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Form 10-K AXCELIS TECHNOLOGIES For: Dec 31

February 25, 2022 12:42 PM EST

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UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

FORM 10-K

(Mark One)

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from to

Commission file number 000-30941

AXCELIS TECHNOLOGIES, INC.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

Delaware
(State or other jurisdiction
of incorporation or organization)

34-1818596
(IRS Employer Identification No.)

108 Cherry Hill Drive

Beverly, Massachusetts 01915

(Address of principal executive offices) (zip code)

(978787-4000

(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Title of each class

Trading symbol

Name of each exchange on which registered

Common Stock, $.001 par value

ACLS

Nasdaq Global Select Market

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:

None

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes  No 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes  No 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes  No 

Indicate by checkmark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes  No 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large accelerated filer 

Accelerated filer 

Non-accelerated filer 

Smaller reporting company 

Emerging growth company 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes  No 

Aggregate market value of the voting stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant as of June 30, 2021: $1,333,886,152

Number of shares outstanding of the registrant’s Common Stock, $0.001 par value, as of February 23, 2022: 33,251,279

Documents incorporated by reference:

Portions of the definitive Proxy Statement for Axcelis Technologies, Inc.’s Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be held on May 10, 2022 are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Form 10-K.

PART I

Item 1. Business.

Overview of Our Business

Axcelis Technologies, Inc. (“Axcelis,” the “Company,” “we,” “us,” or “our”) designs, manufactures and services ion implantation and other processing equipment used in the fabrication of semiconductor chips. We believe that our Purion family of products offers the most innovative implanters available on the market today. We sell to leading semiconductor chip manufacturers worldwide. The ion implantation business represented 97.4% of our revenue in 2021, with the remaining 2.6% of revenue derived from aftermarket sales associated with other legacy processing systems. In addition to equipment, we provide extensive aftermarket lifecycle products and services, including used tools, spare parts, equipment upgrades, maintenance services and customer training.

Axcelis’ business commenced in 1978 and its current corporate entity was incorporated in Delaware in 1995. We are headquartered in Beverly, Massachusetts and maintain an internet site at www.axcelis.com. On or through our website, investors may access, free of charge, our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to, the Securities and Exchange Commission. Our website and the information contained therein or connected thereto shall not be deemed to be incorporated into this Form 10-K.

2021 was an exceptional year for Axcelis despite logistical challenges brought on by the geo-political environment and the COVID-19 pandemic. As a result of the strength of the overall electronics market and the continued growth of the Purion product family in 2021, we delivered record full year revenue, operating profit and gross margin since becoming an independent public company in 2001. Revenue for 2021 was $662.4 million, an increase of 39.6% from 2020 revenue of $474.6 million. Systems revenue for 2021 was $454.6 million, compared to $293.6 million in 2020. Operating profit was $127.3 million in 2021, compared to $58.0 million in 2020. Gross margin for the year was 43.2% compared to 41.8% in 2020. Net income for the year was $98.7 million, an increase of 97.4% following a 39.6% increase in revenue from the prior year.

The Company is in a strong competitive position as we participate in a period of extended industry growth. A focused strategy on ion implant, combined with the hard work and dedication of our employees and the encouragement and support of our customers and suppliers, enabled us to achieve numerous critical milestones in our drive to market leadership. We were able to rapidly grow our manufacturing and supply chain capabilities through smart capacity planning and execution, including the opening of our new Axcelis Asia Operations Center in South Korea and the expansion of clean manufacturing in Beverly. In 2021, we continued to expand the Purion installed base, growing our large and diverse group of customers, mainly in the mature process technology segment. We continued our focus on the mature process technology segment in 2021, launching new Purion product extensions, including the Purion H200™ high current implanter, targeted for the production of power devices, and the Purion XEmax™ used to manufacture image sensors. Through the introduction of these new products and continuous cost reduction measures, we increased our gross margin year over year, making this the fourth consecutive year with gross margin greater than 40 percent.

We continue to work diligently to ensure that manufacturing and operating expense levels remain well aligned to business conditions. We believe that the most fundamental interest of our stockholders is consistent, profitable, financial performance, which we expect to continue to deliver in 2022. Our performance is subject to risks and uncertainties discussed below under Item 1A, Risk Factors.

Industry Overview

Semiconductor chips, also known as integrated circuits, are used in a continuously evolving range of consumer and industrial products, including for example, personal computers, mobile devices, automobiles, sensors and controllers for the “internet of things” and data storage servers. Types of semiconductor chips include dynamic random-access memory (“DRAM”) and “Not AND” (“NAND”) Flash memory; logic devices to process information; and “system on chip” devices (which have both logic and memory features). The increased number of devices providing information to and receiving

2

information from the Internet, sometimes referred to as the “Connected World,” is increasing demand for chips. These chips are used in data input, such as image sensors, which are often manufactured using mature processing technologies, as well as for memory to support the storage of data, internet streaming and “cloud computing” data analytics.

Most semiconductor chips are built on silicon wafers of either 200mm (8 inches) or 300mm (12 inches) in diameter. Each semiconductor chip is made up of millions of tiny transistors or “switches” to control the functions of the device. Transistors are created in the silicon wafer by introducing various precisely placed impurities into the silicon in specific patterns.

Semiconductor chip manufacturers own or manage wafer fabrication facilities (often referred to as “fabs”), which utilize many different types of equipment in the making of integrated circuits. Over 300 process steps utilizing over 50 different types of process tools are required to make a single device like a microprocessor. Semiconductor chip manufacturers seek device performance benefits through new products and technology enhancements and productivity improvements through increased throughput, equipment utilization and higher manufacturing yields. Capacity is added by increasing the amount of manufacturing equipment in existing fabrication facilities and by constructing new fabrication facilities.

We have different types of customers, which impacts the timing of purchases and technology requirements. Some customers are integrated electronics manufacturers, making semiconductor chips for their own devices. These same companies may also act as foundries, manufacturing chips for other electronic manufacturers or chip design companies. Some customers only function as foundries. A few companies design and manufacture branded chips that are sold to device manufacturers. In addition, some customers have partnerships or joint ventures with two or more semiconductor chip manufacturers to share the technology development and capital investment. The timing of purchases by foundry customers will depend on their success in securing manufacturing contracts. Also, foundry customers will look for equipment that can deliver the broadest capabilities in order to be prepared to manufacture all chip types, while integrated electronics manufacturers may invest in processing equipment dedicated to a specific application they require for their products.

The semiconductor capital equipment industry has historically been cyclical as global chip production capacities successively exceed, then lag behind, global chip demand. When chip demand is high, and inventories are low, chip manufacturers add capacity through capital equipment purchases. Given the difficulties of forecasting and calibrating chip demand and production capacity, the industry periodically experiences excess chip inventories and softening chip prices. Device manufacturers react with muted capital spending, lowering the demand for capital equipment. Changes in consumer and business demand for products in which chips are used also affect the industry. A successful semiconductor capital equipment manufacturer must not only provide some of the most technically complex products manufactured in the world but also must manage its business to thrive during low points in the cycle.

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Axcelis’ Strategy

Axcelis’ 2022 strategic goals are to:

Achieve our $850M revenue model run rate in 2022, positioning us to achieve our $1 billion revenue model in future years
oContinue to grow the Purion footprint with our existing customer base as well as at new accounts in targeted market segments and geographies
Capitalize on continued spending at mature process technology customers
Capture memory business as customers increase spending during the year
Continue working to penetrate leading edge logic and foundry customers
oDrive Customer Satisfaction & Innovation (CS&I) revenues by delivering excellent customer satisfaction and innovative, high value products and services
oContinue to drive gross margin improvements
Execute a capital strategy that funds appropriate investments in the business and enables the potential for return of cash to shareholders
Prepare for a post-COVID-19 business environment

We continue to invest in research and development to ensure our products meet the needs of our customers. We take pride in our scientists and engineers who are adding to our portfolio of patents and unpatented proprietary technology to ensure that our investment in technology leadership translates into unique product advantages. We strive for operational excellence by focusing on ways to lower our product, manufacturing and design costs and to improve our delivery times to our customers. Global customer teams and a focused account management structure maintain and strengthen our customer relationships and increase customer satisfaction. Finally, we endeavor to maintain a strong cash balance to ensure sufficient capital to fund business growth.

Ion Implantation Systems

Ion implantation is a principal step in the transistor formation cycle of the semiconductor chip manufacturing process. Ion implantation is also used to change the material characteristics of the silicon for reasons other than electrical doping, a process known as “material modification.” An ion implanter is a large, technically advanced system that injects dopants such as arsenic, boron or phosphorus into a wafer. These dopants are ionized and therefore have an electrical charge state. This electric charge state allows the dopants to be accelerated, focused and filtered with electric and magnetic fields. Ion implanters use these fields to create a beam of ions with a precisely defined energy level (ranging between several hundred and eight million electron-volts) and with a precisely defined beam current level (ranging from microamps to milliamps). Certain areas of the silicon wafer are blocked off by a polymer material known as photoresist, which acts as a “stencil” to pattern devices so that the dopants will only enter the wafer where needed. Typical process flows require twenty implant steps, with the most advanced processes requiring thirty or more steps. Each implant step is characterized by four key parameters: dopant type, dose (amount of dopant), energy (depth into the silicon) and tilt/twist (angle of wafer relative to the ion beam).

In order to efficiently cover the wide range of implant steps, three different types of implanters have been developed, each targeted at a specific range of applications, primarily defined by dose and energy. The three traditional implanter types are referred to as high current, high energy and medium current:

High current implanters were the second type of implanter to emerge, having low energy capability and high dose range.

High energy implanters emerged to address the need for deeper implants with a high energy range and low dose.

Medium current implanters are the original model of ion implanter, with mid to low-range energy and dose capability.

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The Purion Platform and Family of Ion Implanters

Axcelis offers a complete line of high energy, high current and medium current implanters for all application requirements. Our Purion flagship systems are all based on a common platform which enables a unique combination of implant purity, precision and productivity. Combining a state-of-the-art single wafer end station, with advanced spot beam architectures (that ensures all points across the wafer see the same beam condition at the same beam angle), Purion products enable exceptional process control to optimize device performance and yield, at high productivity.

High Current Implant. Our Purion H, Purion Dragon and Purion H200 spot beam, high current systems cover all traditional high current requirements as well as those associated with emerging and future devices. Our Purion high current capabilities extend beyond traditional high current energy and dose ranges, in order to cover new device fabrication requirements as well as to maximize capital utilization and flexibility. In addition, Axcelis’ Purion systems provide advantages for material modification applications, including those requiring hot and cold implant capabilities.

High Energy Implant. Our Purion XE and other Purion high energy systems combine Axcelis’ production-proven RF Linac high energy, spot beam technology with the Purion platform wafer handling system. Axcelis has been a market leader in high energy ion implanters for many years and continues to offer legacy high energy systems, as well as a range of new Purion systems which have differentiated capabilities for specialty applications.

Medium Current Implant. Our Purion M Si and SiC medium current system offers higher productivity and lower electrical energy consumption compared to competitive offerings, in addition to other advantages. Our Purion M systems also offer differentiated capabilities for specialty applications.

We believe our ion implant products will continue to meet customer demand for advantages in productivity, process performance and technical extendibility.

