

Periodically, members of the U.S. Congress have introduced bills which would supplant or alter the provisions of the General Mining Law of 1872, which governs the unpatented claims that we control with respect to our U.S. properties. One such amendment has become law and has imposed a moratorium on the patenting of mining claims, which reduced the security of title provided by unpatented claims such as those on our U.S. properties. If additional legislation is enacted, it could substantially increase the cost of holding unpatented mining claims by requiring payment of royalties, and could significantly impair our ability to develop mineral estimates on unpatented mining claims. Such bills have proposed, among other things, to make permanent the patent moratorium, to impose a federal royalty on production from unpatented mining claims and to declare certain lands as unsuitable for mining. Although it is impossible to predict at this time what royalties may be imposed in the future, the imposition of such royalties could adversely affect the potential for development of such mining claims, and the economics of existing operating mines on federal unpatented mining claims. Passage of such legislation could adversely affect our business.

Title to mineral properties can be uncertain, and we may be at risk of loss of ownership of one or more of our properties.

Our ability to explore and operate our properties depends on the validity of our title to those  properties. Our U.S. mineral properties include leases of unpatented mining claims, as well as unpatented mining and mill site claims, which we control directly. Unpatented mining claims provide only possessory title and their validity is often subject to contest by third parties or the federal government, which makes the validity of unpatented mining claims uncertain and generally riskier.  Similarly, Canadian mineral properties consist of patented and unpatented claims which each have their respective risks and uncertainties.  Further, there may be title defects or additional rights that are not recorded on the title. Our concessions in Mexico are subject to continuing government regulation and failure to adhere to such regulations will result in termination of the concession. Similarly, under Argentine Law, failure to comply with applicable conditions may result in the termination of the concession. Uncertainties inherent in mineral properties relate to such things as the sufficiency of mineral discovery, proper posting and marking of boundaries, assessment work and possible conflicts with other claims not determinable from public record. We have not obtained title opinions covering our entire property, with the attendant risk that title to some claims, particularly title to undeveloped property, may be defective. There may be valid challenges to the title to our property which, if successful, could impair development and/or operations.

We cannot ensure that we will have an adequate supply of water to complete desired exploration or development of our mining properties.

Our mining operations require significant quantities of water for mining, ore processing and related support facilities. Our operations in the United States, Mexico and Argentina are in areas where water is scarce and competition among users for continuing access to water is significant. Continuous production at our mines is dependent on our ability to maintain our water rights and claims and to defeat claims adverse to our current water uses in legal proceedings. Although each of our operations currently has sufficient water rights and claims to cover its operational demands, we cannot predict the potential outcome of pending or future legal proceedings relating to our water rights, claims and uses. Water shortages may also result from weather or environmental and climate impacts out of the Company’s control.

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Our ongoing operations and past mining activities are subject to environmental risks, which could expose us to significant liability and delay, suspension or termination of our operations.

All aspects of our operations are subject to United States, Canada, Mexico and Argentina federal, state and local environmental regulation. These regulations mandate, among other things, the maintenance of air and water quality standards and land reclamation. They also set forth limitations on the generation, transportation, storage and disposal of solid and hazardous waste, including cyanide. Environmental legislation is evolving in a manner which will require stricter standards and enforcement, increased fines and penalties for non-compliance, more stringent environmental assessments of proposed projects, and a heightened degree of responsibility for us and our officers, directors and employees. Future changes in environmental regulation, if any, may adversely affect our operations, make our operations prohibitively expensive, or prohibit them altogether. Environmental hazards may exist on our properties that are unknown to us at the present and that have been caused by us, previous owners or operators, or that may have occurred naturally. We utilize explosives in our business, which could cause injury to our personnel, and damage to our equipment or assets. Mining properties from the companies we have acquired may cause us to be liable for remediating any damage that those companies may have caused. The liability could include response costs for removing or remediating the release and damage to natural resources, including ground water, as well as the payment of fines and penalties. Failure to comply with applicable environmental laws, regulations and permitting requirements may also result in enforcement actions thereunder, including orders issued by regulatory or judicial authorities, causing operations to cease or be curtailed, and may include corrective measures requiring capital expenditures, installation of additional equipment, or remedial actions.

