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Form 10-K BIOCRYST PHARMACEUTICALS For: Dec 31

February 28, 2022 6:13 PM EST

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bcrx20211231_10k.htm
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UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

Form 10-K

 

         ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021

 

         TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

For the transition period from _____ to _____

 

Commission File Number 000-23186

 

BIOCRYST PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

Delaware

(State or other jurisdiction

of incorporation or organization)

62-1413174

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification No.)

 

4505 Emperor Blvd., Suite 200, Durham, North Carolina 27703

(Address of principal executive offices)

 

(919) 859-1302

(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act

 

Title of each class

 

Trading Symbol(s)

 

Name of each exchange on which registered

Common Stock, $0.01 par value

 

BCRX

 

Nasdaq Global Select Market

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None.

 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.          Yes ☒          No ☐

 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Act. Yes ☐ No

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ☒          No ☐

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes ☒          No ☐

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer

Accelerated filer

Non-accelerated filer

Smaller reporting company

  

Emerging growth company

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes No ☒

 

The registrant estimates that the aggregate market value of the Common Stock on June 30, 2021 (based upon the closing price shown on the Nasdaq Global Select Market on June 30, 2021) held by non-affiliates was $2,800,557,076.

 

The number of shares of Common Stock, par value $0.01, of the registrant outstanding as of January 31, 2022 was 184,661,799 shares.

 

 

 

 

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

 

Portions of the registrant’s definitive proxy statement to be filed in connection with the solicitation of proxies for its 2022 annual meeting of stockholders are incorporated by reference into Items 10, 11, 12, 13, and 14 under Part III hereof.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

Page No.

   

Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements

1
Risk Factor Summary 2
   

PART I

 
   

ITEM 1. BUSINESS

4

ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS

20

ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

42

ITEM 2. PROPERTIES

42

ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

43

ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES

43
   

PART II

 
   

ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS, AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

43

ITEM 6. RESERVED

44

ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

44

ITEM 7A. QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK

55

ITEM 8. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA

56

ITEM 9. CHANGES IN AND DISAGREEMENTS WITH ACCOUNTANTS ON ACCOUNTING AND FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE

87

ITEM 9A. CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES

87

ITEM 9B. OTHER INFORMATION

87
ITEM 9C. DISCLOSURE REGARDING FOREIGN JURISDICTIONS THAT PREVENT INSPECTIONS 88
   

PART III

 
   

ITEM 10. DIRECTORS, EXECUTIVE OFFICERS, AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

88

ITEM 11. EXECUTIVE COMPENSATION

88

ITEM 12. SECURITY OWNERSHIP OF CERTAIN BENEFICIAL OWNERS AND MANAGEMENT AND RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS

88

ITEM 13. CERTAIN RELATIONSHIPS AND RELATED TRANSACTIONS, AND DIRECTOR INDEPENDENCE

88

ITEM 14. PRINCIPAL ACCOUNTANT FEES AND SERVICES

88
   

PART IV

 
   

ITEM 15. EXHIBIT AND FINANCIAL STATEMENT SCHEDULES

88

ITEM 16. FORM 10-K SUMMARY

96
   

SIGNATURES

97
   

EX-10.14

EX-10.72

EX-10.76

EX-10.101

EX-10.102

EX-10.103

EX-10.104

EX-21

EX-23

EX-31.1

EX-31.2

EX-32.1

EX-32.2

EX-101

EX-104

 

 

i

 

 

 

 

 

When used in this report, unless otherwise indicated, we, our, us, the Company, and BioCryst refer to BioCryst Pharmaceuticals, Inc. and, where appropriate, its subsidiaries.

 

Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements

 

This Annual Report on Form 10-K (this “report”) includes forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, which are subject to the “safe harbor” created in Section 21E. In particular, statements about our expectations, beliefs, plans, objectives or assumptions of future events or performance are contained or incorporated by reference in this report. All statements other than statements of historical facts contained herein are forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements can generally be identified by the use of words such as “may,” “will,” “intends,” “plans,” “believes,” “anticipates,” “expects,” “estimates,” “predicts,” “potential,” the negative of these words or similar expressions. Statements that describe our future plans, strategies, intentions, expectations, objectives, goals or prospects are also forward-looking statements. Discussions containing these forward-looking statements are principally contained in the “Business,” “Risk Factors,” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” sections of this report, as well as any amendments we make to those sections in filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). These forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements about:

 

 

the preclinical development, clinical development, commercialization, or post-marketing studies of our products and product candidates, including ORLADEYO® (berotralstat), BCX9930, BCX9250, peramivir, galidesivir, and early stage discovery programs;

 

 

the timing and success of our commercialization of ORLADEYO in the U.S. and elsewhere and expectations regarding the commercial market for ORLADEYO;

 

 

the potential for government stockpiling orders of our products and product candidates, including the timing or likelihood of entering into any U.S. government stockpile order and our ability to execute any such order;

 

 

the potential funding from our contracts with the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (“BARDA/HHS”) and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases within the HHS (“NIAID/HHS”) for the development of galidesivir;

 

 

additional regulatory approvals, or milestones, royalties or profit from sales of our products by us or our partners;

 

 

the implementation of our business model, strategic plans for our business, products, product candidates and technology;

 

 

our ability to establish and maintain collaborations or out-license rights to our products and product candidates;

 

 

plans, programs, progress and potential success of our collaborations, including with Torii Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. (“Torii”) for ORLADEYO in Japan and Shionogi & Co., Ltd. (“Shionogi”) and Green Cross Corporation (“Green Cross”) for peramivir in their territories;

 

 

our and our subsidiary guarantors’ ability to satisfy obligations under our Credit Agreement and to comply with the covenants as set forth in the agreements governing our debt obligations;

 

 

the scope of protection we are able to establish and maintain for intellectual property rights covering our products, product candidates, and technology;

 

 

our ability to operate our business without infringing the intellectual property rights of others;

 

 

estimates of our expenses, revenues, capital requirements, annual cash utilization, and our needs for additional financing;

 

 

the timing or likelihood of regulatory filings or regulatory agreements, deferrals, and approvals;

 

 

our ability to manage our liquidity needs, including our ability to raise additional capital, to fund our operations or repay our recourse debt obligations;

 

 

our financial performance; and

 

 

competitive companies, technologies, and our industry.

 

We have based any forward-looking statements on our current expectations about future events or performance. While we believe these expectations are reasonable, forward-looking statements are inherently subject to known and unknown risks and uncertainties, many of which are beyond our control. Actual results may differ materially from those suggested or implied by these forward-looking statements for various reasons, including those discussed in this report under the heading “Risk Factors” in Part I, Item 1A, some of which are summarized in the “Risk Factor Summary” below. Any forward-looking statement is subject to these and other risks, uncertainties, and assumptions relating to our operations, results of operations, industry, and future growth. Given these risks and uncertainties, you are cautioned not to place undue reliance on our forward-looking statements. The forward-looking statements included in this report are made only as of the date hereof. We do not undertake, and specifically decline, any obligation to update any of these statements or to publicly announce the results of any revisions to any forward-looking statements to reflect future events or developments, except as may be required by U.S. federal securities laws.

 

 

 

1

 

Risk Factor Summary

 

An investment in the Company involves risks. You should carefully read this entire report and consider the uncertainties and risks discussed in the “Risk Factors” section in Part I, Item 1A of this report, which may adversely affect our business, financial condition, or results of operations, along with the other information included in our other filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission, before deciding to invest in the Company. A summary of the principal factors that make an investment in the Company speculative or risky is set forth below.

 

 

The ongoing novel coronavirus (“COVID-19”) pandemic could create challenges in all aspects of our business, including, without limitation, delays, stoppages, difficulties, and increased expenses with respect to our and our partners’ development, regulatory processes, and supply chains, negatively impact our ability to access the capital or credit markets to finance our operations, or have the effect of heightening many of the risks described below or in the “Risk Factors” section in Part I, Item 1A of this report.

 

 

We have incurred losses since our inception, expect to continue to incur losses, and may never be profitable.

 

 

We may need to raise additional capital in the future. If we are unable to raise capital when needed, we may need to adjust our operations.

 

 

Our success depends upon our ability to advance our product candidates through the various stages of development, especially through the clinical trial process, to receive and maintain regulatory approval for the commercial sale of our product candidates, and to successfully commercialize any approved products. The development process and related regulatory processes are complex and uncertain, may be lengthy and expensive, and require, among other things, an indication that our products and product candidates are safe and effective. For example, applicable regulatory agencies could refuse to approve, or impose restrictions or warnings on, our product candidates, require us to conduct additional studies or adopt study designs that differ from our planned development strategies, suspend or terminate our clinical trials, or take other actions that could materially impact the cost, timing, and success of our planned development strategies.

 

 

We rely heavily upon third parties, including development partners, contractors, contract research organizations, and third-party suppliers, manufacturers, and distributors, for many important stages of our product candidate development and in the commercialization of certain of our products and product candidates. Our failure to maintain these relationships, the failure of any such third party to perform its obligations under agreements with us, or the failure of such a relationship to meet our expectations could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

 

 

If we fail to obtain additional financing or acceptable partnership arrangements, we may be unable to complete the development and commercialization of our products and product candidates or continue operations.

 

 

The commercial viability of any approved product could be compromised if the product is less effective than expected, causes undesirable side effects that were not previously identified, or fails to achieve market acceptance by physicians, patients, third-party payors, health authorities, and others.

 

 

There can be no assurance that our or our partners’ commercialization efforts, methods, and strategies for our products or technologies will succeed, and our future revenue generation is uncertain.

 

 

We expect to continue expanding our development and regulatory capabilities and implementing sales, marketing, and distribution capabilities, and as a result, we may encounter difficulties managing our growth, which could disrupt our operations.

 

 

We face intense competition, and if we are unable to compete effectively, the demand for our products may be reduced. In addition, developments by others may render our products, product candidates, or technologies obsolete or noncompetitive.

 

 

We are subject to various laws and regulations related to our products and product candidates, and if we or our employees, consultants, or partners do not comply with these laws and regulations, we could face substantial penalties and our reputation could be harmed. In addition, we and our partners may be subject to new legislation, regulatory proposals, and healthcare payor initiatives that may increase our costs of compliance and adversely affect our or our partners’ ability to market our products, obtain collaborators, and raise capital.

 

2

 

 

If we fail to adequately protect or enforce our intellectual property rights or secure rights to patents of others, the value of those rights would diminish. Legal proceedings to protect or enforce our patents, the patents of our partners, or our other intellectual property rights could be expensive, time consuming, and unsuccessful.

 

 

We face an inherent risk of liability in the event that the use or misuse of our products or product candidates results in personal injury or death, and our product liability insurance coverage may be insufficient.

 

 

We face risks related to our government-funded programs and are subject to various U.S. Government contract requirements, which typically contain a number of extraordinary provisions that would not typically be found in commercial contracts and which may create a disadvantage and additional risks to us as compared to competitors that do not rely on U.S. Government contracts.

 

 

If we fail to reach milestones or to make annual minimum payments or otherwise breach our obligations under our license agreements, our licensors may terminate our agreements with them and seek additional remedies.

 

 

Our Credit Agreement contains conditions and restrictions that limit our flexibility in operating our business. We may be required to make a prepayment or repay our outstanding indebtedness under the Credit Agreement earlier than we expect if a prepayment event or an event of default occurs, including a material adverse change with respect to us, which could have a material adverse effect on our business.

 

 

International expansion of our business exposes us to business, regulatory, political, operational, financial, and economic risks. For example, our actual or perceived failure to comply with European governmental regulations and other obligations related to privacy, data protection, and information security could harm our business. In addition, the United Kingdom’s withdrawal from the European Union could result in increased regulatory and legal complexity, which may make it more difficult for us to do business in Europe and impose additional challenges in securing regulatory approval of our product candidates in Europe.

 

 

If our facilities incur damage or power is lost for a significant length of time, our business will suffer.

 

 

A significant disruption in our information technology systems or a cybersecurity breach could adversely affect our business.

 

 

Our existing principal stockholders hold a substantial amount of our common stock and may be able to influence significant corporate decisions, which may conflict with the interests of other stockholders.

 

 

Our stock price has been, and is likely to continue to be, highly volatile, which could cause the value of an investment in our common stock to decline significantly.

 

 

Natural disasters, epidemic or pandemic disease outbreaks, trade wars, political unrest, or other events could disrupt our business or operations or those of our development partners, manufacturers, regulators, or third parties with whom we conduct business now or in the future.

 

 

We are subject to legal proceedings, which could harm our reputation or result in other losses or unexpected expenditure of time and resources.

 

 

If we fail to retain our existing key personnel or fail to attract and retain additional key personnel, the development of our product candidates, the commercialization of our products, and the related expansion of our business will be delayed or stopped.

 

 

3

 

PART I

 

ITEM 1.         BUSINESS

 

Our Business

 

We are a commercial-stage biotechnology company that discovers novel, oral, small-molecule medicines. We focus on oral treatments for rare diseases in which significant unmet medical needs exist and an enzyme plays the key role in the biological pathway of the disease. We integrate the disciplines of biology, crystallography, medicinal chemistry and computer modeling to discover and develop small molecule pharmaceuticals through the process known as structure-guided drug design. Structure-guided drug design is a drug discovery approach by which we design synthetic compounds from detailed structural knowledge of the active sites of enzyme targets associated with particular diseases. We use X-ray crystallography, computer modeling of molecular structures and advanced chemistry techniques to focus on the three-dimensional molecular structure and active site characteristics of the enzymes that control cellular biology. Enzymes are proteins that act as catalysts for many vital biological reactions. Our goal generally is to design a compound that will fit in the active site of an enzyme and thereby prevent its catalytic activity. Molecules from our discovery efforts that are commercially available or that are in active development are summarized in the table below and are discussed in further detail under “Products and Product Candidates” in this “Part I⸻Item 1⸻Business” section of this report.

 

Drug/Drug Candidate

 

Drug Class

 

Therapeutic Area(s)

 

Phase

 

Rights*

                 

ORLADEYO®

(berotralstat)

 

Oral Serine Protease Inhibitor Targeting Kallikrein (once-daily treatment)

 

Hereditary Angioedema (“HAE”)

 

Approved

(U.S., European Union, Japan, United Kingdom, & United Arab Emirates)

 

BioCryst (worldwide, except Japan); Torii Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. (Japan)

                 

BCX9930

 

Oral Factor D Inhibitor

 

Complement-mediated diseases (paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria)

 

Pivotal

 

BioCryst (worldwide)

                 
       

Complement-mediated diseases (C3 glomerulopathy, IgA nephropathy, primary membranous nephropathy)

 

Phase 2

 

BioCryst (worldwide)

                 

BCX9250

 

Oral Activin Receptor-like Kinase-2 Inhibitor

 

Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (“FOP”)

 

Phase 1

 

BioCryst (worldwide)

                 

RAPIVAB®

(peramivir injection)

 

Intravenous Neuraminidase Inhibitor

 

Acute uncomplicated Influenza

 

Approved

(U.S., Australia & Canada)

 

BioCryst (worldwide, except Japan, Taiwan, Korea and Israel)

                 

RAPIACTA®

(peramivir injection)

 

Intravenous Neuraminidase Inhibitor

 

Uncomplicated seasonal Influenza

 

Approved

(Japan & Taiwan)

 

Shionogi & Co., Ltd.

(Japan & Taiwan)

                 

PERAMIFLU®

(peramivir injection)

 

Intravenous Neuraminidase Inhibitor

 

Uncomplicated seasonal Influenza

 

Approved

(Korea)

 

Green Cross Corporation

(Korea)

                 

Galidesivir

(BCX4430)

 

RNA dependent-RNA Polymerase Inhibitor

 

Broad spectrum antiviral for 20 RNA viruses, including Marburg, Yellow Fever, and Ebola

 

Phase 1

 

BioCryst

(worldwide)

 

*         See BusinessCollaborations and In-License Relationships for a description of our relationships with the third parties identified in this column.

 

4

 

Business Strategy

 

Our business strategy is to create stockholder value both by focusing our discovery and development efforts on oral drugs for rare diseases for which a significant unmet medical need exists and by efficiently commercializing these drugs in the United States and certain other regions upon regulatory approval. By focusing on rare disease markets, we believe that we can more effectively control the costs of, and our strategic allocation of financial resources toward, post-approval commercialization.

 

We select disease targets and product candidates in which a small molecule would offer a significant benefit over existing products or would be the first to market. We strive to advance our product candidate portfolio from discovery to commercial markets efficiently by utilizing a small group of talented and highly-skilled employees working in conjunction with strategic outsource partners. We are unique in our approach to treat orphan diseases with orally-administered, small molecules, identified by utilizing crystallography and structure-guided drug design. The principal elements of our strategy are:

 

 

Focusing on High Value-Added Structure-Guided Drug Design Technologies. We utilize structure-guided drug design in order to most efficiently develop new therapeutic candidates. Structure-guided drug design is a process by which we design a product candidate through detailed analysis of the enzyme target, which the product candidate must inhibit in order to stop the progression of the disease or disorder. We believe that structure-guided drug design is a powerful tool for the efficient development of small-molecule product candidates that have the potential to be safe and effective. Our structure-guided drug design technologies typically allow us to design and synthesize multiple product candidates that inhibit the same enzyme target, with the goal of establishing broad intellectual property protection and formulating compounds with competitive advantages.

 

 

Selecting Inhibitors that are Promising Product Candidates. We start by selecting disease targets with well-understood biology and characteristics that fit with our ability to utilize structure-guided drug design capabilities to build potent and specific enzyme inhibitors. Next, we narrow our selection of these product candidates based on product characteristics, such as initial indications of safety and biologic activity on the target.

 

 

Developing our Product Candidates Efficiently. An important element of our business strategy is to efficiently progress our product candidates through the development process. In order to accomplish this, we typically strive for disease targets with a defined clinical and regulatory pathway for approval or diseases where high unmet needs allow for frequent interactions with regulators. In addition, as we determine such relationships to be appropriate or desirable, we control certain fixed costs and overhead by outsourcing with strategic partners and contractors or entering into license agreements with third parties, including the U.S. Government. For example, our galidesivir research program is currently being developed under U.S. Government contracts. By contracting with the U.S. Government and outsourcing certain aspects of our operations, we are able to control overhead costs and focus financial resources directly where they provide the most benefit and reduce our business risk.

 

 

Commercializing our Product Candidates Globally. A core part of our strategy is to commercialize our rare disease products globally. We have established commercial teams in the United States and Europe for the commercialization of ORLADEYO, and we are continuing to build the structure and expertise to commercialize our products in markets where we believe we can do this efficiently and effectively. We have also established relationships with licensing and distribution partners in certain markets, including Japan, and will continue to seek such relationships where we determine this to be an effective approach.

 

Products and Product Candidates

 

ORLADEYO (Berotralstat)

 

ORLADEYO is an oral, once-daily therapy discovered and developed by BioCryst for the prevention of hereditary angioedema (“HAE”) attacks. HAE is a rare, severely debilitating and potentially fatal genetic condition with a prevalence of between 1 in 33,000 to 1 in 67,000 people. HAE symptoms include recurrent episodes of edema in various locations, including the hands, feet, face, genitalia and airway. Airway swelling is particularly dangerous and can lead to death by asphyxiation. In addition, patients often have bouts of severe abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting caused by swelling in the intestinal wall. By inhibiting plasma kallikrein, ORLADEYO suppresses bradykinin production. Bradykinin is the mediator of acute swelling attacks in HAE patients.

 

ORLADEYO was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”) in December 2020 for prophylaxis to prevent attacks of HAE in adults and pediatric patients 12 years and older. Our specialty pharmacy provider for ORLADEYO in the U.S. began shipping ORLADEYO to patients with a prescription in the U.S. in December 2020. Through EMPOWER Patient Services, administered by our specialty pharmacy provider, we aim to streamline access to therapy by providing each HAE patient and their healthcare provider with a single point of contact for access to ORLADEYO. A dedicated care coordinator supports access for each patient with comprehensive financial support tools and reimbursement support.

 

ORLADEYO also received marketing and manufacturing approval from the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (“MHLW”) in Japan in January 2021 for prophylactic treatment of HAE in adults and pediatric patients 12 years and older. ORLADEYO is the first and only prophylactic HAE medication approved in Japan. On April 14, 2021, we announced that the Japanese National Health Insurance System (“NHI”) approved the addition of ORLADEYO to the NHI drug price list on April 21, 2021. Torii, our collaborative partner commercializing ORLADEYO in Japan, launched ORLADEYO in Japan on April 23, 2021. The NHI price listing triggered a $15 million milestone payment from Torii to us. In addition, under our agreement with Torii, we are entitled to receive tiered royalty payments, ranging from 20% to 40% of net sales of ORLADEYO in Japan during each calendar year. See “Collaborations and In-License Relationships” below for a description of our relationship with Torii. OrphanPacific, Inc., our representative partner in Japan, holds the marketing authorization for ORLADEYO in Japan.

 

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On April 30, 2021, we announced that the European Commission (“EC”) approved ORLADEYO for routine prevention of recurrent attacks of HAE in adult and adolescent patients aged 12 years and older. The EC approval is applicable to all European Union (“EU”) member states plus Iceland, Norway, and Liechtenstein. ORLADEYO is the first oral, once-daily prophylactic therapy for the prevention of HAE attacks approved in Europe. On June 3, 2021, we announced the launch of ORLADEYO in Germany. Appropriate HAE patients aged 12 years and older in France currently have access to ORLADEYO through an Autorisation Temporaire d’Utilisation de cohort, or Temporary Authorization for Use, granted by the French National Agency for Medicines and Health Products Safety in March 2021.  In addition, we have also launched ORLADEYO in Norway and Sweden.

 

On May 12, 2021, we announced that the United Kingdom’s Medicines and Healthcare Regulatory Agency (“MHRA”) granted marketing authorization for ORLADEYO for the routine prevention of recurrent HAE attacks in HAE patients 12 years and older. We announced on September 15, 2021 that the United Kingdom’s National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (“NICE”) recommended ORLADEYO for preventing recurrent attacks of HAE in eligible patients 12 years and older if they have at least two attacks per month. With this recommendation, HAE patients in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland will have access to the first oral, once-daily therapy for routine prevention of recurrent HAE attacks.

 

On June 16, 2021, we announced that the Israeli Ministry of Health has accepted the regulatory submission of ORLADEYO for the prevention of recurrent attacks in patients with HAE 12 years and older and that the Israeli Ministry of Health has granted an accelerated review. In addition, we entered into a distribution and supply agreement granting Neopharm Ltd., a corporation organized under the laws of the State of Israel, the exclusive rights to commercialize ORLADEYO in Israel.

 

On August 25, 2021, we announced that the new drug submission for ORLADEYO was accepted for review by Health Canada for the prevention of recurrent attacks in patients with HAE 12 years and older. We also announced that Swissmedic accepted the Company’s marketing authorization application for ORLADEYO review.

 

On September 9, 2021, we announced that the Ministry of Health and Prevention (“MOHAP”) in the United Arab Emirates (“UAE”) granted marketing authorization for ORLADEYO for the prevention of recurrent attacks in patients with HAE 12 years and older. To support commercialization efforts in the UAE, we entered into a supply and distribution agreement with NewBridge Pharmaceuticals, which also covers the Gulf Cooperation Council and Iraq.

 

On January 10, 2022, we announced that ORLADEYO is now covered by all major payors and national and regional pharmacy benefit managers in the U.S.

 

On December 7, 2020, we entered into a Purchase and Sale Agreement (the “2020 RPI Royalty Purchase Agreement”) with RPI 2019 Intermediate Finance Trust (“RPI”), pursuant to which we sold to RPI the right to receive certain royalty payments from the Company for a purchase price of $125 million in cash. On November 19, 2021, we entered into a second Purchase and Sale Agreement (the “2021 RPI Royalty Purchase Agreement” and together with the 2020 RPI Royalty Purchase Agreement, (the “RPI Royalty Purchase Agreements”) with RPI, pursuant to which we sold to RPI the right to receive certain royalty payments from the Company for a purchase price of $150 million in cash. On November 19, 2021, we also entered into a Purchase and Sale Agreement (the “OMERS Royalty Purchase Agreement”) and collectively with the RPI Royalty Purchase Agreements, the “Royalty Purchase Agreements”) with OCM IP Healthcare Holdings Limited, an affiliate of OMERS Capital Markets (“OMERS”), pursuant to which we sold to OMERS the right to receive certain royalty payments from the Company for a purchase price of $150 million in cash. The transactions contemplated under the Royalty Purchase Agreements are referred to herein as the “Royalty Sales.” Under the Royalty Purchase Agreements, RPI and OMERS are entitled to receive tiered, sales-based royalties on net product sales of ORLADEYO in the U.S. and certain key European markets (collectively, the “Key Territories”), and other markets where we sell ORLADEYO directly or through distributors (collectively, the “Direct Sales”). In addition, RPI and OMERS are entitled to receive a tiered revenue share on amounts generally received by us on account of ORLADEYO sublicense revenue or net sales by licensees outside of the Key Territories. See “Note 8⸻Royalty Monetizations⸻ORLADEYO and Factor D Inhibitors” in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Part II, Item 8 of this report for additional information about our obligations under the Royalty Purchase Agreements.

 

We built out our U.S. commercial infrastructure in 2020 to support the launch of ORLADEYO in the U.S. in December 2020 and are continuing to build our commercial infrastructure to support launches in Europe and elsewhere. Based on proprietary analyses of HAE prevalence and market research studies with HAE patients, physicians, and payors in the U.S. and Europe, and our first full year of commercialization of  ORLADEYO in the U.S. in 2021, we anticipate the commercial market for ORLADEYO has the potential to reach a global peak of more than $1 billion in annual sales. We expect at least 70 to 80 percent of our revenue at peak to come from the U.S. These expectations are subject to numerous risks and uncertainties that may cause our actual results, performance, or achievements to be materially different. There can be no assurance that our commercialization methods and strategies will succeed, or that the market for ORLADEYO will develop in line with our current expectations. See “Risk Factors⸻Risks Relating to Our Business⸻Risks Relating to Drug Development and Commercialization⸻There can be no assurance that our commercialization efforts, methods, and strategies for our products or technologies will succeed, and our future revenue generation is uncertain” in Part I, Item 1A of this report for further discussion of these risks.

 

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Complement-Mediated Diseases

 

The complement system is part of the body’s natural immune system and is responsible for helping the body eliminate microbes (including viral and bacterial infections) and damaged cells. It is comprised of proteins that are primarily produced in the liver and circulate in the blood. Once activated, the complement system stimulates inflammation, phagocytosis and cell lysis. Excessive or uncontrolled activation of the complement system can cause severe, and potentially fatal, immune and inflammatory disorders. The complement system comprises biological cascades of amplifying enzyme cleavages involving more than 30 proteins and protein fragments, and may be activated through three pathways: the classical pathway (initiated by antibody-antigen complexes), the lectin pathway (initiated by lectin binding) and the alternative pathway (initiated by microbial surfaces). The alternative pathway also provides a critical amplification loop for all three pathways, regardless of the initiating mechanism. Factor D is an essential enzyme in the alternative pathway, thus making Factor D an attractive target to address complement-mediated diseases. Several rare diseases are known to be mediated by dysregulation of the complement system.

 

BCX9930 is a novel, oral, potent, and selective small molecule inhibitor of Factor D, discovered by the Company and currently in clinical development for the treatment of complement-mediated diseases. Based on the safety and proof-of-concept (“PoC”) data generated to date in patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (“PNH”), the program has advanced to pivotal studies of oral BCX9930 (500 mg twice-daily) in PNH and to a proof-of-concept trial of oral BCX9930 (500 mg twice-daily) in three renal complement-mediated diseases, C3 glomerulopathy (C3G), IgA nephropathy (IgAN), and primary membranous nephropathy (PMN). We are working closely with regulators and key opinion leaders in hematology and nephrology to map the advanced development strategy across a broad set of indications. Our goal is to develop oral BCX9930 as a monotherapy for complement-mediated diseases.

 

We have completed a proof-of-concept trial in patients with PNH, including both treatment-naïve and those patients with an inadequate response to C5 inhibitors.  Patients on BCX9930 have been allowed to roll over with continued follow-up into a long-term safety trial.  We continue to monitor the patients who continue in the long-term safety trial.

 

On November 29, 2021, we announced the enrollment of the first patient in the REDEEM-2 pivotal trial with BCX9930 in patients with PNH. REDEEM-2 is a randomized, placebo-controlled trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of BCX9930 (500 mg twice-daily) as monotherapy versus placebo in PNH patients not currently receiving complement inhibitor therapy. In part 1 of this trial, patients will be randomized 2:1 to receive BCX9930 or placebo under double-blind conditions for 12 weeks. All patients will receive BCX9930 in part 2 (weeks 13-52) to assess the long-term safety, tolerability, and effectiveness of BCX9930, with patients randomized to placebo in part 1 switching to BCX9930 at the week 12 visit. The primary endpoint of REDEEM-2 is change from baseline in hemoglobin, as assessed at week 12.

 

On January 7, 2022, we announced the enrollment of the first patient in the REDEEM-1 pivotal trial with BCX9930 in patients with PNH. REDEEM-1 is a randomized, open-label, active comparator-controlled comparison of the efficacy and safety of BCX9930 (500 mg twice-daily) monotherapy in PNH patients with an inadequate response to a C5 inhibitor. In part 1 of this trial, patients who have not had an adequate response to a C5 inhibitor will be randomized 2:1 to discontinue their C5 inhibitor and receive BCX9930 as monotherapy or to continue receiving their C5 inhibitor for 24 weeks. All patients will receive BCX9930 in part 2 (weeks 25-52) to assess the long-term safety, tolerability, and effectiveness of BCX9930. Patients who are randomized to C5 inhibitor therapy in part 1 will discontinue that therapy at the week 24 visit and start BCX9930 for part 2. The primary endpoint of REDEEM-1 is change from baseline in hemoglobin, as assessed at weeks 12 to 24.

 

On February 22, 2022, we announced the enrollment of the first patient in the RENEW proof-of-concept basket study with BCX9930 in patients with C3 glomerulopathy, IgA nephropathy, and primary membranous nephropathy.  RENEW is an open-label, multicenter, proof-of-concept study designed to evaluate the safety, tolerability, and therapeutic potential of BCX9930 (twice-daily) administered for 24 weeks in patients with either C3G, IgAN, or PMN.  All patients will be enrolled into one of three parallel study cohorts, based on confirmation of diagnosis and disease activity in a recent kidney biopsy, and will receive BCX9930 for the 24-week treatment period.  The primary endpoint of RENEW is percent change from baseline in 24-hour urine protein-to-creatinine ratio (uPCR), as assessed at week 24.