Aftermarket Support and Services

Through our CS&I business, we offer our customers extensive aftermarket service and support throughout the lifecycle of the equipment we manufacture. We believe that approximately 2,900 of our products are in use in 28 countries worldwide. The service and support that we provide includes used tools, spare parts, equipment upgrades, and maintenance services. We offer varying levels of sales, service and application support out of our field offices. Revenue generated through our CS&I business represented 31.4%, 38.1% and 40.9% of revenue in 2021, 2020 and 2019, respectively.

To support our aftermarket business, we have sales and marketing personnel, field service engineers, and spare parts and applications engineers, as well as employees located at our manufacturing facilities who work with our customers to provide customer training and documentation, and product, process and applications support.

Most of our customers maintain spare parts inventories for our machines. In addition to our web-based spare parts management and replenishment tracking program, we offer a number of Business-to-Business options to support our customers’ parts management requirements. Our Axcelis Managed Inventory service offering provides the customer with full spares support through a parts consignment arrangement in which Axcelis retains responsibility for the complete supply chain. These services provide ease of use alternatives that reduce order fulfillment costs and improve cycle time, resulting in an expanded customer base for this service offering.

Sales and Marketing

We primarily sell our equipment and services through our direct sales force. We conduct sales and marketing activities from our sales offices located in the United States, Taiwan, South Korea, China, Singapore, Japan, Germany and Italy.

International revenue, including export sales from our U.S. manufacturing facilities to foreign customers and sales by foreign subsidiaries and branches, accounted for 92.6%, 89.3% and 89.4% of total revenue in 2021, 2020 and 2019,

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respectively. In 2021, 78.4% of our sales were denominated in U.S. dollars. See Note 17 to our Consolidated Financial Statements contained in Item 15 of this Form 10-K for a breakdown of our revenue and long-lived assets in the United States, Europe and Asia. See also Item 1A, “Risk Factors,” for information about risks attendant to our foreign operations.

Customers

In 2021, according to Gartner Inc., the top 20 semiconductor chip manufacturers accounted for approximately 92.0% of total semiconductor capital equipment spending, which increased from 90.4% in 2020. These manufacturers are from the largest semiconductor chip manufacturing regions in the world: the United States, Asia Pacific (Taiwan, South Korea, Singapore, Japan and China) and Europe.

Information on net sales to unaffiliated customers is included in Note 2 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements. For the year ended December 31, 2021, revenues from Samsung Electronics Co, Ltd. and Semiconductor Manufacturing International Corporation represented 10% or more of consolidated revenues. The loss of either of these customers would have a material adverse effect on our business.

Research and Development

Our industry continues to experience rapid technological change, requiring us to frequently introduce new products and enhancements. Our Beverly, Massachusetts Advanced Technology Center houses a process development laboratory with a 12,500 square feet class 10/100/1000 clean room for product demonstrations and process development and a 34,000 square feet customer training center. The Advanced Technology Center provides infrastructure and process capabilities that allow customers to test their unique process steps on our systems under conditions that substantially replicate the customers’ production environments. This facility also provides significant capability for our research and development efforts.

We devote a significant portion of our personnel and financial resources to research and development programs and seek to maintain close relationships with our customers to remain responsive to their product needs. We have also sought to reduce the development cycle for new products through a collaborative process whereby our engineering, manufacturing and marketing personnel work closely together with one another and with our customers at an earlier stage in the process. We use 3D, computer-aided design, finite element analysis and other computer-based modeling methods to test new designs.

Our expenses for research and development were $65.4 million, $61.8 million and $53.9 million in 2021, 2020 and 2019, respectively, or 9.9%, 13.0% and 15.7% of revenue, respectively.

Manufacturing

We manufacture products at our 417,000 square feet ISO 9001:2015 and ISO 14001:2015 certified plant in Beverly, Massachusetts. Our facilities employ best in class manufacturing techniques, including lean manufacturing, six sigma controls and advanced inventory management, purchasing and quality systems.

We expanded our manufacturing capabilities in November 2021, with the opening of our new Axcelis Asia Operations Center in South Korea. This facility has 38,000 square feet and is designed to bring production closer to our Asia-based customers, driving customer satisfaction and operating efficiencies.

Our clean manufacturing process uses class 1,000/10,000 space to facilitate most of our manufacturing requirements.

Our core competency in manufacturing and supply chain management is built around system assembly and testing, which remains an in-house capability due to the high degree of expertise and intellectual property associated with the process and design. Non-core work is sourced to global partners and includes items such as vacuum systems, wafer handling and commodity-level components. We continuously pursue outsourcing opportunities where the economics are justified, with a goal of enabling quality and margin improvement. Our supply chain team is globally focused and is located

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in Beverly and Singapore. Customized and commercially available software solutions drive our planning, purchasing and inventory tracking process.

Our products are designed to be assembled and tested in a modular fashion, which facilitates our industry-recognized “ship-from-cell” process. Specially developed test stands, software and tooling provide the framework for this accelerated delivery process. Customers that choose the “ship-from-cell” process substantially improve their delivery times while receiving the same high level of quality provided by more traditional, longer cycle integration techniques. Product margins and inventory turns also improve as a result of shorter factory cycle times and increased labor productivity.

Installation of our equipment is provided by factory and field teams. The process includes assembling the equipment at our installation site, and after it has been connected, recalibrating it to factory specifications.

Competition

The semiconductor equipment industry is highly competitive and is characterized by a small number of participants ranging in size. Significant competitive factors in the semiconductor capital equipment market include price, cost of ownership, equipment performance, customer support, capabilities and breadth of product line.

In ion implantation, we mainly compete against Applied Materials, Inc. Axcelis and Applied Materials are the only ion implant manufacturers with a full range of implant products, as well as service and support infrastructures able to service our customers globally. Other non-U.S. players we compete with include Sumitomo Heavy Industries Ion Technology Co. Ltd. and Nissin Ion Equipment Co., Ltd in Japan, Advanced Ion Beam Technology, Inc. in Taiwan, as well as CETC Electronics Equipment Group Co., Ltd. in the People’s Republic of China. Non-U.S. suppliers may have an advantage over U.S. suppliers established U.S. export controls regulation for shipments to China.

Intellectual Property

We rely on patent, copyright, trademark and trade secret protection in the United States and in other countries, as well as contractual restrictions, to protect our proprietary rights in our products and our business. As of December 31, 2021, we had 214 active patents issued in the United States and 438 active patents granted in other countries, as well as 226 patent applications (25 in the United States and 201 in other countries) on file with various patent agencies worldwide. Patents are generally in effect for up to 20 years from the filing of the application.

We intend to file additional patent applications and grow our intellectual property portfolio as appropriate. Although patents are important to our business, we do not believe that we are substantially dependent on any single patent or any group of patents.

We have trademarks, both registered and unregistered, that are maintained to provide customer recognition for our products in the marketplace. Trademark registrations generally remain in effect as long as the trademarks are in use. From time to time, we enter into license agreements with third parties under which we obtain or grant rights to patented or proprietary technology. We do not believe that any of our licenses are currently material to us.

Backlog

Systems backlog, including deferred systems revenue, was $460.6 million and $116.2 million as of December 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively. We believe it is meaningful to investors to include deferred systems revenue as part of our backlog. Deferred systems revenue represents revenue that will be recognized in future periods based on prior shipments or customer prepayments. Our policy is to include in backlog only those system orders for which we have accepted purchase orders. All orders are subject to cancellations or rescheduling by customers with limited or no penalties.

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Backlog does not include orders received and fulfilled within a quarter. Our backlog at the beginning of a quarter typically does not include all orders required to achieve our sales objectives for that quarter. Backlog is not necessarily an indicator of future business trends because orders for services or parts received during the quarter are generally performed or shipped within the same quarter.

Bookings in the quarter ended December 31, 2021 were $194.0 million compared to $131.5 million in the quarter ended December 31, 2020.

Human Capital

As of December 31, 2021, we had 1,122 employees and 73 temporary staff worldwide, of which 831 work in North America, 301 in Asia and 63 in Europe. During 2021, our headcount increased by approximately 14% to support our increased business during the year. While the majority of our headcount is based in the U.S. at our main manufacturing facility in Beverly, MA, our business requires our presence where our customers are located around the world, resulting in Axcelis employees working in 28 different countries.

Our future success largely depends upon our continued ability to attract and retain highly skilled employees. We provide competitive compensation and benefits programs. In addition to salaries, these programs (which vary by country and region) include cash incentive programs and recognition bonuses, equity awards, an Employee Stock Purchase Plan, a 401(k) plan with a competitive employer match, healthcare and insurance benefits, health savings and flexible spending accounts, paid time off, family leave, family care resources, flexible work schedules, employee assistance programs, and tuition assistance. These programs all contribute to both attracting and retaining a highly skilled employee base, including those with critical leadership and industry skills and experience.

During 2021, our voluntary turnover rate for employees was 8.1%, or 6.9% without retirements, well below the worldwide technology industry (all reported) average of 18.2% reported in the Aon 2021 Salary Increase and Turnover Study — Second Edition, September 2021.

The success of our business is fundamentally connected to the well-being of our people. Accordingly, we are committed to the health, safety and wellness of our employees. We provide our employees and their families with access to health and wellness insurance and programs that offer choice where possible so they can customize their benefits to meet their needs and the needs of their families. In response to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, we have implemented significant changes that we determined were in the best interest of our employees, as well as the communities in which we operate, and which comply with government regulations. This includes having those employees that could productively work from home continue to do so, while implementing additional safety measures for employees continuing critical on-site work.

Axcelis is dedicated to building a diverse workforce, fostering a culture built on the principle of inclusion, and maintaining a workplace free from discrimination. We strongly believe that a diversity of experience, perspectives and backgrounds will lead to a better environment for our employees and better products for our customers. Axcelis’ commitment to diversity extends to our Board of Directors, our leadership team and all teams and functions across our global locations.

We encourage you to review the “Focus on Diversity” report (located in the “Investors” and “About Us” sections of our Axcelis.com website) for more detailed information regarding diversity and inclusion at Axcelis. Nothing on our website, including our Focus on Diversity Report or sections thereof, shall be deemed incorporated by reference into this Annual Report.

Environmental

We are subject to environmental laws and regulations in the countries in which we operate that regulate, among other things: air emissions; water discharges; and the generation, use, storage, transportation, handling and disposal of solid and hazardous wastes produced by our manufacturing, research and development and sales activities. As with other companies engaged in like businesses, the nature of our operations exposes us to the risk of environmental liabilities, claims, penalties and orders.

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We are proud of our commitment to improving our environment. We believe that our operations are in compliance with applicable environmental laws and regulations and that there are no pending environmental matters that would have a material impact on our business. We are ISO 9001:2015 and ISO 14001:2015 certified at our Beverly, MA facility.

Information about our Executive Officers

Mary G. Puma, 64, has been our President and Chief Executive Officer since January 2002, having served as Chairman from 2005 to 2015. From May 2000 until January 2002, Ms. Puma was our President and Chief Operating Officer. In 1998, she became General Manager and Vice President of the Implant Systems Division of Eaton Corporation, a global diversified industrial manufacturer. In May 1996, she joined Eaton as General Manager of the Commercial Controls Division. Prior to joining Eaton, Ms. Puma spent 15 years in various marketing and general management positions for General Electric Company. Ms. Puma is a director of Nordson Corporation and Semiconductor Equipment and Materials International (SEMI).