Our industry is highly competitive, attractive mineral lands are scarce, and we may not be able to obtain quality properties.

We compete with many companies in the mining industry, including large, established mining companies with substantial capabilities, personnel and financial resources. There is a limited supply of desirable mineral lands available for claim staking, lease or acquisition in the United States, Canada, Mexico and Argentina, and other areas where we may conduct exploration activities. We may be at a competitive disadvantage in acquiring mineral properties, since we compete with these individuals and companies, many of which have greater financial resources and larger technical staffs than we do. From time to time, specific properties or areas which would otherwise be attractive to us for exploration or acquisition may be unavailable to us due to their previous acquisition by other companies or our lack of financial resources. Competition in the industry is not limited to the acquisition of mineral properties but also extends to the technical expertise to find, advance, and operate such properties; the labor to operate the properties; and the capital for the purpose of funding such properties. Many competitors not only explore for and mine precious metals, but conduct refining and marketing operations on a world-wide basis. Such competition may result in our Company being unable not only to acquire desired properties, but to recruit or retain qualified employees or to acquire the capital necessary to fund our operation and advance our properties. Our inability to compete with other companies for these resources would have a material adverse effect on our results of operation, financial condition and cash flows.

We rely on contractors to conduct a significant portion of our operations and construction projects.

A portion of our operations and construction projects are currently conducted in whole or in part by contractors, including our operations at the Gold Bar and Black Fox mines. As a result, our operations are subject to a number of risks, some of which are outside our control, including:

Negotiating agreements with contractors on acceptable terms;
The inability to replace a contractor and its operating equipment in the event that either party terminates the agreement;
Reduced control and oversight over those aspects of operations which are the responsibility of the contractor;
Failure of a contractor to perform under its agreement;
Interruption of operations or increased costs in the event that a contractor ceases its business due to insolvency or other unforeseen events;
Failure of a contractor to comply with our standards and policies, as well as with applicable legal and regulatory requirements, to the extent it is responsible for such compliance; and
Problems of a contractor with managing its workforce, labor unrest or other related employment issues.

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In addition, we may incur liability to third parties as a result of the actions of our contractors. The occurrence of one or more of these risks could potentially adversely affect our results of operations and financial position.

If our employees or contractors engage in a strike, work stoppage or other slowdown, we could experience business disruptions and/or increased costs.

As of December 31, 2021, a number of our employees were represented by different trade unions and work councils which subject us to employment arrangements very similar to collective bargaining agreements. Further, most of our employees are based in foreign locations. The laws of certain foreign countries may place restrictions on our ability to take certain employee-related actions or may require that we conduct additional negotiations with trade unions, works councils or other governmental authorities before we can take such actions.

If the employees or contractors at the Gold Bar, Mexico, or San José mines were to engage in a strike, work stoppage, or other slowdown in the future, we could experience a significant disruption of our operations. Such disruption could interfere with our business operations and could lead to decreased productivity, increased labor costs, and lost revenue.

We may not be successful in negotiating new collective bargaining agreements or other employment arrangements when the current ones expire. Furthermore, future labor negotiations could result in significant increases in our labor costs. The occurrence of any of the foregoing could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

Our business is sensitive to nature and climate conditions

A number of governments have introduced or are moving to introduce climate change legislation and treaties at the international, national, state/provincial and local levels. Regulations relating to emission levels (such as carbon taxes) and energy efficiency are becoming more stringent. If the current regulatory trend continues, this may result in increased costs at some or all of our project locations. In addition, the physical risks of climate change may also have an adverse effect on our operations and properties. Extreme weather events have the potential to disrupt our power supply, surface operations and exploration at our mines and may require us to make additional expenditures to mitigate the impact of such events.