 

BCX9930 has received Orphan Drug and Fast Track designations from the FDA for the treatment of PNH. Orphan drug designation qualifies BCX9930 for various development incentives, including tax credits for certain clinical costs, a waiver of the new drug application fee, and a designated period of market exclusivity following approval. According to the FDA, the purpose of the Fast Track designation is to get important new drugs to patients earlier by facilitating the development, and expediting the review, of drugs to treat serious conditions and meet an unmet medical need.

 

Under the RPI Royalty Purchase Agreements, RPI will be entitled to receive tiered, sales-based royalties on net product sales, if any, of BCX9930 and another earlier stage Factor D inhibitor, as well has tiered, profit share amounts of up to 3.0% from certain other permitted sales in certain markets. See “Note 8⸻Royalty Monetizations⸻ORLADEYO and Factor D Inhibitors” in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Part II, Item 8 of this report for additional information about our obligations under the RPI Royalty Purchase Agreements.

 

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Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva (FOP)

 

FOP is an ultra-rare disease that affects approximately 1 in 2 million people worldwide. It is a severely disabling condition characterized by the irregular formation of bone outside the normal skeleton, also known as heterotopic ossification (“HO”). HO can occur in muscles, tendons and soft tissue. FOP patients progressively become bound by this irregular ossification, with restricted movement and fused joints, resulting in deformities and premature mortality. In patients with FOP, minor trauma can result in rapid development of painful inflammatory masses. These progress over several weeks resulting in the replacement of the affected soft tissue by permanent bone masses. There is no cure for this condition, and there are no approved treatments for FOP in the U.S.

 

In 2018, we announced the advancement of a program exploring activin receptor-like kinase-2 (“ALK2”) inhibitors for treatment of FOP. ALK2 enzyme is a part of the normal signaling pathway for bone formation and responds to binding its specific ligands (bone morphogenic proteins, or BMPs), by stimulating normal bone growth and renewal in healthy children and adults. Specific activating mutations of the ALK2 gene are seen in all cases of FOP. An activating mutation in ALK2 is necessary for the disease to occur, making the ALK2 kinase an ideal drug target for treatment of FOP with an ALK2 kinase inhibitor.

 

The goal of our ALK2 inhibitor program is to discover and develop orally administered kinase inhibitor drug candidates that are able to slow or prevent HO. In a phase 1 clinical trial in healthy volunteers, our lead compound, BCX9250, was safe and well tolerated at all doses studied, with linear and dose-proportional exposure supporting once-daily dosing.

 

Peramivir Injection (RAPIVAB, RAPIACTA, PERAMIFLU)

 

RAPIVAB (peramivir injection) was developed under a $234.8 million contract from the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (“BARDA/HHS”). In January 2010, our partner, Shionogi, received the first approval for peramivir injection and launched it in Japan under the commercial name RAPIACTA. It is approved in Japan for the treatment of adults, children, and infants with uncomplicated seasonal influenza and those patients at high-risk for complications associated with influenza. In August 2010, our partner, Green Cross, received marketing and manufacturing approval from the Korean Food & Drug Administration under the commercial name PERAMIFLU to treat patients with influenza A & B viruses, including pandemic H1N1 and avian influenza. See “Collaborations and In-License Relationships” below for a discussion of these licensing arrangements.

 

Peramivir was also approved in the United States in 2014, Taiwan in 2016, Canada in 2017, and Australia in 2018. A Supplemental New Drug Application (“sNDA”) was approved in the United States in February 2021, extending RAPIVAB’s availability for the treatment of acute uncomplicated influenza to pediatric patients six months and older. Prior to this approval, peramivir had been indicated in the United States for pediatric patients two years and older. In the United States, peramivir is indicated for the treatment of acute uncomplicated influenza in patients who have been symptomatic for no more than two days.

 

In September 2018, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (“HHS”) awarded us a $34.7 million contract for the procurement of up to 50,000 doses of RAPIVAB over a five-year period to supply the Strategic National Stockpile for use in a public health emergency. We delivered 20,000 doses of RAPIVAB under this contract in 2019 for a total price of approximately $13.9 million. We delivered another 9,980 doses of RAPIVAB under this contract in 2021 for a total price of approximately $6.9 million. On September 1, 2021, we announced that HHS exercised its option to purchase an additional 10,000 doses of RAPIVAB under this contract for a total price of approximately $6.9 million. As a result, we expect to deliver at least one shipment of 10,000 doses within the contract in 2022.

 

Galidesivir (BCX4430)

 

Galidesivir is a broad-spectrum antiviral (“BSAV”) that has been shown to be active against more than 20 RNA viruses in nine different families, including filoviruses, togaviruses, bunyaviruses, arenaviruses, paramyxoviruses, coronaviruses and flaviviruses. In animal studies, galidesivir has demonstrated survival benefits against a variety of serious pathogens, including Marburg, Yellow Fever, Ebola, and Zika viruses and from exposures to aerosolized Marburg virus, an experimental condition designed to mimic an exposure scenario that could result during a bioterrorist attack.

 

The objective of our BSAV program is to develop galidesivir as a broad-spectrum therapeutic for viruses that pose a threat to national health and security. The primary focus of the program is treatment of hemorrhagic fever viruses. Our galidesivir research program is currently being developed under contracts with the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases within the HHS (“NIAID/HHS”) and BARDA/HHS.

 

NIAID/HHS funding has supported galidesivir’s development as a treatment for Marburg virus, Yellow Fever and Ebola virus. Since September 2013, NIAID/HHS has supported the development of galidesivir as a therapeutic for Ebola and Marburg viruses. As of the date hereof, all options under our initial contract with NIAID/HHS have been awarded. The total amount under the initial contract, as amended, is $47.3 million, inclusive of the $1.4 million added to the contract in September 2021 to pay for certain additional costs, including additional manufacturing development costs and overhead. This is the commencement of the closing out of the initial contract.

 

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The contract we entered into with NIAID/HHS in August 2020 for the manufacture and evaluation of the safety, efficacy, and tolerability of galidesivir, with potential aggregate funding of up to $43.9 million if all contract options are exercised, remains ongoing. NIAID/HHS made an initial award of $6.3 million under this contract in 2020.

 

Since March 2015, BARDA/HHS has supported the development of galidesivir as a potential treatment for filoviruses. The total BARDA/HHS contract value to advance the program through toxicology studies and manufacturing work to support a new drug application is $39.1 million if all contract options are exercised. As of the date hereof, a total of $20.6 million has been awarded under exercised options within this contract.

 

Collaborations and In-License Relationships

 

Torii Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. (Torii)

 

On November 5, 2019, we entered into a Commercialization and License Agreement with Torii (the “Torii Agreement”), granting Torii the exclusive right to commercialize ORLADEYO for the prevention of HAE attacks in Japan. Under the Torii Agreement, we received an upfront, non-refundable payment of $22.0 million. We received an additional milestone payment of $15.0 million in the second quarter of 2021 upon receipt from the NHI of a reimbursement price approval for ORLADEYO.

 

Under the Torii Agreement, we are entitled to receive tiered royalty payments, ranging from 20% to 40% of annual net sales of ORLADEYO in Japan during each calendar year. Torii’s royalty payment obligations are subject to customary reductions in certain circumstances, but may not be reduced by more than 50% of the amount that otherwise would have been payable to us in the applicable calendar quarter. Torii’s royalty payment obligations commenced upon the first commercial sale of ORLADEYO in Japan and expire upon the later of (i) the tenth anniversary of the date of first commercial sale of ORLADEYO in Japan, (ii) the expiration of our patents covering ORLADEYO, and (iii) the expiration of regulatory exclusivity for ORLADEYO in Japan. We are responsible for supplying Torii with its required amounts of ORLADEYO. The activities of the parties pursuant to the Torii Agreement are overseen by a joint steering committee, composed of an equal number of representatives from each party to coordinate the development and commercialization of ORLADEYO in Japan.

 

Under the Torii Agreement, we granted Torii a right of first negotiation (“ROFN”) to commercialize ORLADEYO in Japan for the acute treatment of HAE attacks if we develop ORLADEYO for such indication and to commercialize any additional kallikrein inhibitor that we may develop in the future for use in HAE in Japan. Under both ROFNs, if the parties do not agree to terms with respect to a definitive amendment to the Torii Agreement or new agreement, as applicable, the terms of the amendment or agreement would be set by a third-party arbitrator.

 

Shionogi & Co., Ltd. (Shionogi)

 

In February 2007, we entered into a License, Development and Commercialization Agreement (as amended, supplemented or otherwise modified, the “Shionogi Agreement”), an exclusive license agreement with Shionogi to develop and commercialize peramivir in Japan for the treatment of seasonal and potentially life-threatening human influenza. In October 2008, we and Shionogi amended the Shionogi Agreement to expand the territory covered by the agreement to include Taiwan. Under the terms of the Shionogi Agreement, Shionogi obtained rights to injectable formulations of peramivir in Japan in exchange for a $14.0 million upfront payment. The license provided for development milestone payments (up to $21.0 million), which have all been paid, and for commercial milestone payments (up to $95.0 million) in addition to double-digit (between 10% and 20%) royalty payments on product sales of peramivir, in accordance with the terms of the Shionogi Agreement.

 

In December 2017, we, on behalf of JPR Royalty Sub LLC, a wholly-owned subsidiary of BioCryst (“Royalty Sub”), instituted arbitration proceedings against Shionogi in order to resolve a dispute with Shionogi under the Shionogi Agreement regarding the achievement of sales milestones and escalating royalties. The arbitration proceedings concluded with the decision that no sales milestones had been achieved and that royalties would remain the same. The costs associated with the arbitration proceedings are recoverable from the assets of Royalty Sub in accordance with the terms of the Indenture and servicing agreement relating to the PhaRMA Notes (each as defined below under “Shionogi Royalty Monetization and Non-Recourse Notes Payable”).

 

Generally, all payments under the Shionogi Agreement are non-refundable and non-creditable, but they are subject to audit. Shionogi is responsible for all development, regulatory, and marketing costs in Japan. The term of the Shionogi Agreement is from February 28, 2007 until terminated. Either party may terminate the Shionogi Agreement in the event of an uncured breach. Shionogi has the right of termination without cause. In the event of termination, all license and rights granted to Shionogi shall terminate and shall revert back to us. We developed peramivir under a license from the University of Alabama Birmingham (“UAB”) and have paid sublicense payments to UAB on the upfront payments and will owe sublicense payments on any future event payments and/or royalties received by us from Shionogi.

 

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Shionogi Royalty Monetization and Non-Recourse Notes Payable.

 

On March 9, 2011, we completed a $30.0 million financing transaction to monetize certain future royalty and milestone payments under the Shionogi Agreement. Pursuant to the transaction, Royalty Sub issued $30.0 million in aggregate principal amount of its PhaRMA Senior Secured 14.0% Notes due 2020 (the “PhaRMA Notes”) in a private placement to institutional investors. The PhaRMA Notes were issued under an indenture, dated as of March 9, 2011 (the “Indenture”), by and between Royalty Sub and U.S. Bank National Association, as Trustee. We received net proceeds of $22.7 million from this transaction.

 

As part of the transaction, we entered into a purchase and sale agreement, dated as of March 9, 2011, with Royalty Sub, whereby we transferred to Royalty Sub, among other things, (i) our rights to receive commercial royalty and milestone payments from Shionogi under the Shionogi Agreement and (ii) the right to receive payments under a Japanese yen/US dollar foreign currency hedge arrangement, which was put into place by us in connection with the transaction and expired in November 2020. Royalty payments are paid by Shionogi in Japanese yen, and milestone payments are paid in U.S. dollars. Our collaboration with Shionogi was not impacted by this transaction.

 

Principal and interest on the PhaRMA Notes are payable from, and are secured by the rights to royalty and milestone payments under the Shionogi Agreement, which were transferred by us to Royalty Sub. The PhaRMA Notes bear interest at 14.0% per annum, payable annually in arrears on September 1st of each year (the “Payment Date”). We remain entitled to receive any royalties and milestone payments related to sales of peramivir by Shionogi following repayment by Royalty Sub of the PhaRMA Notes.

 

Royalty Sub’s obligations to pay principal and interest on the PhaRMA Notes are obligations solely of Royalty Sub and are without recourse to any other person, including the Company, except to the extent of our pledge of our equity interests in Royalty Sub in support of the PhaRMA Notes. We may, but are not obligated to, make capital contributions to a capital account that may be used to redeem, or on up to one occasion pay any interest shortfall on, the PhaRMA Notes.

 

In September 2014, Royalty Sub was unable to pay the full amount of interest payable in September 2013 by the next succeeding payment date for the PhaRMA Notes, which was September 1, 2014. This inability constituted an event of default under the terms of the Indenture. Accordingly, we classified the PhaRMA Notes and related accrued interest as current liabilities on our balance sheet since that time. The PhaRMA Notes matured on December 1, 2020, at which time the outstanding principal amount of the PhaRMA Notes of $30.0 million, together with all accrued and unpaid interest of $20.6 million, was due in full. The failure by Royalty Sub to repay in full the outstanding principal amount of the PhaRMA Notes, together with any accrued and unpaid interest, at the December 1, 2020 final maturity date, constituted an additional event of default under the PhaRMA Notes. As a result of the continuing events of default under the PhaRMA Notes, the holders of the PhaRMA Notes may foreclose on the collateral securing the PhaRMA Notes and our equity interests in Royalty Sub, and they may exercise other remedies available to them under the Indenture in respect of the PhaRMA Notes. In such event, we may not realize the benefit of future royalty payments, if any, that might otherwise accrue to us following repayment of the PhaRMA Notes and we might otherwise be adversely affected. Due to the non-recourse nature of the PhaRMA Notes, in the event of any potential foreclosure, we believe the primary impact to us would be the loss of future royalty payments, if any, from Shionogi and the legal costs associated with retiring the PhaRMA Notes. As a result, we do not currently expect the continuing events of default on the PhaRMA Notes to have a significant impact on our future results of operations or cash flows. However, there can be no assurance that this will be the case or that we will not otherwise be adversely affected as a result of the continuing events of default under the PhaRMA Notes.

 

As of December 31, 2021, the PhaRMA Notes remained in default. We wrote off the balance due under the PhaRMA Notes to other income as a debt extinguishment as of December 31, 2021. See “Note 8−Royalty Monetizations−RAPIACTA−Non-Recourse Notes Payable−Debt Extinguishment” in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Part II, Item 8 of this report for additional information about the write-off.

 

The Indenture does not contain any financial covenants. The Indenture includes customary representations and warranties of Royalty Sub, affirmative and negative covenants of Royalty Sub, events of default and related remedies, and provisions regarding the duties of the Trustee, indemnification of the Trustee, and other matters typical for indentures used in structured financings of this type.

 

Green Cross Corporation (Green Cross)

 

In June 2006, we entered into an agreement with Green Cross to develop and commercialize peramivir in Korea. Under the terms of the agreement, Green Cross is responsible for all development, regulatory, and commercialization costs in Korea and we are entitled to share in profits resulting from the sale of peramivir in Korea, including the sale of peramivir to the Korean government for stockpiling purposes. Furthermore, Green Cross will pay us a premium over its cost to supply peramivir for development and any future marketing of peramivir products in Korea. Both parties have the right to terminate the agreement in the event of an uncured material breach. In the event of termination, all rights, data, materials, products, and other information would be transferred to us.

 

Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University and Industrial Research, Ltd. (AECOM and IRL, respectively)

 

In June 2000, we licensed a series of potent inhibitors of Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase (“PNP”) from AECOM and IRL (together, the “Licensors”). The lead product candidate from this collaboration is forodesine. We have obtained worldwide exclusive rights to develop and ultimately distribute it, or any other, product candidates that might arise from research on these inhibitors. We have the option to expand our license agreement with the Licensors to include other inventions in the field made by the investigators or employees of the Licensors. Under this agreement, as amended and restated, we have agreed to use commercially reasonable efforts to develop these drugs and to pay certain milestone payments for each licensed product (which range in the aggregate from $1.4 million to almost $4.0 million per indication) for future development, single digit royalties on net sales of any resulting product made by us, and to share a portion of future payments received from other third-party partners, if any. In addition, we have agreed to pay annual license fees, which can range from $150,000 to $500,000, that are creditable against actual royalties and other payments due to the Licensors. The Licensors have also granted us an exclusive worldwide license of galidesivir for any antiviral use.

 

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The University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB)

 

We currently have agreements with UAB for influenza neuraminidase and complement inhibitors. Under the terms of these agreements, UAB performed specific research for us in return for research payments and license fees. UAB has granted us certain rights to any discoveries in these areas resulting from research developed by UAB or jointly developed with us. We have agreed to pay single digit royalties on sales of any resulting product and to share in future payments received from other third-party partners. We have completed the research under the UAB agreements. These two agreements have initial 25-year terms, are automatically renewable for five-year terms throughout the life of the last patent and are terminable by us upon three months’ notice and by UAB under certain circumstances. Upon termination, both parties shall cease using the other parties’ proprietary and confidential information and materials, the parties shall jointly own joint inventions, and UAB shall resume full ownership of all UAB licensed products. There is currently no activity between us and UAB on these agreements, but when we license this technology, such as in the case of the Shionogi and Green Cross agreements, or commercialize products related to these programs, we will owe sublicense fees or royalties on amounts received.

 

Government Contracts

 

RAPIVAB (Peramivir Injection)

 

In September 2018, HHS awarded us a $34.7 million contract for the procurement of up to 50,000 doses of RAPIVAB over a five-year period, including an initial base order of 10,000 doses. In each of September 2019, 2020, and 2021, HHS exercised its options to purchase an additional 10,000 doses of RAPIVAB. We delivered a total of 20,000 doses of RAPIVAB and recorded approximately $13.9 million of product sales in 2019. In 2021, we delivered another shipment of 9,980 doses within the contract, totaling approximately $6.9 million in product sales. We expect to deliver at least one shipment of 10,000 doses within the contract in 2022, totaling approximately $6.9 million in product sales. The RAPIVAB purchases by HHS will supply the Strategic National Stockpile, the nation’s largest supply of life-saving pharmaceuticals and medical supplies for use in a public health emergency.

 

Galidesivir

 

In March 2015, BARDA/HHS awarded us a contract for the continued development of galidesivir as a potential treatment for diseases caused by RNA pathogens, including filoviruses. This BARDA/HHS contract has a potential value of $39.1 million if all contract options are exercised. As of the date of this report, a total of $20.6 million has been awarded under exercised options within this contract.

 

In September 2013, NIAID/HHS contracted with us for the development of galidesivir as a treatment for Marburg, and subsequently, Yellow Fever and Ebola virus disease. All options under this contract have been awarded, and the total value of the contract, as amended, is $47.3 million, inclusive of the $1.4 million added to the contract in September 2021 to pay for certain additional costs, including additional manufacturing development costs and overhead. This contract is in the process of being closed out.

 

In August 2020, NIAID/HHS awarded us a new $43.9 million contract for the manufacture and evaluation of the safety, efficacy, and tolerability of galidesivir. NIAID/HHS made an initial award of $6.3 million under this new contract.

 

The contracts with BARDA/HHS and NIAID/HHS are cost-plus-fixed-fee contracts. That is, we are entitled to receive reimbursement for all costs incurred in accordance with the contracts provisions that are related to the development of peramivir and galidesivir plus a fixed fee, or profit. BARDA/HHS and NIAID/HHS will make periodic assessments of progress and the continuation of the contract is based on our performance, the timeliness and quality of deliverables, and other factors. The government has rights under certain contract clauses to terminate these contracts. These contracts are also terminable by the government at any time for breach or without cause.

 

Patents and Proprietary Information

 

Our success will depend in part on our ability to obtain and enforce patent protection for our products, methods, processes, and other proprietary technologies, preserve our trade secrets, and operate without infringing on the proprietary rights of other parties, both in the United States and in other countries. We own or have rights to certain proprietary information, proprietary technology, issued and allowed patents and patent applications which relate to compounds we are developing. We actively seek, when appropriate, protection for our products, proprietary technology, and proprietary information by means of U.S. and foreign patents, trademarks, and contractual arrangements. In addition, we rely upon trade secrets and contractual arrangements to protect certain of our proprietary information, proprietary technology, and products and product candidates.

 

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The patent positions of companies like ours are generally uncertain and involve complex legal and factual questions. Our ability to maintain and solidify our proprietary position for our technology will depend on our success in obtaining effective patent claims and enforcing those claims once granted. We do not know whether any of our patent applications or those patent applications that we license will result in the issuance of any patents. Our issued patents and those that may issue in the future, or those licensed to us, may be challenged, invalidated, rendered unenforceable or circumvented, which could limit our ability to stop competitors from marketing related products or the length of term of patent protection that we may have for our products. In addition, the rights granted under any issued patents may not provide us with competitive advantages against competitors with similar compounds or technology. Furthermore, our competitors may independently develop similar technologies or duplicate any technology developed by us in a manner that does not infringe our patents or other intellectual property. Because of the extensive time required for development, testing and regulatory review of a potential product, it is possible that, before any of our product candidates or those developed by our partners can be commercialized, any related patent may expire or remain in force for only a short period following commercialization, thereby reducing any advantage of the patent.

 

As of December 31, 2021, we have been issued approximately 28 U.S. patents that expire between 2023 and 2039 and that relate to our kallikrein inhibitor compounds, neuraminidase inhibitor compounds, BSAV compounds, PNP inhibitor compounds, and complement-mediated disease program compounds. We have licensed a number of compounds protected by certain composition of matter patents from AECOM and IRL, totaling three additional U.S. patents that expire between 2023 and 2029. Additionally, we have approximately 25 Patent Cooperation Treaty or U.S. patent applications pending related to kallikrein inhibitor compounds, neuraminidase inhibitor compounds, BSAV compounds, PNP inhibitor compounds, FOP program compounds, and complement-mediated disease program compounds. Our pending applications may not result in issued patents, our patents may not cover the products of interest or may not be enforceable in all, or any jurisdictions and our patents may not provide us with sufficient protection against competitive products or otherwise be commercially viable. After expiration of composition of matter patents for our products and product candidates, we may rely on data exclusivity, or in some cases, method of use patents. The enforceability of these patents varies from jurisdiction to jurisdiction and may not be allowed or enforceable in some territories where we may seek approval. We may not have the funds to continue patent prosecution or to defend all of our existing patents in our current patent estate and may selectively abandon patents or patent families worldwide or in certain territories.

 

Our success is also dependent upon the skills, knowledge and experience of our scientific and technical personnel, none of which is patentable. To help protect our rights, we require all employees, consultants, advisors and partners to enter into confidentiality agreements, which prohibit the disclosure of confidential information to anyone outside of BioCryst and, where possible, require disclosure and assignment to us of their ideas, developments, discoveries, and inventions. These agreements may not provide adequate protection for our trade secrets, know-how, or other proprietary information in the event of any unauthorized use or disclosure or the lawful development by others of such information.

 

Competition

 

The pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries are intensely competitive. Many companies, including biotechnology, chemical and pharmaceutical companies, are actively engaged in activities similar to ours, including research, development, and commercialization of drugs for the treatment of rare medical conditions. Many of these companies have substantially greater financial and other resources, larger research and development staffs, and more extensive commercial and manufacturing organizations than we do. In addition, many have considerable experience in preclinical testing, clinical trials, and other regulatory approval procedures. In addition, there are also academic institutions, governmental agencies and other research organizations who conduct research in areas in which we are working. We expect to encounter significant competition for any of the pharmaceutical products we plan to develop. Companies that successfully complete clinical trials, obtain required regulatory approvals, and commence commercial marketing and sales of their products may achieve a significant competitive advantage.

 

In order to compete successfully, we must develop proprietary positions in patented drugs for therapeutic markets that have not been satisfactorily addressed by conventional research strategies and, in the process, expand our expertise in structure-based drug design. Our product candidates, even if successfully tested and developed, may not be adopted by physicians over other products and may not offer economically feasible alternatives to other therapies.

 

HAE

 

HAE is an autosomal dominant disease characterized by painful, unpredictable, recurrent attacks of inflammation affecting the hands, feet, face, abdomen, urogenital tract, and the larynx. The inflammation can be disfiguring, debilitating, or in the case of laryngeal attacks, life-threatening. Prevalence for HAE is uncertain but is estimated to be approximately 1 case per 33,000 to 67,000 persons without known differences among ethnic groups and is caused by deficient (Type I) or dysfunctional (Type II) levels of C1-Inhibitor (“C1-INH”), a naturally occurring molecule that is known to inhibit kallikrein, bradykinin, and other serine proteases in the blood. If left untreated, HAE can result in a mortality rate as high as 40% primarily due to upper airway obstruction. There are several licensed therapies for HAE, including the following:

 

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C1-INH replacement therapy is available as an acute therapy (Berinert®) and as a prophylactic therapy (Haegarda® and Cinryze®). These therapies are dosed subcutaneously and intravenously. Recombinant C1-INH (Ruconest®) is also available as an acute therapy.

 

 

Kallikrein Inhibitors ⸻ Kalbitor® (ecallantide) is a specific recombinant plasma kallikrein inhibitor that is dosed subcutaneously by healthcare providers to treat acute HAE attacks. Takhzyro® (lanadelumab-flyo) is a monoclonal antibody approved for prophylaxis of HAE attacks and can be self-administered as a subcutaneous injection.

 

 

Bradykinin receptor antagonist ⸻ Firazyr® (icatibant) and generic icatibant are indicated for the treatment of acute attacks and is administered by subcutaneous administration.

 

 

Other medications ⸻ Prophylactic administration of synthetic attenuated androgens (generically available as danazol or stanozolol) has been utilized to reduce the frequency or severity of attacks. However, long-term use of danazol or stanozolol may result in liver damage, virilization and arterial hypertension. Six-month liver function tests, annual lipid profiles, and biennial hepatic ultrasound are recommended for patients on chronic androgen therapy.

 

We are aware of a number of HAE therapies in clinical development that, if approved, may compete with ORLADEYO. These include:

 

Company

 

Asset

 

Mechanism of Action

 

Route of Administration

 

Trial Phase

 

Role in Therapy

KalVista

 

KVD-900

 

Kallikrein inhibitor

 

Oral

 

III

 

Acute treatment

   

KVD-824

 

Kallikrein inhibitor

 

Oral

 

II

 

Prophylaxis

Pharvaris

 

PHA121 (PHVS416/PHVS719)

 

B2 bradykinin antagonist

 

Oral

 

II

 

Acute and Prophylaxis

Attune

 

ATN-249

 

Kallikrein inhibitor

 

Oral

 

I

 

Prophylaxis

CSL

 

Garadacimab

 

Anti-factor XII mAb

 

IV/Subcutaneous

 

III

 

Prophylaxis

Ionis

 

Donidalorsen

 

Antisense inhibitor of prekallikrein

 

Subcutaneous

 

III

 

Prophylaxis

 

Complement-Mediated Diseases

 

Several rare diseases are known to be mediated by defects of the complement system, including PNH, atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (“aHUS”), complement 3 glomerulopathy (“C3G”), and myasthenia gravis. Alexion, AstraZeneca Rare Disease’s Soliris® (eculizumab) is a C5 inhibitor approved for PNH, aHUS, myasthenia gravis, and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder. Soliris had global sales of over $1.9 billion in 2021. Alexion also received FDA approval for Ultomiris® (ravulizumab), a longer-acting C5 inhibitor, as a treatment for PNH in late 2018 and aHUS in late 2019. Global sales for Ultomiris were $688 million in 2021. Apellis Pharmaceuticals, Inc.’s Empaveli® is a C3 inhibitor approved for PNH in the U.S. and Europe in 2021.

 

In addition to BCX9930, we are aware of a number of complement pathway-based products in development, which include:

 

Company

 

Asset

 

Mechanism of Action

 

Route of Administration

 

Trial Phase

Apellis

 

Empaveli

 

C3 Inhibitor

 

Subcutaneous

 

Approved

Akari

 

Nomacopan

 

C5 Inhibitor

 

Subcutaneous

 

III

Roche

 

Crovalimab (RG6107)

 

C5 Inhibitor

 

IV / Subcutaneous

 

III

Regeneron

 

Pozelimab

 

C5 Inhibitor

 

IV / Subcutaneous

 

III

Omeros

 

Narsoplimab

 

MASP-2

 

IV / Subcutaneous

 

BLA

   

OMS906

 

MASP-3

 

Subcutaneous

 

I

AstraZeneca

 

Danicopan (ALXN2040)

 

Factor D Inhibitor

 

Oral

 

III

   

Vermicopan (ALXN2050)

 

Factor D Inhibitor

 

Oral

 

II

Novartis

 

Iptacopan (LNP023)

 

Factor B Inhibitor

 

Oral

 

III

   

Tesidolumab

 

C5 Inhibitor

 

IV

 

II

ChemoCentryx

 

Avacopan

 

C5aR Inhibitor

 

Oral

 

Approved

Ra / UCB

 

Zilucoplan

 

C5 Inhibitor

 

Subcutaneous

 

II

Alnylam

 

Cemdisiran

 

C5 Inhibitor

 

Subcutaneous

 

II

 

Amgen (Phase 3), Samsung, and Isu Abxis are also in clinical trials developing biosimilars of eculizumab.

 

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FOP

 

FOP is a rare, severely disabling condition characterized by HO. HO can occur in muscles, tendons, and soft tissue. FOP patients progressively become bound by this irregular ossification, with restricted movement and fused joints, resulting in deformities and premature mortality. There are currently no approved treatments for FOP in the U.S.