Kevin J. Brewer, 63, became our Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer in September 2013, having served as interim Chief Financial Officer beginning in June 2013. Mr. Brewer also manages our Global Operations. Mr. Brewer had previously been our Executive Vice President, Global Operations since 2008 and our Senior Vice President, Manufacturing Operations since May 2005, prior to which he had been Vice President of Manufacturing Operations since October 2002 and Director of Operations from 1999 to 2002. Prior to joining Axcelis in 1999, Mr. Brewer was Director of Operations, Business Jets at Raytheon Aircraft Company, a leading manufacturer of business and special mission aircraft owned by Raytheon Company, a manufacturer of defense, government and commercial electronics, as well as aircraft. Prior to that, Mr. Brewer held various management positions in operations and strategic planning in Raytheon Company’s Electronic Systems and Missile Systems groups.

Russell J. Low, Ph.D., 51, became our Executive Vice President, Global Customer and Engineering Operations effective January 1, 2021, having served as Executive Vice President, Engineering since joining Axcelis in October 2016. Prior to joining the Company, Dr. Low held the position of Vice President of Engineering, MOCVD Business Unit at Veeco Instruments since 2013, prior to which he was Veeco’s Senior Director of Engineering, Molecular Beam Epitaxy Business Unit beginning in 2012. From 2003 to 2012, Dr. Low held a number of positions at Varian Semiconductor Equipment Associates, most recently as Director of Technology. Prior to that, Dr. Low held engineering positions in the thermal processing and ion implant divisions of Applied Materials, Inc. from 1997 to 2003.

William Bintz, 65, is our Executive Vice President, Product Development since November 2016. From 2011 until November 2016, Mr. Bintz served as Executive Vice President, Product Development, Engineering and Marketing. Prior to that, he served as Senior Vice President, Marketing beginning in September 2007, after joining Axcelis in early 2006 as Director of Marketing for curing and cleaning products and shortly thereafter becoming Vice President of Product Marketing. Prior to joining Axcelis, from 2002 Mr. Bintz was Product Director for Medium Current and High Energy Ion Implant System at Varian Semiconductor Equipment Associates, Inc. Before that, he was General Manager of the Materials Delivery Products Group at MKS Instruments, beginning in 1999, and General Manager of the Thermal Processing Systems Division at Eaton Corporation (now Axcelis) beginning in 1995.

Lynnette C. Fallon, 62, is our Executive Vice President, Human Resources/Legal and General Counsel, a position she has held since May 2005. Prior to that, Ms. Fallon was Senior Vice President HR/Legal and General Counsel since 2002, and Senior Vice President and General Counsel since 2001. Ms. Fallon has also been our corporate Secretary since 2001. Before joining Axcelis, Ms. Fallon was a partner in the Boston law firm of Palmer & Dodge LLP since 1992, where she was head of the Business Law Department from 1997 to 2001. Ms. Fallon is a director of ClearPoint Neuro, Inc.

Douglas A. Lawson, 61, has been our Executive Vice President, Corporate Marketing and Strategy since November 2013, having joined Axcelis as Vice President Business Development in 2010, and holding the position of Senior Vice President of Strategic Initiatives beginning in 2011. Mr. Lawson also manages our Information Technology function. Prior to joining the Company in 2010, he held the position of General Manager of Luminus Devices from 2009 to 2010. He has over 30 years of experience in the technology industry and has held numerous executive and technical positions at BTU International, PRI Automation, Digital Equipment and Intel.

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Item 1A. Risk Factors.

Risks Related to Our Business and Industry

Set forth below and elsewhere in this Form 10-K and in other documents we file with the SEC are risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from the results contemplated by the forward-looking statements contained in this Form 10-K. It is not possible to predict or identify all such risk factors. Consequently, the following is not a complete discussion of all potential risks or uncertainties.

If semiconductor chip manufacturers do not make sufficient capital expenditures, our sales and profitability will be harmed.

New systems orders and used tool sales depend upon demand from semiconductor chip manufacturers who build or expand fabrication facilities. When the rate of construction or expansion of fabrication facilities declines, demand for our systems will decline, reducing our revenue. In addition, all or a portion of the demand for increased capacity may be satisfied by a semiconductor chip manufacturer’s ability to reconfigure and re-use equipment they already own. Revenue decline also hurts our profitability because our established cost structure and our continued investments in engineering, research and development and marketing necessary to develop new products and to maintain extensive customer service and support capabilities limit our ability to reduce expenses in proportion to declining sales.

If we fail to develop and introduce reliable new or enhanced products and services that meet the needs of semiconductor chip manufacturers, our results will suffer.

Rapid technological changes in semiconductor chip manufacturing processes require us to respond quickly to changing customer requirements. Our future success will depend in part upon our ability to develop, manufacture and successfully introduce new systems and product lines with improved capabilities. This will depend upon a variety of factors, including new product selection, timely and efficient completion of product design and development as well as manufacturing and assembly processes, product performance in the field and effective sales and marketing. In particular:

We must continue to develop competitive technical specifications for new systems, or enhancements to our existing systems, and manufacture and ship these systems or enhancements in volume in a timely manner.

We will need to accurately predict the schedule on which our customers will be ready to transition to new products, in order to accurately forecast demand for new products while managing the transition from older products.

We will need to effectively manage product reliability or quality problems that often exist with new systems, in order to avoid higher manufacturing costs, delays in acceptance and payment and additional service and warranty expenses, and ultimately, a lack of repeat orders.

Our new products must be accepted in the marketplace.

Our failure to meet any of these requirements will have a material adverse effect on our operating results and profitability.

Axcelis is subject to the risks of operating internationally: we derive a substantial portion of our revenue from outside the United States, especially from Asia.

We are substantially dependent on sales of our products and services to customers outside the United States. International sales, including export sales from our U.S. manufacturing facilities to non-U.S. customers and sales by our non-U.S. subsidiaries, accounted for 92.6% of total revenue in 2021. Customers based in Asia dominates our international sales. Ion implanter system shipments to customers in Asia represented 83.9% of total system revenue in 2021. We anticipate that international sales will continue to account for a significant portion of our revenue. In particular, we expect that sales to Chinese customers (both global and domestic Chinese chip manufacturers) will continue to increase in coming years, creating both risk and opportunity. Sales to Chinese customers represent a higher risk than some other international

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locations because of trade tensions between the United States government and the Chinese government, and other challenges reflecting China’s stage of development, including public health concerns and rapid growth. For example, in 2020, the United States Commerce Department placed one of our major Chinese customers on the U.S. export controls Entity List. As a result, we are currently required to obtain export controls licenses for all shipments from the U.S. to this customer. This situation temporarily delayed shipments and resulted in the risk that this customer (and potentially other Chinese customers) would change suppliers to non-US vendors, such as Advanced Ion Beam Technology, Inc., Nissin Ion Equipment Co., Ltd. and Sumitomo Heavy Industries Ion Technology Co., Ltd. In addition, a Chinese entity, known as CETC Electronics Equipment Group Co., Ltd., is developing ion implanters for the Chinese domestic market. The loss of a significant customer or any reduction or delays in our ability to ship to any significant customer will adversely affect us.

We source a substantial portion of our materials from outside of the United States. Because of our dependence upon international sales and our global supply chain, our results and prospects may be adversely affected by a number of factors, including:

changes in laws or regulations resulting in more burdensome governmental controls, tariffs, restrictions, embargoes or export license requirements;
volatility in currency exchange rates;
political and economic instability;
global health emergencies, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, which have the potential to disrupt our manufacturing operations and those of our supply chain, as well as cause our customers to delay or cancel shipments;
difficulties in accounts receivable collections;
extended payment terms beyond those customarily offered in the United States;
difficulties in managing suppliers, service providers or representatives outside of the United States;
difficulties in staffing and managing foreign subsidiary operations; and
potential adverse tax consequences.

Our dependence upon suppliers for many components and sub-assemblies could result in increased costs or delays in the manufacture and sale of our products.

We rely to a substantial extent on outside vendors to manufacture many of the components and sub-assemblies of our products. We obtain many of these components and sub-assemblies from a limited group of suppliers. Accordingly, based on situations outside of our control, we may be unable to obtain an adequate supply of required components on a timely basis, on price and other terms acceptable to us, or at all. In addition, we often quote prices to our customers and accept customer orders for our products before purchasing components and sub-assemblies from our suppliers. If our suppliers increase the cost of components or sub-assemblies, we may not have alternative sources of supply and may not be able to raise the price of our products to cover all or part of the increased cost of components, negatively impacting our gross margin.

The manufacture of some of these components and sub-assemblies is an extremely complex process and requires long lead times. As a result, we could experience delays or shortages. If we are unable to obtain adequate and timely deliveries of our required components or sub-assemblies, we may have to seek alternative sources of supply or manufacture these components internally. This could delay our ability to manufacture or to ship our systems on a timely basis, causing us to lose sales, incur additional costs, delay new product introductions and suffer harm to our reputation.

Moreover, if actual demand for Axcelis’ products is different than expected, Axcelis may purchase more or fewer parts than necessary or incur costs for canceling, postponing or expediting delivery of parts. If Axcelis purchases inventory in anticipation of customer demand that does not materialize, or if customers reduce or delay orders, Axcelis may incur excess inventory charges.

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A significant portion of our revenue depends on customers electing to buy aftermarket products and services from Axcelis.

Historically, a significant portion of our product revenue and all of our service revenue relates to our sale of “aftermarket” products and services, which include parts, consumables, upgrades, service contracts, and time and materials billings. Some of our customers purchase fewer aftermarket products and services, often training their own staff to maintain and service semiconductor capital equipment rather than relying on the equipment manufacturer for these services. In addition, we compete against third-party parts suppliers for the sale of parts and consumables that are not protected by patents or otherwise proprietary. To the extent our customers purchase parts and services from other vendors or provide their own system maintenance labor, our revenue and profitability will be reduced.

If we fail to compete successfully in the highly competitive semiconductor capital equipment industry, our sales and profitability will decline.

The ion implant segment is highly competitive and includes one company with substantially greater financial, engineering, manufacturing, marketing and customer service and support resources that may better position it to compete successfully than we can, as well as several smaller companies that could provide innovative systems with technology that may have performance advantages. We expect our competitors to continue to improve the design and performance of their existing products and processes and to introduce new products and processes with improved price and performance characteristics. If we are unable to improve or introduce competing products when demanded by the markets, our business will be harmed. Finally, if we must lower prices to remain competitive without commensurate cost of goods savings, our gross margin and profitability will be adversely affected.

We are dependent on sales to a limited number of large customers; the loss of a significant customer or any reduction in orders from them could materially affect our sales.

Historically, we have sold a significant portion of our products and services to a limited number of semiconductor chip manufacturers. In 2021, our top ten customers accounted for 69.5% of our net sales, in comparison to 74.0% and 74.1% in 2020 and 2019, respectively. None of our customers have entered into a long-term agreement requiring it to purchase our products. Although the composition of the group comprising our largest customers has varied from year to year, the loss of a significant customer or any reduction or delays in orders from any significant customer will adversely affect us. Consolidation of semiconductor chip manufacturers may result in the loss of a customer.