Some of the countries in which we operate have implemented, and are developing, laws and regulations related to climate change and greenhouse gas emissions. In December 2009, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (“EPA”) issued an endangerment finding under the U.S. Clean Air Act that current and projected concentrations of certain mixed greenhouse gases, including carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere threaten the public health and welfare. Additionally, the United States and China signed a bilateral agreement in November 2014 that committed the United States to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by an additional 26% to 28% below 2005 levels by the year 2025. The EPA in August 2015 issued final rules for the Clean Power Plan under Section 111 (d) of the Clean Air Act designed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions at electric utilities in line with reductions planned for the compliance with the Paris Agreement. As part of a regulatory review, on June 19, 2019, the EPA repealed the Clean Power Plan and replaced it with the Affordable Clean Energy rule which eliminates most of the emission reduction standards included in the Clean Power Plan. That rule is now the subject of challenges in the courts.

Legislation and increased regulation and requirements regarding climate change could impose increased costs on us, our venture partners and our suppliers, including increased energy, capital equipment, environmental monitoring and reporting and other costs to comply with such regulations.

Risks Relating to Our Common Stock

A small number of existing shareholders own a significant portion of McEwen Mining common stock, which could limit your ability to influence the outcome of any shareholder vote.

As of March 4, 2022, Mr. McEwen beneficially owned approximately 17% of the 473.7 million shares of McEwen Mining common stock outstanding.  Under our Articles of Incorporation and the laws of the State of Colorado, the vote of the

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holders of a majority of the shares voting at a meeting at which a quorum is present is generally required to approve most shareholder action. As a result, Mr. McEwen will be able to significantly influence the outcome of shareholder votes for the foreseeable future, including votes concerning the election of directors, amendments to our Articles of Incorporation or proposed mergers, acquisitions or other significant corporate transactions.

Our stock price may be volatile, and as a result you could lose all or part of your investment.

In addition to other risk factors identified herein and to volatility associated with equity securities in general, the value of your investment could decline due to the impact of any of the following factors upon the market price of our common stock:

Changes in the worldwide price for gold, silver and/or copper;
Disappointing results from our exploration or production efforts;
Producing at rates lower than t targeted;
Political and regulatory risks;
Weather conditions, including unusually heavy rains,  unusually light rains or drought;
Failure to meet our revenue ,profit goals or operating budget;
Decline in demand for our common stock;
Downward revisions in securities analysts’ estimates or changes in general market conditions;
Technological innovations by competitors or in competing technologies;
Investor perception of our industry or our prospects;
Disruption of supply and demand and other economic factors due to virus and other disease;
Actions by government central banks; and
General economic trends.

Stock markets in general have in the past and may in the future experience extreme price and volume fluctuations. These fluctuations are often unrelated to operating performance and may adversely affect the market price of our common stock. Adverse price fluctuations may lead to threatened or actual delisting of our common stock from the NYSE. As a result, you may be unable to resell your shares at a desired price.

Failure of the Company to regain compliance with the NYSE listing requirements could result in delisting of its common stock, which in turn could adversely affect its future financial condition and the market for its common stock.

 

If the common stock ultimately were to be delisted for any reason, it could negatively impact the Company by (i) reducing the liquidity and market price of the Company’s common stock; (ii) reducing the number of investors willing to hold or acquire the Company’s common stock, which could negatively impact the Company’s ability to raise equity financing; (iii) limiting the Company’s ability to use a registration statement to offer and sell freely tradable securities, adversely affecting the Company’s ability to access the public capital markets; and (iv) impairing the Company’s ability to provide equity incentives to its employees.

The future issuances of our common stock will dilute current shareholders and may reduce the market price of our common stock.

Under certain circumstances, our board of directors has the authority to authorize the offer and sale of additional securities without the vote of or notice to existing shareholders. We may issue equity in the future in connection with capital formation, acquisitions, strategic transactions or for other purposes. Based on the need for additional capital to fund expected growth, it is likely that we will issue additional securities to provide such capital and that such additional issuances may involve a significant number of shares of our common stock. Issuance of additional securities in the future will dilute the percentage interest of existing shareholders and may reduce the market price of our common stock and any other outstanding securities. Furthermore, the sale of a significant amount of our common stock by any selling security holders, including Mr. McEwen, may depress the price of our common stock. As a result, you may lose all or a portion of your investment.