 

In addition to BCX9250, we are aware of a number of FOP therapies in clinical development, which include:

 

Company

 

Asset

 

Mechanism of Action

 

Route of Administration

 

Trial Phase

Ipsen

 

Palovarotene

 

Retinoic Acid Receptor (RAR) Gamma Agonist

 

Oral

 

NDA

   

IPN60130

 

ALK-2 Inhibitor

 

Oral

 

II

Regeneron

 

Garetosmab

 

Anti-activin A

 

IV

 

III

Incyte

 

INCB00928

 

ALK-2 Inhibitor

 

Oral

 

II

Keros

 

KER-047

 

ALK-2 Inhibitor

 

Oral

 

I/II

 

Antivirals

 

The pharmaceutical market for products that prevent or treat influenza is very competitive. Key competitive factors for RAPIVAB (peramivir injection) include, among others, efficacy, ease of use, safety, price and cost-effectiveness, storage and handling requirements, and reimbursement. A number of products are currently available in the U.S. and/or other counties, including Japan, for the prevention or treatment of influenza, including seasonal flu vaccines, F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd.’s (“Roche”) TAMIFLU® (oseltamivir), generic oseltamivir, GlaxoSmithKline plc’s (“GSK”) RELENZA®, Genentech and Shiongi’s XOFLUZA® and Daiichi Sankyo Co., Ltd.’s INAVIR®. In addition, FUJIFILM Corporation’s favipiravir, a polymerase inhibitor, is approved in Japan.

 

Various government entities throughout the world are offering incentives, grants, and contracts to encourage additional investment into preventative and therapeutic agents against influenza, which may have the effect of further increasing the number of our competitors and/or providing advantages to certain competitors.

 

Galidesivir is a product candidate in our BSAV research program and is currently being developed under contracts with NIAID/HHS and BARDA/HHS. The objective of our BSAV program is to develop galidesivir as a broad-spectrum therapeutic for viruses that pose a threat to national health and security. The U.S. Government is investing in a number of programs intended to address gaps in its medical countermeasure plan.

 

Research and Development

 

We initiated our research and development activities in 1986. We have assembled a scientific research staff with expertise in a broad base of advanced research technologies, including protein biochemistry, X-ray crystallography, chemistry, and pharmacology. Our research facilities, located in Birmingham, Alabama, include protein biochemistry and organic synthesis laboratories, testing facilities, X-ray crystallography, computer and graphics equipment and facilities to make product candidates on a small scale for early-stage clinical trials.

 

Compliance

 

We conduct our business in an ethical, fair, honest, and lawful manner. We act responsibly, respectfully, and with integrity in our relationships with patients, health care professionals, collaborators, governments, regulatory entities, stockholders, suppliers, and vendors.

 

In order to ensure compliance with applicable laws and regulations, our Chief Financial Officer, Chief Legal Officer, and Chief People Officer oversee compliance training, education, auditing, and monitoring; enforce disciplinary guidelines for any infractions of our corporate polices; implement new policies and procedures; respond to any detected issues; and undertake corrective action procedures. Our controls address compliance with laws and regulations that govern public pharmaceutical companies, including, but not limited to, the following: federal and state law, such as the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977; Nasdaq listing requirements; the regulations of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, the SEC, the FDA, and HHS; and applicable laws and regulations administered by foreign regulatory authorities, including those of the EU, the U.K., and Japan. Our standard operating procedures are designed to provide a framework for corporate governance in accordance with ethical standards and best legal practices.

 

Government Regulation

 

The FDA regulates the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries in the U.S., and our product candidates are subject to extensive and rigorous domestic government regulations prior to commercialization. The FDA regulates, among other things, the development, testing, manufacture, safety, efficacy, record-keeping, labeling, storage, approval, advertising, promotion, sale and distribution of pharmaceutical products. In foreign countries, our products are also subject to extensive regulation by foreign governments. These government regulations are a significant factor in the production and marketing of any pharmaceutical products that we develop. Failure to comply with applicable FDA and other regulatory requirements at any stage during the regulatory process may subject us to sanctions, including:

 

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delays;

 

warning letters;

 

fines;

 

product recalls or seizures;

 

injunctions;

 

penalties;

 

refusal of the FDA to review pending market approval applications or supplements to approval applications;

 

total or partial suspension of production;

 

civil penalties;

 

withdrawals of previously approved marketing applications; and

 

criminal prosecutions.

 

The regulatory review and approval process is lengthy, expensive, and uncertain. Before obtaining regulatory approvals for the commercial sale of any products, we or our partners must demonstrate that our product candidates are safe and effective for use in humans. The approval process takes many years, substantial expenses may be incurred, and significant time may be devoted to clinical development.

 

The policies of the FDA and foreign regulatory authorities may change, and additional government regulations may be enacted which could prevent or delay regulatory approval of our product candidates or approval of new indications for our existing products. We cannot predict the likelihood, nature, or extent of adverse governmental regulation that might arise from future legislative or administrative action, either in the United States or abroad.

 

FDA Regulation

 

Before testing potential product candidates in humans, we carry out laboratory and animal studies to determine safety and biological activity. After completing preclinical trials, we must file an investigation new drug application (“IND”), including a proposal to begin clinical trials, with the FDA. Thirty days after filing an IND, a phase 1 human clinical trial can start, unless the FDA places a hold on the trial.

 

Clinical trials to support a new drug application (“NDA”) are typically conducted in three sequential phases, but the phases may overlap.

 

Phase 1 — During phase 1, which involves the initial introduction of the drug into healthy volunteers, the drug is tested to assess metabolism, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacological actions and safety, including side effects associated with increasing doses.

 

Phase 2 — Phase 2 usually involves trials in a limited patient population to: (1) assess the efficacy of the drug in specific, targeted indications; (2) assess dosage tolerance and optimal dosage; and (3) identify possible adverse effects and safety risks.

 

Phase 3 (pivotal) — If a compound is found to be potentially effective and to have an acceptable safety profile in phase 2 evaluations, phase 3 clinical trials, also called pivotal studies, major studies, or advanced clinical trials, are undertaken to further demonstrate clinical efficacy and to further test for safety within an expanded patient population at geographically dispersed clinical trial sites. In general, the FDA requires that at least two adequate and well-controlled phase 3 clinical trials be conducted.

 

Initiation and completion of the clinical trial phases are dependent on several factors, including things that are beyond our control. For example, the clinical trials cannot begin at a particular site until that site receives approval from its Institutional Review Board (“IRB”), which reviews the protocol and related documents. This process can take several weeks to several months. In addition, clinical trials are dependent on patient enrollment, but the rate at which patients enroll in the study depends on:

 

 

willingness of investigators to participate in a study;

 

ability of clinical sites to obtain approval from their IRB;

 

the availability of the required number of eligible subjects to be enrolled in a given trial;

 

the availability of existing or other experimental drugs for the disease we intend to treat;

 

the willingness of patients to participate; and

 

the patients meeting the eligibility criteria.

 

Delays in planned patient enrollment may result in increased expense and longer development timelines.

 

After successful completion of the required clinical testing, generally an NDA is submitted. Upon receipt of the NDA, the FDA will review the application for completeness. Within 60 days, the FDA will determine if the application is sufficiently complete to warrant full review and will consider the application “filed” at that time. Also upon receipt of the application, the FDA will assign a review priority to the application. Priority review applications are usually reviewed within 6 months; standard review applications are usually reviewed within 10 months. The FDA may refer NDAs for new molecular entities to an appropriate advisory committee for review and evaluation in regard to providing a recommendation as to whether the application should be approved. The FDA is not bound to follow the recommendation of an advisory committee.

 

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Following the review of the application, which may include requests for additional information from the sponsor and results from inspections of manufacturing and clinical sites, the FDA will issue an “action letter” on the application. The action letter will either be an “approval letter,” in which case the product may be lawfully marketed in the United States, or a “complete response letter.” A complete response letter will state that the FDA cannot approve the NDA in its present form and, usually, will describe all of the specific deficiencies that the FDA has identified in the application. The complete response letter, when possible, will include the FDA’s recommended actions to place the application in a condition for approval. Deficiencies can be minor (e.g., labeling changes) or major (e.g., requiring additional clinical trials). A complete response letter may also be issued before the FDA conducts the required facility inspection and/or reviews labeling, leaving the possibility that additional deficiencies in the original NDA could be subsequently cited. An applicant receiving a complete response letter is permitted to resubmit the NDA addressing the identified deficiencies (in which case a new two- or six-month review cycle will begin), or withdraw the NDA. The FDA may consider a failure to take action within one year of a complete response letter to be a request to withdraw, unless the applicant has requested an extension of time in which to resubmit the NDA. If the FDA approves an NDA, the marketing of the product will be limited to the particular disease states and conditions of use that are described in the product label. The FDA strictly regulates marketing, labeling, advertising, and promotion of products that are placed on the market. The FDA and other agencies actively enforce the laws and regulations prohibiting the promotion of off-label uses, and a company that is found to have improperly promoted off-label uses may be subject to significant liability, including investigation by federal and state authorities.

 

Approved drugs that are manufactured or distributed in the U.S. pursuant to FDA approvals are subject to pervasive and continuing regulation by the FDA, including, among other things, requirements relating to recordkeeping, periodic reporting, product sampling and distribution, advertising and promotion, and reporting of adverse experiences with the product. After approval, most changes to the approved product, such as adding new indications or other labeling claims and some manufacturing and supplier changes, are subject to prior FDA review and approval. The FDA may impose a number of post-approval requirements as a condition of approval of an NDA. For example, the FDA may require post-marketing testing, including phase 4 clinical trials, and surveillance programs to further assess and monitor the product's safety and effectiveness after commercialization.

 

We and all of our contract manufacturers are also required to comply with the applicable FDA current Good Manufacturing Practice, or cGMP, regulations during clinical development and to ensure that the product can be consistently manufactured to meet the specifications submitted in an NDA. The cGMP regulations include requirements relating to product quality, as well as the corresponding maintenance of records and documentation. Manufacturing facilities must be approved by the FDA before they can be used to manufacture our products. Based on an inspection, the FDA determines whether manufacturing facilities are in compliance with applicable regulations. Manufacturing facilities in non-United States countries that are utilized to manufacture drugs for distribution into the United States are also subject to inspection by the FDA. Additionally, failure to comply with local regulatory requirements could affect production and availability of product in relevant markets.

 

Orphan Drugs

 

Under the Orphan Drug Act, the FDA may grant orphan drug designation to drugs intended to treat a rare disease or condition, which is generally a disease or condition that affects fewer than 200,000 individuals in the U.S. Orphan drug designation, if sought, must be requested before submitting an NDA. After the FDA grants orphan drug designation, the generic identity of the drug and its potential orphan use are disclosed publicly by the FDA. Orphan drug designation does not convey any advantage in, or shorten the duration of, the regulatory review and approval process. The first NDA applicant with FDA orphan drug designation for a particular active ingredient to receive FDA approval of the designated drug for the disease indication for which it has such designation, is entitled to a seven-year exclusive marketing period (“Orphan drug exclusivity”) in the U.S. for that product, for that indication. During the seven-year period, the FDA may not finally approve any other applications to market the same drug for the same disease, except in limited circumstances, such as a showing of clinical superiority to the product with Orphan drug exclusivity or if the license holder cannot supply sufficient quantities of the product. Orphan drug exclusivity does not prevent the FDA from approving a different drug for the same disease or condition, or the same drug for a different disease or condition, provided that the sponsor has conducted appropriate clinical trials required for approval. Among the other benefits of orphan drug designation are tax credits for certain research and a waiver of the NDA application user fee for the orphan indication.

 

Fast Track Designation

 

Under the Fast Track program, the sponsor of an IND may request the FDA to designate the drug candidate as a Fast Track drug if it is intended to treat a serious condition and fulfill an unmet medical need. The FDA must determine if the drug candidate qualifies for Fast Track designation within 60 days of receipt of the sponsor's request. Once the FDA designates a drug as a Fast Track candidate, it is required to facilitate the development and expedite the review of that drug by providing more frequent communication with, and guidance to, the sponsor.

 

In addition to other benefits, such as greater interactions with the FDA, the FDA may initiate review of sections of a Fast Track drug's NDA before the application is complete. This rolling review is available if the applicant provides, and the FDA approves, a schedule for the submission of the remaining information and the applicant pays applicable user fees. However, the FDA's review period as specified under PDUFA V for filing and reviewing an application does not begin until the last section of the NDA has been submitted. Additionally, the Fast Track designation may be withdrawn by the FDA if the FDA believes that the designation is no longer supported by data emerging in the clinical trial process.

 

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Foreign Regulation

 

In addition to regulations in the United States, we are subject to a variety of foreign regulatory requirements governing human clinical trials and marketing approval, commercial sales, and distribution of drugs. The foreign regulatory approval process includes all of the risks associated with FDA approval set forth above, as well as additional country-specific regulations. Whether or not we obtain FDA approval for a product, we must obtain approval of a product by the comparable regulatory authorities of foreign countries before we can commence clinical trials or marketing of the product in those countries. The approval process varies from country to country, and the time may be longer or shorter than that required for FDA approval. The requirements governing the conduct of clinical trials, product licensing, pricing, and reimbursement vary greatly from country to country.

 

The various phases of pre-clinical and clinical research in the European Union (the “EU”) are subject to significant regulatory controls. Pursuant to the Clinical Trials Directive 2001/20/EC, as amended (the “Clinical Trials Directive”), a system for the approval of clinical trials in the EU has been implemented through national legislation of the member states. Under this system, approval must be obtained from the national competent authority of each EU member state in which a clinical trial is planned to be conducted. A clinical trial application (“CTA”) is submitted, which must be supported by an investigational medicinal product dossier and further supporting information prescribed by the Clinical Trials Directive and other applicable guidance documents, including but not limited to the clinical trial protocol. Further, a clinical trial may only be started after an independent ethics committee has issued a favorable opinion on the CTA in that country.

 

In April 2014, the EU adopted a new Clinical Trials Regulation (EU) No 536/2014 (the “Regulation”), which is set to replace the current Clinical Trials Directive. The Regulation came into effect in January 2022 with a three-year transition period in which clinical trial sponsors will be able to choose among different submission pathways. The Regulation, which is directly applicable in all EU member states, aims to simplify and streamline the approval of clinical trials in the EU. For instance, the Regulation provides for a streamlined application procedure via a single entry point and strictly defined deadlines for the assessment of clinical trial applications.

 

Manufacturing and import into the EU of investigational medicinal products for use in clinical trials is subject to the holding of appropriate authorizations and must be carried out in accordance with cGMP.

 

Under EU regulatory systems, we may submit marketing authorizations either under a centralized or decentralized procedure. The centralized procedure provides for the grant of a single marketing authorization that is valid for all EU member states. Under the centralized procedure, a single marketing authorization application is submitted to the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use of the European Medicines Agency (“EMA”), which then makes a recommendation to the European Commission (“EC”). The EC makes the final determination on whether to approve the application.  The decentralized procedure provides for mutual recognition of national approval decisions, and the holder of a national marketing authorization may submit an application to the remaining member states.

 

The United Kingdom’s (“U.K.”) exit from the EU, or Brexit, has caused political and economic uncertainty, including in the regulatory framework applicable to our operations and product candidates, and this uncertainty may persist for years.  From January 1, 2021, the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (“MHRA”) is the U.K.’s standalone medicines and medical devices regulator. As a result of the Northern Ireland protocol, different rules apply in Northern Ireland than in England, Wales and Scotland (together, Great Britain or “GB”). Northern Ireland continues to follow the EU regulatory regime, but its national competent authority remains the MHRA. The MHRA has published a draft guidance on how various aspects of the U.K. regulatory regime for medicines will operate in GB and in Northern Ireland following the expiry of the Brexit transition period on December 31, 2020. The guidance includes clinical trials, marketing authorizations, importing, exporting and pharmacovigilance and is relevant to any business involved in the research, development or commercialization of medicines in the U.K. The U.K. regulatory regime largely mirrors that of the EU.

 

Under the Japanese regulatory system administered by the Japanese Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency (“PMDA”), pre-marketing approval and clinical studies are required for all pharmaceutical products. To obtain manufacturing/marketing approval, we must submit an application for approval to the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (“MHLW”) with results of nonclinical and clinical studies to show the quality, efficacy, and safety of a new drug. A data compliance review, good Clinical Practices, or GCP, on-site inspection, cGMP audit, and detailed data review are undertaken by the PMDA. The application is then discussed by the committees of the Pharmaceutical Affairs and Food Sanitation Council (“PAFSC”). Based on the results of these reviews, the final decision on approval is made by the MHLW. In Japan, the National Health Insurance system maintains a Drug Price List specifying which pharmaceutical products are eligible for reimbursement, and the MHLW sets the prices of the products on this list. The price will be determined within 60 to 90 days following approval unless the applicant disagrees, which may result in extended pricing negotiations. The government generally introduces price cut rounds every other year and also mandates price decreases for specific products. New products judged innovative or useful, that are indicated for pediatric use, or that target orphan or small population diseases, however, may be eligible for a pricing premium. The Japanese government has also promoted the use of generics, where available.

 

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Fraud and Abuse and Related Regulatory Laws

 

We are subject to various federal and state laws pertaining to health care “fraud and abuse,” including both federal and state anti-kickback and false claims laws. Outside of the U.S., we may be subject to analogous foreign laws and regulations in the various jurisdictions in which we operate. These laws and regulations apply to our or our partners’ operations, sales and marketing practices, price reporting, and relationships with physicians and other customers and third-party payors. Anti-kickback laws generally prohibit a manufacturer from soliciting, offering, receiving, or paying any remuneration to generate business, including the purchase or prescription of a particular drug. Although the specific provisions of these laws vary, their scope is generally broad and there may be no regulations, guidance or court decisions that clarify how the laws apply to particular industry practices. False claims laws prohibit anyone from knowingly and willingly presenting, or causing to be presented, for payment to third party payors (including Medicare and Medicaid) claims for reimbursement or services that are false or fraudulent, claims for items or services not provided as claimed, or claims for medically unnecessary items or services.

 

In addition, we are subject to the federal physician sunshine act and certain similar physician payment and drug pricing transparency legislation in various states. The sunshine provisions apply to manufacturers with products reimbursed under certain government programs and require those manufacturers to disclose annually to the federal government certain payments made to physicians (defined to include doctors, dentists, optometrists, podiatrists and chiropractors) and teaching hospitals, as well as ownership and investment interests held by physicians (as defined above) and their immediate family members. State laws may also require disclosure of pharmaceutical pricing information and marketing expenditures. Violations of the physician sunshine act and similar legislation or the fraud and abuse laws may be punishable by civil or criminal sanctions, including fines and civil monetary penalties, and future exclusion from participation in government healthcare programs.

 

Reimbursement and Healthcare Reform

 

In both domestic and foreign markets, sales and reimbursement of any approved products will depend, in part, on the extent to which the costs of such products will be covered by third-party payors, such as government health programs, commercial insurance and managed healthcare organizations. These third-party payors are increasingly challenging the prices charged for medical products and services and imposing controls to manage costs. The containment of healthcare costs has become a priority of federal and state governments, and the prices of drugs have been a focus in this effort. Governments have shown significant interest in implementing cost-containment programs, including price controls, restrictions on reimbursement, and requirements for substitution of generic products. Adoption of price controls and cost-containment measures, and adoption of more restrictive policies in jurisdictions with existing controls and measures, could limit our net revenue and results. In addition, there is significant uncertainty regarding the reimbursement status of newly approved healthcare products.

 

Adequate coverage and reimbursement in the U.S. and other markets is critical to the commercial success of approved products. Recently in the U.S., there has been heightened governmental scrutiny over the manner in which manufacturers set prices for their marketed products, which has resulted in several Congressional inquiries and proposed bills designed to, among other things, reform government program reimbursement methodologies. Individual states in the U.S. have been increasingly active in passing legislation and implementing regulations designed to control pharmaceutical product pricing, including price or patient reimbursement constraints, discounts, restrictions on certain product access and marketing cost disclosure and transparency measures, and, in some cases, designed to encourage importation from other countries and bulk purchasing. Regional healthcare authorities and individual hospitals are increasingly using bidding procedures to determine what pharmaceutical products and which suppliers will be included in their prescription drug and other healthcare programs. Third-party payors are increasingly challenging the prices charged for medical products and services and, in some cases, imposing restrictions on the coverage of particular drugs. Many third-party payors negotiate the price of medical services and products and develop formularies that establish pricing and reimbursement levels. Exclusion of a product from a formulary can lead to its sharply reduced usage in the third-party payor’s patient population. The process for obtaining coverage can be lengthy and costly, and it could take several months before a particular payor initially reviews a product and makes a decision with respect to coverage. For example, third-party payors may require cost-benefit analysis data in order to demonstrate the cost-effectiveness of a particular product.

 

Outside the U.S., ensuring adequate coverage and payment for drug products can have challenges. Pricing of prescription pharmaceuticals is subject to governmental control in many countries. Pricing negotiations with governmental authorities can extend well beyond the receipt of regulatory marketing approval for a product and may require us to conduct an active comparator clinical trial to demonstrate the relative effectiveness of our therapeutic candidates or products to other available therapies to support our pricing, which could be expensive and result in delays in our commercialization efforts. Third-party payors are challenging the prices charged for medical products and services, and many third-party payors limit reimbursement for newly-approved healthcare products. Recent budgetary pressures in many EU countries are also causing governments to consider or implement various cost-containment measures, including reference price grouping, price freezes, increased price cuts, and rebates. If budget pressures continue, governments may implement additional cost-containment measures. Cost-control initiatives could decrease the price we might establish for products that we may develop or sell, which would result in lower product revenues or royalties payable to us. There can be no assurance that any country that has price controls or reimbursement limitations for pharmaceutical products will allow favorable reimbursement and pricing arrangements for any of our products.

 

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The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (“PPACA”) made extensive changes to the delivery of healthcare in the U.S. The PPACA included numerous provisions that affect pharmaceutical companies, some of which became effective immediately and others of which have taken effect over the past several years. For example, the PPACA expanded healthcare coverage to the uninsured through private health insurance reforms and an expansion of Medicaid. The PPACA also imposed substantial costs on pharmaceutical manufacturers, such as an increase in liability for rebates paid to Medicaid, new drug discounts that must be offered to certain enrollees in the Medicare prescription drug benefit, an annual fee imposed on all manufacturers of brand prescription drugs in the U.S., and an expansion of an existing program requiring pharmaceutical discounts to certain types of hospitals and federally subsidized clinics. The PPACA also contains cost containment measures that could reduce reimbursement levels for healthcare items and services generally, including pharmaceuticals. It also required reporting and public disclosure of payments and other transfers of value provided by pharmaceutical companies to physicians and teaching hospitals.

 

The continuing efforts of the government, insurance companies, managed care organizations and other payors of healthcare services to contain or reduce costs of healthcare could result in decreased net revenues from our pharmaceutical products and decreased potential returns from our development efforts. In addition, pharmaceutical and device manufacturers are also required to report and disclose certain payments and transfers of value to, and investment interests held by, physicians and their immediate family members during the preceding calendar year. Failure to submit required information may result in civil monetary penalties for payments, transfers of value, or ownership or investment interests not reported in an annual submission. Compliance with the PPACA and state laws with similar provisions is difficult and time consuming, and companies that do not comply with these state laws face civil penalties.

 

In addition, there have been a number of other legislative and regulatory proposals aimed at changing the pharmaceutical industry. For example, legislation has been enacted in certain states and at a federal level that requires development of an electronic pedigree to track and trace each prescription drug at the saleable unit level through the distribution system. Compliance with these electronic pedigree requirements may increase our operational expenses and impose significant administrative burdens.

 

Data Privacy and Security Laws

 

Pharmaceutical companies may be subject to U.S. federal and state health information privacy, security, and data breach notification laws, which may govern the collection, use, disclosure, and protection of health-related and other personal information. State laws may be more stringent, broader in scope, or offer greater individual rights with respect to protected health information (“PHI”), than the federal Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, as amended, and its implementing regulations, which are collectively referred to as HIPAA, and state laws may differ from each other, which may complicate compliance efforts. Entities that are found to be in violation of HIPAA or that enter into a resolution agreement with the HHS to settle actual or potential allegations of HIPAA noncompliance may be subject to significant civil, criminal, and administrative fines and penalties and/or additional reporting and oversight obligations.

 

Many state laws govern the privacy of personal information in specified circumstances. For example, in California the California Consumer Privacy Act (“CCPA”), establishes a privacy framework for covered businesses by creating an expanded definition of personal information, establishing data privacy rights for consumers in the State of California, imposing special rules on the collection of consumer data from minors, and creating a potentially severe statutory damages framework for violations of the CCPA and for businesses that fail to implement reasonable security procedures and practices to prevent data breaches. While clinical trial data and information governed by HIPAA are currently exempt from the CCPA, other personal information may be covered, and possible changes to the CCPA may broaden its scope.

 

EU member states, the U.K., Switzerland, and other jurisdictions have also adopted data protection laws and regulations, which impose significant compliance obligations. In the European Economic Area (“EEA”), the collection and use of personal data, including clinical trial data, is governed by the provisions of the General Data Protection Regulation (“GDPR”). The GDPR, together with national legislation, regulations, and guidelines of the states in the EEA, the U.K., and Switzerland governing the processing of personal data, impose strict obligations and restrictions on the ability to collect, analyze, and transfer personal data, including health data from clinical trials and adverse event reporting. In particular, these obligations and restrictions concern the consent of the individuals to whom the personal data relates, the information provided to the individuals, the transfer of personal data out of the EEA, the U.K., or Switzerland, security breach notifications, security and confidentiality of the personal data, and imposition of substantial potential fines for breaches of the data protection obligations. European data protection authorities may interpret the GDPR and national laws differently and impose additional requirements, which add to the complexity of processing personal data in or from the EEA, the U.K., or Switzerland. Guidance on implementation and compliance practices are often updated or otherwise revised.

 

Human Capital Resources

 

As of December 31, 2021, we had approximately 358 employees, of whom approximately 190 employees were engaged in the research and development function of our operations. Our research and development staff, approximately 76 of whom hold Ph.D. or M.D. degrees, have diversified experience in biochemistry, pharmacology, X-ray crystallography, synthetic organic chemistry, computational chemistry, medicinal chemistry, clinical development, and regulatory affairs.

 

We believe that our ability to successfully execute on our strategic initiatives is highly dependent upon our ability to recruit, retain, and reward our employees. We engage in targeted recruitment strategies to fill highly skilled positions. Our employees enjoy competitive salaries and benefits, as well as equity participation. Our compensation philosophy is designed to provide an appealing, competitive, and rewarding compensation program that encourages high personal and company performance, strong cultural and ethical behavior, and incentives aligned with stockholder interests.

 

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We are committed to providing a workplace that protects the health and wellbeing of our employees. All employees are required to abide by our Code of Conduct and Compliance Plan and health and safety parameters and to contribute to a positive, inclusive, and friendly company culture. Where we believe such arrangements can be effective, we have implemented flexible working arrangements, including work from home arrangements, for our employees, in part, to encourage employee health and wellness during the global COVID-19 pandemic. We consider our relations with our employees to be satisfactory.

 

Corporate Information

 

We are a Delaware corporation originally founded in 1986. Our corporate headquarters is located at 4505 Emperor Blvd., Suite 200, Durham, North Carolina 27703, and our corporate telephone number is (919) 859-1302. For more information about us, please visit our website at www.biocryst.com. The information on our website is not incorporated into this Form 10-K.

 

Financial Information

 

For information related to our revenues, profits, net loss and total assets, in addition to other financial information, please refer to the Consolidated Financial Statements and Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements contained in Part II, Item 8 of this report. Financial information about revenues derived from foreign countries is included in Notes 1 and 2 to the Consolidated Financial Statements contained in this report.

 

Available Information

 

Our website address is www.biocryst.com. We make available, free of charge, at our website our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to, the SEC. We also make available at our website copies of our audit committee charter, compensation committee charter, corporate governance and nominating committee charter and our code of business conduct, which applies to all our employees as well as the members of our Board of Directors. Any amendment to, or waiver from, our code of business conduct will be posted on our website.

 

ITEM 1A.         RISK FACTORS

 

An investment in our stock involves risks. You should carefully read this entire report and consider the following uncertainties and risks, which may adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations, along with all of the other information included in our other filings with the SEC, before making an investment decision regarding our common stock.

 

Risks Relating to Our Business

 

Risks Relating to COVID-19

 

Our business, operations, clinical development or commercialization plans and timelines, and access to capital could be adversely affected by the effects of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic on us or on third parties with whom we conduct business, including without limitation our development partners, manufacturers, clinical research organizations (CROs), and others, as well as on the regulatory and government agencies with whom we work.

 

The global COVID-19 pandemic continues to affect the United States and global economies, and could cause disruptions to our business, operations, and clinical development or commercialization plans and timelines, as well as the business and operations of third parties with whom we conduct business. For example, government orders and evolving business policies and procedures have impacted and may continue to impact, among other things: (1) our personnel and those of third parties on whom we rely, including our development partners (such as Torii), manufacturers, CROs, and others; (2) the conduct of our current and future clinical trials and commercial interactions; and (3) the operations of the FDA, EMA, PMDA, and other health and governmental authorities, which could result in delays of reviews and approvals.

 

If our operations or those of third parties with whom we conduct business are impaired or curtailed as a result of these events, the development and commercialization of our products and product candidates could be stopped or delayed, or the costs of such development and commercialization activities could increase, any of which could have a material adverse impact on our business. For example, our suppliers or other vendors may be unable to meet their obligations to us or perform their services as expected as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic or other health epidemics. In such circumstances, we may not be able to enter into arrangements with alternative suppliers or vendors or do so on commercially reasonable terms or in a timely manner. Such delays could adversely impact our ability to meet our desired clinical development and any commercialization timelines. Although we carefully manage our relationships with our suppliers and vendors, there can be no assurance that we will not encounter challenges or delays in the future or that these delays or challenges will not have an adverse impact on our business, financial condition and prospects.

 

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In addition, our clinical trials have been and may continue to be affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. For example, the acceleration of COVID-19 slowed startup of the inadequate C5 responder cohorts in our complement oral Factor D inhibitor program and, as a result, delayed the reporting of related data in 2020. Clinical site initiation and patient enrollment may be delayed due to prioritization of hospital resources toward the COVID-19 pandemic or concerns among patients about participating in clinical trials during a pandemic. Some patients may have difficulty following certain aspects of clinical trial protocols if quarantines impede patient movement or interrupt healthcare services. Similarly, our inability to successfully recruit and retain patients and principal investigators and site staff who, as healthcare providers, may have heightened exposure to COVID-19 or experience additional restrictions by their institutions, city, or state could adversely impact our clinical trial operations.