Our international operations involve currency risk.

Substantially all of our sales are billed in U.S. dollars, thereby reducing the impact of fluctuations in foreign exchange rates on our results. We also pay almost all non-U.S. vendors providing materials, components and subassemblies to our U.S. factory in U.S. dollars. However, the aftermarket revenues of our non-U.S. subsidiaries, and most of the operating expenses of these non-U.S. subsidiaries, are received and incurred in local currencies. The translation of these operating results into U.S. dollars in our Consolidated Statement of Operations can result in other income (expense). Similarly, the translation of long-term asset and liability values to U.S. dollars are recorded in stockholders’ equity as an element of accumulated other comprehensive income (loss). Accordingly, fluctuations in exchange rates can impact reported revenues, expense, and profitability and asset values in our Consolidated Financial Statements. During the year ended December 31, 2021, approximately 21.6% of our revenue was derived in local currencies from foreign operations with this inherent risk. In addition, at December 31, 2021, our operations outside of the United States accounted for approximately 12.6% of our total assets, the majority of which was denominated in currencies other than the U.S. dollar.

We may not be able to maintain and expand our business if we are not able to hire, retain and integrate qualified personnel.

Our business depends on our ability to attract and retain qualified, experienced employees. There is substantial competition for experienced engineering, technical, financial, sales and marketing personnel in our industry. In particular, we must attract and retain highly skilled design and process engineers. Competition for such personnel is intense, particularly in the Boston metropolitan area, as well as in other locations around the world. If we are unable to retain our

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existing key personnel, or attract and retain additional qualified personnel, we may from time to time experience insufficient levels of staffing to fully develop, manufacture and market our products and perform services for our customers. As a result, our growth could be limited or we could fail to meet our delivery commitments or experience deterioration in service levels or decreased customer satisfaction, all of which could adversely affect our financial results.

Our financial results may fluctuate significantly.

We derive our new systems revenue from the sale of a small number of expensive products to a relatively small number of customers. The selling prices on our ion implant and other legacy processing systems range from approximately $2.0 million to $8.0 million. We also sell used equipment in our aftermarket business. Each sale, or failure to make a sale, may have a significant effect on us in a particular quarter. In a given quarter, a number of factors can adversely affect our revenue and results, including changes in our product mix, increased fixed expenses per unit due to reductions in the number of products manufactured, and higher fixed costs due to increased levels of research and development and expansion of our worldwide sales and marketing organization. Our financial results also fluctuate based on gross profit realized on sales. A variety of factors may cause gross profit as a percentage of revenue to vary, including the mix and average selling prices of products sold, costs to manufacture and customize systems, warranty costs and impact of changes to inventory reserves. New product introductions may also affect our gross margin. Fluctuations in our financial results may have an adverse effect on the price of our common stock.

Our financial results may fall short of anticipated levels because forecasting revenue and profitability is complex and may be inaccurate.

Management may from time to time provide financial forecasts to investors. These forecasts are based on assumptions, which are believed to be reasonable when made, of the timing of system orders, system shipments, system acceptance and aftermarket revenue. Any of these assumptions can prove erroneous and the level of revenue recognizable in a particular quarter may vary from the forecast. Our lengthy sales cycle, coupled with customers’ competing capital budget considerations, make revenue difficult to predict. In addition, our backlog at the beginning of a quarter typically does not include all orders required to achieve our sales objectives for that quarter and is not a reliable indicator of our future sales. As a result, our revenue and operating results for a quarter depend on our shipping systems on previous orders as scheduled during that quarter, receiving customer acceptance of previously shipped products, and obtaining new orders for products and services to be provided within that same quarter. Any delay in, or cancellation of, scheduled shipments and customer acceptances or in revenue from new orders, including aftermarket revenue, could materially affect our financial results.

Accounting rules addressing revenue recognition add more complexity in forecasting quarterly revenue and profitability. Orders for our products usually contain multiple performance obligations that result in revenue deferral under generally accepted accounting principles. Due to the foregoing factors, investors should understand that our actual financial results for a quarter may vary significantly from our forecasts of financial performance for that quarter. Failure to meet forecasted financial performance may have an adverse effect on the price of our common stock.

The semiconductor equipment industry is cyclical and we expect that demand for our products will increase and decrease, making it difficult to manage the business and potentially causing harm to our sales and profitability.

The semiconductor industry is cyclical, experiencing upturns when the demand for our products is high and downturns when our customers are not investing in new or expanded fabrication facilities. From time to time, inventory buildups in the semiconductor device industry produce an oversupply of semiconductors. This can cause a reduced demand for capital equipment such as our products, negatively impacting our sales and level of profitability. Our revenue can vary significantly from one point in the cycle to another, making it difficult to manage the business, both when revenue is increasing and when it is decreasing. In addition, a substantial portion of our operating expenses do not fluctuate with changes in volume. Significant decreases in revenue can therefore have a disproportionate effect on profitability. In addition, reduced demand for our products and services may require Axcelis to implement cost reduction efforts, including restructuring activities, which may adversely affect Axcelis’ ability to capitalize on opportunities that arise in the future.

13

Axcelis is exposed to risks related to cybersecurity threats and incidents.

In the conduct of our business, Axcelis collects, uses, transmits and stores data on information technology systems. This data includes confidential information belonging to Axcelis, our employees or our customers or other business partners, some of which is personally-identifiable information of individuals. As reported in the 2021 Verizon Data Breach Investigation Report, cyber-attacks in the manufacturing industries are largely financially motivated, although business espionage is the objective in a strong majority of the incidents. Axcelis has been and expects to continue to be subject to cybersecurity threats and incidents, including employee error or misuse; individual attempts to gain unauthorized access to information systems; and sophisticated and targeted measures known as advanced persistent threats, none of which have had a material impact on the Company to date. Axcelis devotes significant resources to network security, data encryption, employee training and other measures to protect our systems and data from unauthorized access or misuse. However, depending on their nature and scope, cybersecurity incidents could result in business disruption; the misappropriation, corruption or loss of confidential information and critical data (Axcelis’ and that of third parties); reputational damage; unnecessary expense; litigation with third parties; diminution in the value of Axcelis’ investment in research, development and engineering; data privacy issues; and increased cybersecurity protection and remediation costs. These adverse outcomes could negatively impact our revenues, expenses, profitability and asset values.

Axcelis is subject to risks associated with environmental, health and safety regulations.

Axcelis is subject to environmental, health and safety regulations in connection with its global business operations, including but not limited to: regulations related to the development, manufacture, shipping and use of its products; handling, discharge, recycling and disposal of hazardous materials used in its products or in producing its products; the operation of its facilities; and the use of its real property. The failure or inability to comply with existing or future environmental and safety regulations could result in: significant remediation or other legal liabilities; the imposition of penalties and fines; restrictions on the development, manufacture, sale, shipment or use of certain of its products; limitations on the operation of its facilities or ability to use its real property; and a decrease in the value of its real property. Axcelis could be required to alter its manufacturing and operations and incur substantial expense in order to comply with environmental, health and safety regulations. Any failure to comply with these regulations could subject Axcelis to significant costs and liabilities that could adversely affect Axcelis’ business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected by global pandemics.

Global pandemics, such as COVID-19, cause disruptions and restrictions on our operations and ability to travel, and similar disruptions and restrictions impacting our suppliers or customers could adversely affect our sales and operating results. Axcelis’ products rely on an extensive global supply chain, and shortages of certain parts could impact our ability to meet customers’ shipment expectations, negatively affecting our revenues. Such pandemics may drive changes in the demand for certain of our customers’ products, resulting in their delay or cancelation of purchases from us. The extent to which pandemics may impact our results will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted, including the severity of COVID-19 and the duration of the current pandemic.

Our proprietary technology may be vulnerable to efforts by competitors to challenge or design around, potentially reducing our market share.

We rely on a combination of patents, copyrights, trademark and trade secret laws, non-disclosure agreements and other intellectual property protection methods to protect our proprietary technology. Despite our efforts to protect our intellectual property, our competitors may be able to challenge, design around or legitimately use the proprietary technology embedded in our systems or other technology or information used in our business. If this occurs, the value of our proprietary technology will be diminished. Our means of protecting our proprietary rights may not be adequate and our patents may not be sufficient to prevent others from using technology that is similar to or the same as our technology. Patents issued to us may be challenged and might be invalidated or circumvented and any rights granted under our patents may not provide adequate protection to us. Our competitors may independently develop similar technology, duplicate features of our products or design around patents that may be issued to us. As a result of these threats to our proprietary technology, we may have to resort to costly litigation to enforce or defend our intellectual property rights. Finally, all patents expire after a period of time (in the U.S., patents expire 20 years from the date of filing of the patent application).

14

Our market share could be negatively impacted by the invalidation or expiration of a patent which had created a barrier for our competitors.

Axcelis also has agreements with third parties for licensing of patented or proprietary technology with Axcelis as the licensor or the licensee. Termination of license agreements or claims of infringement with respect to such technology could have an adverse impact on our financial performance or ability to ship products with existing configurations.

We (or customers that we indemnify) might face intellectual property infringement claims or patent disputes that may be costly to resolve and, if resolved against us, could be very costly to us and prevent us from making and selling our systems.

From time to time, claims and proceedings may be asserted against us relative to patent validity or infringement matters. We typically agree to indemnify our customers from liability to third parties for intellectual property infringement arising from the use of our products in their intended manner. Therefore, we may receive notification from customers who believe that we owe them indemnification or other obligations related to infringement claims made against the customers by third parties. Our involvement in any patent dispute or other intellectual property dispute or action to protect trade secrets, even if the claims are without merit, could be very expensive and could divert the attention of our management. Adverse determinations in any litigation could subject us to significant liabilities to third parties, require us to remove certain features from our products or seek costly licenses from third parties or prevent us from manufacturing and selling our systems. In addition, infringement indemnification clauses in system sale agreements may require us to take other actions or require us to provide certain remedies to customers who are exposed to indemnified liabilities. Any of these situations could have a material adverse effect on our business results.

If operations were to be disrupted at Axcelis’ manufacturing facilities, it would have a negative impact on our business.

Our primary manufacturing facility is located in Massachusetts, with a smaller facility located in South Korea. Our operations could be subject to disruption for a variety of reasons, including, but not limited to severe weather events, natural disasters, work stoppages, operational facility constraints and terrorism. Such disruption could cause delays in shipments of products to our customers and could result in cancellation of orders or loss of customers, which could seriously harm our business.

If we do not have access to capital on favorable terms, on the timeline we anticipate, or at all, our financial condition and results of operations could be materially adversely affected.

We require a substantial amount of capital to meet our operating requirements and remain competitive. We routinely incur significant costs to purchase inventory to meet expected system sales, to develop and introduce new products, and to place evaluation systems at new customer sites. There can be no assurance that we will realize a return on the capital expended. Although our current cash levels and borrowing capacity are expected to be adequate for our foreseeable cash requirements, if our operating results falter, or our cash flow or capital resources prove inadequate, we may incur debt to fund these requirements. Significant volatility or disruption in the global financial markets may result in us not being able to obtain additional financing on favorable terms, on the timeline we anticipate, or at all, and we may not be able to refinance, if necessary, any outstanding debt when due, all of which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition. Any inability to obtain financing on favorable terms, on the timeline we anticipate, or at all, may cause us to curtail our operations significantly, reduce planned capital expenditures and research and development, or obtain funds through arrangements that management does not currently anticipate, including disposing of our assets and relinquishing rights to certain technologies, the occurrence of any of which may significantly impair our ability to remain competitive, and materially and adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.