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General Risks

The Coronavirus pandemic could result in adverse operating results due to workforce reductions, supply and/or demand interruptions and travel restrictions.

On March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization (“WHO”) declared the COVID-19 virus a global pandemic. During late March and early April, our operations were disrupted by temporary shutdowns to protect our workforce from the spread of the virus. During the shutdown periods, rigorous policies and procedures were implemented at each site to minimize potential health and safety risks to our workforce. We continue to experience periodic disruption in our operations both due to government policies around COVID-19 and due to incidents of illness due to the virus at our operations. This continues to adversely impact cash flows and liquidity and is expected to continue to have adverse consequences to us beyond 2021. Due to slowed ramp up in production and sales, our liquidity and financial condition have been adversely affected and we are at an increased risk of not having sufficient cash flow to fund our operations as well as an increased risk of default under our debt agreement. Achieving and maintaining normal operating capacity is also dependent on the continued availability and logistical delivery of supplies, which remains out of our control. The long-term impact of the COVID-19 outbreak on our results of operations, financial position and cash flows will depend on future developments, including the endemic characteristics, duration and spread of the outbreak and related advisories and restrictions, and the viability and success of the ongoing treatment development and worldwide vaccination roll-out. Management continues to actively monitor the global situation on our financial condition, liquidity, operations, suppliers, industry and workforce.

We do not insure against all risks to which we may be subject in our operations.

While we currently maintain insurance policies to insure against general commercial liability claims and physical assets at our properties in the United States, Canada, Mexico and Argentina, we do not maintain insurance to cover all of the potential risks associated with our operations. We may also be unable to obtain insurance to cover other risks at economically feasible premiums or at all. Insurance coverage may not continue to be available, or may not be adequate to cover liabilities. We might also become subject to liability for environmental, pollution or other hazards associated with mineral exploration and production including bankruptcy of our refiners or other third party contractors which may not be insured against, which may exceed the limits of our insurance coverage or which we may elect not to insure against because of premium costs or other reasons. Losses from these events may cause us to incur significant costs that could materially adversely affect our financial condition and our ability to fund activities on our property. A significant loss could force us to reduce, temporarily suspend or, in the worst case, terminate our operations.

Our business is subject to the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and similar worldwide anti-bribery laws, a breach or violation of which could lead to civil and criminal fines and penalties, loss of licenses or permits and reputational harm.

We operate in certain jurisdictions that have experienced governmental and private sector corruption to some degree. The U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and anti-bribery laws in other jurisdictions generally prohibit companies and their intermediaries from making improper payments for the purpose of obtaining or retaining business or other commercial advantage. Violations of these laws, or allegations of such violations, could lead to civil and criminal fines and penalties, litigation, and loss of operating licenses or permits, and may damage our reputation, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial position and results of operations. There can be no assurance that our internal control policies and procedures will always protect us from recklessness, fraudulent behavior, dishonesty or other inappropriate acts committed by our affiliates, employees or agents. As such, our corporate policies and processes may not prevent all potential breaches of law or other governance practices.

We depend on certain key personnel, and our success will depend on our continued ability to retain and attract such qualified personnel.

Our success is dependent on the efforts, abilities and continued service of certain senior officers and key employees and consultants. A number of our key senior officers, employees and consultants have significant experience in the precious metals industry. A loss of service from any one of these individuals may adversely affect our operations, and we may have difficulty or may not be able to locate and hire a suitable replacement.

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We conduct operations in a number of foreign countries and are exposed to legal, political and social risks associated with those operations.