 

If global health concerns prevent the FDA, EMA, PMDA or other regulatory authorities from conducting their inspections, reviews, or other regulatory activities, it could significantly impact the ability of such authorities to timely review and process our regulatory submissions, which could have a material adverse effect on our business and clinical development and commercialization plans and timelines.

 

Although our business operations under the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic continue to evolve, where possible and practical, we continue to provide work-from-home flexibility for our employees, which could negatively impact productivity, disrupt our business and delay our clinical programs and timelines. In addition, we are a government contractor, and as such, we are subject to the federal COVID-19 safety protocols, including the vaccine mandate.  We cannot accurately predict the impact on operations of our return-to-the-office plan, nor of the federal COVID-19 safety protocols on our business or on third parties with whom we conduct business.  Our business may be negatively impacted in the event that large numbers of employees or key employees do not comply with these protocols.  These and similar, and perhaps more severe, disruptions in our operations could negatively impact our business, operating results and financial condition.

 

The spread of COVID-19, which has caused a broad impact globally, could also materially affect our access to capital. While the future economic impact brought by, and the duration of, COVID-19 may be difficult to assess or predict, the pandemic could result in significant disruption of global financial markets, reducing our ability to access the equity or debt capital markets or obtain other sources of capital, which could negatively affect our liquidity. In addition, a recession or market correction resulting from the spread of COVID-19 and related responses could materially affect our business and the value of our common stock.

 

The global pandemic of COVID-19 continues to evolve, with the ultimate impact of the COVID-19 pandemic or a similar health epidemic being uncertain and subject to change. These effects could be material, and we will continue to monitor the COVID-19 situation closely. We do not yet know the full extent and magnitude of the impacts that COVID-19 has had or will have on our business, on the healthcare system, or on the global economy. In addition, the COVID-19 pandemic could have the effect of heightening many of the other risks described below.

 

Financial and Liquidity Risks

 

We have incurred losses since our inception, expect to continue to incur such losses, and may never be profitable.

 

Since our inception, we have not achieved sustained profitability. We expect to incur additional losses for the foreseeable future, and our losses could increase as our research and development efforts and commercial activities progress. We expect that such losses will fluctuate from quarter to quarter and that losses and fluctuations may be substantial. To become profitable, we, or our collaborative partners, must successfully manufacture and develop products and product candidates, receive regulatory approval, and successfully commercialize our products and/or enter into profitable commercialization arrangements with other parties. It could take longer than expected before we receive, or we may never receive, significant revenue from any current or future license agreements or significant revenues directly from product sales. Even if we are able to successfully commercialize our existing products, or to develop new commercially viable products, certain obligations we have to third parties, including, without limitation, our obligation to pay RPI and OMERS, as applicable, royalties on certain revenues from ORLADEYO, BCX9930, and another earlier stage Factor D inhibitor under the Royalty Purchase Agreements, may reduce the profitability of such products.

 

Because of the numerous risks and uncertainties associated with developing our product candidates, launching new products, and their potential for commercialization, we are unable to predict the extent of any future losses. Even if we do achieve profitability, we may not be able to sustain or increase profitability on a quarterly or annual basis. If we are unable to achieve and sustain profitability, the market value of our common stock will likely decline.

 

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We may need to raise additional capital in the future. If we are unable to raise capital when needed, we may need to adjust our operations.

 

We have sustained operating losses for the majority of our corporate history and expect that our 2022 expenses will exceed our 2022 revenues. We expect to continue to incur operating losses and negative cash flows unless and until revenues reach a level sufficient to support ongoing operations.

 

Our liquidity needs will be largely determined by the success of operations in regard to the commercialization of our products and the progression of our product candidates in the future. Our plans for managing our liquidity needs primarily include controlling the timing and spending on our research and development programs, raising additional funds through equity and/or debt financings, and commercializing our approved products. We regularly evaluate other opportunities to fund operations including: (1) securing or increasing U.S. Government funding of our programs, including obtaining additional and delivering on procurement contracts; (2) out-licensing rights to certain of our products or product candidates, pursuant to which we would receive cash milestone payments and/or royalties; (3) raising additional capital through equity or debt financings or from other sources, including royalty or other monetization transactions; (4) obtaining additional product candidate regulatory approvals, which would generate revenue, milestone payments and cash flow; (5) reducing spending on research and development programs, including by discontinuing and suspending development; and/or (6) restructuring operations to change our overhead structure.

 

There can be no assurance that any of our plans will be successful or that additional capital will be available to us on reasonable terms, or at all, when needed. If we are unable to obtain sufficient additional capital, we may be forced to adjust or curtail our operations; delay, reduce, or stop ongoing clinical trials or commercialization efforts; cease operations altogether; or file for bankruptcy.

 

Risks Relating to Drug Development and Commercialization

 

Our success depends upon our ability to advance our product candidates through the various stages of development, especially through the clinical trial process, and to receive regulatory approval for the commercial sale of our product candidates.

 

To receive the regulatory approvals necessary for the commercial sale of our product candidates, we or our partners must demonstrate through preclinical studies and clinical trials that each product candidate is safe and effective. The development process and related regulatory process are complex and uncertain. The preclinical and clinical development of our product candidates is susceptible to the risk of failure inherent at any stage of drug development, including failure to demonstrate efficacy and safety, the occurrence of adverse events that are severe or medically or commercially unacceptable, our or our partners’ failure to comply with trial protocols, applicable regulatory requirements, and industry standards, or a determination by the FDA or any comparable foreign regulatory authority that a product candidate may not continue development or be approved in accordance with our development plans or at all. We cannot guarantee that any preclinical studies and clinical trials will be conducted as planned or completed on schedule, if at all, or that the results of such trials will be sufficient to support regulatory approval for our product candidates.

 

Progression of our product candidates through the clinical development process is dependent upon our trials indicating that our product candidates have adequate safety and efficacy in the patients being treated by achieving pre-determined safety and efficacy endpoints according to the clinical trial protocols. Failure to achieve any of these endpoints in any of our programs, including our Factor D program (inclusive of BCX9930), BCX9250, galidesivir, and our other rare disease product candidates, could result in delays in or modifications to our trials or require the performance of additional unplanned trials. If any of our product candidates is associated with adverse events or undesirable side effects or has properties that are unexpected, we may need to abandon development or limit development of that product candidate to certain uses or subpopulations in which the undesirable side effects or other characteristics are less prevalent, less severe or more acceptable from a risk-benefit perspective. Product candidates that initially show promise in clinical or preclinical testing could later be found to cause undesirable or unexpected side effects that could result in delays in the development of our product candidates, significant unexpected costs, or the termination of programs. The development plans for our product candidates, including our clinical trials, may not be adequately designed or executed, which could negatively affect the outcome and analysis of study results. Because of the cost and duration of clinical trials, we may decide to discontinue development of product candidates that are unlikely to show favorable results in clinical trials, unlikely to help advance a product to the point of a meaningful collaboration, or unlikely to have reasonable commercial potential.

 

Undesirable or inconclusive data in our pre-clinical studies and clinical trials or side effects in humans could result in the FDA or foreign regulatory authorities (including, e.g., the EMA, the MHLW or the MHRA) refusing to approve a product candidate for any targeted indications or imposing restrictions or warnings that could impact development or the ultimate commercial viability of a product candidate. In addition, the FDA or foreign regulatory authorities may determine that study data from our product candidates necessitates additional studies or study designs which differ from our planned development strategy, and such regulatory authorities may also require patient monitoring and testing or may implement restrictions or other conditions on our development activities, any of which could materially impact the cost and timing of our planned development strategy. We, our partners, the FDA, or foreign regulatory authorities may suspend or terminate clinical trials at any time if we or they believe the trial participants face unacceptable health risks.

 

Our ability to successfully complete the clinical development process is dependent upon many factors, including but not limited to:

 

 

our or our partners’ ability to secure suitable clinical sites and investigators and to enroll and maintain an adequate number of patients on a timely basis or at all;

 

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patients that enroll in a clinical trial may not comply with the clinical trial protocol or maintain contact with investigators to provide complete data during and after treatment;

 

our product candidates may not prove to be either safe or effective or may produce unfavorable or inconclusive results;

 

we or our partners may decide, or be required by regulatory authorities, to suspend or terminate clinical research for various reasons, including a finding that the participants are being exposed to unacceptable health risks, undesirable side effects or other unexpected characteristics of the product candidate, noncompliance with regulatory requirements or their standards of conduct, or findings of undesirable effects caused by a chemically or mechanistically similar product or product candidate;

 

regulatory authorities may disagree with our or our partners’ clinical trial protocols or our or their interpretation of data from preclinical studies and clinical trials;

 

clinical protocols or study procedures may not be adequately designed or followed by the investigators;

 

formulation improvements may not work as expected, which could negatively impact commercial demand for our product candidates;

 

regulatory authorities may fail to approve or subsequently find fault with the manufacturing processes or facilities of third-party manufacturers with which we or our partners enter into agreements for clinical and commercial supplies;

 

the supply or quantity of raw materials or manufactured product candidates or other materials necessary to conduct development activities may be insufficient, inadequate, or unavailable at an acceptable cost, and we or our partners may experience interruptions in supply;

 

our or our partners’ development plans may be delayed or changed as a result of changes in development strategy, the impact of new or different regulations, requirements, and guidelines, or other unexpected events or conditions;

 

the cost of pre-clinical studies and clinical trials may be greater than we anticipate;

 

we or our third-party contractors, including those manufacturing our product candidates or components or ingredients thereof, or conducting clinical trials or laboratory testing on our or our partners’ behalf, may fail to comply with regulatory requirements and industry standards or meet contractual obligations in a timely manner or at all; and

 

the impact of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic on one or more of the foregoing factors.

 

Clinical trials are lengthy and expensive. Many of the factors listed above could result in increased clinical development costs or longer clinical development times for any of our programs. We or our partners incur substantial expense for, and devote significant time to, preclinical testing and clinical trials, yet we cannot be certain that the tests and trials will ever result in the commercial sale of a product. Even if we or our partners successfully complete clinical trials for our product candidates, we or our partners might not file the required regulatory submissions in a timely manner, may not receive regulatory approval for the product candidates, in which case we would be unable to generate any revenues from product sales or licensing arrangements, or any product candidate, if approved, may be subject to restrictions on labeling, marketing, distribution, prescribing, and use, which could adversely impact the sales of such product.

 

If our development collaborations with third parties, such as our development partners, contractors and contract research organizations, fail, the development of our product candidates will be delayed or stopped.

 

We rely heavily upon third parties for many important stages of our product candidate development, including but not limited to:

 

 

discovery of natural proteins that cause or enable biological reactions necessary for the progression of the disease or disorder, called enzyme targets;

 

execution of certain pharmacology preclinical studies and late-stage development for our compounds and product candidates;

 

management of our phase 1, 2 and 3 clinical trials, including medical monitoring, laboratory testing, and data management;

 

execution of toxicology studies that may be required to obtain approval for our product candidates;

 

formulation improvement strategies and methods;

 

manufacturing the starting materials and drug substance required to formulate our products and the product candidates to be used in our clinical trials, toxicology studies and any potential commercial product; and

 

management of certain regulatory interactions outside of the United States.

 

Our failure to engage in successful collaborations at any one of these stages would greatly impact our business. If we do not license enzyme targets or inhibitors from academic institutions or from other biotechnology companies on acceptable terms, our drug development efforts would suffer. Similarly, if the contract research organizations or third-party contractors that conduct our initial or late-stage clinical trials, conduct our toxicology or other studies, manufacture our starting materials, drug substance and product candidates, provide laboratory testing or other services in connection with our clinical trials, or assist with our regulatory function breach their obligations to us, perform their services inconsistent with industry standards, or fail to comply with regulatory requirements, this would delay or prevent both the development of our product candidates and the availability of any potential commercial product.

 

If we lose our relationship with any one or more of these parties, we could experience a significant delay in both identifying another comparable provider and then contracting for its services. We may be unable to retain an alternative provider on reasonable terms, if at all. Even if we locate an alternative provider, it is likely that this provider may need additional time to respond to our needs and may not provide the same type or level of service as the original provider. In addition, any provider that we retain will be subject to applicable FDA current Good Laboratory Practices, current Good Manufacturing Practices (“cGMP”) and current Good Clinical Practices, and comparable foreign standards. We do not have control over compliance with these regulations by these providers. Consequently, if these practices and standards are not adhered to by these providers, the development and commercialization of our product candidates could be delayed. If any of the foregoing risks are realized, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially adversely affected.

 

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If we fail to obtain additional financing or acceptable partnership arrangements, we may be unable to complete the development and commercialization of our products and product candidates or continue operations.

 

As our programs advance, our costs are likely to increase. Our current and planned discovery, development, approval, and commercialization efforts will require significant capital. Our expenses, revenues and cash utilization rate could vary significantly depending on many factors, including: our ability to obtain regulatory approval for our product candidates, including BCX9930, BCX9250, and galidesivir; our ability to maintain regulatory approval for, successfully commercialize, and achieve market acceptance of our products, including ORLADEYO; our ability to raise additional capital; the amount of funding we receive from partnerships with third parties for the development and commercialization of our products and product candidates (including our collaborations with Torii, BARDA/HHS, and NIAID/HHS); the commercial success of our products achieved by our partners; the amount or profitability of any orders for peramivir or galidesivir by any government agency or other party; the progress and results of our current and proposed clinical trials for our product candidates; and the progress made in the manufacture of our lead products and the progression of our other programs.

 

In order to continue future operations, progress our drug development programs, and commercialize our current products and product candidates, we will be required to raise additional capital. In addition to seeking strategic partnerships, transactions and government funding, we may access the equity or debt markets, incur additional borrowings, or seek other sources of funding to meet liquidity needs at any time, including to take advantage of attractive opportunities in the capital markets. Additional funding, whether through additional sales of securities, additional borrowings, royalty or other monetization transactions, collaborative arrangements with partners, including corporate partners such as Torii and governmental agencies such as BARDA/HHS or NIAID/HHS, or from other sources, may not be available when needed or on terms acceptable to us. The issuance of preferred or common stock or convertible securities, with terms and prices significantly more favorable than those of our currently outstanding common stock, could have the effect of diluting or adversely affecting the holdings or rights of our existing stockholders. Additional borrowings may subject us to more restrictive covenants than are currently applicable to us under our Credit Agreement. In addition, collaborative arrangements may require us to transfer certain material rights to such corporate partners. Insufficient funds or lack of an acceptable partnership may require us to delay, scale-back or eliminate certain of our research and development programs.

 

Our ability to raise additional capital when needed or at all may be limited and may greatly depend upon our success in commercializing and achieving market acceptance of ORLADEYO and the success of our current drug development programs, including the progress, timeline and ultimate outcome of the development programs (including but not limited to formulation progress, long-term human safety studies, and carcinogenicity, drug-drug interaction, toxicity, or other required studies) for BCX9250 for the treatment of FOP, our Factor D program (including BCX9930) for diseases of the complement system, our broad-spectrum antiviral program, including galidesivir, and other rare disease product candidates, as well as any post-approval studies for our products. In addition, constriction and volatility in the equity and debt markets, including as a result of the impacts of COVID-19, may restrict our future flexibility to raise capital when such needs arise. Furthermore, we have exposure to many different industries, financing partners and counterparties, including commercial banks, investment banks and partners (which include investors, licensing partners, and the U.S. Government), which may be unstable or may become unstable in the current economic and political environment, including as a result of the impacts of COVID-19. Any such instability may impact these parties’ ability to fulfill contractual obligations to us, or it might limit or place burdensome conditions upon future transactions with us. Also, it is possible that suppliers may be negatively impacted. Any such unfavorable outcomes in our current programs or unfavorable economic conditions could place severe downward pressure on the price of our common stock and may decrease opportunities to raise capital in the capital or credit markets, and further could reduce the return available on invested corporate cash, which, if severe and sustained, could have a material and adverse impact on our results of operations and cash flows and limit our ability to continue development and commercialization of our products and product candidates.

 

If we or our partners do not obtain governmental approval for our product candidates or maintain governmental approval for our products, we or our partners will not be able to commercialize and sell these products and potential products, which would significantly harm our business because we will receive no revenue.

 

We or our partners must obtain regulatory approval before marketing or selling our products. If the FDA or a comparable foreign regulatory authority delays or denies regulatory approval of one of our product candidates, or revokes approval of a previously approved product, we would be unable to market or sell the product in the applicable jurisdiction and would not receive revenue from sales or licensing arrangements related thereto, which could have a material and adverse impact on our business.

 

The process of preparing for and obtaining regulatory approval in any jurisdiction may be lengthy and expensive, and approval is never certain. Because of the risks and uncertainties inherent to the development process, including risks and uncertainties related to the impact of COVID-19, our product candidates could take a significantly longer time to gain regulatory approval than we expect or may never gain approval. As discussed under “Risk Factors—Risks Relating to Our Business—Risks Relating to Drug Development and Commercialization—Our success depends upon our ability to advance our product candidates through the various stages of development, especially through the clinical trial process, and to receive regulatory approval for the commercial sale of our product candidates,” we or our partners may experience any number of unfavorable outcomes during or as a result of pre-clinical studies and clinical trials that could delay or prevent regulatory approval of our product candidates, or negatively impact our management’s credibility, our value and our operating results.

 

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Even if the FDA or foreign regulatory authorities approve a product candidate, the approval may limit the indicated uses for a product candidate, impose other restrictions on the product candidate, and/or may require post-approval studies that could impair the commercial viability of a product candidate. Even upon any approval to market our potential products, whether in the United States or internationally, we will continue to be subject to extensive regulatory requirements. These requirements are wide ranging and govern, among other things:

 

 

adverse drug experience reporting regulations;

 

product promotion;

 

product manufacturing, including good manufacturing practice requirements; and

 

product changes or modifications.

 

Our failure to comply with existing or future regulatory requirements for regulatory approval, or our loss of, or changes to, previously obtained approvals, could impair our ability to generate any revenues from product sales or licensing arrangements, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

 

We focus on rare diseases, which may create additional risks and challenges.

 

Because we focus on developing drugs as treatments for rare diseases, we may seek orphan drug, breakthrough therapy or fast track designations for our product candidates in the United States or the equivalent designations elsewhere in the world. Often, regulatory authorities have broad discretion in determining whether or not to grant such designations. We cannot guarantee that our product candidates will receive orphan drug status from the FDA or equivalent designations from other regulatory authorities. We also cannot guarantee that we will receive breakthrough therapy, fast track, or equivalent designations, which provide certain potential benefits such as more frequent meetings with the applicable regulatory authorities to discuss development plans, intensive guidance on efficient drug development programs, and potential eligibility for rolling review or priority review. Even if we are successful in obtaining any such designations for our product candidates, such designations may not lead to faster development or regulatory review or approval and do not increase the likelihood that our product candidates will receive marketing approval. For instance, although BCX9930 for PNH has received Fast Track and Orphan Drug designations from the FDA, we may not experience a faster development, review or approval process compared to the conventional process in the relevant jurisdictions. We may not be able to obtain or maintain these designations for BCX9930 or other product candidates that receive them, and our competitors may obtain these designations for their product candidates, which could impact our ability to develop and commercialize our products and product candidates or compete with such competitors, which may adversely impact our business, financial condition or results of operations.

 

The commercial viability of any approved product could be compromised if the product is less effective than expected, causes undesirable side effects that were not previously identified, or fails to achieve market acceptance within the medical community.

 

If, after obtaining regulatory approval of a product, we or others discover that it is less effective than previously believed or causes undesirable side effects that were not previously identified, any of the following adverse events could occur:

 

 

regulatory authorities may withdraw their approval of, or impose marketing or manufacturing restrictions on, the product, or require us or our partners to create a medication guide outlining the risks of unidentified side effects for distribution to patients;

 

we or our partners may be required to recall the product, change the way the product is administered, conduct additional clinical trials, or be subject to civil or criminal penalties; and

 

the product may become less competitive and our reputation may suffer.

 

Even after receiving regulatory approval, any product could fail to gain sufficient, or even any, market acceptance by physicians, patients, third-party payors, health authorities and others in the medical community. For example, physicians are often reluctant to switch their patients from existing therapies even when new and potentially more effective or convenient treatments enter the market. Further, patients often acclimate to the therapy that they are currently taking and do not want to switch unless their physicians recommend switching products or they are required to switch therapies due to lack of reimbursement for existing therapies. If an approved product does not achieve an adequate level of market acceptance, it may not generate significant revenues. The occurrence of any of the foregoing could have a material and adverse impact on our business.

 

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If we fail to successfully commercialize or establish collaborative relationships to commercialize certain of our products and product candidates, or if any partner terminates or fails to perform its obligations under agreements with us, potential revenues from commercialization of our products and product candidates could be reduced, delayed or eliminated.

 

Our business strategy includes increasing the asset value of our product and product candidate portfolio. We believe this is best achieved by retaining full product rights or through collaborative arrangements with third parties as appropriate. As needed, potential third-party relationships could include preclinical development, clinical development, regulatory approval, marketing, sales, and distribution of our products and product candidates.

 

Currently, we have established collaborative relationships, including with Torii for the commercialization of ORLADEYO in Japan and with each of Shionogi and Green Cross for the development and commercialization of peramivir. The process of establishing and implementing collaborative relationships is difficult, time-consuming and involves significant uncertainty, including:

 

 

our partners may seek to renegotiate or terminate their relationships with us due to unsatisfactory commercial, regulatory or clinical results, including post-approval clinical commitments, a change in business strategy, a change of control or other reasons;

 

our contracts for collaborative arrangements may expire;

 

the possibility that expiration or termination of collaborative relationships, such as those with certain of our distribution partners, may trigger repurchase obligations of the Company for unsold product held by our partner;

 

our partners may choose to pursue alternative technologies, including those of our competitors;

 

we have had in the past, and in the future may have, disputes with a partner that could lead to litigation or arbitration, which could result in substantial costs and divert the attention of our management;

 

we do not have day-to-day control over the activities of our partners and have limited control over their decisions;

 

our ability to generate future event payments and royalties from our partners depends upon their abilities to establish the safety and efficacy of our product candidates, obtain regulatory approvals and achieve market acceptance of products developed from our product candidates;

 

we or our partners may fail to properly initiate, maintain or defend our intellectual property rights, where applicable, or a party may utilize our proprietary information in such a way as to invite litigation that could jeopardize or potentially invalidate our proprietary information or expose us to potential liability;

 

we or our partners may not devote sufficient capital or resources toward our products and product candidates; and

 

we or our partners may not comply with applicable government regulatory requirements.

 

If we or our partners fail to fulfill our responsibilities in a timely manner, or at all, our development and commercialization efforts related to that collaboration could be reduced, delayed or terminated, or it may be necessary for us to assume responsibility for activities that would otherwise have been the responsibility of our partner. If we are unable to establish and maintain collaborative relationships on acceptable terms, we may have to delay or discontinue further development or commercialization of one or more of our products or product candidates, undertake commercialization activities at our own expense or find alternative sources of funding. Any delay in the development or commercialization of our products and product candidates would severely affect our business, because if our product candidates do not progress through the development process or reach the market in a timely manner, or at all, or if our products do not achieve market success, we may not receive any revenues from product sales or licensing arrangements.

 

The results of our partnership with Torii may not meet our current expectations.

 

We have an agreement with Torii for the development and commercialization of ORLADEYO in Japan. Our ability to realize the expected benefits of this collaboration, including with respect to the receipt or amounts of royalty payments, is subject to a number of risks, including that the commercial potential of ORLADEYO may not meet our current expectations, we or Torii may fail to comply with our respective obligations under the Torii Agreement, and third parties may fail to perform their obligations to us on a timely basis or at all.

 

The Torii Agreement provides that we are entitled to receive tiered royalty payments, the amounts of which will depend upon the amount of annual net sales of ORLADEYO in Japan during each calendar year and other factors. We remain responsible for regulatory activities with respect to ORLADEYO in Japan for one year after the first commercial sale. We continue to use third parties to satisfy many of our obligations under the Torii Agreement, including but not limited to our regulatory and other responsibilities in Japan. If our interactions, or those of our third-party agents, are unsuccessful, we could fail to meet our obligations under the Torii Agreement, which could negatively impact the commercial success and the partnership, impact the economic benefit expected or require additional development of ORLADEYO.

 

Torii may terminate the Torii Agreement under certain limited circumstances, including upon one year’s written notice after the sixth anniversary of the first commercial sale of ORLADEYO in Japan. If the Torii Agreement is terminated in connection with these provisions, we will no longer be entitled to receive any milestone or royalty payments thereunder, which could have a material adverse impact on our business and results of operations.

 

Torii has sole control over, and decision-making authority with respect to, commercialization activities for ORLADEYO for the prevention of HAE attacks in Japan, subject to oversight from a joint steering committee. Therefore, our receipt, and the amounts, of any royalty payments under the Torii Agreement are dependent upon Torii’s successful performance of such commercialization activities. In addition, competitive products and variations in patient demand, prescription levels, reimbursement determinations or other factors may limit the commercial potential of ORLADEYO in Japan, which could materially reduce the amount of any royalties we are entitled to receive under the Torii Agreement.

 

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Under the Torii Agreement, we are responsible for supplying Torii with its required amounts of ORLADEYO for commercial sale. If, due to the failure of our third-party contract manufacturers to produce sufficient drug product, we fail to supply to Torii the required amounts of ORLADEYO, then Torii’s ability to successfully commercialize ORLADEYO in Japan could be materially impaired, and we may receive less royalty income under the Torii Agreement, or none at all.

 

Any of the foregoing risks could materially adversely impact our ability to perform our obligations under the Torii Agreement, which could materially reduce the economic benefits of the Torii Agreement to us and impair or result in the termination of our collaboration with Torii.

 

There can be no assurance that our commercialization efforts, methods, and strategies for our products or technologies will succeed, and our future revenue generation is uncertain.

 

There can be no assurance that our and our partners’ commercialization efforts, methods and strategies will succeed. We may be unable to establish or sufficiently increase our sales, marketing and distribution capabilities for products we currently, or plan to, commercialize. Our ability to receive revenue from products we or our partners commercialize is subject to several risks, including:

 

 

we or our partners may fail to successfully complete clinical trials, or satisfy post-marketing commitments, sufficient to obtain and keep regulatory agency marketing approval;

 

many competitors are more experienced and have significantly more resources, and their products could reach the market faster, be more cost effective or have a better efficacy or tolerability profile than our products and product candidates;

 

we may fail to employ a comprehensive and effective intellectual property strategy, which could result in decreased commercial value of our Company, our products and product candidates, or royalties associated with such products (e.g., the loss of the peramivir patent in Korea, which may result in a reduced royalty from Green Cross);

 

we may fail to employ a comprehensive and effective regulatory strategy, which could result in a delay or failure in commercialization of our products;

 

our and our partners’ ability to successfully commercialize our products is affected by the competitive landscape, which cannot be fully known at this time;

 

revenue from product sales would depend on our ability to obtain and maintain favorable pricing;

 

reimbursement is constantly changing, which could greatly affect usage of our products;

 

future revenue from product sales would depend on our ability to successfully complete clinical studies, obtain regulatory approvals, and manufacture, market, distribute and commercialize our approved drugs; and

 

the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on us or our partners.

 

In addition, future revenue from sales of ORLADEYO is subject to uncertainties and will depend on several factors, including the success of our and our partners’ commercialization efforts in the U.S. and elsewhere, the number of new patients switching to ORLADEYO, patient retention and demand, the number of physicians prescribing ORLADEYO, the rate of monthly prescriptions, reimbursement from third-party payors, the conversion of patients from our clinical trials and early access programs to commercial customers, and market trends.

 

Even if we are able to successfully commercialize our existing products, or to develop new commercially viable products, certain obligations we have to third parties, including, without limitation, our obligations to pay royalties on certain revenues from ORLADEYO, BCX9930, and another earlier stage Factor D inhibitor under the Royalty Purchase Agreements may reduce the profitability of such products.

 

We expect to continue expanding our development and regulatory capabilities and implementing sales, marketing and distribution capabilities, and as a result, we may encounter difficulties in managing our growth, which could disrupt our operations.

 

We expect to continue experiencing significant growth in the number of our employees and the scope of our operations, particularly in the areas of drug development, regulatory affairs, sales, marketing, and distribution. To manage our anticipated future growth, we must continue to implement and improve our managerial, operational and financial systems, expand our facilities and continue to recruit and train additional qualified personnel. For example, we expanded our internal commercial team in 2020 in preparation for the commercial launch of ORLADEYO, and we continued to add additional headcount throughout 2021. Due to our limited financial resources and the limited experience of our management team in managing a company with such anticipated growth, we may not be able to effectively manage the expansion of our operations or recruit, train, and retain additional qualified personnel. The expansion of our operations may lead to significant costs and may divert our management and business development resources. In addition, if a commercial launch for any product or product candidate for which we recruit a commercial team and establish marketing capabilities in any region is delayed or does not occur for any reason, we would have prematurely or unnecessarily incurred these commercialization expenses. Any inability to manage growth could delay the execution of our business plans or disrupt our operations.

 

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We depend on third-party vendors in the manufacture and distribution of our products, product candidates and the materials for our products and product candidates. If we cannot rely on existing third-party vendors, we will be required to incur significant costs and potential delays in finding new third-party vendors, which could adversely impact the development and commercialization timeframes for our products and product candidates.

 

We depend on third-party vendors, including third-party manufacturers, distributors, and specialty pharmacies, in the manufacture and distribution of our products, product candidates, and the materials for our product candidates. Often, especially in the early development and commercialization process, we have only one or limited sources for a particular product or service, such as manufacturing and/or distribution. We depend on these third-party vendors to perform their obligations in a timely manner and in accordance with applicable governmental regulations. Our third-party vendors, particularly our third-party manufacturers and distributors, which may be the only vendor we have engaged for a particular product or service or in a particular region, may encounter difficulties with meeting our requirements, including but not limited to problems involving, as applicable:

 

 

insufficient resources being devoted in the manner necessary to satisfy our requirements within expected timeframes;

 

inconsistent production yields;

 

product liability claims or recalls of commercial product;

 

difficulties in scaling production to commercial and validation sizes;

 

interruption of the delivery of materials required for the manufacturing process;

 

failure to distribute commercial supplies of our products to commercial vendors or end users in a timely manner;

 

scheduling of plant time with other vendors or unexpected equipment failure;

 

potential catastrophes that could strike their facilities or have an effect on infrastructure;

 

potential impurities in our drug substance or products that could affect availability of product for our clinical trials or future commercialization;

 

poor quality control and assurance or inadequate process controls;

 

failure to provide us with accurate or timely information regarding inventories, the number of patients who are using our products, or serious adverse events and/or product complaints regarding our products;

 

inability of third parties to satisfy their financial obligations to us or to others;

 

potential breach of the manufacturing or distribution agreement by the third party;

 

possible termination or nonrenewal of a critical agreement by the third party at a time that is costly or inconvenient to us; and

 

lack of compliance or cooperation with regulations and specifications or requests set forth by the FDA or other foreign regulatory agencies or local customs, particularly associated with ORLADEYO, BCX9930, BCX9250, galidesivir, peramivir and our early-stage compounds.