15

The market price of our common stock may be volatile, which could result in substantial losses for investors.

The stock markets in general, and the markets for semiconductor equipment stocks in particular, have experienced extreme volatility that has often been unrelated to the operating performance of particular companies. These broad market fluctuations may adversely affect the trading price of our common stock. The market price of the common stock may also fluctuate significantly in response to the following factors, among others, some of which are beyond our control:

variations in our quarterly results;
the issuance or repurchase of shares of our common stock;
changes in securities analysts’ estimates of our financial performance;
changes in market valuations of similar companies;
announcements by us or our competitors of significant contracts, acquisitions, strategic partnerships, joint ventures, capital commitments, new products or product enhancements;
loss of a major customer or failure to complete significant transactions;
additions or departures of key personnel; and
new positions adopted by investor stewardship groups and proxy advisory firms regarding desired environmental, social and governance disclosures, policies, ranking systems and other initiatives.

The trading price of our common stock in the past has been significantly volatile, and we cannot accurately predict every potential risk that may materially and adversely affect our stock price.

Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments.

None.

Item 2. Properties.

We lease our principal facility in Beverly, Massachusetts, which comprises 417,000 square feet. The facility is principally used for manufacturing, research and development, sales/marketing, customer support, advanced process development, product demonstration, customer-training center and corporate headquarters. In addition, we expanded our manufacturing capabilities with the opening of our new Axcelis Asia Operations Center in South Korea, which comprises 38,000 square feet.

We believe that our manufacturing facilities and equipment generally are well maintained, in good operating condition, suitable for our purposes, and adequate for our present operations.

We own 23 acres of undeveloped property in Beverly, Massachusetts, adjacent to our headquarters.

As of December 31, 2021, we also leased 38 other properties, of which 10 are located in the United States and the remainder are located in Asia and Europe, including offices in Taiwan, Singapore, South Korea, China, Japan, Italy and Germany. These properties are used for sales and service offices and warehousing.

Our Beverly, Massachusetts facility is ISO 9001:2015 and ISO 14001:2015 certified and our European office is ISO 9001:2015 certified.

Item 3. Legal Proceedings.

We are not presently a party to any litigation that we believe might have a material adverse effect on our business operations. We are, from time to time, a party to litigation that arises in the normal course of our business operations.

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures.

Not applicable.

16

PART II

Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities.

Our common stock trades on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol ACLS. As of February 23, 2022, we had approximately 788 stockholders of record.

The following table summarizes the stock repurchase activity for the 12 months ended December 31, 2021 pursuant to our stock repurchase program, the authorization for which ended at December 31, 2021:

Total Number of Shares Purchased

Average Price Paid per Share

Total Number of Shares Purchased as Part of Publicly Announced Program

Approximate Dollar Value of Shares that May Yet Be Purchased Under the Program

(in thousands except per share amounts)

January 1, 2021 through January 31, 2021

N/A

$

100,000

February 1, 2021 through February 28, 2021

N/A

100,000

March 1, 2021 through March 31, 2021

303

$38.41

303

88,362

April 1, 2021 through April 30, 2021

117

$43.35

117

83,290

May 1, 2021 through May 31, 2021

100

$39.74

100

79,316

June 1, 2021 through June 30, 2021

106

$40.74

106

74,997

July 1, 2021 through July 31, 2021

95

$37.23

95

71,461

August 1, 2021 through August 31, 2021

110

$43.16

110

66,713

September 1, 2021 through September 30, 2021

86

$49.12

86

62,489

October 1, 2021 through October 31, 2021

95

$48.66

95

57,863

November 1, 2021 through November 30, 2021

105

$60.50

105

51,508

December 1, 2021 through December 31, 2021

24

$63.38

24

$

-

Total

1,141

1,141

17

We currently maintain one equity compensation plan, the 2012 Equity Incentive Plan (the “2012 Equity Plan”). The number of shares issuable upon exercise of outstanding options and unvested restricted stock units granted to employees and non-employee directors, as well as the number of shares remaining available for future issuance, under our equity compensation plans as of December 31, 2021 are summarized in the following table:

(A)

(B)

(C)

Plan category

Number of shares to be issued upon exercise of outstanding options, warrants and rights (1)

Weightedaverage exercise price of outstanding options, warrants and rights (2)

Number of shares remaining available for future issuance under equity compensation plans (excluding shares reflected in column (A)) (3)

Equity compensation plans approved by stockholders

1,013,367

$ 1.48

2,427,867

Equity compensation plans not approved by stockholders

NA

NA

Total

1,013,367

2,427,867

Weighted average exercise price of outstanding options at December 31, 2021

$13.51

Weighted average remaining term of outstanding options at December 31, 2021

0.73 years

(1)     Represents, as of December 31, 2021: (A) 111,249 shares issuable on exercise of outstanding options under the 2012 Equity Plan, plus (B) 902,118 shares issuable on vesting of outstanding RSUs under the 2012 Equity Plan (some of which will be withheld in respect of tax withholding obligations).

(2)     For the purposes of this table, the weighted-average exercise price of outstanding options, warrants and rights includes RSUs as if they had a $0 exercise price. The weighted-average exercise price of outstanding options alone at December 31, 2021 was $13.51.

(3)     Represents the total shares available for issuance under our 2012 Equity Plan and our Employee Stock Purchase Plan, as of December 31, 2021, as follows:

(A)

1,473,477 shares were available for future issuance under the 2012 Equity Plan. Such amount represents the total number of shares reserved for issuance under the 2012 Equity Plan ((7,762,500 shares approved by the shareholders, plus 1,777,029 shares added in accordance with the terms of the 2012 Equity Plan as a result of the expiration or forfeiture of awards granted under our prior equity grant plan that were outstanding at the time of the adoption of the 2012 Equity Plan), less the shares issuable on options and restricted stock units (counted at 1.5 shares each) outstanding under the 2012 Equity Plan included in column (A)) and the shares issued prior to such date on exercise of options and vesting of restricted stock units granted under the 2012 Equity Plan. This plan is generally used for grants to employees and directors and was approved by our stockholders at our 2012 annual meeting.

(B)

954,390 shares were available under our 2021 Employee Stock Purchase Plan, which represents the total number of shares reserved for issuance under the plan (1,000,000) less the shares purchased through December 31, 2021.

Item 6. [RESERVED]

18

Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.

Certain statements in “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” are forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. Words such as may, will, should, would, anticipates, expects, intends, plans, believes, seeks, estimates and similar expressions identify such forward-looking statements. The forward-looking statements contained herein are based on current expectations and entail various risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed in such forward-looking statements. Factors that might cause such a difference include, among other things, those set forth under “Liquidity and Capital Resources” and “Risk Factors” and others discussed elsewhere in this Form 10-K. Readers are cautioned not to place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements, which reflect management’s analysis only as of the date hereof. We assume no obligation to update these forward-looking statements to reflect actual results or changes in factors or assumptions affecting forward-looking statements, except as may be required by law.

Overview

The semiconductor capital equipment industry is subject to cyclical swings in capital spending by semiconductor chip manufacturers. Capital spending is influenced by demand for semiconductors and the products using them, the utilization rate and capacity of existing semiconductor chip manufacturing facilities and changes in semiconductor technology, all of which are outside of our control. As a result, our revenue may fluctuate from year to year and period to period. Our established cost structure does not vary significantly with changes in volume. We may also experience fluctuations in operating results and cash flows depending on our revenue level.

2021 was an exceptional year for Axcelis despite logistical challenges brought on by the geo-political environment and the COVID-19 pandemic. As a result of the strength of the overall electronics market and the continued growth of the Purion product family in 2021, we delivered record full year revenue, operating profit and gross margin since becoming an independent public company in 2001. Revenue for 2021 was $662.4 million, an increase of 39.6% from 2020 revenue of $474.6 million. Systems revenue for 2021 was $454.6 million, compared to $293.6 million in 2020. Operating profit was $127.3 million in 2021, compared to $58.0 million in 2020. Gross margin for the year was 43.2% compared to 41.8% in 2020. Net income for the year was $98.7 million, an increase of 97.4% following a 39.6% increase in revenue from the prior year.

The Company is in a strong competitive position as we participate in a period of extended industry growth. A focused strategy on ion implant, combined with the hard work and dedication of our employees and the encouragement and support of our customers and suppliers, enabled us to achieve numerous critical milestones in our drive to market leadership. We were able to rapidly grow our manufacturing and supply chain capabilities through smart capacity planning and execution, including the opening of our new Axcelis Asia Operations Center in South Korea and the expansion of clean manufacturing in Beverly. In 2021, we continued to expand the Purion installed base, growing our large and diverse group of customers mainly in the mature process technology segment. We continued our focus on the mature process technology segment in 2021, launching new Purion product extensions including the Purion H200™ high current implanter, targeted for the production of power devices, and the Purion XEmax™ used to manufacture image sensors. Through the introduction of these new products and continuous cost reduction measures, we increased our gross margin year over year, making this the fourth consecutive year with gross margin greater than 40 percent.

We continue to work diligently to ensure that manufacturing and operating expense levels remain well aligned to business conditions.

The market for our systems and aftermarket products and services is represented by a relatively small number of companies. In 2021, the top 20 semiconductor chip manufacturers accounted for approximately 92.0% of total semiconductor capital equipment spending, up from 90.4% in 2020. Our net revenue from our ten largest customers accounted for 69.5% of total revenue for the year ended December 31, 2021 compared to 74.0% and 74.1% of revenue for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively. For the year ended December 31, 2021, we had two customers representing 17.8% and 15.4% of total revenue, respectively.

19

Critical Accounting Estimates

Management’s discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations are based upon Axcelis’ consolidated financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States. The preparation of these financial statements requires management to make estimates and judgments that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenue and expenses, and related disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities. On an on-going basis, we evaluate our estimates and assumptions. Management’s estimates are based on historical experience and on various other assumptions that are believed to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions.

We believe the following accounting policies are critical in the portrayal of our financial condition and results of operations and require management’s most significant judgments and estimates in the preparation of our consolidated financial statements. For additional accounting policies, see Note 2 to the consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2021 included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Revenue Recognition

Our accounting policies relating to the recognition of revenue require management to make estimates, determinations and judgments based on historical experience and on various other assumptions, which include (i) the existence of a contract with the customer, (ii) the identification of the performance obligations in the contract, (iii) the value of any variable consideration in the contract, (iv) the standalone selling price of multiple obligations in the contract, for the purpose of allocating the consideration in the contract, and (v) determining when a performance obligation has been met. Our revenue recognition policies are set forth in section (i) of Note 2, Summary of Significant Accounting Policies, to the consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2021 included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Recognition of revenue based on incorrect judgments, including an erroneous allocation of the estimated sales price between the units of accounting, could result in inappropriate recognition of revenue, or incorrect timing of revenue recognition, which could have a material effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

Inventory—Provision for Excess and Obsolescence and Lower of Cost or Net Realizable Value

We record a provision for estimated excess and obsolete inventory and lower of cost or net realizable value. The provision is determined using management’s assumptions of materials usage, based on estimates of forecasted and historical demand and market conditions. Specifically, our assumptions of forecasted system sales and the size and utilization of the installed base of systems may have a significant effect on estimated materials usage. If actual market conditions become less favorable than those projected by management, additional inventory write-downs may be required.