A significant portion of our revenue in 2021 was generated by operations outside the United States. Exploration, development, production and closure activities in many countries are potentially subject to heightened political and social risks that are beyond our control and could result in increased costs, capacity constraints and potential disruptions to our business. These risks include the possible unilateral cancellation or forced renegotiation of contracts in which we may, directly or indirectly, have an interest, unfavorable changes in foreign laws and regulations, royalty and tax increases (including taxes associated with the import or export of goods), risks associated with consumption taxes in Mexico, Argentina, and Canada, income tax refund recovery and collection processes in Mexico and Argentina, changes in US legislation as applicable to foreign operations, claims by governmental entities or indigenous communities, expropriation or nationalization of property and other risks arising out of foreign sovereignty over areas in which we conduct our operations. The right to import and export gold and silver may depend on obtaining certain licenses and quotas, which could be delayed or denied at the discretion of the relevant regulatory authorities, or could become subject to new taxes or duties imposed by U.S. or foreign jurisdictions, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, or future prospects. In addition, our rights under local law may be less secure in countries where the rule of law is less robust and judicial systems may be susceptible to manipulation or influence from government agencies, non-governmental organizations or civic groups.

Any of these developments could require us to curtail or terminate operations at our mines, incur significant costs in renegotiating contracts and meeting newly-imposed environmental or other standards, pay greater royalties or higher prices for labor or services and recognize higher taxes, or experience significant delays or obstacles in the recovery of consumption taxes or income tax refunds owed, which could materially and adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

Our ongoing and future success depends on developing and maintaining productive relationships with the communities, including indigenous peoples, and other stakeholders in our operating locations. Notwithstanding our ongoing efforts, local communities and stakeholders can become dissatisfied with our activities or the level of benefits provided, which may result in civil unrest, protests, direct action or campaigns against us. Any such occurrences could materially and adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

Our business could be negatively impacted by security threats, including cybersecurity threats, and other disruptions.

We face various security threats, including attempts by third parties to gain unauthorized access to sensitive information or to render data or systems unusable; threats to the safety of our employees; threats to the security of our infrastructure; and threats from terrorist acts. There can be no assurance that the procedures and controls we use to monitor and mitigate our exposure to these threats will be sufficient in preventing them from materializing. If any of these events were to materialize, they could lead to losses of sensitive information, critical infrastructure, personnel or capabilities essential to our operations and could have a material adverse effect on our reputation, financial condition, results of operations, or cash flows.

Our business partners’ technologies, systems and networks may become the target of cyber-attacks or information security breaches that could result in the unauthorized release, gathering, monitoring, misuse, loss or destruction of proprietary and other information, theft of property or other disruption of our business operations. In addition, certain cyber incidents, such as surveillance, may remain undetected for an extended period. A cyber incident involving our business partners’ information systems and related infrastructure could disrupt our business plans and negatively impact our operations. Although to date we have not experienced any significant cyber-attacks, there can be no assurance that we will not be the target of such attacks in the future. As cyber threats continue to evolve, we may be required to expend significant additional resources to continue to modify or enhance our protective measures or to investigate and remediate any security vulnerabilities.

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Several of our directors and officers are residents outside of the United States, and it may be difficult for shareholders to enforce within the United States any judgments obtained against such directors or officers.

Several of our directors and officers are nationals and/or residents of countries other than the United States, and all or a substantial portion of such persons’ assets are located outside of the United States. As a result, it may be difficult for investors to effect service of process on such directors and officers, or enforce within the United States any judgments obtained against such directors and officers, including judgments predicated upon the civil liability provisions of the securities laws of the United States or any state thereof. Consequently, shareholders may be effectively prevented from pursuing remedies against such directors and officers under United States federal securities laws. In addition, shareholders may not be able to commence an action in a Canadian court predicated upon the civil liability provisions under United States federal securities laws. The foregoing risks also apply to those experts identified in this report that are not residents of the United States.

The laws of the State of Colorado, our Articles of Incorporation and agreements with certain officers and directors may protect our directors from certain types of lawsuits.

The laws of the State of Colorado provide that our directors will not be liable to us or our shareholders for monetary damages for all but certain types of conduct as directors of the Company. Our Articles of Incorporation permit us to indemnify our directors and officers against all damages incurred in connection with our business to the fullest extent provided or allowed by law, including through stand-alone indemnity agreements. We have also entered into indemnification agreements with our executive officers and directors which require that we indemnify them against certain liabilities incurred by them in their capacity as such. The exculpation provisions may have the effect of preventing shareholders from recovering damages against our directors caused by their negligence, poor judgment or other circumstances. The indemnification provisions may require us to use our limited assets to defend our directors and officers against claims, including claims arising out of their negligence, poor judgment, or other circumstances.