 

Many additional factors could cause production or distribution interruptions with the manufacture and distribution of any of our products and product candidates, including human error, natural disasters, pandemics, labor disputes, acts of terrorism or war, equipment malfunctions, or raw material shortages. If our commercial distribution partners are not able to satisfy our requirements within the expected timeframe, or are unable to provide us with accurate or timely information and data, including inventories and sales, serious adverse events, and/or product complaints, our business, including our commercial launch and sales of ORLADEYO may be at risk. In addition, if specialty pharmacy services, including our third-party call center services, which provide patient support and financial services, prescription intake and distribution, reimbursement adjudication, and ongoing compliance support, is not effectively managed, the continuance of our commercial launch and sales of ORLADEYO may be delayed or compromised.

 

In addition, our contract manufacturers may not be able to manufacture the materials required for our products or product candidates at a cost or in quantities necessary to make them commercially viable. Our raw materials, drug substances, products, and product candidates are manufactured by a limited group of suppliers, including some at a single facility. If any of these suppliers were unable to produce these items, this could significantly impact our supply of products and product candidate material for further preclinical testing and clinical trials. To date, our third-party manufacturers have met our manufacturing requirements, but they may not continue to do so. Furthermore, changes in the manufacturing process or procedure, including a change in the location where the drug is manufactured or a change of a third-party manufacturer, may require prior review and approval in accordance with the FDA’s cGMP and comparable foreign requirements. This review may be costly and time-consuming and could delay or prevent the launch of a product. The FDA or foreign regulatory authorities may at any time implement new standards, or change their interpretation and enforcement of existing standards, for manufacture, packaging or testing of products. If we or our contract manufacturers are unable to comply, we or they may be subject to regulatory action, civil actions or penalties, any of which could be costly to us and could result in a delay or shortage of product.

 

If we are unable to maintain current third-party relationships, or enter into new agreements with additional third parties on commercially reasonable terms, or if there is poor manufacturing or distribution performance or failure to comply with any regulatory agency on the part of any of our third-party vendors, we may not be able to complete development of, obtain timely approval of, or commercialize, our products and product candidates.

 

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Commercialization of our products by us and our partners is subject to the potential commercialization risks described herein and numerous additional risks. Any potential revenue benefits to us, including in the form of milestone payments, royalties or other consideration are highly speculative.

 

Commercialization success of our products is uncertain and is subject to all the risks and uncertainties disclosed in our other risk factors relating to drug development and commercialization. In addition, commercialization of our products is subject to further risks and may be negatively impacted by a number of factors, including, but not limited to, the following:

 

 

our products may not prove to be adequately safe and effective for market approval in markets other than the markets in which they are currently approved;

 

necessary funding for post-marketing commitments and further development of our products may not be available timely, at all, or in sufficient amounts;

 

advances in competing products could substantially replace potential demand for our products;

 

government and third-party payors may not provide sufficient coverage or reimbursement, which would negatively impact the demand for our products;

 

we may not be able to supply commercial material to our partners and our partners may not be able to maintain or establish sufficient and acceptable commercial manufacturing, either directly or through third-party manufacturers;

 

the commercial demand and acceptance for our products by healthcare providers and by patients may not be sufficient to result in substantial product revenues to us or to our partners and may result in little to no revenue, milestone payments, or royalties to us;

 

effectiveness of marketing and commercialization efforts for our products by us or our partners;

 

market satisfaction with existing alternative therapies;

 

perceived efficacy relative to other available therapies;

 

disease prevalence;

 

cost of treatment;

 

pricing and availability of alternative products;

 

marketing and sales activities of competitors;

 

shifts in the medical community to new treatment paradigms or standards of care; and

 

relative convenience and ease of administration.

 

Risks Relating to Competing in Our Industry

 

We face intense competition, and if we are unable to compete effectively, the demand for our products may be reduced.

 

The biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries are highly competitive and subject to rapid and substantial technological change. There are many companies seeking to develop products for the same indications that we currently target. Our competitors in the United States and elsewhere are numerous and include, among others, major multinational pharmaceutical and chemical companies and specialized biotechnology firms. Most of these competitors have greater resources than we do, including greater financial resources, larger research and development staffs and more experienced manufacturing, marketing, and sales organizations. In addition, most of our competitors have greater experience than we do in conducting clinical trials and obtaining FDA and other regulatory approvals. Accordingly, our competitors may succeed in obtaining FDA or other regulatory approvals of product candidates more rapidly than we do or for products that compete with our products. Companies that complete clinical trials, obtain required regulatory approvals, and commence commercial sale of their drugs before we do may achieve a significant competitive advantage, including patent and FDA exclusivity rights that would delay our ability to market products. We face, and will continue to face, competition in the commercialization of our products, licensing of potential product candidates for desirable disease targets, licensing of desirable product candidates, and development and marketing of our product candidates from academic institutions, government agencies, research institutions and biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies. Competition may also arise from, among other things:

 

 

other drug development technologies;

 

methods of preventing or reducing the incidence of disease, including vaccines; and

 

new small molecule or other classes of therapeutic agents.

 

Developments by others may render our products, product candidates, or technologies obsolete or noncompetitive.

 

We received FDA approval of ORLADEYO, an oral, once-daily therapy for the prevention of HAE attacks in adults and pediatric patients 12 years and older, in December 2020. We subsequently received regulatory approvals for ORLADEYO in Japan, the European Union, the United Kingdom, and the United Arab Emirates in January 2021, April 2021, May 2021, and September 2021, respectively. In addition, we are performing research on or developing products for the treatment of several other rare diseases, including diseases of the complement system and FOP, as well as developing broad spectrum antivirals for use as medical countermeasures. We expect to encounter significant competition for our pharmaceutical products and product candidates. Companies that complete clinical trials, obtain required funding or government support, obtain required regulatory approvals and commence commercial sales or stockpiling orders of their products before their competitors may achieve a significant competitive advantage. There are licensed therapies for HAE (including Berinert®, Haegarda®, Cinryze®, Kalbitor®, Takhzyro®, Firazyr® (icatibant), generic icatibant, and Ruconest®), therapies for certain complement-mediated diseases such as PNH, aHUS, myasthenia gravis, and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (Soliris®, Ultomiris®, and Empaveli®), products for the prevention or treatment of influenza (seasonal flu vaccines, Tamiflu® (oseltamivir), generic oseltamivir, Relenza®, and Inavir®, favipiravir, and Xofluza®), and a number of additional products in clinical development in these therapeutic areas and for the treatment of FOP. In addition, various government entities throughout the world may offer incentives, grants and contracts to encourage additional investment into preventative and therapeutic agents against viruses such as influenza, coronavirus, Ebola, and others, which may have the effect of further increasing the number of our competitors and/or providing advantages to certain competitors. See “Business—Competition” in Part I, Item 1 of this report for further discussion of our competitors, competitive products or programs, and the competitive conditions in these and other therapeutic areas.

 

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If one or more of our competitors’ products or programs, including potential competitors not currently identified, are successful, the market for our products may be reduced or eliminated.

 

Compared to us, many of our competitors and potential competitors have substantially greater:

 

 

capital resources;

 

research and development resources, including personnel and technology;

 

regulatory experience;

 

preclinical study and clinical testing experience;

 

manufacturing, marketing, and sales experience; and

 

production facilities.

 

Any of these competitive factors could impede our funding efforts, render our products, product candidates, or technologies noncompetitive or eliminate or reduce demand for our products and product candidates.

 

Legal and Regulatory Risks

 

We are subject to various laws and regulations related to our products and product candidates, and if we or our partners do not comply with these laws and regulations, we could face substantial penalties.

 

Our or our partners’ activities related to approved products or, following their regulatory approval, any of our product candidates under development, such as BCX9930, BCX9250, and galidesivir, are subject to regulatory and law enforcement authorities in the United States (including the FDA, the Federal Trade Commission, the Department of Justice, and state and local governments) and their foreign equivalents (including the EMA, MHLW, MHRA, and others).

 

We are responsible for reporting adverse drug experiences, have responsibility for certain post-approval studies, and may have responsibilities and costs related to a recall or withdrawal of our products from sale in the jurisdictions in which they are approved. We may also incur liability associated with product manufacturing contracted by us or in support of any of our partners. We are required to maintain records and provide data and reports to regulatory agencies related to our products (e.g. risk evaluation and mitigation strategies, track and trace requirements, and adverse events), and we may incur certain promotional regulatory and government pricing risks, all of which could have a material adverse impact on our operations and financial condition. Similar responsibilities would apply upon regulatory approval of any of our other product candidates currently under development.

 

In addition, we are subject to the federal physician sunshine act and certain similar physician payment and drug pricing transparency legislation in various states. We are also subject to various federal and state laws pertaining to health care “fraud and abuse,” including both federal and state anti-kickback and false claims laws. Outside of the United States, we may be subject to analogous foreign laws and regulations in the various jurisdictions in which we operate. These laws and regulations apply to our or our partners’ operations, sales and marketing practices, price reporting, and relationships with physicians and other customers and third-party payors. Anti-kickback laws generally prohibit a manufacturer from soliciting, offering, receiving, or paying any remuneration to generate business, including the purchase or prescription of a particular drug. Although the specific provisions of these laws vary, their scope is generally broad and there may be no regulations, guidance or court decisions that clarify how the laws apply to particular industry practices. False claims laws prohibit anyone from knowingly and willingly presenting, or causing to be presented, for payment to third party payors (including Medicare and Medicaid) claims for reimbursement or services that are false or fraudulent, claims for items or services not provided as claimed, or claims for medically unnecessary items or services. The sunshine provisions apply to manufacturers with products reimbursed under certain government programs and require those manufacturers to disclose annually to the federal government certain payments made to physicians (defined to include doctors, dentists, optometrists, podiatrists and chiropractors) and teaching hospitals, as well as, ownership and investment interests held by physicians (as defined above) and their immediate family members. State laws may also require disclosure of pharmaceutical pricing information and marketing expenditures. Although we seek to comply with these statutes, it is possible that our practices, or those of our partners, might be challenged under healthcare fraud and abuse, anti-kickback, false claims or similar laws. Violations of the physician sunshine act and similar legislation or the fraud and abuse laws may be punishable by civil or criminal sanctions, including fines and civil monetary penalties, and future exclusion from participation in government healthcare programs.

 

The principal investigators for our clinical trials may serve as scientific advisors or consultants to us from time to time and receive compensation in connection with such services. Under certain circumstances, we may be required to report some of these relationships to certain regulatory authorities, including the FDA and comparable foreign regulatory authorities. Consequently, the FDA or other regulatory authority may conclude that a financial relationship between us and a principal investigator creates a conflict of interest or otherwise affects interpretation of the study. In the event of a conflict of interest with respect to a study, the integrity of the data generated at the applicable clinical trial site may be questioned or the utility of the clinical trial itself may be jeopardized. This could result in a delay in approval, or rejection, of our marketing applications by the FDA or other regulatory authority, as the case may be, and may ultimately lead to the denial of marketing approval of one or more of our product candidates.

 

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The FDA and foreign regulatory authorities may also impose post-approval commitments on us for approved products, which we may not complete successfully or on time for any number of reasons, including but not limited to lack of funds to complete the studies and insufficient interest by appropriate sites, investigators or study subjects. We are currently subject to certain post-approval commitments. If we fail to comply with post-approval legal and regulatory requirements, we could be subject to penalties, and our products could be subject to continual recordkeeping and reporting requirements, review and periodic inspections by the FDA and other regulatory bodies. Regulatory approval of a product may be subject to limitations on the indicated uses for which the product may be marketed or to the other restrictive conditions of approval that limit our ability to promote, sell or distribute a product. Furthermore, the approval of our products and any other future product candidates may be subject to requirements for costly post-approval testing and surveillance to monitor its safety or efficacy.

 

Advertising and promotion are subject to stringent FDA rules and oversight, and as an NDA-holder, we may be held responsible for any advertising and promotion that is not in compliance with the rules and regulations. In particular, the claims in all promotional materials and activities must be consistent with the FDA approvals for approved products and must be appropriately substantiated and fairly balanced with information on the safety risks and limitations of the products. We are also required to engage in appropriate truthful, non-misleading, and non-promotional scientific exchange concerning our products, and applicable regulatory authorities, competitors, and other third parties may take the position that we are not in compliance with such regulations. In addition to medical education efforts, we may offer patient support services to assist patients receiving treatment with our commercially approved products which have increasingly become the focus of government investigation.

 

Adverse event information concerning approved products must be reviewed, and as an NDA-holder, we are required to make expedited and periodic adverse event reports to the FDA and other regulatory authorities. In addition, the research, manufacturing, distribution, sale and promotion of products are potentially subject to regulation by various federal, state and local authorities in addition to the FDA, including the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, other divisions of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the U.S. Department of Justice and individual U.S. Attorney offices within the Department of Justice, state and local governments, and foreign equivalents of the foregoing. All of these activities are also potentially subject to healthcare false claims and fraud and abuse laws, as well as consumer protection and unfair competition laws.

 

If our operations with respect to our products that are subject to healthcare laws and regulations are found to be in violation of any of the healthcare fraud and abuse laws described above or any other governmental regulations that apply to us, we may be subject to penalties, including civil and criminal penalties, damages, fines and the curtailment or restructuring of our operations. Any penalties, damages, fines, curtailment or restructuring of our operations could adversely affect our ability to operate our business and our financial results. Although compliance programs can mitigate the risk of investigation and prosecution for violations of these laws, the risks cannot be entirely eliminated. Any action against us for violation of these laws, even if we successfully defend against it, could cause us to incur significant legal expenses and divert our management's attention from the operation of our business. Moreover, achieving and sustaining compliance with all applicable fraud and abuse laws may be costly.

 

Our employees and consultants may engage in misconduct or other improper activities, including non-compliance with regulatory standards and requirements, which could cause significant liability for us and harm our reputation.

 

We are subject to the risk of fraud or other misconduct by our employees and consultants, including intentional failures to comply with FDA regulations or similar regulations of comparable foreign regulatory authorities, provide accurate information to the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities, comply with manufacturing standards we have established, comply with federal and state healthcare fraud and abuse laws and regulations and similar laws and regulations established and enforced by comparable foreign regulatory authorities, report financial information or data accurately or disclose unauthorized activities to us. Employee and consultant misconduct could also involve the improper use of information obtained in the course of clinical trials, which could result in regulatory sanctions and serious harm to our reputation. It is not always possible to identify and deter employee and consultant misconduct, whether intentional, reckless, negligent, or unintentional, and the precautions we take to detect and prevent this activity may not be effective in controlling unknown or unmanaged risks or losses or in protecting us from governmental investigations or other actions or lawsuits stemming from a failure to be in compliance with such laws, standards or regulations. If any such actions are instituted against us and we are not successful in defending ourselves or asserting our rights, those actions could have a significant impact on our business and results of operations, including the imposition of significant fines or other sanctions.

 

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We and our partners may be subject to new legislation, regulatory proposals and healthcare payor initiatives that may increase our costs of compliance and adversely affect our or our partners ability to market our products, obtain collaborators and raise capital.

 

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (“PPACA”), made extensive changes to the delivery of healthcare in the U.S. The PPACA included numerous provisions that affect pharmaceutical companies, some of which became effective immediately and others of which have taken effect over the past several years. For example, the PPACA expanded health care coverage to the uninsured through private health insurance reforms and an expansion of Medicaid. The PPACA also imposed substantial costs on pharmaceutical manufacturers, such as an increase in liability for rebates paid to Medicaid, new drug discounts that must be offered to certain enrollees in the Medicare prescription drug benefit, an annual fee imposed on all manufacturers of brand prescription drugs in the U.S., and an expansion of an existing program requiring pharmaceutical discounts to certain types of hospitals and federally subsidized clinics. The PPACA also contains cost containment measures that could reduce reimbursement levels for health care items and services generally, including pharmaceuticals. It also required reporting and public disclosure of payments and other transfers of value provided by pharmaceutical companies to physicians and teaching hospitals.

 

The continuing efforts of the government, insurance companies, managed care organizations and other payors of health care services to contain or reduce costs of health care could result in decreased net revenues from our pharmaceutical products and decrease potential returns from our development efforts. In addition, pharmaceutical and device manufacturers are also required to report and disclose certain payments and transfers of value to, and investment interests held by, physicians and their immediate family members during the preceding calendar year. Failure to submit required information may result in civil monetary penalties for payments, transfers of value, or ownership or investment interests not reported in an annual submission. Compliance with the PPACA and state laws with similar provisions is difficult and time consuming, and companies that do not comply with these state laws face civil penalties. Because of the breadth of these laws and the narrowness of the safe harbors, it is possible that some of our business activities could be subject to challenge under one or more of such laws. Such a challenge could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects.

 

In addition, there have been a number of other legislative and regulatory proposals aimed at changing the pharmaceutical industry. For example, legislation has been enacted in certain states and at a federal level that requires development of an electronic pedigree to track and trace each prescription drug at the saleable unit level through the distribution system. Compliance with these electronic pedigree requirements may increase our operational expenses and impose significant administrative burdens. In addition, our compliance may be deemed insufficient and we could face a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects. As a result of these and other new proposals, we may determine to change our current manner of operation, provide additional benefits or change our contract arrangements, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

Adequate coverage and reimbursement in the U.S. and other markets is critical to the commercial success of our approved products. Recently in the U.S., there has been heightened governmental scrutiny over the manner in which manufacturers set prices for their marketed products, which has resulted in several Congressional inquiries and proposed bills designed to, among other things, reform government program reimbursement methodologies. Individual states in the United States have been increasingly active in passing legislation and implementing regulations designed to control pharmaceutical product pricing, including price or patient reimbursement constraints, discounts, restrictions on certain product access and marketing cost disclosure and transparency measures, and, in some cases, designed to encourage importation from other countries and bulk purchasing. Regional health care authorities and individual hospitals are increasingly using bidding procedures to determine what pharmaceutical products and which suppliers will be included in their prescription drug and other healthcare programs. Third-party payors are increasingly challenging the prices charged for medical products and services and, in some cases, imposing restrictions on the coverage of particular drugs. Many third-party payors negotiate the price of medical services and products and develop formularies which establish pricing and reimbursement levels. Exclusion of a product from a formulary can lead to its sharply reduced usage in the third-party payor’s patient population. The process for obtaining coverage can be lengthy and costly, and we expect that it could take several months before a particular payor initially reviews a product and makes a decision with respect to coverage. For example, third-party payors may require cost-benefit analysis data from us in order to demonstrate the cost-effectiveness of our products or any other product we might bring to market. For any individual third-party payor, we may not be able to provide data sufficient to gain reimbursement on a similar or preferred basis to competitive products, or at all, which may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

We are subject to data security and privacy risks, and our actual or perceived failure to comply with regulations and other legal obligations related to privacy and data protection could harm our business.

 

We are subject to legal obligations related to privacy and data protection.  Compliance with U.S. and international data protection laws and regulations could require us to take on more onerous obligations in our contracts, restrict our ability to collect, use, and disclose data, or in some cases, impact our ability to operate in certain jurisdictions. For example, we may be subject to the California Consumer Privacy Act, which gives California residents expanded rights to access and require deletion of their personal information, opt out of certain personal information sharing, and receive detailed information about how their personal information is used. We also may be subject to the General Data Protection Regulation in the EEA and similar legislation in the U.K. and Switzerland.  See “Risks Relating to Our Business—Risks Relating to International Operations—Our actual or perceived failure to comply with European governmental regulations and other legal obligations related to privacy, data protection and information security could harm our business” in this section for additional discussion of international privacy laws and regulations. Failure to comply with these laws and regulations could result in government enforcement actions, private litigation, or harm to our reputation and our business.

 

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If because of our use of hazardous materials, we violate any environmental controls or regulations that apply to such materials, we may incur substantial costs and expenses in our remediation efforts.

 

Our research and development involves the controlled use of hazardous materials, chemicals and various radioactive compounds. We are subject to federal, state and local laws and regulations governing the use, storage, handling and disposal of these materials and some waste products. Accidental contamination or injury from these materials could occur. In the event of an accident, we could be liable for any damages that result, and any liabilities could exceed our resources. Compliance with environmental laws and regulations or a violation of such environmental laws and regulations could require us to incur substantial unexpected costs, which would materially and adversely affect our results of operations.

 

Intellectual Property Risks

 

If we fail to adequately protect or enforce our intellectual property rights or secure rights to patents of others, the value of those rights would diminish.

 

Our success will depend in part on our ability and the abilities of our partners to obtain, protect and enforce viable intellectual property rights including but not limited to trade name, trademark and patent protection for our Company and its products, methods, processes and other technologies we may license or develop, to preserve our trade secrets, and to operate without infringing the proprietary rights of third parties both domestically and abroad. The patent position of biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies is generally highly uncertain, involves complex legal and factual questions and has recently been the subject of much litigation. Neither the United States Patent and Trademark Office (“USPTO”), the Patent Cooperation Treaty offices, nor the courts of the United States and other jurisdictions have consistent policies nor predictable rulings regarding the breadth of claims allowed or the degree of protection afforded under many biotechnology and pharmaceutical patents. Further, we may not have worldwide patent protection for all of our product candidates and our intellectual property rights may not be legally protected or enforceable in all countries throughout the world. In some jurisdictions, some of our product candidates in certain programs, including our HAE program, may have short or no composition of matter patent life and we may therefore rely on orphan drug exclusivity or data exclusivity. There can be no assurance that we will obtain orphan drug exclusivity or data exclusivity in every jurisdiction. Further, in some jurisdictions, we may rely on formulation patents or method of use patents. Both the ability to achieve issuance and the enforcement of formulation and method of use patents can be highly uncertain and can vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, and such patents may therefore not adequately prevent competitors and potential infringers in some jurisdictions. The validity, scope, enforceability and commercial value of the rights protected by such patents, therefore, is highly uncertain.

 

We also rely on trade secrets to protect technology in cases when we believe patent protection is not appropriate or obtainable. However, trade secrets are difficult to protect. If we cannot maintain the confidentiality of our technology and other confidential information in connection with our collaborators and advisors, our ability to receive patent protection or protect our proprietary information may be imperiled.

 

We may be involved in legal proceedings to protect or enforce our patents, the patents of our partners or our other intellectual property rights, which could be expensive, time consuming and unsuccessful.

 

Competitors may infringe or otherwise violate our patents, the patents of our licensors or our other intellectual property rights. To counter infringement or unauthorized use, we may be required to file legal claims, which can be expensive and time-consuming and unsuccessful. An adverse result in any legal proceeding could put one or more of our patents at risk. Our success depends in part on avoiding the infringement of other parties’ patents and other intellectual property rights as well as avoiding the breach of any licenses relating to our technologies and products. In the United States, patent applications filed in recent years are confidential for 18 months, while older applications are not published until the patent issues. As a result, avoiding patent infringement may be difficult and we may inadvertently infringe third-party patents or proprietary rights. These third parties could bring claims against us, our partners or our licensors that even if resolved in our favor, could cause us to incur substantial expenses and, if resolved against us, could additionally cause us to pay substantial damages. Further, if a patent infringement suit were brought against us, our partners or our licensors, we or they could be forced to stop or delay research, development, manufacturing or sales of any infringing product in the country or countries covered by the patent we infringe, unless we can obtain a license from the patent holder. Such a license may not be available on acceptable terms, or at all, particularly if the third party is developing or marketing a product competitive with the infringing product. Even if we, our partners or our licensors were able to obtain a license, the rights may be nonexclusive, which would give our competitors access to the same intellectual property.

 

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If we or our partners are unable or fail to adequately initiate, protect, defend or enforce our intellectual property rights in any area of commercial interest or in any part of the world where we wish to seek regulatory approval for our products, methods, processes and other technologies, the value of our products and product candidates to produce revenue would diminish. Additionally, if our products, methods, processes, and other technologies or our commercial use of such products, processes, and other technologies, including but not limited to any trade name, trademark or commercial strategy infringe the proprietary rights of other parties, we could incur substantial costs. The USPTO and the patent offices of other jurisdictions have issued to us a number of patents for our various inventions, and we have in-licensed several patents from various institutions. We have filed additional patent applications and provisional patent applications with the USPTO. We have filed a number of corresponding foreign patent applications and intend to file additional foreign and U.S. patent applications, as appropriate. We have also filed certain trademark and trade name applications worldwide. We cannot assure you as to:

 

 

the degree and range of protection any patents will afford against competitors with similar products;

 

if and when patents will issue;

 

if patents do issue, we cannot be sure that we will be able to adequately defend such patents and whether or not we will be able to adequately enforce such patents; or

 

whether or not others will obtain patents claiming aspects similar to those covered by our patent applications.

 

If the USPTO or other foreign patent office upholds patents issued to others or if the USPTO grants patent applications filed by others, we may have to:

 

 

obtain licenses or redesign our products or processes to avoid infringement;

 

stop using the subject matter claimed in those patents; or

 

pay damages.

 

We may initiate, or others may bring against us, litigation or administrative proceedings related to intellectual property rights, including proceedings before the USPTO or other foreign patent office. Any judgment adverse to us in any litigation or other proceeding arising in connection with a patent or patent application could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, the costs of any litigation or administrative proceeding may be substantial whether or not we are successful.

 

Our success is also dependent upon the skills, knowledge and experience, none of which is patentable, of our scientific and technical personnel. To help protect our rights, we require all employees, consultants, advisors and partners to enter into confidentiality agreements that prohibit the disclosure of confidential information to anyone outside of our company and require disclosure and assignment to us of their ideas, developments, discoveries and inventions. These agreements may not provide adequate protection for our trade secrets, know-how or other proprietary information in the event of any unauthorized use or disclosure or the lawful development by others of such information, and if any of our proprietary information is disclosed, our business will suffer because our revenues depend upon our ability to license or commercialize our products and product candidates and any such events would significantly impair the value of such products and product candidates.

 

Product Liability Risks

 

We face an inherent risk of liability in the event that the use or misuse of our products or product candidates results in personal injury or death and our product liability insurance coverage may be insufficient.

 

If the use or misuse of any products we sell, or a partner sells, harms people, we may be subject to costly and damaging product liability claims brought against us by consumers, healthcare providers, pharmaceutical companies, third-party payors or others. The use of our product candidates in clinical trials, including post-marketing clinical studies, could also expose us to product liability claims. We cannot predict all of the possible harms or side effects that may result from the use of our products or the testing of product candidates, and therefore, the amount of insurance coverage we currently have may not be adequate to cover all liabilities or defense costs we might incur. A product liability claim or series of claims brought against us could give rise to a substantial liability that could exceed our resources. Even if claims are not successful, the costs of defending such claims and potential adverse publicity could be harmful to our business.

 

We face an inherent risk of product liability exposure related to the testing of our product candidates in human clinical trials and will face even greater risks upon any commercialization by us of our products or product candidates. We have product liability insurance covering our clinical trials. Clinical trial and product liability insurance is becoming increasingly expensive. As a result, we may be unable to obtain sufficient insurance or increase our existing coverage at a reasonable cost to protect us against losses that could have a material adverse effect on our business. An individual may bring a product liability claim against us if one of our products or product candidates causes, or is claimed to have caused, an injury or is found to be unsuitable for consumer use. Any product liability claim brought against us, with or without merit, could result in:

 

 

liabilities that substantially exceed our product liability insurance, which we would then be required to pay from other sources, if available;

 

an increase of our product liability insurance rates or the inability to maintain insurance coverage in the future on acceptable terms, or at all;

 

withdrawal of clinical trial volunteers or patients;

 

damage to our reputation and the reputation of our products, resulting in lower sales;

 

regulatory investigations that could require costly recalls or product modifications;

 

litigation costs; and

 

the diversion of management’s attention from managing our business.

 

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Risks Relating to Contractual Arrangements

 

We face risks related to our government-funded programs and are subject to various U.S. Government contract requirements, which may create a disadvantage and additional risks to us.

 

We have contracts with BARDA/HHS and NIAID/HHS for the development of galidesivir as a treatment for diseases caused by RNA pathogens, including Marburg virus disease, Yellow Fever and Ebola virus disease. In contracting with these government agencies, we are subject to various U.S. Government contract requirements, including general clauses for a cost-reimbursement research and development contract, which may limit our reimbursement or, if we are found to be in violation, could result in contract termination. If the U.S. Government terminates any of its contracts with us for its convenience, or if we default by failing to perform in accordance with the contract schedule and terms, this could have an adverse impact on the programs associated with such funding and could also adversely impact our cash flows and operations.

 

U.S. Government contracts typically contain a number of extraordinary provisions that would not typically be found in commercial contracts and which may create a disadvantage and additional risks to us as compared to competitors that do not rely on U.S. Government contracts. These risks include the ability of the U.S. Government to unilaterally:

 

 

terminate or reduce the scope of our contract with or without cause;

 

interpret relevant regulations (federal acquisition regulation clauses);

 

require performance under circumstances which may not be favorable to us;

 

require an in-process review where the U.S. Government will review the project and its options under the contract;

 

control the timing and amount of funding, which impacts the development progress of our programs; and

 

audit and object to our contract-related costs and fees, including allocated indirect costs.

 

The U.S. Government may terminate its contracts with us either for its convenience or if we default by failing to perform in accordance with the contract schedule and terms. Termination for convenience provisions generally enable us to recover only our costs incurred or committed, and settlement expenses and profit on the work completed prior to termination. Termination does not permit these recoveries under default provisions. In the event of termination or upon expiration of a contract, the U.S. Government may dispute wind-down and termination costs and may question prior expenses under the contract and deny payment of those expenses. Should we choose to challenge the U.S. Government for denying certain payments under a contract, such a challenge could subject us to substantial additional expenses which we may or may not recover. Further, if the U.S. Government terminates its contracts with us for its convenience, or if we default by failing to perform in accordance with the contract schedule and terms, this could have an adverse impact on our cash flows and operations.