Although we make every effort to ensure the accuracy of our forecasts or product demand and pricing assumptions, any significant unanticipated changes in demand, pricing, or technical developments would significantly impact the value of our inventory and our reported operating results. In the future, if we determine that inventory needs to be written down, we will recognize such costs in our cost of revenue at the time of such determination. If we subsequently sell product that has previously been written down, our gross margin in that period will be favorably impacted.

Product Warranty

We generally offer a one-year warranty for all of our systems, the terms and conditions of which vary depending upon the product sold. For all systems sold, we accrue a liability for the estimated cost of standard warranty at the time of system shipment and defer the portion of systems revenue attributable to the relative fair value of non-standard warranty. Costs for non-standard warranty are expensed as incurred. Factors that affect our warranty liability include the number of installed units, historical and anticipated product failure rates, material usage and service labor costs. We periodically assess the adequacy of our recorded liability and adjust the amount as necessary.

20

Income Taxes

We record income taxes using the asset and liability method. Deferred income tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future tax consequences attributable to differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective income tax basis, and net operating loss and tax credit carryforwards.

Our consolidated financial statements contain certain deferred tax assets which have arisen primarily as a result of operating losses, as well as other temporary differences between financial and income tax accounting.

We establish a valuation allowance when it is more likely than not that some portion or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized. Significant management judgment is required in determining our provision for income taxes, the deferred tax assets and liabilities and any valuation allowance recorded against those net deferred tax assets.

We evaluate the weight of all available evidence such as historical losses, the expected timing of the reversals of existing temporary differences and projected future taxable income to determine whether it is more likely than not that some portion or all of the net deferred income tax assets will not be realized.

Our income tax expense includes the largest amount of tax benefit for an uncertain tax position that is more likely than not to be sustained upon audit based on the technical merits of the tax position. Settlements with tax authorities, the expiration of statutes of limitations for particular tax positions, or obtaining new information on particular tax positions may cause a change to the effective tax rate. We recognize accrued interest related to unrecognized tax benefits as interest expense and penalties as operating expense.

21

Results of Operations

The following year-to-year comparative statements include the 2021 and 2020 year periods. For comparative statements for 2020 and 2019 periods, please refer to our 2020 Annual Report on Form 10-K, filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on February 26, 2021.

The following table sets forth our results of operations as a percentage of total revenue:

Year ended

December 31,

    

2021

    

2020

    

    

Revenue:

Product

95.8

%

94.8

%

Services

 

4.2

 

5.2

 

 

Total revenue

 

100.0

 

100.0

 

 

Cost of revenue:

Product

 

52.8

 

53.2

 

 

Services

 

4.0

 

5.0

 

 

Total cost of revenue

 

56.8

 

58.2

 

 

Gross profit

 

43.2

 

41.8

 

 

Operating expenses:

Research and development

 

9.9

 

13.0

 

 

Sales and marketing

 

7.1

 

8.2

 

 

General and administrative

 

7.0

 

8.4

 

 

Total operating expenses

 

24.0

 

29.6

 

 

Income from operations

 

19.2

 

12.2

 

 

Other (expense) income:

Interest income

 

 

0.2

 

 

Interest expense

 

(0.7)

 

(1.1)

 

 

Other, net

 

(0.3)

 

0.5

 

 

Total other expense

 

(1.0)

 

(0.4)

 

 

Income before income taxes

 

18.2

 

11.8

 

 

Income tax provision

 

3.3

 

1.2

 

 

Net income

14.9

%

10.6

%

Revenue

The following table sets forth our revenue:

Year ended

Period-to-Period

 

December 31,

Change

 

2021

2020

$

%  

 

(dollars in thousands)

Revenue:

    

    

    

    

    

    

    

    

Product

$

634,445

$

449,903

$

184,542

41.0

%

Percentage of revenue

95.8

%  

94.8

%  

Services

 

27,983

 

24,657

3,326

13.5

%

Percentage of revenue

4.2

%  

5.2

%  

Total revenue

$

662,428

$

474,560

$

187,868

39.6

%

Product

Product revenue, which includes new system sales, sales of spare parts, product upgrades and used system sales was $634.4 million or 95.8% of revenue in 2021, compared with $449.9 million or 94.8% of revenue in 2020. The increase in product revenue in 2021 was primarily driven by an increase in the number of Purion systems sold.

22

A portion of our revenue from system sales is deferred until installation and other services related to future deliverables are performed. The total amount of deferred revenue at December 31, 2021 and 2020 was $68.4 million and $23.1 million, respectively. The increase was primarily due to an increase in system prepayments in the current year and the number of systems sold.

Services

Services revenue, which includes the labor component of maintenance and service contracts and fees for service hours provided by on-site service personnel, was $28.0 million, or 4.2% of revenue for 2021, compared with $24.7 million, or 5.2% of revenue for 2020. Although services revenue should increase with the expansion of the installed base of systems, it can fluctuate from period to period based on capacity utilization at customers’ manufacturing facilities, which affects the need for equipment service.

Revenue Categories used by Management

In addition to the line item revenue categories discussed above, management also uses revenue categorizations which break down revenue into other groupings. Management regularly disaggregates revenue in the following categories, which it finds relevant and useful:

Systems and Customer Satisfaction and Innovation (also known as “aftermarket”) revenue, in which “CS&I” or “Aftermarket” revenue is

A.The portion of Product revenue relating to spare parts, product upgrades and used systems combined with;
B.Service revenue, which is the labor component of aftermarket revenues

Aftermarket revenue reflect current fab utilization as opposed to System revenue, which reflects capital investment decisions by our customers, which have differing economic drivers;

Revenue by geographic regions, since economic factors impacting customer purchasing decisions may vary by geographic region; and
Revenue by our customers’ end markets, since they tend to be subject to different economic environments at different periods of time, impacting a customer’s likelihood of purchasing capital equipment during any particular period; currently, management uses three end market categories: Memory, mature process technology and leading edge foundry and logic.

The CS&I/aftermarket revenue categories for the twelve month periods ended December 31, 2021 and 2020 are discussed below.

CS&I/Aftermarket

Revenue from our aftermarket business was $207.8 million in 2021, compared to $180.9 million for 2020. Aftermarket revenue generally increases with the expansion of the installed base of systems but can fluctuate from period to period based on capacity utilization at customers’ manufacturing facilities which affects the sale of spare parts and demand for equipment service.

23

Gross Profit / Gross Margin

The following table sets forth our gross profit (dollars in thousands):

Year ended

Period-to-Period

 

December 31,

Change

 

    

2021

    

2020

    

$

%  

 

    

(dollars in thousands)

Gross Profit:

    

    

    

    

    

    

    

    

Product

$

284,887

$

197,513

$

87,374

44.2

%

Product gross margin

44.9

 

43.9

 

Services

 

1,558

1,071

487

45.5

%

Services gross margin

5.6

 

4.3

 

Total gross profit

$

286,445

$

198,584

$

87,861

44.2

%

Gross margin

43.2

 

41.8

 

Product

Gross margin from product revenue was 44.9% for the twelve months ended December 31, 2021, compared to 43.9% for the twelve months ended December 31, 2020. The increase in gross margin resulted from improved margins on Purion systems.

Services

Gross margin from services revenue was 5.6% for the twelve months ended December 31, 2021, compared to 4.3% for the twelve months ended December 31, 2020. The increase in gross margin is attributable to changes in the mix of service contracts.

Operating Expenses

The following table sets forth our operating expenses:

Year ended

Period-to-Period

 

December 31,

Change

 

2021

2020

$

%  

 

(dollars in thousands)

Research and development

    

$

65,431

    

$

61,833

    

$

3,598

    

5.8

%

    

Percentage of revenue

9.9

%

13.0

%

Sales and marketing

 

47,548

 

38,746

8,802

22.7

%

Percentage of revenue

7.1

%

8.2

%

General and administrative

 

46,141

 

39,964

6,177

15.5

%

Percentage of revenue

7.0

%

8.4

%

Total operating expenses

$

159,120

$

140,543

$

18,577

13.2

%

Percentage of revenue

24.0

%

29.6

%

Our operating expenses consist primarily of personnel costs, including salaries, commissions, bonuses, stock-based compensation and related benefits and taxes; project material costs related to the design and development of new products and enhancement of existing products; and professional fees, travel and depreciation expenses. Personnel costs are our largest expense, representing $100.3 million, or 63.1% of our total operating expenses, for the year ended December 31, 2021; and $90.1 million, or 64.1% of our total operating expenses for the year ended December 31, 2020.

24

Research and Development

Year ended

Period-to-Period

 

December 31,

Change

 

2021

2020

$

%  

 

(dollars in thousands)

Research and development

$

65,431

    

$

61,833

    

$

3,598

    

5.8

%

    

Percentage of revenue

9.9

%

13.0

%

Our ability to remain competitive depends largely on continuously developing innovative technology, with new and enhanced features and systems and introducing them at competitive prices on a timely basis. Accordingly, based on our strategic plan, we establish annual research and development budgets to fund programs that we expect will drive competitive advantages.

Research and development expense was $65.4 million in 2021, an increase of $3.6 million, or 5.8%, compared with $61.8 million in 2020. The increase was primarily due to higher payroll related costs due to increased headcount and incentive based pay as well as increased material and supplies expense and depreciation associated with capital additions to support ongoing projects.

Sales and Marketing

Year ended

Period-to-Period

 

December 31,

Change

 

2021

2020

$

%  

 

(dollars in thousands)

Sales and marketing

    

$

47,548

    

$

38,746

    

 $

8,802

    

22.7

%

    

Percentage of revenue

7.1

%

8.2

%

Our sales and marketing expenses result primarily from the sale of our equipment and services through our direct sales force.

Sales and marketing expense was $47.5 million in 2021, an increase of $8.8 million, or 22.7%, compared with $38.7 million in 2020. The increase was primarily due to higher payroll related costs due to increased headcount and incentive based pay as well as increased freight and project materials expense.

General and Administrative

Year ended

Period-to-Period

 

December 31,

Change

 

2021

2020

$

%  

 

(dollars in thousands)

General and administrative

    

$

46,141

    

$

39,964

    

$

6,177

    

15.5

%

    

Percentage of revenue

7.0

%

8.4

%

Our general and administrative expenses result primarily from the costs associated with our executive, finance, information technology, legal and human resource functions.

General and administrative expense was $46.1 million in 2021, an increase of $6.2 million, or 15.5% compared with $40.0 million in 2020. The increase was primarily due to higher payroll related costs due to increased headcount and incentive based pay as well as increases in various other expenses to support growth.