We may be required to write down certain long-lived assets, due to metal prices, operational challenges or other factors. Such write- downs may adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.

We review our long-lived assets for recoverability pursuant to the Financial Accounting Standard Board’s Accounting Standards Codification Section 360. Under that standard, we review the recoverability of our long-lived assets, such as our mining properties, quarterly or upon a triggering event. Such review involves estimating the future undiscounted cash flows expected to result from the use and eventual disposition of the asset. Impairment, measured by comparing an asset’s carrying value to its fair value, must be recognized when the carrying value of the asset exceeds these cash flows. We conduct a review of the financial performance of our mines in connection with the preparation of our financial statements for each reported period and determine whether any triggering events are indicated.

For example, during the first quarter of 2020, we performed a comprehensive analysis of the Gold Bar mine and the related long-lived assets and determined that indicators of impairment existed, and we ultimately concluded that the carrying value of the long-lived assets for the Gold Bar property was impaired, and a non-cash impairment charge of $83.8 million was recorded during the first quarter of 2020. If there are further significant and sustained declines in relevant metal prices, or if we fail to control production and operating costs or realize the mineable ore reserves at our mining properties, we may terminate or suspend mining operations at one or more of our properties. These events could require a further write-down of the carrying value of our assets. Any such actions would adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.

We may record other types of charges in the future if we sell a property or asset for a price less than its carrying value or have to increase reclamation liabilities in connection with the closure and reclamation of a property. Any additional write-downs of mining properties or other assets could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.

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A significant delay or disruption in sales of concentrates or doré as a result of the unexpected disruption in services provided by smelters or refiners or other third parties could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.

We rely on refiners and smelters to refine and process and, in some cases, purchase, the gold and silver doré and concentrate produced by our mines or the mines in which we have an interest. Access to refiners and smelters on economical terms is critical to our ability to sell our products to buyers and generate revenues. We have existing agreements with refiners and smelters, some of which operate their refining or smelting facilities outside the United States. We believe we currently have contractual arrangements with a sufficient number of refiners and smelters so that the loss of any one refiner or smelter would not significantly or materially impact our operations or our ability to generate revenues. Nevertheless, services provided by a refiner or smelter may be disrupted by new or increased tariffs, duties or other cross-border trade barriers, shipping delays, the bankruptcy or insolvency of one or more refiners or smelters or the inability to agree on acceptable commercial or legal terms with a refiner or smelter. Such an event or events may disrupt an existing relationship with a refiner or smelter or result in the inability to create (or the necessity to terminate) a contractual relationship with a refiner or smelter, which may leave us with limited, uneconomical or no access to refining or smelting services for short or long periods of time. Epidemics, pandemics or natural disasters may also impact refiners, smelters or other third parties with which we have contractual arrangements or have an indirect effect on our ability to obtain refining, smelting or other third-party services.

Any delay or loss of access to refiners or smelters may significantly impact our ability to sell doré and concentrate products and generate revenue. A default by a refiner or smelter on its contractual obligations to us or an insolvency event or bankruptcy filing by a refiner or smelter may result in the loss of all or part of our doré or concentrate in the possession of the refiner or smelter, and such a loss likely would not be insured by our insurance policies. We cannot ensure that alternative refiners or smelters would be available or offer comparable terms if the need for them were to arise or that it would not experience delays or disruptions in sales that would materially and adversely affect results of operations.

Our operations may be further disrupted, and our financial results may be adversely affected, by the COVID-19 pandemic.