 

As a U.S. Government contractor, we are required to comply with applicable laws, regulations and standards relating to our accounting practices and are subject to periodic audits and reviews. As part of any such audit or review, the U.S. Government may review the adequacy of, and our compliance with, our internal control systems and policies, including those relating to our purchasing, property, estimating, compensation and management information systems. Audits under the active BARDA/HHS and NIAID/HHS galidesivir contracts may occur at the election of the U.S. Government and have been concluded through fiscal 2019; all subsequent fiscal years are still open and auditable. Based on the results of its audits, the U.S. Government may adjust our contract-related costs and fees, including allocated indirect costs. This adjustment could impact the amount of revenues reported on a historic basis and could impact our cash flows under the contracts prospectively. In addition, in the event BARDA/HHS or NIAID/HHS determines that certain costs and fees were unallowable or determines that the allocated indirect cost rate was higher than the actual indirect cost rate, BARDA/HHS or NIAID/HHS would be entitled to recoup any overpayment from us as a result. In addition, if an audit or review uncovers any improper or illegal activity, we may be subject to civil and criminal penalties and administrative sanctions, including termination of our contracts, forfeiture of profits, suspension of payments, fines and suspension or prohibition from doing business with the U.S. Government. We could also suffer serious harm to our reputation if allegations of impropriety were made against us. In addition, under U.S. Government purchasing regulations, some of our costs may not be reimbursable or allowed under our contracts. Further, as a U.S. Government contractor, we are subject to an increased risk of investigations, criminal prosecution, civil fraud, whistleblower lawsuits and other legal actions and liabilities as compared to private sector commercial companies.

 

There are risks related to the potential government use or sale of our antivirals.

 

Government use or sale, in emergency situations or otherwise, of our antivirals (including peramivir for the treatment of influenza) may result in risks to us or our collaborative partners. There can be no assurance that government use of our antivirals (whether as indicated or outside of their current indications) will prove to be generally safe, well-tolerated and effective. Any government sale or use (on an emergency basis or otherwise) of our antivirals in any country may create liabilities for us or our partners.

 

In September 2018, we entered into a contract with the U.S. Government for the procurement of up to 50,000 doses of RAPIVAB (peramivir injection) over a five-year period. In addition, we are working with NIAID/HHS to further develop galidesivir. There can be no assurance that we or our manufacturers will be able to fully meet the demand for such antivirals with respect to these or future arrangements. Further, we may not receive a favorable purchase price for future orders, if any, of our antivirals by governmental entities. Our competitors may develop products that could compete with or replace any antivirals selected for government sale or use. We may face competition in markets where we have no existing intellectual property protection or are unable to successfully enforce our intellectual property rights.

 

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There can be no assurance that the non-U.S. partnerships that we have entered into for peramivir will result in any order for peramivir in those countries or that peramivir will be approved for any use or will achieve market approval in additional countries. There can be no assurance that galidesivir will be approved for use in any countries. In the event that any emergency use or market approval is granted in any country, there can be no assurance that any government order or commercialization of the applicable product or product candidate in such countries will be substantial or will be profitable to us.

 

If we fail to reach milestones or to make annual minimum payments or otherwise breach our obligations under our license agreements, our licensors may terminate our agreements with them and seek additional remedies.

 

If we are unable or fail to meet payment obligations, performance milestones relating to the timing of regulatory filings, product supply obligations, post-approval commitments, or development and commercial diligence obligations; are unable or fail to make milestone payments or material data use payments in accordance with applicable provisions; or fail to pay the minimum annual payments under any of our in-licenses relating to our products or product candidates, our licensors may terminate the applicable license or seek other available remedies. As a result, our development of the respective product candidate or commercialization of the product would cease.

 

Royalties and milestone payments, if any, from Shionogi under the Shionogi Agreement are required to be used by Royalty Sub to satisfy its obligations under its PhaRMA Notes, and generally will not be available to us for other purposes unless and until Royalty Sub has repaid in full its obligations under the PhaRMA Notes.

 

In March 2011, our wholly-owned subsidiary, Royalty Sub, issued $30.0 million in aggregate principal amount of PhaRMA Notes. The PhaRMA Notes are secured principally by (i) certain royalty and milestone payments under the Shionogi Agreement, pursuant to which Shionogi licensed from us the rights to market peramivir in Japan and Taiwan and (ii) the pledge by us of our equity interest in Royalty Sub. Payments, if any, from Shionogi to us on non-governmental sales under the Shionogi Agreement will generally not be available to us for other purposes unless and until Royalty Sub has repaid in full its obligations under the PhaRMA Notes. Accordingly, these funds have been and will continue to be required to be dedicated to Royalty Sub’s debt service and not available to us for product development or other purposes. Since September 1, 2014, payments from Shionogi have been insufficient for Royalty Sub to service its obligations under the PhaRMA Notes, resulting in a continuing event of default with respect to the PhaRMA Notes since that time. As a result of the continuing event of default, the holders of the PhaRMA Notes may be able to foreclose on the collateral securing the PhaRMA Notes and our equity interest in Royalty Sub and may exercise other remedies available to them under the indenture or other documents related to the PhaRMA Notes. In such event, we may not realize the benefit of future royalty payments, if any, that might otherwise accrue to us following repayment of the PhaRMA Notes, we may incur legal costs, and we might otherwise be adversely affected.

 

The PhaRMA Notes had a final legal maturity date of December 1, 2020, at which time the outstanding principal amount of the PhaRMA Notes of $30.0 million, together with accrued and unpaid interest of $20.6 million, was due in full. The failure by Royalty Sub to repay in full the outstanding principal amount of the PhaRMA Notes, together with any accrued and unpaid interest, at the December 1, 2020 final maturity date constituted an additional event of default under the PhaRMA Notes. We cannot predict whether holders of PhaRMA Notes will seek to pursue any remedies as a result of the continuing events of default with respect to the PhaRMA Notes. The PhaRMA Notes are the obligation of Royalty Sub. As a result, we do not currently expect the continuing events of default on the PhaRMA Notes to have a significant impact on our future results of operations or cash flows. However, we cannot assure you that this will be the case or that we will not otherwise be adversely affected as a result the continuing events of default under the PhaRMA Notes or the failure by Royalty Sub to repay the PhaRMA Notes at maturity.

 

We wrote off the balance due under the PhaRMA Notes to other income as a debt extinguishment as of December 31, 2021.  See “Note 8−Royalty Monetizations−RAPIACTA−Non-Recourse Notes Payable−Debt Extinguishment” in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Part II, Item 8 of this report for additional information about the write-off.

 

Because continuing events of default exist under the PhaRMA Notes, the holders of the PhaRMA Notes may be able to foreclose on the collateral securing the PhaRMA Notes and our equity interest in Royalty Sub. As a result, we may not realize the benefit of future royalty payments, if any, that might otherwise accrue to us following repayment of the PhaRMA Notes and we could otherwise be adversely affected.

 

As Royalty Sub has been unable to service its obligations under the PhaRMA Notes and continuing events of default exist under the PhaRMA Notes, the holders of the PhaRMA Notes may be able to foreclose on the collateral securing the PhaRMA Notes and our equity interest in Royalty Sub and may exercise other remedies available to them under the indenture or other documents related to the PhaRMA Notes. In such event, we may not realize the benefit of future royalty payments, if any, that might otherwise accrue to us following repayment of the PhaRMA Notes, we may incur legal costs, and we might otherwise be adversely affected. In addition, the PhaRMA Notes had a final legal maturity date of December 1, 2020, at which time the outstanding principal amount of the PhaRMA Notes of $30.0 million, together with accrued and unpaid interest of $20.6 million, was due in full. The failure by Royalty Sub to repay in full the outstanding principal amount of the PhaRMA Notes, together with any accrued and unpaid interest, at the December 1, 2020 final maturity date constituted an additional event of default under the PhaRMA Notes. We cannot predict whether holders of PhaRMA Notes will seek to pursue any remedies as a result of the continuing events of default with respect to the PhaRMA Notes. The PhaRMA Notes are the obligation of Royalty Sub. As a result, we do not currently expect the continuing events of default on the PhaRMA Notes to have a significant impact on our future results of operations or cash flows. However, we cannot assure you that this will be the case or that we will not otherwise be adversely affected as a result the continuing events of default under the PhaRMA Notes or the failure by Royalty Sub to repay the PhaRMA Notes at maturity.

 

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We wrote off the balance due under the PhaRMA Notes to other income as a debt extinguishment as of December 31, 2021. See “Note 8−Royalty Monetizations−RAPIACTA−Non-Recourse Notes Payable−Debt Extinguishment” in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Part II, Item 8 of this report for additional information about the write-off.

 

We have incurred significant indebtedness, which could adversely affect our business. Additionally, our Credit Agreement contains conditions and restrictions that limit our flexibility in operating our business. We may be required to make a prepayment or repay our outstanding indebtedness earlier than we expect if a prepayment event or an event of default occurs, including a material adverse change with respect to us, which could have a material adverse effect on our business.

 

As of December 31, 2021, we had an outstanding principal balance under our Credit Agreement of $142.1 million, inclusive of the quarterly PIK Interest Payments. We have also committed to draw another $75.0 million in aggregate principal amount under the Term B Loan and the Term C Loan (each as defined in the Credit Agreement) under the Credit Agreement. If we do not draw these Term Loans by the end of the applicable period available to draw them, we will be required to pay to Athyrium, for the account of the lenders, a make-whole premium plus certain fees set forth in the Credit Agreement, subject to certain exceptions set forth in the Credit Agreement. We will also be required to pay to Athyrium, for the account of the lenders, a make-whole premium plus certain fees set forth in the Credit Agreement in the event that we either (x) terminate the commitments in respect of the Term B Loan or the Term C Loan on or prior to the end of the applicable period available to draw such Term Loans, or (y) prepay or repay, or are required to prepay or repay, voluntarily or pursuant to a mandatory prepayment obligation under the Credit Agreement (e.g., with the proceeds of certain asset sales, certain ORLADEYO out-licensing or royalty monetization transactions (excluding the Royalty Sales), extraordinary receipts, debt issuances, or upon a change of control of the Company and specified other events, subject to certain exceptions), all of the then-outstanding Term Loans under the Credit Agreement, in each case, subject to certain exceptions set forth in the Credit Agreement.

 

Our indebtedness could have important consequences to our stockholders. For example, it:

 

 

increases our vulnerability to adverse general economic or industry conditions;

 

limits our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business or the industry in which we operate;

 

makes us more vulnerable to increases in interest rates, as borrowings under our Credit Agreement are at variable rates;

 

requires us to dedicate a portion of our cash flow from operations to interest payments, limiting the availability of cash for other purposes;

 

limits our ability to obtain additional financing or refinancing in the future for working capital or other purposes; and

 

places us at a competitive disadvantage compared to our competitors that have less indebtedness.

 

Furthermore, our Credit Agreement contains various covenants that limit our ability to engage in specified types of transactions. Subject to certain exceptions, these covenants limit our ability to, among other things, grant certain types of liens on our assets; make certain investments; incur or assume certain debt, including accessing additional tranches of debt under the Credit Agreement; engage in certain mergers, acquisitions, and similar transactions; dispose of assets; license certain property; distribute dividends; make certain restricted payments; change the nature of our business; engage in transactions with affiliates and insiders; prepay other indebtedness; or engage in sale and leaseback transactions.

 

The Credit Agreement also contains certain financial covenants, including a minimum liquidity covenant that requires us to maintain at all times, as applicable, at least $15.0 million of unrestricted cash and cash equivalents if only the Term A Loan (as defined in the Credit Agreement) has been drawn; at least $20.0 million of unrestricted cash and cash equivalents if the Term B Loan has been drawn but the Term C Loan has not been drawn; and at least $15.0 million (or, in certain circumstances, $20.0 million) of unrestricted cash and cash equivalents if the Term C Loan has been drawn, subject to certain exceptions. In addition, when we draw upon the Term C Loan, we will be required to achieve certain minimum targets for consolidated net revenues from ORLADEYO sales in the U.S.

 

The covenants contained in the Credit Agreement could cause us to be unable to pursue business opportunities that we or our stockholders may consider beneficial without the lenders’ permission or without repaying all outstanding obligations under the Credit Agreement.

 

A breach of any of these covenants could result in an event of default under the Credit Agreement. An event of default will also occur if, among other things, we fail to pay amounts due under the Credit Agreement, we fail to repay certain other indebtedness having an aggregate principal amount in excess of one percent of our borrowings under the Credit Agreement, a material adverse change in our business, assets, properties, liabilities, or condition occurs, or a material impairment of our ability to perform our obligations under the Credit Agreement occurs, we experience a change of control, certain negative regulatory events occur, including without limitation the loss of a required permit or a recall of a product, or we fail to make required payments under our Royalty Purchase Agreements. In the case of a continuing event of default under the Credit Agreement, the lenders under the Credit Agreement could elect to declare all amounts outstanding to be immediately due and payable, proceed against the collateral in which we granted to the lenders a security interest, or otherwise exercise the rights of a secured creditor. Amounts outstanding under the Credit Agreement are secured by a security interest in, subject to certain exceptions, substantially all of our assets. Because substantially all of our assets are pledged to secure the Credit Agreement obligations, our ability to incur additional secured indebtedness or to sell or dispose of assets to raise capital may be impaired, which could have an adverse effect on our financial flexibility.

 

 

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Risks Relating to International Operations

 

International expansion of our business exposes us to business, regulatory, political, operational, financial, and economic risks.

 

Our business strategy includes international expansion, including the commercialization of products outside of the United States. We currently conduct clinical studies and regulatory activities and have hired, and expect to continue hiring, employees outside of the United States. Doing business internationally involves a number of risks, including but not limited to:

 

 

multiple, conflicting, and changing laws and regulations such as privacy and data regulations, transparency regulations, tax laws, export and import restrictions, employment laws, regulatory requirements, and other governmental approvals, permits, and licenses;

 

introduction of new health authority requirements and/or changes in health authority expectations;

 

failure by us or our partners to obtain and maintain regulatory approvals for the use of our products in various countries;

 

complexities and difficulties in obtaining and maintaining protection for, and enforcing, our intellectual property;

 

difficulties in staffing and managing foreign operations;

 

complexities associated with managing multiple payor reimbursement regimes, government payors, or patient self-pay systems;

 

limits on our ability to penetrate international markets;

 

financial risks, such as longer payment cycles, difficulty collecting accounts receivable, the impact of local and regional financial crises on demand and payment for our products, and exposure to foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations;

 

natural disasters and political and economic instability, including wars, terrorism, political unrest, results of certain elections and votes, actual or threatened public health emergencies and outbreak of disease (including for example, the recent coronavirus outbreak), boycotts, adoption or expansion of government trade restrictions, and other business restrictions;

 

certain expenses including, among others, expenses for travel, translation, and insurance;

 

regulatory and compliance risks that relate to maintaining accurate information and control over commercial operations and activities that may fall within the purview of the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, including its books and records provisions or anti-bribery provisions, or the U.K. Bribery Act and similar foreign laws and regulations; and

 

regulatory and compliance risks relating to doing business with any entity that is subject to sanctions administered by the Office of Foreign Assets Control of the U.S. Department of the Treasury.

 

Any of these factors could significantly harm our future international expansion of operations and, consequently, our business and results of operations.

 

Additionally, in some countries, such as Japan and the countries of the EU, the pricing of prescription pharmaceuticals is subject to governmental control and access. In these countries, pricing negotiations with governmental authorities can take considerable time after the receipt of marketing approval for a product. To obtain reimbursement or pricing approval in some countries, we or our partners may be required to conduct a clinical trial that compares the cost-effectiveness of our product to other available therapies. If reimbursement of our products is unavailable or limited in scope or amount, or if pricing is set at unsatisfactory levels, our business could be materially harmed.

 

Our actual or perceived failure to comply with European governmental regulations and other legal obligations related to privacy, data protection and information security could harm our business.

 

EU member states, the U.K., Switzerland and other countries have adopted data protection laws and regulations, which impose significant compliance obligations. For example, the General Data Protection Regulation (“GDPR”) imposes strict requirements on controllers and processors of personal data, including special protections for “special category data,” which includes health, biometric and genetic information of data subjects located in the EEA and, through incorporation in national legislation, the U.K. Further, the GDPR provides a broad right for EU member states to create supplemental national laws, for example relating to the processing of health, genetic and biometric data, which could further limit our ability to use and share such data or could cause our costs to increase and harm our business and financial condition. The GDPR and similar national legislation grant individuals the opportunity to object to the processing of their personal information, allows them to request deletion of personal information in certain circumstances, and provides the individual with an express right to seek legal remedies in the event the individual believes his or her rights have been violated. Further, the GDPR and similar national legislation impose strict rules on the transfer of personal data out of the EEA, the U.K., Switzerland, and other countries to the United States or other regions that have not been deemed to offer “adequate” privacy protections.

 

 

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Failure to comply with the requirements of the GDPR or related national data protection laws, which may deviate from the GDPR, may result in significant fines of up to 4% of global revenues, or €20.0 million, whichever is greater, and in addition to such fines, our failure to comply with the requirements of GDPR or similar national legislation may subject us to litigation and/or adverse publicity, which could have material adverse effects on our reputation and business. As a result of the implementation of the GDPR, we are required to put in place additional mechanisms to ensure compliance with the new data protection rules. For example, the GDPR requires us to make more detailed disclosures to data subjects, requires disclosure of the legal basis on which we can process personal data, makes it harder for us to obtain valid consent for processing, will require the appointment of a data protection officer where sensitive personal data (i.e., health data) is processed on a large scale, introduces mandatory data breach notification throughout the EU, imposes additional obligations on us when we are contracting with service providers and requires us to adopt appropriate privacy governance including policies, procedures, training and data audit.

 

We are subject to the supervision of local data protection authorities in those jurisdictions where we undertake clinical trials. We depend on a number of third parties in relation to the provision of our services, a number of which process personal data of EU individuals on our behalf. With each such provider we are required to enter into contractual arrangements under which they are contractually obligated to only process personal data according to our instructions, and conduct diligence to ensure that they have sufficient technical and organizational security measures in place.

 

We are also subject to evolving European privacy laws on electronic marketing and cookies. The EU is in the process of replacing the e-Privacy Directive (2002/58/EC) with a new set of rules taking the form of a regulation that will be directly implemented in the laws of each EU member state. While this e-Privacy Regulation was originally intended to be adopted on May 25, 2018, it is still going through the European legislative process and the timing of its adoption remains unclear.

 

The United Kingdoms decision to withdraw from the EU could result in increased regulatory and legal complexity, which may make it more difficult for us to do business in Europe and impose additional challenges in securing regulatory approval of our product candidates in Europe.

 

The United Kingdom’s exit from the EU, or Brexit, has caused political and economic uncertainty, including in the regulatory framework applicable to our operations and product candidates, and this uncertainty may persist for years. Brexit could, among other outcomes, disrupt the free movement of goods, services and people between the United Kingdom and the EU, and result in increased legal and regulatory complexities, as well as potential higher costs of conducting business in Europe. The long-term effects of Brexit will depend in part on how the current and future trade agreements between the United Kingdom and the EU take effect in practice. Changes in United Kingdom or EU regulations may cause disruption or delays in granting clinical trial authorization or opinions for marketing authorization, disruption of importation and export of active substance and other components of new drug formulations, and disruption of the supply chain for clinical trial product and final authorized formulations.

 

The cumulative effects of the disruption to the regulatory framework may add considerably to the development lead time to marketing authorization and commercialization of products in the EU and/or the United Kingdom. It is possible that there will be increased regulatory complexities, which can disrupt the timing of our clinical trials and regulatory approvals. In addition, changes in, and legal uncertainty with regard to, national and international laws and regulations may present difficulties for our clinical and regulatory strategy. Any delay in obtaining, or an inability to obtain, any marketing approvals, as a result of Brexit or otherwise, would prevent us from commercializing our product candidates in the United Kingdom and/or the EU and restrict our ability to generate revenues and achieve and sustain profitability.

 

In addition, as a result of Brexit, other European countries may seek to conduct referenda with respect to their continuing membership with the EU. Given these possibilities and others we may not anticipate, as well as the absence of comparable precedent, it is unclear what financial, regulatory and legal implications the withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the EU will have and how such withdrawal will affect us, and the full extent to which our business could be adversely affected.

 

Risks Relating to Technology

 

If our facilities, or the facilities of our third-party vendors, incur damage or power is lost for a significant length of time, our business will suffer.

 

We and our third-party vendors store commercial product, clinical and stability samples at our facilities that could be damaged if the facilities incur physical damage or in the event of an extended power failure. We have backup power systems in addition to backup generators to maintain power to all critical functions, but any loss of these products or samples could result in significant delays in our commercialization or drug development process.

 

In addition, we store most of our preclinical and clinical data at our facilities. Duplicate copies of most critical data are secured off-site. Any significant degradation or failure of our computer systems could cause us to inaccurately calculate or lose our data. Loss of data could result in significant delays in our drug development process and any system failure could harm our business and operations.

 

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A significant disruption in our information technology systems or a cybersecurity breach could adversely affect our business.

 

We are increasingly dependent on information technology systems to operate our business. In addition, the FDA and comparable foreign regulatory authorities regulate, among other things, the record keeping and storage of data pertaining to potential pharmaceutical products. We currently store most of our preclinical research data, our clinical data and our manufacturing data at our facilities. While we do store duplicate copies of most of our clinical data offsite and a significant portion of our data is included in regular backups of our systems, we could lose important data if our facilities incur damage, or if our vendor data systems fail, suffer damage or are destroyed.

 

Like other companies in our industry, our networks and infrastructure may be vulnerable to cyber-attacks or intrusions, including by computer hackers, foreign governments, foreign companies, or competitors, or may be breached by employee error, malfeasance or other disruption. A breakdown, invasion, corruption, destruction, or interruption of critical information technology systems could negatively impact operations. If our systems are damaged, fail to function properly or otherwise become unavailable, we may incur substantial costs to repair or replace them, and we may experience loss of critical data and interruptions or delays in our ability to perform critical functions, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations. Any compromise of our data security could also result in a violation of applicable privacy and other laws, significant legal and financial exposure, damage to our reputation, loss or misuse of the information and a loss of confidence in our data security measures, which could harm our business. There can be no assurance that our efforts to protect our data and information technology systems will prevent breakdowns or breaches in our systems, or those of third parties with which we do business, and any such events could adversely affect our business.

 

Risks Relating to Investing in Our Common Stock

 

Our existing principal stockholders hold a substantial amount of our common stock and may be able to influence significant corporate decisions, which may conflict with the interest of other stockholders.

 

Several of our stockholders own greater than 5% of our outstanding common stock. Our top ten stockholders own close to 50% of our common stock and can individually, and as a group, influence our operations based upon their concentrated ownership and may also be able to influence the outcome of matters requiring approval of the stockholders, including the election of our directors and other corporate actions.

 

Our stock price has been, and is likely to continue to be, highly volatile, which could cause the value of an investment in our common stock to decline significantly.

 

The market prices for securities of biotechnology companies in general have been highly volatile and may continue to be highly volatile in the future. Moreover, our stock price has fluctuated frequently, and these fluctuations are often not related to our financial results. For the twelve months ended December 31, 2021, the 52-week range of the market price of our stock was from $7.27 to $18.48 per share. The following factors, in addition to other risk factors described in this section, may have a significant impact on the market price of our common stock:

 

 

announcements of technological innovations or new products by us or our competitors;

 

developments or disputes concerning patents or proprietary rights;

 

additional dilution through sales of our common stock or other derivative securities;

 

status of new or existing licensing or collaborative agreements and government contracts;

 

announcements relating to the status of our programs;

 

developments and announcements regarding new and virulent strains of influenza;

 

we or our partners achieving or failing to achieve development milestones;

 

publicity regarding actual or potential medical results relating to products under development by us or our competitors;

 

publicity regarding certain public health concerns for which we are or may be developing treatments;

 

regulatory developments in both the United States and foreign countries;

 

public concern as to the safety of pharmaceutical products;

 

actual or anticipated fluctuations in our operating results;

 

changes in financial estimates or recommendations by securities analysts;

 

changes in the structure of healthcare payment systems, including developments in price control legislation;

 

announcements by us or our competitors of significant acquisitions, strategic partnerships, joint ventures or capital commitments;

 

additions or departures of key personnel or members of our board of directors;

 

purchases or sales of substantial amounts of our stock by existing stockholders, including officers or directors;

 

economic and other external factors or other disasters or crises; and

 

period-to-period fluctuations in our financial results.

 

 

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Future sales and issuances of securities may dilute the ownership interests of our current stockholders and cause our stock price to decline.

 

Future sales of our common stock by us or our current stockholders into the public market could cause the market price of our stock to fall. As of January 31, 2022, there were 184,661,799 shares of our common stock outstanding. We may from time to time issue securities in relation to a license arrangement, collaboration, merger or acquisition. We may also sell, for our own account, shares of common stock or other equity securities, from time to time at prices and on terms to be determined at the time of sale.

 

As of January 31, 2022, there were 30,321,597 stock options and restricted stock units outstanding and 3,683,617 shares available for issuance under our Amended and Restated Stock Incentive Plan, 4,624,409 stock options and restricted stock units outstanding and 672,882 shares available for issuance under our Amended and Restated Inducement Equity Incentive Plan, and 5,937,390 shares available for issuance under our Amended and Restated Employee Stock Purchase Plan. In addition, we could also make equity grants outside of our Amended and Restated Stock Incentive Plan or Amended and Restated Inducement Equity Incentive Plan. The shares underlying existing stock options, restricted stock units and possible future stock options, stock appreciation rights and stock awards have been registered pursuant to registration statements on Form S-8.

 

If some or all of such shares are sold or otherwise issued into the public market over a short period of time, our current stockholders’ ownership interests may be diluted and the value of all publicly traded shares is likely to decline, as the market may not be able to absorb those shares at then-current market prices. Additionally, such sales and issuances may make it more difficult for us to sell equity securities or equity-related securities in the future at a time and price that our management deems acceptable, or at all.

 

In March 2017, we entered into a Registration Rights Agreement with entities affiliated with Baker Bros. Advisors LP (the “Baker Entities”) to provide that, if requested, we will register the shares of our common stock beneficially owned by the Baker Entities for resale under the Securities Act. Our registration obligations pursuant to the Registration Rights Agreement cover all shares then held or thereafter acquired by the Baker Entities, for up to ten years, and include our obligation to facilitate certain underwritten public offerings of our common stock by the Baker Entities in the future. On May 10, 2017, we filed a registration statement on Form S-3 with respect to 11,710,951 shares of common stock held by the Baker Entities. Subsequently, on November 21, 2019, certain of the Baker Entities acquired pre-funded warrants to purchase 11,764,706 shares of our common stock at a price of $1.69 per warrant. In addition, on June 1, 2020, we issued to certain of the Baker Entities pre-funded warrants to purchase 3,511,111 shares of our common stock at a price of $4.49 per warrant. Each warrant has an exercise price of $0.01 per share. If the Baker Entities, by exercising their underwriting rights or otherwise, sell a large number of our shares, or the market perceives that the Baker Entities intend to sell a large number of our shares, this could adversely affect the market price of our common stock.

 

We have anti-takeover provisions in our corporate charter documents that may result in outcomes with which you do not agree.

 

Our board of directors has the authority to issue up to 5,000,000 shares of undesignated preferred stock and to determine the rights, preferences, privileges and restrictions of those shares without further vote or action by our stockholders. The rights of the holders of any preferred stock that may be issued in the future may adversely affect the rights of the holders of common stock. The issuance of preferred stock could make it more difficult for third parties to acquire a majority of our outstanding voting stock.

 

In addition, our Certificate of Incorporation provides for staggered terms for the members of the board of directors and supermajority approval of the removal of any member of the board of directors and prevents our stockholders from acting by written consent. Our Certificate of Incorporation also requires supermajority approval of any amendment of these provisions. These provisions and other provisions of our bylaws and of Delaware law applicable to us could delay or make more difficult a merger, tender offer or proxy contest involving us.

 

We have never paid dividends on our common stock and do not anticipate doing so in the foreseeable future.

 

We have never paid cash dividends on our stock. We currently intend to retain all future earnings, if any, for use in the operation of our business. Accordingly, we do not anticipate paying cash dividends on our common stock in the foreseeable future.

 

Our Amended and Restated Bylaws provide that the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware will be the sole and exclusive forum for certain litigation that may be initiated by our stockholders, which may limit a stockholders ability to obtain a favorable judicial forum for such disputes with us or our directors, officers or employees.

 

Our Amended and Restated Bylaws provide that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware will be the sole and exclusive forum for (i) any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf, (ii) any action asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any of our directors, officers, stockholders, employees or agents to us or our stockholders, (iii) any action asserting a claim against us or any of our directors, officers, stockholders, employees or agents arising out of or relating to any provision of the General Corporation Law of Delaware or our Certificate of Incorporation or Amended and Restated Bylaws or (iv) any action against us or any of our directors, officers, stockholders, employees or agents governed by the internal affairs doctrine of the State of Delaware. This exclusive forum provision does not apply to establish the Delaware Court of Chancery as the forum for actions or proceedings brought to enforce a duty or liability created by the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Exchange Act, or any other claim for which the federal courts have exclusive jurisdiction.

 

This exclusive forum provision may limit a stockholder’s ability to choose its preferred judicial forum for disputes with us or our directors, officers, employees or agents, which may discourage the filing of lawsuits with respect to such claims. If a court were to find this exclusive forum provision to be inapplicable or unenforceable in an action, we may incur additional costs associated with resolving such action in another jurisdiction, which could adversely affect our business and financial condition.

 

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General Risk Factors

 

Natural disasters, epidemic or pandemic disease outbreaks, trade wars, political unrest or other events could disrupt our business or operations or those of our development partners, manufacturers, regulators or other third parties with whom we conduct business now or in the future.