Other (Expense) Income

Other (expense) income consists primarily of interest expense relating to the lease obligation we incurred in connection with the 2015 sale of our headquarters facility (“sale leaseback”) and other financing obligations, foreign exchange gains and losses attributable to fluctuations of the U.S. dollar against the local currencies of certain of the countries in which we operate, as well as interest earned on our invested cash balances.

25

Year ended

Period-to-period

 

December 31,

change

 

2021

2020

$

%

 

(dollars in thousands)

Other expense

 

$

(6,897)

 

$

(2,155)

 

$

(4,742)

 

220.0

%

Percentage of revenue

 

(1.0)

%

 

(0.4)

%

Other expense for the year ended December 31, 2021 was $6.9 million, which includes $5.1 million of interest expense related to our sale leaseback obligation and $2.5 million of foreign currency translation losses, slightly offset by other miscellaneous income of $0.3 million, a reversal of interest expense of $0.2 million relating to a tax position for which the statute of limitations expired and interest income of $0.2 million. Other expense for the year ended December 31, 2020 was $2.2 million, which includes $5.2 million of interest expense related to our sale leaseback obligation, offset partially by $1.4 million of foreign currency translation gains, other miscellaneous income of $0.9 million and interest income of $0.7 million.

Income Taxes

Year ended

Period-to-period

 

December 31,

change

 

2021

2020

$

%

 

(dollars in thousands)

Income tax provision

 

$

21,778

 

$

5,904

 

$

15,874

 

268.9

%

Percentage of revenue

 

3.3

%

 

1.2

%

Income tax expense was $21.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2021 compared to $5.9 million in the previous year. The effective tax rate for the year ended December 31, 2021 was 18.1% compared to 10.6% for year the ended December 31, 2020.  The increase in the effective tax rate is primarily due to a previously unrecognized tax benefit of $4.3 million in the prior year. We have significant net operating loss carryforwards in the United States and certain European jurisdictions, and as a result, we do not currently pay significant income taxes in those jurisdictions.

At December 31, 2021, we had $35.5 million of net deferred tax assets worldwide relating to net operating loss carryforwards, tax credit carryforwards and other temporary differences, which are available to reduce income taxes in future years. We have recorded a $7.7 million valuation allowance against certain tax credits and state net operating losses due to the uncertainty of their realization. Realization of our net deferred tax assets is dependent on future taxable income. We believe it is more likely than not that such assets will be realized; however, ultimate realization could be impacted by market conditions and other variables not known or anticipated at this time.

Liquidity and Capital Resources

Our liquidity is affected by many factors. Some of these relate specifically to the operations of our business. For example, our sales and other factors are influenced by the uncertainties of global economies, including the availability of credit and the condition of the overall semiconductor capital equipment industry. Our established cost structure does not vary significantly with changes in volume. We experience fluctuations in operating results and cash flows depending on fluctuations in our revenue level.

In 2021, $150.2 million of cash was provided by operating activities. This compares to $69.7 million of cash provided by operations in 2020. Cash and cash equivalents at December 31, 2021 was $294.9 million, compared to $203.5 million at December 31, 2020. Approximately $32.6 million of cash was located in foreign jurisdictions as of December 31, 2021. In addition to the cash and cash equivalent balance at December 31, 2021, we had $0.8 million in restricted cash which relates to a $0.7 million letter of credit relating to workers’ compensation insurance and a $0.1 million deposit relating to customs activity. Working capital at December 31, 2021 was $469.1 million. At December 31, 2021, we had no bank debt.

Capital expenditures were $8.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2021. Capital expenditures were $7.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2020. Total capital expenditures for 2022 are projected to be approximately

26

$13.0 million. Future capital expenditures beyond 2022 will depend on a number of factors, including the timing and rate of expansion of our business and our ability to generate cash to fund them.

Cash used in financing activities for the year ended December 31, 2021 was $52.4 million, which consisted of $50.0 million related to our stock repurchase program, $6.6 million related to net settlement of restricted stock issuances and $0.8 million related to principal reduction on our financing lease. These amounts were partially offset by $3.7 million in proceeds of stock option exercises and $1.2 million in proceeds from our employee stock purchase plan. Cash used in financing activities was $2.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2020, which consisted of $7.5 million related to our stock repurchase program, $3.9 million related to net settlement of restricted stock issuances, and $0.4 million of principal payment on our finance lease obligation. These uses of cash were partially offset by $8.4 million in proceeds of stock option exercises and $1.0 million in proceeds from our employee stock purchase plan.

We have outstanding letters of credit, surety bonds and deposits in the amount of $14.4 million to cover the security deposit under the lease of our headquarters, our workers’ compensation insurance program, customs and bank deposits and certain value added tax claims in Europe.

The following represents our commercial commitments as of December 31, 2021 (in thousands):

Amount of

 

Commitment

 

Expiration by Period

 

Other Commercial Commitments

    

Total

    

2022

2023

    

2024

 

Surety bonds

$

7,707

$

4,322

$

893

$

2,492

Standby letters of credit and deposits

 

6,647

 

6,575

 

 

72

Total

$

14,354

$

10,897

$

893

$

2,564

The following represents our contractual obligations as of December 31, 2021 (in thousands):

Payments Due by Period

 

Contractual Obligations

    

Total

    

2022

    

2023-2024

    

2025-2026

    

2027 - Beyond

 

Sale leaseback obligation

$

97,999

$

5,980

$

12,366

$

11,938

$

67,715

Purchase order commitments

 

226,448

 

223,922

 

2,441

 

19

66

Operating leases

 

9,760

 

4,939

 

3,512

 

1,236

73

Total

$

334,207

$

234,841

$

18,319

$

13,193

$

67,854

We have no off-balance sheet arrangements as of December 31, 2021.

We have net operating loss and tax credit carryforwards, the tax effect of which aggregate $33.7 million at December 31, 2021. These carryforwards, which expire principally between 2022 and 2034, are available to reduce future income tax liabilities in the United States and certain foreign jurisdictions.

We consider the undistributed earnings of our foreign subsidiaries as of December 31, 2021, to be indefinitely reinvested and, accordingly, no U.S. income taxes have been provided thereon. As of December 31, 2021, the amount of cash associated with indefinitely reinvested foreign earnings was approximately $10.4 million. We have not, nor do we anticipate the need to, repatriate funds to the United States to satisfy domestic liquidity needs arising in the ordinary course of business, including liquidity needs associated with any domestic debt service requirements. Upon repatriation of those earnings, in the form of dividends or otherwise, we could be subject to withholding taxes payable to the various foreign tax jurisdictions.

Under the rules of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”), we qualify as a “well-known seasoned issuer,” which allows us to file shelf registration statements to register an unspecified amount of securities that are effective upon filing. On May 29, 2020, we filed such a shelf registration statement with the SEC for the issuance of an unspecified amount of common stock, preferred stock, various series of debt securities and/or warrants to purchase any of such securities, either individually or in units, from time to time at prices and on terms to be determined at the time of any such offering. This registration statement was effective upon filing and will remain in effect for up to three years from

27

filing, prior to which time we may file another shelf registration statement to maintain the availability of this financing option.

On July 31, 2020, we entered into a Senior Secured Credit Facilities Credit Agreement (the “Credit Agreement”) with Silicon Valley Bank. The Credit Agreement provides for a revolving credit facility in an aggregate principal amount not to exceed $40.0 million. Our obligations under the Credit Agreement are secured by a security interest, senior to any current and future debts and to any security interest, in all of our rights, title, and interest in, to and under substantially all of our assets, subject to limited exceptions, including permitted liens. The revolving credit facility terminates on July 31, 2023. As of December 31, 2021, we were in compliance with all covenant requirements of the Credit Agreement. As of such date, no borrowings had been made under the Credit Agreement, although a letter of credit for $5.9 million reduces the funds available for borrowing under the credit line. We have no immediate plans to borrow under the Credit Agreement, but we will use the facility for letters of credit, for ongoing working capital needs and to fund general corporate purposes, as desired. We entered into a First Amendment to the Credit Agreement with Silicon Valley Bank in March 2021 to (i) align the covenants with our 2021 stock repurchase program, and (ii) establish terms to transition from a Eurodollar based interest rate option to an interest rate benchmark using a secured overnight financing rate (known as “SOFR”) published by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York.

We believe that based on our current market, revenue, expense and cash flow forecasts, our existing cash, cash equivalents and borrowing capacity will be sufficient to satisfy our anticipated cash requirements for the short and long-term.

Related-Party Transactions

There are no significant related-party transactions that require disclosure in the consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2021, or in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Recent Accounting Pronouncements

A discussion of recent accounting pronouncements, the impact of some of which may be material, is included in Note 2 to the consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2021 included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk.

Interest Rate Sensitivity

Our exposure to market risk for changes in interest rates relates primarily to our investment portfolio, which consists entirely of cash equivalents at December 31, 2021. The primary objective of our investment activities is to preserve principal. This is accomplished by investing in marketable investment grade securities. We do not use derivative financial instruments in managing our investment portfolio. Due to the nature of our investments, we do not expect our operating results or cash flows to be affected to any significant degree by any change in market interest rates.

Foreign Currency Exchange Risk

Substantially all of our sales are billed in U.S. dollars, thereby reducing the impact of fluctuations in foreign exchange rates on our results. Operating margins of certain foreign operations can fluctuate with changes in foreign exchange rates to the extent revenue is billed in U.S. dollars and operating expenses are incurred in the local currency. During the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020, approximately 21.6% and 26.0% of our revenue, respectively, were derived in local currencies from foreign operations with this inherent risk. In addition, at both December 31, 2021 and 2020, our operations outside of the United States accounted for approximately 12.6% and 13.7% of our total assets, respectively, the majority of which was denominated in currencies other than the U.S. dollar. We currently do not use derivative financial instruments in managing our foreign currency exchange risk.

28

Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.

Response to this Item is submitted as a separate section of this report immediately following Item 15.

Item 9. Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure.

None.

Item 9A. Controls and Procedures.

Evaluation of Disclosure Controls and Procedures.

Our management, with the participation of our principal executive officer and principal financial officer, has evaluated the effectiveness of our disclosure controls and procedures (as defined in Rule 13a-15(e) under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”)) as of the end of the period covered by this annual report (the “Evaluation Date”). Based on this evaluation, our principal executive officer and principal financial officer concluded that, as of the Evaluation Date, these disclosure controls and procedures are effective.

Internal Control over Financial Reporting

Management’s Annual Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting

Management is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting, as such term is defined in Rule 13a-15(f) under the Exchange Act. Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect all misstatements. A control system, no matter how well designed and operated, can provide only reasonable assurance with respect to financial statement preparation and presentation. Projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.

Management assessed the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2021. In making this assessment, management used the criteria set forth in the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO) Internal Control—2013 Integrated Framework.

Based on this assessment, management has concluded that, as of December 31, 2021, our internal control over financial reporting is effective based on those criteria.

The independent registered public accounting firm of Ernst & Young LLP, as auditors of our consolidated financial statements, has issued an attestation report on its assessment of our internal control over financial reporting.

29

Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

To the Stockholders and the Board of Directors of Axcelis Technologies, Inc.

Opinion on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting

We have audited Axcelis Technologies, Inc.’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2021, based on criteria established in Internal Control—Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (2013 framework) (the COSO criteria). In our opinion, Axcelis Technologies, Inc. (the Company) maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2021, based on the COSO criteria.