COVID-19 and other unforeseen pandemics pose or may in the future pose a material risk to our business and operations. If a significant portion of our workforce becomes unable to work or travel to our operations due to illness or state or federal government restrictions (including travel restrictions and “shelter-in-place” and similar orders restricting certain activities that may be issued or extended by authorities), we may be forced to reduce or suspend operations at one or more of our mines, which could reduce production, limit exploration activities and development projects and impact liquidity and financial results. In addition, we have implemented several initiatives to protect the health and safety of our employees, contractors and communities during this pandemic, including COVID-19 testing, site access symptom checks, contact tracing technology and procuring additional disinfectant and sanitation products and personal protective equipment for our employees, among others, some of which have and may result in additional costs to us.

Illnesses or government restrictions, including the closure of national borders, related to COVID-19 also may disrupt the supply of raw goods, equipment, supplies and services upon which our operations rely. We also continue to monitor legislative initiatives in the U.S., Mexico, Canada and Argentina related to COVID-19 to determine their potential impacts or benefits (if any) to our business.

Third parties with whom we conduct business, including the refiners and smelters that process and, in some cases, purchase the gold and silver doré and concentrate produced by our mines, are also subject to these risks and may be required to reduce or suspend operations, which could impact our ability to conduct our operations, advance exploration, development and expansion projects, sell our products and generate revenue.

The jurisdictions in which we operate have and may in the future continue to encounter financial difficulties resulting from one or both of lower tax revenue and new and increased costs related to COVID-19. As a result, national, state or local governments may seek to raise existing taxes or introduce new taxes that affect our business, which may adversely affect our business and financial results. For example, in Nevada, where the Gold Bar mine is located, in response to a significant loss of tourism and gaming revenue during 2020, in June 2021 the Governor signed into law a new excise tax on gross proceeds derived from mining gold and silver.

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ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

None.

ITEM 2. PROPERTIES

We classify our mineral properties into reportable segments consistent with the manner in which they are grouped in Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, Note 3, Operating Segment Reporting and subdivide them within each segment by their respective stage of development: “production properties”, “advanced-stage properties” and “exploration properties.”  Advanced-stage properties consist of properties for which advanced studies and reports have been completed indicating the presence of economically mineable mineralized material or in some cases, proven and probable reserves, and for which we have obtained or are in the process of obtaining the required permitting. Our designation of certain properties as “production properties” or “advanced-stage properties” should not suggest that we have proven or probable reserves at those properties as defined by S-K 1300. Our current operating or advanced stage properties are the following: Fox Complex in Ontario, Canada; the Gold Bar Mine in Nevada, US; the Los Azules copper project in Argentina; the San Jose Mine in Santa Cruz, Argentina and the Fenix Project in Sinaloa, Mexico.

The following table summarizes our other properties in the United States:

Project Name

County

Type of Interest

Acres

Hectares

Claimant or Owner

Agreement Status

Tonkin Springs

Eureka County

1390 Unpatented Claims

27708

11213

Held By Tonkin Springs LLC

Not currently under agreement.

Cornerstone

Eureka County

50 Unpatented Claims

1015

411

Held by Nevada Pacific Gold LLC

Not currently under agreement.

Patty JV

Eureka County

Total of 616 claims
311 claims contributed by McEwen Mining Nevada Inc.
257 claims contributed by NGM
48 Leased Claims

12644

5117

McEwen Mining Nevada Inc.
Nevada Gold Mines
Etchegaray, Smith, Damele et al

Joint Venture with Nevada Gold Mines (60% as Manager)
Serabi Gold (10%) and McEwen Mining Nevada Inc. (30%)

New Pass

Churchill County

107 Unpatented Claims

2211

895

Held by McEwen Mining Nevada Inc.

Under a 50/50 JV with Bonaventure (Iconic)

South Midas
(Squaw Creek)

Elko County

151 Unpatented Claims

3096

1253

Held by McEwen Mining Nevada Inc.

Under a 50/50 JV with Bonaventure (Iconic)

Elder Creek

Humboldt County
Lander County

573 Unpatented Claims

11831

4788

Held by NPGUS LLC

Not currently under agreement.