 

A wide variety of events beyond our control, including natural disasters, epidemic or pandemic disease outbreaks (such as the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic), trade wars, political unrest or other events could disrupt our business or operations or those of our development partners (such as Torii), manufacturers, regulatory authorities, or other third parties with whom we conduct business. These events may cause businesses and government agencies to be shut down, supply chains to be interrupted, slowed, or rendered inoperable, and individuals to become ill, quarantined, or otherwise unable to work and/or travel due to health reasons or governmental restrictions. If our operations or those of third parties with whom we have business are impaired or curtailed as a result of these events, the development and commercialization of our products and product candidates could be impaired or halted, which could have a material adverse impact on our business. See “Risk Factors—Risks Relating to Our Business—Risks Relating to COVID-19⸻Our business, operations, clinical development or commercialization plans and timelines, and access to capital could be adversely affected by the effects of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic on us or on third parties with whom we conduct business, including without limitation our development partners, manufacturers, clinical research organizations (“CROs”), and others, as well as on the regulatory and government agencies with whom we work.” In addition, other events, such as the armed conflict between Russia and Ukraine, could adversely impact our business.  Furthermore,  the conflict could lead to sanctions, embargoes, supply shortages, regional instability, geopolitical shifts, cyberattacks, other retaliatory actions, and adverse effects on macroeconomic conditions, currency exchange rates, and financial markets, which could adversely impact our operations and financial results, as well as those of third parties with whom we conduct business.

 

We are subject to legal proceedings, which could harm our reputation or result in other losses or unexpected expenditure of time and resources.

 

From time to time, we may be involved in disputes, including, without limitation, disputes with our employees, collaborative partners, and third-party vendors. We may be called upon to initiate legal proceedings or to defend ourselves in such legal proceedings relating to our relationships with these parties, our decisions and actions or omissions with respect thereto, and our business. In addition, if our stock price is volatile, we may become involved in securities class action lawsuits in the future. Due to the inherent uncertainties in legal proceedings, we cannot accurately predict the ultimate outcome of any such proceedings. An unfavorable outcome in any such proceedings could have an adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Any current or future dispute resolution or legal proceeding, regardless of the merits of any such proceeding, could harm our reputation and result in substantial costs and a diversion of management’s attention and resources that are needed to successfully run our business.

 

Insurance coverage is increasingly more costly and difficult to obtain or maintain.

 

While we currently have insurance for our business, property, directors and officers, and our products, insurance is increasingly more costly and narrower in scope, and we may be required to assume more risk in the future. If we are subject to claims or suffer a loss or damage in excess of our insurance coverage, we will be required to bear any loss in excess of our insurance limits. If we are subject to claims or suffer a loss or damage that is outside of our insurance coverage, we may incur significant uninsured costs associated with loss or damage that could have an adverse effect on our operations and financial position. Furthermore, any claims made on our insurance policies may impact our ability to obtain or maintain insurance coverage at reasonable costs or at all.

 

If we fail to retain our existing key personnel or fail to attract and retain additional key personnel, the development of our product candidates, the commercialization of our products, and the related expansion of our business will be delayed or stopped.

 

We are highly dependent upon our senior management and scientific team, the unexpected loss of whose services might impede the achievement of our development and commercial objectives. This risk has been heightened in the current environment as a result of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Competition for key personnel with the experience that we require is intense and is expected to continue to increase. Our inability to attract and retain the required number of skilled and experienced management, commercial, operational and scientific personnel will harm our business because we rely upon these personnel for many critical functions of our business.

 

ITEM 1B.         UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

 

None.

 

ITEM 2.         PROPERTIES

 

We lease property in both Durham, North Carolina and Birmingham, Alabama. Our headquarters, including our clinical and regulatory operations, are based in Durham, while our principal research facility is located in Birmingham. We currently lease approximately 24,500 square feet in Durham through leases expiring December 31, 2023 and June 30, 2024, and we lease approximately 34,000 square feet in Birmingham through October 31, 2026. We also contract for smaller offices in Ireland, Germany, France, and the United Kingdom. We believe that our facilities are adequate for our current and planned future operations.

 

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ITEM 3.         LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

 

None.

 

ITEM 4.         MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES

 

Not applicable.

 

 

PART II

 

ITEM 5.         MARKET FOR REGISTRANTS COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

 

Market Information

 

Our common stock trades on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol BCRX.

 

Holders

 

As of January 31, 2022, there were approximately 162 holders of record of our common stock.

 

Dividends

 

We have never paid cash dividends and do not anticipate paying cash dividends in the foreseeable future.

 

Stock Performance Graph

 

This performance graph is not “soliciting material,” is not deemed filed with the SEC and is not to be incorporated by reference in any filing by us under the Securities Act or the Exchange Act, whether made before or after the date hereof and irrespective of any general incorporation language in any such filing. The stock price performance shown on the graph is not necessarily indicative of future price performance.

 

PERFORMANCE GRAPH FOR BIOCRYST

 

Indexed Comparison Since 2016

 

perf.jpg

 

 

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Beginning Investment at 12/31/16

   

Investment at 12/31/17

   

Investment at 12/31/18

   

Investment at 12/31/19

   

Investment at 12/31/20

   

Investment at 12/31/21

 

BioCryst Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

  $ 100.00     $ 77.57     $ 127.49     $ 54.50     $ 117.69     $ 218.80  

Nasdaq Stock Market (U.S.)

    100.00       121.38       114.77       150.55       182.57       229.84  

Nasdaq Pharmaceutical Stocks

    100.00       119.12       128.60       147.25       162.74       202.43  

 

The above graph measures the change in a $100 investment in our common stock based on its closing price of $6.33 on December 31, 2016 and its year-end closing price thereafter. Our relative performance is then compared with the CRSP Total Return Indexes for the Nasdaq Stock Market (U.S.) and Nasdaq Pharmaceutical Stocks.

 

Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities

 

None.

 

Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

 

There were no repurchases of our common stock during the fourth quarter of 2021.

 

ITEM 6.         RESERVED

 

ITEM 7.         MANAGEMENTS DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

 

The following Managements Discussion and Analysis (MD&A) is intended to help the reader understand our results of operations and financial condition. MD&A is provided as a supplement to, and should be read in conjunction with, our audited financial statements and the accompanying notes to the financial statements and other disclosures included in this report (including the Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements at the beginning of this report and the Risk Factors section in Part I, Item 1A of this report).

 

Overview

 

We are a commercial-stage biotechnology company that discovers novel, oral, small-molecule medicines. We focus on oral treatments for rare diseases in which significant unmet medical needs exist and an enzyme plays the key role in the biological pathway of the disease. We integrate the disciplines of biology, crystallography, medicinal chemistry, and computer modeling to discover and develop small molecule pharmaceuticals through the process known as structure-guided drug design. In addition to these discovery and development efforts, our business strategy includes the efficient commercialization of these drugs in the U.S. and certain other regions upon regulatory approval. By focusing on rare disease markets, we believe that we can more effectively control the costs of, and our strategic allocation of financial resources toward, post-approval commercialization.

 

Our marketed products include oral, once-daily ORLADEYO® for the prevention of hereditary angioedema (“HAE”) attacks and RAPIVAB® (peramivir injection) for the treatment of acute uncomplicated influenza in the United States.  ORLADEYO received regulatory approval in the United States in December 2020.  During 2021, ORLADEYO received regulatory approvals in the European Union, Japan, the United Arab Emirates, and the United Kingdom.  We are commercializing ORLADEYO in each of these territories directly or through distributors, except in Japan where Torii, our collaborative partner, has the exclusive right to commercialize ORLADEYO for the prevention of HAE attacks in exchange for certain milestone and royalty payments to us.  In addition to its approval in the United States, peramivir injection has received regulatory approvals in Canada, Australia, Japan, Taiwan and Korea. 

 

Our revenues are difficult to predict and depend on several factors, including those discussed in the “Risk Factors” section in Part I, Item 1A of this report. For example, our revenues depend, in part, on regulatory approval decisions for our products and product candidates, the effectiveness of our and our collaborative partners’ commercialization efforts, market acceptance of our products, particularly ORLADEYO, the resources dedicated to our products by us and our collaborative partners, and ongoing discussions with government agencies regarding contract awards for development and procurement, as well as entering into, or modifying, licensing agreements for our product candidates. Furthermore, revenues related to our collaborative development activities are dependent upon the progress toward and the achievement of developmental milestones by us or our collaborative partners.

 

Our operating expenses are also difficult to predict and depend on several factors, including research and development expenses (and whether these expenses are reimbursable under government contracts), drug manufacturing, and clinical research activities, the ongoing requirements of our development programs, the costs of commercialization, the availability of capital and direction from regulatory agencies, which are difficult to predict, and the factors discussed in the “Risk Factors” section in Part I, Item 1A of this report. Management may be able to control the timing and level of research and development and selling, general and administrative expenses, but many of these expenditures will occur irrespective of our actions due to contractually committed activities and/or payments.

 

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As a result of these factors, we believe that period-to-period comparisons are not necessarily meaningful, and you should not rely on them as an indication of future performance. Due to the foregoing factors, it is possible that our operating results will be below the expectations of market analysts and investors. In such event, the prevailing market price of our common stock could be materially adversely affected.

 

Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates

 

The accompanying discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations are based upon our consolidated financial statements and the related disclosures, which have been prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP. The preparation of these consolidated financial statements requires us to make estimates and judgments that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues, expenses and related disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities. We evaluate our estimates, judgments and the policies underlying these estimates on a periodic basis, as situations change, and regularly discuss financial events, policies, and issues with members of our audit committee and our independent registered public accounting firm. In particular, we routinely evaluate our estimates and policies regarding revenue recognition, administration, inventory and manufacturing, taxes, stock-based compensation, research and development, consulting and other expenses and any associated liabilities. Our estimates are based on historical experience and on various other assumptions that are believed to be reasonable under the circumstances. The results of our estimates form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. See “Critical Accounting Policies” at the end of this “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” for a description of accounting policies that we believe are the most critical to aid you in fully understanding and evaluating our reported financial results and that affect the more significant judgments and estimates that we use in the preparation of our financial statements.

 

Recent Corporate Highlights

 

COVID-19

 

The outbreak of COVID-19 has severely impacted global economic activity and caused significant volatility in financial markets. To date, our financial condition, results of operations, and liquidity have not been materially impacted by the direct effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. Please refer to “Risk Factors⸻Risks Relating to Our Business⸻Risks Relating to COVID-19” in Part I, Item 1A of this report for a discussion of COVID-19 risks as they relate to our business. We are continuing to monitor developments with respect to the COVID-19 pandemic and to make adjustments as needed to assist in protecting the safety of our employees and communities while continuing our business activities. Our remote working arrangements continue to be flexible where it is both practical and possible for the business. Business-related travel has increased, and we will continue to monitor developments with respect to COVID-19 going forward. To date, implementation of specific COVID-19 measures has not required material expenditures or significantly impacted our ability to operate our business or our internal control over financial reporting and disclosure controls and procedures. We continue to monitor the potential impacts of COVID-19 on our operations and those of our partners, suppliers, customers, and regulators.

 

ORLADEYO (berotralstat)

 

ORLADEYO is an oral, once-daily therapy discovered and developed by us for the prevention of HAE attacks. Approved first by the FDA in the U.S. in December 2020, ORLADEYO is also approved in the European Union, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United Arab Emirates for the prevention of HAE attacks in adults and pediatric patients 12 years and older.

 

On January 10, 2022, we announced that ORLADEYO is now covered by all major payors and national and regional pharmacy benefit managers in the U.S.

 

We built out our U.S. commercial infrastructure in 2020 to support the launch of ORLADEYO in the U.S. and are continuing to build our commercial infrastructure to support launches in Europe and elsewhere.  Based on proprietary analyses of HAE prevalence and market research studies with HAE patients, physicians, and payors in the U.S. and Europe, and our first full year of experience with the ORLADEYO launch in 2021, we anticipate the commercial market for ORLADEYO has the potential to reach a global peak of more than $1 billion in annual sales.  We expect at least 70 to 80 percent of our revenue at peak to come from the U.S.  These expectations are subject to numerous risks and uncertainties that may cause our actual results, performance, or achievements to be materially different.  There can be no assurance that our commercialization methods and strategies will succeed, or that the market for ORLADEYO will develop in line with our current expectations.  See “Risk Factors⸻Risks Relating to Our Business⸻Risks Relating to Drug Development and Commercialization⸻There can be no assurance that our commercialization efforts, methods, and strategies for our products or technologies will succeed, and our future revenue generation is uncertain” in Part I, Item 1A of this report for further discussion of these risks.

 

Revenue from sales of ORLADEYO in 2021, which was our first full year of ORLADEYO sales, is discussed under “Results of Operations.” Revenue from sales of ORLADEYO in future periods is subject to uncertainties and will depend on several factors, including the success of our and our partners’ commercialization efforts in the U.S. and elsewhere, the number of new patients switching to ORLADEYO, patient retention and demand, the number of physicians prescribing ORLADEYO, the rate of monthly prescriptions, reimbursement from third-party and government payors, the conversion of patients from our clinical trials and early access programs to commercial customers, and market trends. We are continuing to monitor and analyze this data as we continue to commercialize ORLADEYO.

 

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Complement-Mediated Diseases

 

BCX9930 is a novel, oral, potent, and selective small molecule inhibitor of Factor D discovered by the Company and currently in clinical development for the treatment of complement-mediated diseases. Based on the safety and proof-of-concept (“PoC”) data generated to date in patients with PNH, the program has advanced to pivotal studies of oral BCX9930 (500 mg twice-daily) in PNH and to a proof-of-concept trial of oral BCX9930 (500 mg twice-daily) in renal complement-mediated diseases. We are working closely with key opinion leaders in hematology and nephrology to map the advanced development strategy across a broad set of indications. Our goal is to develop BCX9930 as a monotherapy for complement-mediated diseases.

 

On November 29, 2021, we announced the enrollment of the first patient in the REDEEM-2 pivotal trial with BCX9930 in patients with PNH. REDEEM-2 is a randomized, placebo-controlled trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of BCX9930 (500 mg twice-daily) as monotherapy versus placebo in PNH patients not currently receiving complement inhibitor therapy. In part 1 of this trial, patients will be randomized 2:1 to receive BCX9930 or placebo under double-blind conditions for 12 weeks. All patients will receive BCX9930 in part 2 (weeks 13-52) to assess the long-term safety, tolerability, and effectiveness of BCX9930, with patients randomized to placebo in part 1 switching to BCX9930 at the week 12 visit. The primary endpoint of REDEEM-2 is change from baseline in hemoglobin, as assessed at week 12.

 

On January 7, 2022, we announced the enrollment of the first patient in the REDEEM-1 pivotal trial with BCX9930 in patients with PNH. REDEEM-1 is a randomized, open-label, active comparator-controlled comparison of the efficacy and safety of BCX9930 (500 mg twice-daily) monotherapy in PNH patients with an inadequate response to a C5 inhibitor. In part 1 of this trial, patients who have not had an adequate response to a C5 inhibitor will be randomized 2:1 to discontinue their C5 inhibitor and receive BCX9930 as monotherapy or to continue receiving their C5 inhibitor for 24 weeks. All patients will receive BCX9930 in part 2 (weeks 25-52) to assess the long-term safety, tolerability, and effectiveness of BCX9930. Patients who are randomized to C5 inhibitor therapy in part 1 will discontinue that therapy at the week 24 visit and start BCX9930 for part 2. The primary endpoint of REDEEM-1 is change from baseline in hemoglobin, as assessed at weeks 12 to 24.

 

On February 22, 2022, we announced the enrollment of the first patient in the RENEW proof-of-concept basket study with BCX9930 in patients with C3 glomerulopathy (C3G), IgA nephropathy (IgAN), and primary membranous nephropathy (PMN).  RENEW is an open-label, multicenter, proof-of-concept study designed to evaluate the safety, tolerability, and therapeutic potential of BCX9930 (twice-daily) administered for 24 weeks in patients with either C3G, IgAN, or PMN.  All patients will be enrolled into one of three parallel study cohorts, based on confirmation of diagnosis and disease activity in a recent kidney biopsy, and will receive BCX9930 for the 24-week treatment period.  The primary endpoint of RENEW is percent change from baseline in 24-hour urine protein-to-creatinine ratio (uPCR), as assessed at week 24.

 

Financing Transactions

 

Royalty Monetizations. On November 19, 2021, we entered into (i) the 2021 RPI Royalty Purchase Agreement, pursuant to which we sold to RPI the right to receive certain royalty payments from the Company for a purchase price of $150 million in cash; and (ii) the OMERS Royalty Purchase Agreement, pursuant to which we sold to OMERS the right to receive certain royalty payments from the Company for a purchase price of an additional $150 million in cash. Under the Royalty Purchase Agreements, RPI and OMERS are entitled to receive tiered, sales-based royalties on net product sales of ORLADEYO in the Key Territories and on other Direct Sales. In addition, RPI and OMERS are entitled to receive a tiered revenue share on amounts generally received by us on account of ORLADEYO sublicense revenue or net sales by licensees outside of the Key Territories. Under the 2021 RPI Royalty Purchase Agreement, RPI will also be entitled to receive tiered, sales-based royalties on net product sales, if any, of BCX9930 and another earlier stage Factor D inhibitor, as well as tiered, profit share amounts of up to 3.0% from certain other permitted sales in certain other markets. See “Note 8⸻Royalty Monetizations⸻ORLADEYO and Factor D Inhibitors” in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Part II, Item 8 of this report for additional information about our obligations under the Royalty Purchase Agreements.

 

Sales of Common Stock. On November 19, 2021, concurrent with the 2021 RPI Royalty Purchase Agreement, we entered into a Common Stock Purchase Agreement (the “Stock Purchase Agreement”) with RPI, pursuant to which we issued to RPI 3,846,154 shares of our common stock for an aggregate purchase price of approximately $50 million, at a price of $13.00 per share, calculated based on the 20-day volume weighted average price. These shares were offered and sold without registration under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), in reliance on the exemptions provided by Section 4(a)(2) of the Securities Act as transactions not involving a public offering and Rule 506 promulgated under the Securities Act as sales to an accredited investor.

 

Amendment to Credit Agreement. On November 19, 2021, we entered into an amendment to our Credit Agreement with Athyrium Opportunities III Co-Invest 1 LP (“Athyrium” and such agreement, as amended, the “Credit Agreement”), as lender and as administrative agent for the lenders. BioCryst Ireland Limited and BioCryst US Sales Co., LLC, each of which is a wholly-owned subsidiary of ours, and BioCryst UK Limited, a wholly-owned subsidiary of BioCryst Ireland Limited, are guarantors to the Credit Agreement. The amendment amended the original Credit Agreement (i) to permit the Company to enter into the 2021 RPI Royalty Purchase Agreement, the OMERS Royalty Purchase Agreement, and the other definitive documentation related thereto and to perform its obligations thereunder; (ii) to require the Company to pay to Athyrium, for the account of the lenders, a make-whole premium plus certain fees set forth in the Credit Agreement in the event that the Company does not draw the Term B Loan or the Term C Loan available under the Credit Agreement, as applicable, by the end of the applicable period available to draw the Term B Loan or the Term C Loan, subject to certain exceptions set forth in the Credit Agreement; and (iii) to require the Company to pay to Athyrium, for the account of the lenders, a make-whole premium plus certain fees set forth in the Credit Agreement in the event that the Company either (x) terminates the commitments in respect of the Term B Loan or the Term C Loan, as applicable, on or prior to the end of the applicable period available to draw the Term B Loan or the Term C Loan, or (y) prepays or repays, or is required to prepay or repay, voluntarily or pursuant to a mandatory prepayment obligation under the Credit Agreement (e.g., with the proceeds of certain asset sales, certain ORLADEYO out-licensing or royalty monetization transactions (excluding the Royalty Sales), extraordinary receipts, debt issuances, or upon a change of control of the Company and specified other events, subject to certain exceptions), all of the then-outstanding Term Loans under the Credit Agreement, in each case, subject to certain exceptions set forth in the Credit Agreement. See “Note 9⸻Debt⸻Credit Agreement” in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Part II, Item 8 of this report for additional information about our obligations under the Credit Agreement.

 

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Results of Operations

 

The discussion below presents a summary of our results of operations for fiscal years 2021 and 2020. See Part II, Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations⸻Results of Operations” of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020, filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on March 1, 2021, for a summary of our results of operations for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019.

 

Year Ended December 31, 2021 Compared to 2020

 

For the year ended December 31, 2021, total revenues were $157.2 million as compared to $17.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2020. This increase of $139.4 million was primarily due to an increase of $122.5 million of ORLADEYO net revenue following our commercial launch in December 2020. Additionally, RAPIVAB revenues, primarily from sales to HHS, increased by $6.7 million and peramivir product revenue from inventory sales to our partners increased by $4.6 million. The Company also recognized a $15.0 million milestone payment related to the NHI approval of ORLADEYO in Japan. These increases in revenue were partially offset by a reduction in royalty revenue (excluding those associated with ORLADEYO sales) of $4.2 million, a reduction in contract revenue of $3.3 million and the recognition of $1.9 million of deferred revenue in the prior year period compared to none in the current year period. The decrease in royalty revenue was due to peramivir product replacement under Green Cross’s supply agreement with the Korean government.

 

Cost of product sales for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020 was $7.2 million and $1.6 million, respectively, and was primarily associated with the peramivir product sales to our partners in 2021.

 

R&D expenses increased to $208.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2021 from $123.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2020, primarily due to increased investment in the development of our Factor D program, including BCX9930, as well as other research, preclinical and development costs, which were partially offset by a reduction in spend on the ORLADEYO program following our commercial launch in December 2020.

 

The following table summarizes our R&D expenses for the periods indicated (amounts are in thousands). Certain prior period amounts have been reclassified for consistency with the current year presentation. These reclassifications had no effect on the total R&D expenses.

 

   

2021

   

2020

   

2019

 

R&D expenses by program:

                       

Berotralstat

  $ 30,559     $ 44,329     $ 57,059  

Factor D Program

    132,267       35,265       26,640  

FOP

    2,840       2,583       6,167  

Galidesivir

    5,740       9,705       4,680  

Peramivir

    1,245       1,613       2,143  

Other research, preclinical and development costs

    36,157       29,469       10,379  

Total R&D expenses

  $ 208,808     $ 122,964     $ 107,068  

 

R&D expenses include all direct and indirect expenses and are allocated to specific programs at the point of development of a lead product candidate. Direct expenses are charged directly to the program to which they relate, and indirect expenses are allocated based upon internal direct labor hours dedicated to each respective program. Direct expenses consist of compensation for R&D personnel and costs of outside parties to conduct laboratory studies, develop manufacturing processes, manufacture the product candidates, conduct and manage clinical trials, as well as other costs related to our clinical and preclinical studies. Indirect R&D expenses consist of lab supplies and services, facility expenses, depreciation of development equipment and other overhead of our research and development efforts. R&D expenses vary according to the number of programs in clinical development and the stage of development of our clinical programs. Later stage clinical programs tend to cost more than earlier stage programs due to the longer length of time of the clinical trials and the higher number of patients enrolled in these clinical trials.

 

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SG&A expenses for the year ended December 31, 2021 were $118.8 million compared to $67.9 million in the year ended December 31, 2020. The increase was primarily due to increased investment to support the commercial launch of ORLADEYO in the U.S. and elsewhere and our expanded international operations, particularly in the EU. Additionally, SG&A expenses for 2021 included non-cash stock compensation charges of $8.9 million on the accelerated vesting of certain outstanding stock options and severance costs of $1.1 million.

 

Interest expense for the year ended December 31, 2021 was $59.3 million as compared to $14.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2020. The increase in interest expense was primarily associated with the royalty financing obligations and the $125.0 million Term A Loan under the Credit Agreement. Interest expense for the year ended December 31, 2021 included $37.7 million of non-cash interest expense due to the amortization of interest associated with the royalty financing obligations and $15.5 million of interest expense, net of deferred financing amortization, associated with the Term A Loan under the Credit Agreement. Additionally, we recognized $6.1 million in interest expense on the non-recourse PhaRMA Notes issued in March 2011. Interest expense for the year ended December 31, 2020 consisted of $6.6 million associated with the non-recourse PhaRMA Notes and $4.9 million associated with the borrowings under our secured credit facility with MidCap, which terminated in December 2020 when we repaid the outstanding indebtedness under the facility. Additionally, 2020 interest expense included $2.1 million of non-cash interest expense due to the amortization of interest associated with the royalty financing obligation and $0.9 million of interest expense, net of deferred financing amortization, associated with the Term A Loan under the Credit Agreement.

 

A gain of $55.8 million on extinguishment of debt was recognized for the year ended December 31, 2021 related to the write-off of the non-recourse PhaRMA Notes and related accrued interest payable. See “Note 8⸻Royalty Monetizations⸻RAPIACTA⸻ Non-Recourse Notes Payable – Debt Extinguishment ” in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Part II, Item 8 of this report for additional information. This gain compares to a loss on extinguishment of debt of $2.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2020, which is comprised of the write-off of unamortized deferred financing costs and original issue discount of $1.2 million and a prepayment fee of $0.8 million associated with the repayment of the outstanding indebtedness under our secured credit facility with MidCap in December 2020.

 

For the year ended December 31, 2021, other expense of $0.6 million was primarily related to foreign currency losses as compared to other income of $8.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2020. Other income in 2020 consisted of $8.9 million related to recognition of income from the partial arbitration award related to our Seqirus arbitration proceedings and $0.5 million of interest income, partially offset by foreign currency losses of $1.0 million.

 

For the year ended December 31, 2021, we incurred a tax expense of $2.3 million, primarily related to U.S. state taxes. This liability was driven predominantly by the recognition as upfront taxable income of $300.0 million received from the RPI Royalty Purchase Agreement and the OMERS Royalty Purchase Agreement, increased sales of ORLADEYO and increased nexus in multiple states where historically we had none.

 

Liquidity and Capital Resources

 

Our operations have principally been funded through public offerings and private placements of equity securities; cash from collaborative and other research and development agreements, including U.S. Government contracts for RAPIVAB and galidesivir; to a lesser extent, the PhaRMA Notes financing and our credit facilities; and more recently, the Royalty Sales. To date, we have been awarded a BARDA/HHS RAPIVAB development contract totaling $234.8 million, which expired on June 30, 2014, a NIAID/HHS galidesivir development contract totaling $47.3 million, which is in the process of being closed out, a second NIAID/HHS galidesivir development contract with a potential value totaling $43.9 million, which is ongoing, and a BARDA/HHS galidesivir development contract totaling $39.1 million, which is also ongoing. The total amount of funding obligated under awarded options under the active NIAID/HHS and BARDA/HHS galidesivir contracts is $53.6 million and $20.6 million, respectively. In addition to the above, we have previously received funding from other sources, including other collaborative and other research and development agreements, government grants, equipment lease financing, facility leases, research grants, and interest income on our investments.

 

On November 19, 2021, we entered into the 2021 RPI Royalty Purchase Agreement, the OMERS Royalty Purchase Agreement, and the Stock Purchase Agreement, pursuant to which we received $350.0 million in new funding for the Company, with all funds immediately available at closing. See “Note 8⸻Royalty Monetizations⸻ORLADEYO and Factor D Inhibitors” in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Part II, Item 8 of this report for additional information about these financing transactions.

 

Our Credit Agreement with Athyrium provides for three term loans. We received the proceeds from the $125.0 million Term A Loan in December 2020. We have committed to draw the two additional term loans available under the Credit Agreement, in the respective principal amounts of $25.0 million for the Term B Loan and $50.0 million for the Term C Loan. The maturity date of the Credit Agreement is December 7, 2025. See “Note 9⸻Debt⸻Credit Agreement” in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Part II, Item 8 of this report for additional information about the Credit Agreement.

 

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As of December 31, 2021, we had net working capital of $462.4 million, an increase of approximately $244.3 million from $218.1 million at December 31, 2020. The increase in working capital was primarily the result of the $300.0 million of new funding associated with the royalty monetization transactions and the related $50.0 million from the sale of common stock in the fourth quarter of 2021.  Working capital was also impacted by the write-off of the non-recourse PhaRMA Notes including associated accrued interest payable, which were previously recorded in current liabilities. Our principal sources of liquidity at December 31, 2021 were approximately $504.4 million in cash and cash equivalents and approximately $10.0 million in investments considered available-for-sale.

 

We intend to contain costs and cash flow requirements by closely managing our third-party costs and headcount, leasing scientific equipment and facilities, contracting with other parties to conduct certain research and development projects, and using consultants. We expect to incur additional expenses, potentially resulting in significant losses, as we continue to pursue our research and development activities, commercialize ORLADEYO, and hire additional personnel. We may incur additional expenses related to the filing, prosecution, maintenance, defense, and enforcement of patent and other intellectual property claims and additional regulatory costs as our clinical programs advance through later stages of development. The objective of our investment policy is to ensure the safety and preservation of invested funds, as well as to maintain liquidity sufficient to meet cash flow requirements. We place our excess cash with high credit quality financial institutions, commercial companies, and government agencies in order to limit the amount of our credit exposure. We have not realized any significant losses on our investments.

 

We plan to finance our needs principally from the following:

 

 

lease, royalty, or loan financing and future public or private equity and/or debt financing;

 

our existing capital resources and interest earned on that capital;

 

revenues from product sales;

 

payments under existing, and executing new, contracts with the U.S. Government; and

 

payments under current or future collaborative and licensing agreements with corporate partners.

 

As our commercialization activities and research and development programs continue to advance, our costs will increase. Our current and planned clinical trials, plus the related development, manufacturing, regulatory approval process requirements, and additional personnel resources and testing required for the continuing development of our product candidates and the commercialization of our products will consume significant capital resources and will increase our expenses.

 

Our expenses, revenues and cash utilization rate could vary significantly depending on many factors, including our ability to raise additional capital, the development progress of our collaborative agreements for our product candidates, the amount and timing of funding we receive from existing U.S. Government contracts for galidesivir, the amount of funding or assistance, if any, we receive from new U.S. Government contracts or other new partnerships with third parties for the development and/or commercialization of our products and product candidates, the progress and results of our current and proposed clinical trials for our most advanced product candidates, the progress made in the manufacturing of our lead product candidates, the success of our commercialization efforts for, and market acceptance of, our products, and the overall progression of our other programs. The impact of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic on one or more of the foregoing factors could negatively affect our expenses, revenues, and cash utilization rate.