We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB), the 2021 consolidated financial statements of the Company and our report dated February 25, 2022 expressed an unqualified opinion thereon.

Basis for Opinion

The Company’s management is responsible for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting included in the accompanying Management’s Annual Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s internal control over financial reporting based on our audit. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.

We conducted our audit in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects.  

Our audit included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, assessing the risk that a material weakness exists, testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control based on the assessed risk, and performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our audit provides a reasonable basis for our opinion.

Definition and Limitations of Internal Control Over Financial Reporting

A company’s internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. A company’s internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (1) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (2) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (3) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the company’s assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.

Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.

/s/ Ernst & Young LLP

Boston, Massachusetts

February 25, 2022

30

Changes in Internal Control over Financial Reporting

There was no change in our internal control over financial reporting (as defined in Rule 13a-15(f) under the Exchange Act) identified in connection with the evaluation of our internal control that occurred during our fourth quarter that has materially affected, or is reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting.

Item 9B. Other Information.

None.

Item 9C. Disclosure regarding Foreign Jurisdictions that Prevent Inspections.

None.

31

PART III

Item 10. Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance.

A portion of the information required by Item 10 of Form 10-K is incorporated by reference from the information responsive thereto contained in the sections in Axcelis Proxy Statement for the Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be held May 10, 2022 (the “Proxy Statement”) captioned:

“Proposal 1: Election of Directors,”

“Board of Directors,”

“Board Committees,” and

“Corporate Governance.”

The remainder of such information is set forth under the heading “Information about Our Executive Officers” at the end of Item 1 in Part I of this report and is incorporated herein by reference.

Item 11. Executive Compensation.

The information required by Item 11 of Form 10-K is incorporated by reference from the information responsive thereto contained in the sections in the Proxy Statement captioned:

“Executive Compensation,” and

“Board Committees—Compensation Committee Interlocks and Insider Participation.”

Item 12. Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters.

The information required by Item 12 of Form 10-K is incorporated by reference from the information responsive thereto contained in the sections in the Proxy Statement captioned:

“Share Ownership of 5% Stockholders,” and

“Share Ownership of Directors and Executive Officers.”

Item 13. Certain Relationships and Related Transactions and Director Independence.

The information required by Item 13 of Form 10-K is incorporated by reference from the information responsive thereto contained in the sections in the Proxy Statement captioned:

“Executive Compensation,”

“Board of Directors,” and

“Corporate Governance—Certain Relationships and Related Transactions.”

Item 14. Principal Accountant Fees and Services

The information required by Item 14 of Form 10-K is incorporated by reference from the information responsive thereto contained in the section captioned “Proposal 2: Ratification of the Appointment of our Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm” in the Proxy Statement.

32

PART IV

Item 15. Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules.

(a)

The following documents are filed as part of this Report:

1)Financial Statements:

Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm (PCAOB ID: 42)

    

34

Consolidated Statements of Operations — For the years ended December 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019

36

Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income — For the years ended December 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019

37

Consolidated Balance Sheets — December 31, 2021 and 2020

38

Consolidated Statements of Stockholders’ Equity — For the years ended December 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019

39

Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows — For the years ended December 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019

40

Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements

41

2)Financial Statement Schedules:

Schedule II—Valuation and Qualifying Accounts for the years ended December 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019.

3)Exhibits

The exhibits filed as part of this Form 10-K are listed on the Exhibit Index immediately preceding the signature page, which Exhibit Index is incorporated herein by reference.

All other schedules for which provision is made in the applicable regulation of the Securities and Exchange Commission are not required under the related instructions or are inapplicable, and therefore have been omitted.

Item 16. Form 10-K Summary.

Not applicable.

33

Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

To the Stockholders and the Board of Directors of Axcelis Technologies, Inc.

Opinion on the Financial Statements

We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Axcelis Technologies, Inc. (the Company) as of December 31, 2021 and 2020, the related consolidated statements of operations, comprehensive income, stockholders’ equity and cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2021, and the related notes and financial statement schedule listed in the Index at Item 15(a) (collectively referred to as the “consolidated financial statements”). In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company at December 31, 2021 and 2020, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2021, in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles.  

We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB), the Company’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2021, based on criteria established in Internal Control—Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (2013 framework), and our report dated February 25, 2022 expressed an unqualified opinion thereon.

Basis for Opinion

These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company’s management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.

We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.

Critical Audit Matters

The critical audit matters communicated below are matters arising from the current period audit of the financial statements that were communicated or required to be communicated to the audit committee and that: (1) relate to accounts or disclosures that are material to the financial statements and (2) involved our especially challenging, subjective or complex judgments. The communication of critical audit matters does not alter in any way our opinion on the consolidated financial statements, taken as a whole, and we are not, by communicating the critical audit matters below, providing separate opinions on the critical audit matters or on the accounts or disclosures to which they relate.

Systems Revenue recognition

Description of the Matter

As discussed in Note 2 and Note 3 to the consolidated financial statements, the Company generates revenue from the sale of ion implantation and other processing equipment used in the manufacture of semiconductor chips (“systems revenue”). The Company’s revenue contracts for systems have multiple performance obligations, including the systems themselves and obligations that are not delivered simultaneously with the systems. Systems revenue accounted for $454.6 million of the Company’s total revenue of $662.4 million in 2021.

Auditing the Company’s determination of the distinct performance obligations related to its systems revenue contracts involved extensive audit effort to identify all of the promised products and services in an arrangement and assess distinct performance obligations. These determinations have a significant

34

effect on the pattern of revenue recognition.

How We Addressed the Matter in Our Audit

We obtained an understanding, evaluated the design and tested the operating effectiveness of controls over the Company’s systems revenue recognition process. For example, we tested management’s controls over the identification of distinct performance obligations in systems revenue contracts.

To test systems revenue recognition, our procedures included, among others, independently identifying promises and determining the interdependence of the performance obligations. For example, we selected and read a sample of arrangements to evaluate the completeness of the promised products and services. We also confirmed directly with certain of the Company’s customers the terms of the selected system revenue arrangement.  

Estimate of Excess Inventory

Description of the Matter

The Company’s inventories totaled $195.0 million, net, as of December 31, 2021. As described in Note 2 and Note 6 to the consolidated financial statements, the Company records a provision for estimated excess inventory. Management determines the provision using its assumptions of future materials usage, based on estimates of demand and market conditions.

Auditing the Company’s provision for excess inventory is complex due to the highly judgmental nature of the factors used to estimate demand and market conditions. Specifically, the Company’s estimated materials usage may be significantly affected by management’s assumptions of forecasted system sales and the size and utilization of the installed base of systems. Management’s identification and measurement of these factors are forward looking and could be affected by future economic and market conditions that could have a significant effect on the excess inventory reserve.

How We Addressed the Matter in Our Audit

We obtained an understanding, evaluated the design, and tested the operating effectiveness of internal controls, including management review controls, over the Company’s excess inventory reserve estimation process. This included management’s assessment of the assumptions and data underlying the excess inventory provision. For example, we tested controls over management’s review of its systems sales forecasts, as well as management’s review of the assumptions relating to the market size and utilization of installed systems. We also tested management’s controls over the completeness and accuracy of the data used in the estimation model.

Our substantive audit procedures included, among others, evaluating the significant assumptions stated above and testing the accuracy and completeness of the underlying data used by management to compute the value of excess inventory. For example, we compared the quantities of on-hand inventories to historical and forecasted materials usage and evaluated adjustments to forecasts for specific product considerations, such as technological changes or alternative uses. We also assessed the historical accuracy of management’s estimates and performed sensitivity analyses over the significant assumptions to evaluate the changes in the excess inventory estimates that would result from changes in the underlying assumptions.

/s/ Ernst & Young LLP

We have served as the Company’s auditor since 1999.

Boston, Massachusetts

February 25, 2022

35

Axcelis Technologies, Inc.

Consolidated Statements of Operations

(In thousands, except per share amounts)

Twelve months ended

December 31,

    

2021

    

2020

    

2019

 

Revenue:

Product

$

634,445

$

449,903

$

319,505

Services

 

27,983

 

24,657

 

23,453

Total revenue

 

662,428

 

474,560

 

342,958

Cost of revenue:

Product

 

349,558

 

252,390

 

175,732

Services

 

26,425

 

23,586

 

23,074

Total cost of revenue

 

375,983

 

275,976

 

198,806

Gross profit

 

286,445

 

198,584

 

144,152

Operating expenses:

Research and development

 

65,431

 

61,833

 

53,931

Sales and marketing

 

47,548

 

38,746

 

34,290

General and administrative

 

46,141

 

39,964

 

31,726

Total operating expenses

 

159,120

 

140,543

 

119,947

Income from operations

 

127,325

 

58,041

 

24,205

Other (expense) income:

Interest income

 

209

 

738

 

2,955

Interest expense

 

(4,835)

 

(5,211)

 

(5,155)

Other, net

 

(2,271)

 

2,318

 

(1,083)

Total other expense

 

(6,897)

 

(2,155)

 

(3,283)

Income before income taxes

 

120,428

 

55,886

 

20,922

Income tax provision

 

21,778

 

5,904

 

3,888

Net income

$

98,650

$

49,982

$

17,034

Net income per share:

Basic

$

2.94

$

1.50

$

0.52

Diluted

$

2.88

$

1.46

$

0.50

Shares used in computing net income per share:

Basic weighted average common shares

 

33,555

 

33,257

 

32,559

Diluted weighted average common shares

 

34,268

 

34,128

 

33,828

See accompanying Notes to these Consolidated Financial Statements

36

Axcelis Technologies, Inc.

Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income

(In thousands)

Twelve months ended

 

December 31,

    

2021

    

2020

    

2019

 

Net income

$

98,650

$

49,982

$

17,034

Other comprehensive (loss) income:

Foreign currency translation adjustments

 

(1,881)

 

3,427

 

(444)

Amortization of actuarial gain (loss) and other adjustments from pension plan, net of tax

 

211

 

266

 

(262)

Total other comprehensive (loss) income

(1,670)

3,693

(706)

Comprehensive income

$

96,980

$

53,675

$

16,328

See accompanying Notes to these Consolidated Financial Statements

37

Axcelis Technologies, Inc.

Consolidated Balance Sheets

(In thousands, except per share amounts)

    

December 31,

    

December 31,

 

2021

2020

 

ASSETS

Current assets:

Cash and cash equivalents

$

294,923

$

203,479

Accounts receivable, net

 

104,410

 

86,865

Inventories, net

 

194,984

 

161,076

Prepaid expenses and other current assets

 

24,929

 

19,371

Total current assets

 

619,246

 

470,791

Property, plant and equipment, net

 

34,972

 

29,840

Operating lease assets

9,242

4,542

Finance lease assets, net

19,238

20,544

Long-term restricted cash

 

757

 

753

Deferred income taxes

35,454

57,851

Other assets

 

34,331

 

40,303

Total assets

$

753,240

$

624,624

LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY

Current liabilities:

Accounts payable

$

38,025

$

24,013

Accrued compensation

 

30,732

 

24,562

Warranty

 

6,424

 

4,280

Income taxes

 

887

 

654

Deferred revenue

 

60,454

 

21,221

Current portion of finance lease obligation

 

979

 

756

Other current liabilities