Slaven Canyon

Lander County

68 Unpatented Claims

1382

559

Held by WKGUS LLC

Currently in an Exploration Agreement with Option to Lease with Baker Hughes Oilfield Operations LLC, set to expire 5/7/2022

Keystone and O'Dair

Eureka County

2 Patented Claims

16.52

6.7

Owned by:
50% Nevada Pacific Gold (US), Inc.
50% Robert C. Withnell and Ralph S.Withnell

Not currently under agreement.

The following table summarizes our other properties in Canada:

Property name

Municipality

Type of Interest

Acres / Hectares

Stage

Conditions

Ownership

Buffalo Ankerite

Timmins

11 Patented claims

432 / 175

Exploration

NPI agreement with Summit

Held by McEwen Mining via Lexam VG

Paymaster

Timmins

15 Patented claims

1730 / 700

Exploration

None

60% JV interest with Newmont (40%)

Black Fox North

Black River-Matheson

50 Unpatented claims

1608 / 651

Exploration

100% McEwen Mining

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The location of our significant production, advanced-stage and exploration properties is shown below:

Graphic

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SEGMENT: USA

The following map depicts the location of our major properties in the USA segment, including the Gold Bar mine and exploration properties which are fully owned by us or subject to joint venture agreements. The Gold Bar mine is located in the southern Roberts Creek Mountains along the prolific Battle Mountain-Eureka-Cortez gold trend in central Nevada. Approximately 25 miles northwest of the Gold Bar property is the Cortez gold mine owned by Nevada Gold Mines (Barrick and Newmont joint venture), and 25 miles southeast is the producing Ruby Hill mine:

Map

Description automatically generated

The following table summarizes the land position of our properties in Nevada as of December 31, 2021:

    

Number of

    

Square

USA Mineral Property Interest

Claims

Miles

Gold Bar

 

3,016

 

97

Tonkin

 

1,390

 

45

Battle Mountain

 

573

 

18

Other Properties

 

1,300

 

42

Total USA Properties

 

6,279

 

203

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Production Properties

Gold Bar mine, Nevada (100% owned)

For detailed information on the Gold Bar mine production statistics and financial results, refer to Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.

Overview and History

The Gold Bar mine is an open pit oxide gold mine with a processing facility, heap leach pad and gold recovery plant. The mine is located primarily on public lands managed by the Nevada Bureau of Land Management (“BLM”). We commenced construction in November 2017 following receipt of the signed Record of Decision from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The Gold Bar mine achieved commercial production on May 23, 2019.

The property is located within the Battle Mountain-Eureka-Cortez gold trend in Eureka County, Nevada. The property was previously mined from 1987 to 1994 by Atlas Precious Metals Inc.

Location and Access

The Gold Bar mine is located in the Southern Roberts Creek Mountains, in Eureka County, Nevada, approximately 30 miles northwest of the town of Eureka, Nevada, primarily in Township 22 North, Range 50 East (N39°48’16.5”; W116°21’09.65”).  The mine site is accessed from US Highway 50 by travelling north on Robert’s Creek Road, an unimproved dirt road maintained by the Company. The mine area is approximately 15 miles from U.S. Highway 50.

Geology and Mineralization

The mine is located in the Battle Mountain-Eureka mineral belt in a large window of lower-plate carbonate rocks surrounded by upper-plate rocks. The lower-plate carbonates consist of an east-dipping section of Silurian Lone Mountain Dolomite, Devonian McColley Canyon Formation, Devonian Denay Formation, and Devonian Devils Gate Limestone (from oldest to youngest). Gold mineralization is hosted primarily in the Bartine Member of the McColley Canyon Formation, which consists of carbonate wackestones and packstones approximately 250 to 380 feet thick. Minor amounts of mineralization are found in the underlying dolomitic limestone Kobeh Member of the McColley Canyon Formation where it is adjacent to apparent feeder structures. The project is in an area with “Carlin-Type” sediment-hosted gold mineralization characteristics with typical associated alteration (decalcification, silicification).

At Gold Ridge, extensive alteration (silicification) and gold mineralization occurs at surface and at depth proximal to three historical open pits.  Drilling is ongoing to extend mineralization beyond the currently defined resource.