 

Based on our expectations for revenue, operating expenses and the additional $75 million available to us under the Credit Agreement, we believe our financial resources will be sufficient to fund our operations for at least the next 12 months. However, we have sustained operating losses for the majority of our corporate history and expect that our 2022 expenses will exceed our 2022 revenues. We expect to continue to incur operating losses and negative cash flows until revenues reach a level sufficient to support ongoing operations. Our liquidity needs will be largely determined by the success of operations in regard to the successful commercialization of our products and the future progression of our product candidates. We regularly evaluate other opportunities to fund future operations, including: (1) securing or increasing U.S. Government funding of our programs, including obtaining procurement contracts; (2) out-licensing rights to certain of our products or product candidates, pursuant to which we would receive cash milestone payments; (3) raising additional capital through equity or debt financings or from other sources, including royalty or other monetization transactions; (4) obtaining additional product candidate regulatory approvals, which would generate revenue, milestone payments and cash flow; (5) reducing spending on one or more research and development programs, including by discontinuing development; and/or (6) restructuring operations to change our overhead structure. We may issue securities, including common stock, preferred stock, depositary shares, purchase contracts, warrants, debt securities, and units, through private placement transactions or registered public offerings. Our future liquidity needs, and our ability to address those needs, will largely be determined by the success of our products and product candidates; the timing, scope, and magnitude of our commercial expenses; and key development and regulatory events and our decisions in the future.

 

Our long-term capital requirements and the adequacy of our available funds will depend upon many factors, including:

 

 

market acceptance of approved products and successful commercialization of such products by either us or our partners;

 

our ability to perform under our government contracts and to receive reimbursement and stockpiling procurement contracts;

 

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the magnitude of work under our government contracts;

 

the progress and magnitude of our research, drug discovery and development programs;

 

changes in existing collaborative relationships or government contracts;

 

our ability to establish additional collaborative relationships with academic institutions, biotechnology or pharmaceutical companies and governmental agencies or other third parties;

 

the extent to which our partners, including governmental agencies, will share in the costs associated with the development of our programs or run the development programs themselves;

 

our ability to negotiate favorable development and marketing strategic alliances for certain products and product candidates;

 

any decision to build or expand internal development and commercial capabilities;

 

the scope and results of preclinical studies and clinical trials to identify and develop product candidates;

 

our ability to engage sites and enroll subjects in our clinical trials;

 

the scope of manufacturing of our products to support our commercial operations and of our product candidates to support our preclinical research and clinical trials;

 

increases in personnel and related costs to support the development and commercialization of our products and product candidates;

 

the scope of manufacturing of our drug substance and product candidates required for future NDA filings;

 

competitive and technological advances;

 

the time and costs involved in obtaining regulatory approvals;

 

post-approval commitments for ORLADEYO, RAPIVAB, and other products that receive regulatory approval; and

 

the costs involved in all aspects of intellectual property strategy and protection, including the costs involved in preparing, filing, prosecuting, maintaining, defending, and enforcing patent claims.

 

We expect that we will be required to raise additional capital to complete the development and commercialization of our current products and product candidates, and we may seek to raise capital in the future, including to take advantage of favorable opportunities in the capital markets. Additional funding, whether through additional sales of equity or debt securities, collaborative or other arrangements with corporate partners or from other sources, including governmental agencies in general and existing government contracts specifically, may not be available when needed or on terms acceptable to us. The issuance of preferred or common stock or convertible securities, with terms and prices significantly more favorable than those of the currently outstanding common stock, could have the effect of diluting or adversely affecting the holdings or rights of our existing stockholders. In addition, collaborative arrangements may require us to transfer certain material rights to such corporate partners. Insufficient funds may require us to delay, scale back or eliminate certain of our research and development programs. Our future working capital requirements, including the need for additional working capital, will be largely determined by the advancement of our portfolio of product candidates and the commercialization of ORLADEYO, as well as the rate of reimbursement by U.S. Government agencies of our galidesivir expenses and any future decisions regarding the future of the RAPIVAB and galidesivir programs, including those relating to stockpiling procurement. More specifically, our working capital requirements will be dependent on the number, magnitude, scope and timing of our development programs; regulatory approval of our product candidates; obtaining funding from collaborative partners; the cost, timing and outcome of regulatory reviews, regulatory investigations, and changes in regulatory requirements; the costs of obtaining patent protection for our product candidates; the timing and terms of business development activities; the rate of technological advances relevant to our operations; the efficiency of manufacturing processes developed on our behalf by third parties; the timing, scope and magnitude of commercial spending, and the level of required administrative support for our daily operations.

 

The restrictive covenants contained in our Credit Agreement could cause us to be unable to pursue business opportunities that we or our stockholders may consider beneficial without the lender’s permission or without repaying all obligations outstanding under the Credit Agreement. These covenants limit our ability to, among other things, grant certain types of liens on our assets; make certain investments; incur or assume certain debt, including accessing additional tranches of debt under the Credit Agreement; engage in certain mergers, acquisitions, and similar transactions; dispose of assets; license certain property; distribute dividends; make certain restricted payments; change the nature of our business; engage in transactions with affiliates and insiders; prepay other indebtedness; or engage in sale and leaseback transactions. A breach of any of these covenants could result in an event of default under the Credit Agreement. As of December 31, 2021, we were in compliance with the covenants under the Credit Agreement.

 

Financial Outlook for 2022

 

Based on the strength of the ORLADEYO launch, and continued growth from new patient demand anticipated throughout the year, we expect full year 2022 net ORLADEYO revenue to be no less than $250 million. We expect operating expenses for full year 2022, not including non-cash stock compensation, to be in the range of $440 million to $480 million, with the year-over-year increase predominantly driven by additional investment in advancing our Factor D program across multiple indications.  Based on our expectations for revenue, operating expenses, and the additional $75 million available under our existing credit facility, we believe our current cash funds our planned operations for at least the next 12 months.

 

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Critical Accounting Policies

 

We have established various accounting policies that govern the application of U.S. GAAP, which were utilized in the preparation of our consolidated financial statements. Certain accounting policies involve significant judgments and assumptions by management that have a material impact on the carrying value of certain assets and liabilities. Management considers such accounting policies to be critical accounting policies. The judgments and assumptions used by management are based on historical experience and other factors, which are believed to be reasonable under the circumstances. Because of the nature of the judgments and assumptions made by management, actual results could differ from these judgments and estimates, which could have a material impact on the carrying values of assets and liabilities and the results of operations.

 

While our significant accounting policies are more fully described in “Note 1−Significant Accounting Policies and Concentrations of Risk” to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Part I, Item 1 of this report, we believe that the following accounting policies are the most critical to aid you in fully understanding and evaluating our reported financial results and affect the more significant judgments and estimates that we use in the preparation of our financial statements.

 

Revenue Recognition

 

Pursuant to Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Topic 606, we recognize revenue to depict the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. To achieve this core principle, Topic 606 includes provisions within a five step model that includes (i) identifying the contract with a customer, (ii) identifying the performance obligations in the contract, (iii) determining the transaction price, (iv) allocating the transaction price to the performance obligations, and (v) recognizing revenue when, or as, an entity satisfies a performance obligation.

 

At contract inception, we identify the goods or services promised within each contract, assess whether each promised good or service is distinct, and determine those that are performance obligations. We recognize as revenue the amount of the transaction price that is allocated to the respective performance obligation when the performance obligation is satisfied.

 

Product Sales, Net

 

Our principal sources of product sales are sales of ORLADEYO, which we began shipping to patients in December 2020, sales of peramivir to our licensing partners and sales of RAPIVAB to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services under our procurement contract. In the United States, we ship ORLADEYO directly to patients through a single specialty pharmacy, which is considered our customer. In the European Union, United Kingdom and elsewhere, we sell ORLADEYO to specialty distributors as well as hospitals and pharmacies, which collectively are considered our customers.

 

We recognize revenue for sales when our customers obtain control of the product, which generally occurs upon delivery. For ORLADEYO, we classify payments to our specialty pharmacy customer for certain services provided by our customer as selling, general and administrative expenses to the extent such services provided are determined to be distinct from the sale of our product.

 

Net revenue from sales of ORLADEYO is recorded at net selling price (transaction price), which includes estimates of variable consideration for which reserves are established for (i) estimated government rebates, such as Medicaid and Medicare Part D reimbursements, and estimated managed care rebates, (ii) estimated chargebacks, (iii) estimated costs of co-payment assistance programs and (iv) product returns. These reserves are based on the amounts earned or to be claimed on the related sales and are classified as reductions of accounts receivable or as a current liability. Overall, these reserves reflect our best estimates of the amount of consideration to which it is entitled based on the terms of the applicable contract. The amount of variable consideration included in the transaction price may be constrained and is included in the net sales price only to the extent that it is probable that a significant reversal in the amount of the cumulative revenue recognized will not occur in a future period. Actual amounts of consideration ultimately received may differ from our estimates. If actual results in the future vary from estimates, we adjust these estimates, which would affect net product revenue and earnings in the period such variances become known.

 

Government and Managed Care Rebates. We contract with government agencies and managed care organizations or, collectively, third-party payors, so that ORLADEYO will be eligible for purchase by, or partial or full reimbursement from, such third-party payors. We estimate the rebates we will provide to third-party payors and deduct these estimated amounts from total gross product revenues at the time the revenues are recognized. We estimate the rebates that we will provide to third-party payors based upon (i) our contracts with these third-party payors, (ii) the government mandated discounts applicable to government-funded programs, (iii) a range of possible outcomes that are probability-weighted for the estimated payor mix, and (iv) product distribution information obtained from our specialty pharmacy.

 

Chargebacks. Chargebacks are discounts that occur when certain contracted customers, pharmacy benefit managers, insurance companies and government programs purchase directly from our specialty pharmacy. These customers purchase our products under contracts negotiated between them and our specialty pharmacy. The specialty pharmacy, in turn, charges back to us the difference between the price the specialty pharmacy paid and the negotiated price paid by the contracted customers, which may be higher or lower than the specialty pharmacy purchase price with us. We estimate chargebacks and adjust gross product revenues and accounts receivable based on the estimates at the time revenues are recognized.

 

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Co-payment assistance and patient assistance programs. Patients who have commercial insurance and meet certain eligibility requirements may receive co-payment assistance. Based upon the terms of the program and co-payment assistance utilization reports received from the specialty pharmacy, we are able to estimate the co-payment assistance amounts, which are recorded in the same period in which the related revenue is recognized, resulting in a reduction of product revenue. We also offer a patient assistance program that provides free drug product, for a limited period of time, to allow a patient’s insurance coverage to be established. Based on patient assistance program utilization reports provided by the specialty pharmacy, we record gross revenue of the product provided and a full reduction of the revenue amount for the free drug discount.

 

Product returns. We do not provide contractual return rights to our customer, except in instances where the product is damaged or defective. Non-acceptance by the patient of shipped drug product by the specialty pharmacy is reflected as a reversal of sales in the period in which the sales were originally recorded. Reserves for estimated non-acceptances by patients are recorded as a reduction of revenue in the period that the related revenue is recognized, as well as a reduction to accounts receivable. Estimates of non-acceptance are based on quantitative information provided by the specialty pharmacy.

 

Collaborative and Other Research and Development Arrangements and Royalties

 

We recognize revenue when we satisfy a performance obligation by transferring promised goods or services to a customer. Revenue is measured at the transaction price that is based on the amount of consideration that we expect to receive in exchange for transferring the promised goods or services to the customer. The transaction price includes estimates of variable consideration to the extent it is probable that a significant reversal of revenue recognized will not occur.

 

We have collaboration and license agreements with a number of third parties as well as research and development agreements with certain government entities.

 

Our primary sources of revenue from these collaborative and other research and development arrangements are license, service and royalty revenues.

 

Revenue from license fees, royalty payments, milestone payments, and research and development fees are recognized as revenue when the earnings process is complete and we have no further continuing performance obligations or we have completed the performance obligations under the terms of the agreement.

 

Arrangements that involve the delivery of more than one performance obligation are initially evaluated as to whether the intellectual property licenses granted by us represent distinct performance obligations. If they are determined to be distinct, the value of the intellectual property licenses would be recognized up-front while the research and development service fees would be recognized as the performance obligations are satisfied. For performance obligations based on services performed, we measure progress using an input method based on the effort we expend or costs we incur toward the satisfaction of the performance obligation in relation to the total estimated effort or costs. Variable consideration is assessed at each reporting period as to whether it is not subject to significant future reversal and, therefore, should be included in the transaction price at the inception of the contract. If a contract includes a fixed or minimum amount of research and development support, this also would be included in the transaction price. Changes to collaborations, such as the extensions of the research term or increasing the number of targets or technology covered under an existing agreement, are assessed for whether they represent a modification or should be accounted for as a new contract. For contracts with multiple performance obligations, revenue is allocated to each performance obligation based on its relative standalone selling price. Standalone selling prices are based on observable prices at which we separately sell the products or services. If a standalone selling price is not directly observable, then we estimate the standalone selling price using either an adjusted market assessment approach or an expected cost plus margin approach, representing the amount that we believe the market is willing to pay for the product or service. Analyzing the arrangement to identify performance obligations requires the use of judgment, and each may be an obligation to deliver services, a right or license to use an asset, or another performance obligation.

 

Milestone payments are recognized as licensing revenue upon the achievement of specified milestones if (i) the milestone is substantive in nature and the achievement of the milestone was not probable at the inception of the agreement; and (ii) we have a right to payment. Any milestone payments received prior to satisfying these revenue recognition criteria are recorded as deferred revenue.

 

Reimbursements received for direct out-of-pocket expenses related to research and development costs are recorded as revenue in the Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Loss rather than as a reduction in expenses. Under our contracts with BARDA/HHS and NIAID/HHS, revenue is recognized as reimbursable direct and indirect costs are incurred.

 

Under certain of our license agreements, we receive royalty payments based upon our licensees’ net sales of covered products. Royalties are recognized at the later of when (i) the subsequent sale or usage occurs; or (ii) the performance obligation to which some or all of the sales-based or usage-based royalty has been satisfied.

 

Inventory

 

Our inventories primarily relate to ORLADEYO. Additionally, our inventory includes RAPIVAB and peramivir, which are manufactured for the Company’s partners.

 

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We value our inventories at the lower of cost or estimated net realizable value. We determine the cost of our inventories, which includes amounts related to materials, labor, manufacturing overhead and shipping and handling costs on a first-in, first-out (FIFO) basis. Raw materials and work-in-process includes all inventory costs prior to packaging and labeling, including raw material, active product ingredient, and drug product. Finished goods include packaged and labeled products.

 

Our inventories are subject to expiration dating. We regularly evaluate the carrying value of our inventories and provide valuation reserves for any estimated obsolete, short-dated or unmarketable inventories. In addition, we may experience spoilage of our raw materials and supplies. Our determination that a valuation reserve might be required, in addition to the quantification of such reserve, requires us to utilize significant judgment.

 

We expense costs related to the production of inventories as research and development expenses in the period incurred until such time it is believed that future economic benefit is expected to be recognized, which generally is upon receipt of regulatory approval. Upon regulatory approval, we capitalize subsequent costs related to the production of inventories.

 

Accrued Expenses

 

We enter into contractual agreements with third-party vendors who provide research and development, manufacturing, distribution, and other services in the ordinary course of business. Some of these contracts are subject to milestone-based invoicing, and services are completed over an extended period of time. We record liabilities under these contractual commitments when we determine an obligation has been incurred. This accrual process involves reviewing open contracts and purchase orders, communicating with our applicable personnel to identify services that have been performed and estimating the level of service performed and the associated cost when we have not yet been invoiced or otherwise notified of actual cost. The majority of our service providers invoice us monthly in arrears for services performed. We make estimates of our accrued expenses as of each balance sheet date based on the facts and circumstances known to us. We periodically confirm the accuracy of our estimates with the service providers and make adjustments if necessary. Examples of estimated accrued expenses include (i) fees paid to clinical research organizations (“CROs”) in connection with preclinical and toxicology studies and clinical trials; (ii) fees paid to investigative sites in connection with clinical trials; (iii) fees paid to contract manufacturers in connection with the production of our raw materials, drug substance, drug products, and product candidates; and (iv) professional fees.

 

We base our expenses related to clinical trials on our estimates of the services received and efforts expended pursuant to contracts with multiple research institutions and CROs that conduct and manage clinical trials on our behalf. The financial terms of these agreements are subject to negotiation, vary from contract to contract and may result in uneven payment flows. Payments under some of these contracts depend on factors such as the successful enrollment of patients and the completion of clinical trial milestones. In accruing service fees, we estimate the time period over which services will be performed and the level of effort expended in each period. If the actual timing of the performance of services or the level of effort varies from our estimate, we will adjust the accrual accordingly. If we do not identify costs that we have begun to incur or if we underestimate or overestimate the level of these costs, our actual expenses could differ from our estimates.

Contract Balances

 

The timing of revenue recognition, billings and cash collections results in billed accounts receivable, unbilled receivables (contract assets) and deferred revenue and billings in excess of revenue recognized (contract liabilities) on the Consolidated Balance Sheets.

 

Contract assets. Our long-term contracts are billed as work progresses in accordance with the contract terms and conditions, either at periodic intervals or upon achievement of certain milestones. Often this results in billing occurring subsequent to revenue recognition, resulting in contract assets. Contract assets are generally classified as current assets in the Consolidated Balance Sheets.

 

Contract liabilities. We often receive cash payments from customers in advance of our performance, resulting in contract liabilities. These contract liabilities are classified as either current or long-term in the Consolidated Balance Sheets based on the timing of when we expect to recognize the revenue.

 

Contract Costs

 

We may incur direct and indirect costs associated with obtaining a contract. Incremental contract costs that we expect to recover are capitalized and amortized over the expected term of the contract. Non-incremental contract costs and costs that we expect to recover are expensed as incurred.

 

Research and Development Expenses

 

Our research and development costs are charged to expense when incurred. Advance payments for goods or services that will be used or rendered for future research and development activities are deferred and capitalized. Such amounts are recognized as expense when the related goods are delivered or the related services are performed. Research and development expenses include, among other items, personnel costs, including salaries and benefits, manufacturing costs, clinical, regulatory, and toxicology services performed by CROs, materials and supplies, and overhead allocations consisting of various administrative and facilities related costs. Most of our manufacturing and clinical and preclinical studies are performed by third-party CROs. Costs for studies performed by CROs are accrued by us over the service periods specified in the contracts and estimates are adjusted, if required, based upon our ongoing review of the level of services actually performed.

 

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Additionally, we have license agreements with third parties, such as Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University (“AECOM”), Industrial Research, Ltd. (“IRL”), and the University of Alabama (“UAB”), which require fees related to sublicense agreements or maintenance fees. We expense sublicense payments as incurred unless they are related to revenues that have been deferred, in which case the expenses are deferred and recognized over the related revenue recognition period. We expense maintenance payments as incurred.

 

Deferred collaboration expenses represent sub-license payments paid to our academic partners upon receipt of consideration from various commercial partners, and other consideration to our academic partners for modification to existing license agreements. These deferred expenses would not have been incurred without receipt of such payments or modifications from our commercial partners and are being expensed in proportion to the related revenue being recognized. We believe that this accounting treatment appropriately matches expenses with the associated revenue.

 

We group our R&D expenses into two major categories: direct external expenses and indirect expenses. Direct expenses consist of compensation for R&D personnel and costs of outside parties to conduct laboratory studies, develop manufacturing processes and manufacture the product candidate, conduct and manage clinical trials, as well as other costs related to our clinical and preclinical studies. These costs are accumulated and tracked by active program. Indirect expenses consist of lab supplies and services, facility expenses, depreciation of development equipment and other overhead of our research and development efforts. These costs apply to work on non-active product candidates and our discovery research efforts.

 

Stock-Based Compensation

 

All share-based payments, including grants of stock option awards and restricted stock unit awards, are recognized in our Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Loss based on their fair values. Stock-based compensation cost is estimated at the grant date based on the fair value of the award and is recognized as expense on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period of the award. Determining the appropriate fair value model and the related assumptions for the model requires judgment, including estimating the life of an award, the stock price volatility, and the expected term. We utilize the Black-Scholes option-pricing model to value our awards and recognize compensation expense on a straight-line basis over the vesting periods. The estimation of share-based payment awards that will ultimately vest requires judgment, and to the extent actual results or updated estimates differ from our current estimates, such amounts will be recorded as a cumulative adjustment in the period estimates are revised. In addition, we have outstanding performance-based stock options for which no compensation expense is recognized until “performance” has occurred. Significant management judgment is also required in determining estimates of future stock price volatility and forfeitures to be used in the valuation of the options. Actual results, and future changes in estimates, may differ substantially from our current estimates.

 

Interest Expense and Royalty Financing Obligations

 

The royalty financing obligations are eligible to be repaid based on royalties from net sales of ORLADEYO, BCX9930, and another earlier stage Factor D inhibitor. Interest expense is accrued using the effective interest rate method over the estimated period each of the related liabilities will be paid. This requires us to estimate the total amount of future royalty payments to be generated from product sales over the life of the agreement. We impute interest on the carrying value of each of the royalty financing obligations and record interest expense using an imputed effective interest rate. We reassess the expected royalty payments each reporting period and account for any changes through an adjustment to the effective interest rate on a prospective basis. The assumptions used in determining the expected repayment term of the debt and amortization period of the issuance costs requires that we make estimates that could impact the carrying value of each of the liabilities, as well as the periods over which associated issuance costs will be amortized. A significant increase or decrease in forecasted net sales could materially impact each of the liability balances, interest expense and the time periods for repayment.

 

Foreign Currency Hedge

 

In connection with our issuance of the PhaRMA Notes, we entered into a foreign Currency Hedge Agreement to hedge certain risks associated with changes in the value of the Japanese yen relative to the U.S. dollar. The final tranche of the options under the Currency Hedge Agreement expired in November 2020. The Currency Hedge Agreement did not qualify for hedge accounting treatment and therefore mark-to-market adjustments were recognized in our Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Loss.

 

Tax

 

We account for uncertain tax positions in accordance with U.S. GAAP. Significant management judgment is required in determining our provision for income taxes, deferred tax assets and liabilities and any valuation allowance recorded against net deferred tax assets. We have recorded a valuation allowance against substantially all potential tax assets, due to uncertainties in our ability to utilize deferred tax assets, primarily consisting of certain net operating losses carried forward, before they expire. The valuation allowance is based on estimates of taxable income in each of the jurisdictions in which we operate and the period over which our deferred tax assets will be recoverable.

 

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Recent Accounting Pronouncements

 

“Note 1⸻Significant Accounting Policies and Concentrations of Risk” to the Consolidated Financial Statements included in Part II, Item 8 of this report discusses accounting pronouncements recently issued or proposed but not yet required to be adopted.

 

ITEM 7A.         QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK.

 

Interest Rate Risk

 

We are subject to interest rate risk on our investment portfolio and borrowings under our Credit Agreement. The Term A Loan under the Credit Agreement bears interest each quarter at a rate equal to the three-month LIBOR rate, which is capped to be no less than 1.75% and no more than 3.50% (“LIBOR”), plus 8.25% or, for each quarterly interest period in which a PIK Interest Payment is made, the LIBOR plus 10.25%. Accordingly, increases in interest rates could increase the associated interest payments that we are required to make on the term loans. As of December 31, 2021, interest was accrued at 12.2% on the $125.0 million Term A Loan under the Credit Agreement.

 

We invest in marketable securities in accordance with our investment policy. The primary objectives of our investment policy are to preserve capital, maintain proper liquidity to meet operating needs and maximize yields. Our investment policy specifies credit quality standards for our investments and limits the amount of credit exposure to any single issue, issuer or type of investment. We place our excess cash with high credit quality financial institutions, commercial companies, and government agencies in order to limit the amount of credit exposure. Some of the securities we invest in may have market risk. This means that a change in prevailing interest rates may cause the principal amount of the investment to fluctuate.

 

Our investment exposure to market risk for changes in interest rates relates to the increase or decrease in the amount of interest income we can earn on our portfolio, changes in the market value due to changes in interest rates and other market factors as well as the increase or decrease in any realized gains and losses. Our investment portfolio includes only marketable securities and instruments with active secondary or resale markets to help ensure portfolio liquidity. A hypothetical 100 basis point increase or decrease in interest rates along the entire interest rate yield curve would not significantly affect the fair value of our interest sensitive financial instruments, including our borrowings, but may affect our future earnings and cash flows. We generally have the ability to hold our fixed-income investments to maturity and therefore do not expect that our operating results, financial position or cash flows will be materially impacted due to a sudden change in interest rates. However, our future investment income may fall short of expectations due to changes in interest rates, or we may suffer losses in principal if forced to sell securities which have declined in market value due to changes in interest rates or other factors, such as changes in credit risk related to the securities’ issuers. To minimize this risk, we schedule our investments to have maturities that coincide with our expected cash flow needs, thus avoiding the need to redeem an investment prior to its maturity date. Accordingly, we do not believe that we have material exposure to interest rate risk arising from our investments. Generally, our investments are not collateralized. We have not realized any significant losses from our investments.

 

We do not use interest rate derivative instruments to manage exposure to interest rate changes. We ensure the safety and preservation of invested principal funds by limiting default risk, market risk and reinvestment risk. We reduce default risk by investing in investment grade securities.

 

Foreign Currency Risk

 

Most of our revenues and expenses are denominated in U.S. dollars, and as a result, we have not experienced significant foreign currency transaction gains and losses to date. Our commercial sales in Europe are primarily denominated in Euros and the British Pound. We also had other transactions denominated in foreign currencies during the year ended December 31, 2021, primarily related to operations in Europe, contract manufacturing and ex-U.S. clinical trial activities, and we expect to continue to do so. Our royalties from Torii are derived from Torii’s sales of ORLADEYO in Japan. Those sales are denominated in Japanese yen and converted into U.S. dollars for purposes of determining the royalty owed to us. Our limited foreign currency exposure relative to our European operations is to fluctuations in the Euro, British Pound, Swiss Franc, Danish Krone, and Swedish Krona. We do not anticipate that foreign currency transaction gains or losses will be significant at our current level of operations. However, transaction gains or losses may become significant in the future as we continue to expand our operations internationally. We have not engaged in foreign currency hedging during 2021; however, we may do so in the future.

 

 

 

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ITEM 8.        FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA

 

BIOCRYST PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.

 

CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS

 

(In thousands, except per share amounts)

 
  

December 31,

 
  

2021

  

2020

 

ASSETS

        

Cash and cash equivalents

 $504,389  $272,127 

Restricted cash

  3,345   2,221 

Investments

  3,212   28,239 

Trade receivables

  29,413   8,646 

Inventory

  15,791   7,039 

Prepaid expenses and other current assets

  9,986   5,528 

Total current assets

  566,136   323,800 

Property and equipment, net

  8,714   7,113 

Long-term investments

  6,829    

Other assets

  6,472   3,802 

Total assets

 $588,151  $334,715 

LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS DEFICIT

        

Accounts payable

 $27,808  $18,713 

Accrued expenses

  72,670   33,942 

Interest payable

     21,670 

Deferred revenue

  1,421   150 

Lease financing obligation

  1,819   1,179 

Non-recourse notes payable

     30,000 

Total current liabilities

  103,718   105,654 

Royalty financing obligations

  449,375   124,717 

Lease financing obligation

  5,962   3,871 

Secured term loan

  136,082   119,735 

Stockholders’ deficit:

        

Preferred stock, $0.01 par value; shares authorized — 5,000; no shares outstanding

      

Common stock, $0.01 par value; shares authorized — 450,000 Issued and outstanding – 184,350 and 176,883 at December 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively

  1,843   1,769 

Additional paid-in capital

  1,098,498   1,002,408 

Accumulated other comprehensive income

  177   3 

Accumulated deficit

  (1,207,504)  (1,023,442)

Total stockholders’ deficit

  (106,986)  (19,262)

Total liabilities and stockholders’ deficit

 $588,151  $334,715 

 

See accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements.

 

 

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BIOCRYST PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE LOSS

(In thousands, except per share amounts)

 

  

Years Ended December 31,

 
  

2021

  

2020

  

2019

 

Revenues

            

Product sales, net

 $136,350  $3,301  $17,533 

Royalty revenue

  (100)  3,381   6,303 

Milestone revenue

  15,000       

Collaborative and other research and development

  5,920   11,130   24,999 

Total revenues

  157,170   17,812   48,835 

Expenses

            

Cost of products sold

  7,229   1,550   3,726 

Research and development

  208,808   122,964   107,068 

Selling, general and administrative

  118,818   67,929   37,121 

Royalty

  35   126   375 

Total operating expenses

  334,890   192,569   148,290 

Loss from operations

  (177,720)  (174,757)  (99,455)

Interest and other income

  62   9,420   1,933 

Interest expense

  (59,294)  (14,501)  (11,892)

Gain (loss) on extinguishment of debt

  55,838   (2,011)   

Foreign currency (losses) gains, net

  (695)  (965)  517 

Loss before income taxes

 $(181,809) $(182,814) $(108,897)

Income tax expense

  2,253       

Net loss

 $(184,062) $(182,814) $(108,897)

Foreign currency translation adjustment

  189       

Unrealized (loss) gain on available for sale investments

  (15)  (36)  336 

Net comprehensive loss

 $(183,888) $(182,850) $(108,561)
             

Basic and diluted net loss per common share

 $(1.03) $(1.09) $(0.94)

Weighted average shares outstanding

  179,117   167,267   115,600 

 

See accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements.

 

 

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BIOCRYST PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS

(In thousands, except per share amounts)

 

  

Years Ended December 31,

 
  

2021

  

2020

  

2019

 

Cash flows from operating activities:

            

Net loss

 $(184,062) $(182,814) $(108,897)

Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash used in operating activities:

            

Depreciation and amortization

  777   748   724 

Stock-based compensation expense

  34,640   14,794   17,719 

Non-cash interest expense on royalty financing obligations and secured term loan and amortization of debt issuance costs

  54,204   3,325   1,278 

Amortization of premium/discount on investments

  (2)  121   117 

Change in fair value of foreign currency derivative

     632   347 

(Gain) loss on extinguishment of debt

  (55,838)  1,211    

Changes in operating assets and liabilities:

            

Receivables

  (20,817)  13,903   (17,853)

Inventory

  (8,767)  (7,039)  1,649 

Prepaid expenses and other assets

  (7,155)  (2,140)  (1,364)

Accounts payable and accrued expenses

  39,412   17,355   11,741 

Interest payable

  4,168   6,766   3,056 

Deferred revenue

  1,283   (1,970)